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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Cellular Systems Cellular Concepts Cellular concept was a major breakthrough in
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Cellular Systems
Cellular Concepts
Cellular concept was a major breakthrough in solving
the problem of spectral congestion and user capacity.
It offered very high capacity in a limited spectrum
allocation without any major technological changes.
Cellular concept has the following system level ideas
• Replacing a single, high power transmitter with many
low power transmitters, each providing coverage to
only a small area.
• Neighbouring cells are assigned different groups of
channels in order to minimise interference.
• The same set of channels is then reused at different
geographical locations.
Reuse can be done once the total interference from all
users in the cells using the same frequency (co-channel
cell) for transmission suffers from sufficient attenuation.
Factors need to be considered include:
- Geographical separation (path loss)
- Shadowing effect
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for Infocomm Research 43 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications The actual radio
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications The actual radio coverage of a cell is known as the
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
The actual radio coverage of a cell is known as the cell
footprint.
• Irregular cell structure and irregular placing of the
transmitter may be acceptable in the initial system
design. However as traffic grows, where new cells and
channels need to be added, it may lead to inability to
reuse frequencies because of co-channel interference.
• For systematic cell planning, a regular shape is
assumed for the footprint.
• Coverage contour should be circular. However it is
impractical because it provides ambiguous areas with
either multiple or no coverage.
• Due to economic reasons, the hexagon has been chosen
due to its maximum area coverage.
R R
R
2
2
2
=
1.3 R
A
=
2.0 R
A
=
2.6 R
A tri
sq
hex
• Hence, a conventional cellular layout is often defined
by a uniform grid of regular hexagons.
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defined by a uniform grid of regular hexagons. Institute for Infocomm Research 44 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Frequency reuse • A cellular system which has a total S
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Frequency reuse
• A cellular system which has a total S duplex channels.
• S channels are divided among N cells, with each cell
uses unique and disjoint channels.
• If each cell is allocated with k channels, then S = kN .
Terminology
• Cluster size: The N cells which collectively use the
complete set of available frequency is called the cluster
size.
• Co-channel cell: The set of cells using the same set of
frequencies as the target cell.
• Interference tier: A set of co-channel cells at the same
distance from the reference cell. The set of closest co-
channel cells is call the first tier. There is always 6 co-
channel cells in the first tier.
Co-ordinates for hexagonal cellular geometry
• With these co-ordinates, an array of cells can be laid
out so that the center of every cell falls on a point
specified by a pair of integer co-ordinates.
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for Infocomm Research 45 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications If (Δ u ,
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications If (Δ u , Δ v ) = (i , j
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
If (Δ u , Δ v ) = (i , j ), i,j are known as the shift parameters,
then the distance between the two cell centres is given
by
2
2
D
=
i
+
j
+
ij
3R
(Cosine’s Rule)
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2 D = i + j + ij ⋅ 3R (Cosine’s Rule) Institute for Infocomm Research
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Designing a cellular system The cluster size must satisfy 2 2
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Designing a cellular system
The cluster size must satisfy
2
2
N = i + ij + j where i, j are non-negative integers.
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Examples: N=3,4,7,9,12,13 Proof : to obtain the area of the cluster
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Examples:
N=3,4,7,9,12,13
Proof : to obtain the area of the cluster and compare
with the area of a single cell.
Can also verify that
D
Q =
=
3
N where Q is the co-channel reuse ratio.
R
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= 3 N where Q is the co-channel reuse ratio. R Institute for Infocomm Research 48
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Handover / Handoff Occurs as a mobile moves into a different
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Handover / Handoff
Occurs as a mobile moves into a different cell during an
existing call, or when going from one cellular system
into another.
• It must be user transparent, successful and not too
frequent.
• Not only involves identifying a new BS, but also
requires that the voice and control signals be allocated
to channels associated with the new BS.
Once a particular signal level
is specified as the
P min
minimum usable signal for acceptable voice quality at
the BS receiver, a slightly stronger signal level
is
P HO
used as a threshold at which a handover is made.
P
= P +Δ
H O
min
• If Δ is too large ⇒ unnecessary handovers
• If Δ is too small ⇒ insufficient time to complete
handovers, call may drop due to poor received signal
quality.
• Running average should be used to avoid unwanted
handover due to momentary fading.
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for Infocomm Research 49 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications • If the slope
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications • If the slope of the short-term average received signal is
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
• If the slope of the short-term average received signal is
steep, handover should carry out fast. Information
about vehicle speed is important.
Handover take place
f
f
1
2
P HO
P min
Time taken to
complete handover
Dwell Time
• The time over which a user remains within one cell is
called the dwell time.
• The statistics of the dwell time are important for the
practical design of handover algorithms.
• The statistics of the dwell time vary greatly, depending
on the speed of the user and the type of radio coverage.
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speed of the user and the type of radio coverage. Institute for Infocomm Research 50 National
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Handover indicator • Each BS constantly monitors the signal strengths of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Handover indicator
• Each BS constantly monitors the signal strengths of all
of its reverse voice channels to determine the relative
location of each mobile user with respect to the BS.
This information is forwarded to the MSC who makes
decisions regarding handover.
• Mobile assisted handover (MAHO): MS measures the
received power from surrounding BSs and continually
reports the results of measurement to the serving BS.
Prioritizing Handover
• Dropped call is considered a more serious event than
call blocking. Channel assignment schemes therefore
must give priority to handover requests.
• A fraction of the total available channels in a cell is
reserved only for handover requests. However, this
reduces the total carried traffic. Dynamic allocation is
preferred over reservation.
• Queuing of handover requests decrease the probability
of forced termination of a call due to a lack of available
channel.
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for Infocomm Research 51 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Practical handover
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Practical handover • High speed users and low speed users have
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Practical handover
• High speed users and low speed users have vastly
different dwell times which might cause a high number
of handover requests for high speed users. This results
in interference and traffic management problem.
• The Umbrella Cell approach will
help to solve this problems.
High speed users are serviced by
large (macro) cells, while low
speed users are handled by small
(micro) cells.
A
A hard handover does “break
before make”, i.e., the
existing channel connection
is broken before the new
allocated channel connection
is setup. This obviously can
cause call dropping.
Hard:
B
A
Soft:
B
In soft handover, we do
“make before break”, i.e., the new channel connection
is established before the existing channel connection
is released. This is realized in CDMA where also BS
diversity is used to improve boundary condition.
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diversity is used to improve boundary condition. Institute for Infocomm Research 52 National University of Singapore
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Interference and System Capacity In a given coverage area, there are
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Interference and System Capacity
In a given coverage area, there are several cells that
use the same set of frequencies. These cells are called
co-channel cells. The interference between signals
from these cells is called co-channel interference.
If all cells are approximately of the same size and the
path loss exponent is the same throughout the coverage
area, the transmit power of each BS is almost equal.
We can show that worse case signal to co-channel
interference is independent of the transmitted power.
It becomes a function of the cell radius R, and the
distance to the nearest co-channel cell D’.
(a)
Received power at a distance d from the
transmitting antenna is approximated by
n
⎛ d ⎞
P d
(
) =
P ⎜
or
r
0
d
0
P ( d
)
=
P
10
n
log
⎛ ⎜ d ⎞
r
(
dBm
)
0
(
dBm
)
d
0
(b)
Useful signal at the cell boundary is the
weakest, given by P ( R ) . Interference signal from
r
the co-channel cell is given to be P ( D ) .
r
(c)
D’ is normally approximated by the base station
separation between the two cells D, unless when
accuracy is needed. Hence
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications − n R SIR = − n D For the forward
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
− n
R
SIR
=
− n
D
For the forward link, a very general case,
− n
R
SIR =
i
0
− n
∑ D
i
i = 1
where
D i is the distance of the ith interfering cell
from the mobile,
i
is the total number of co-channel
0
cells exist.
• If only first tier co-channel cells are used, then i
6
.
0 =
• Unless otherwise stated, normally assuming D
all i.
D
for
i ≈
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stated, normally assuming D all i. D for i ≈ Institute for Infocomm Research 54 National
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Outage probability : the probability that a MS does not receive
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Outage probability : the probability that a MS does
not receive a usable signal.
• For GSM, this is 12 dB and for AMPS, this is 18 dB. If
there is 6 co-channel cells, then
(
)
n (
) n
D R
3 N
SIR =
=
6
6
Exercise : please verify this
• For n=4, a minimum cluster size of N=7 is needed to
meet the SIR requirements for AMPS.
• For n=4, a minimum cluster size of N=4 is required to
meet the SIR requirements for GSM
Aproximation in distance has been made on the 2 nd
tier onwards.
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for Infocomm Research 55 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications - More accurate SIR
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications - More accurate SIR can be obtained by computing the actual
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
- More accurate SIR can be obtained by computing
the actual distance.
- Our computation of outage only based on path loss.
For more accurate modeling, shadowing and fast
fading need to be taken into consideration. This will
not be covered in this course.
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This will not be covered in this course. Institute for Infocomm Research 56 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Coverage Problems Revision: - Recall that the mean measured value, PL
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Coverage Problems
Revision:
- Recall that the mean measured value,
PL d
(
)
=
PL d
(
)
+
10
n
log
⎛ ⎜ d ⎞
or
dB
0
dB
d
0
P
()
d
= P
− PL d
()
r
dBm
t dBm
,
dB
- Measurement shows that at any value of d, the
path loss PL ( d ) at a particular location is random
and distributed log-normally (normal in dB) about
this mean value.
P d
()
==
X
Pd
()
+
X σ
r
dBm
r
dBm
where
X
is a zero-mean Gaussian distributed
σ
random variable (in dB) with standard deviation σ
(in dB).
Boundary coverage
• Therefore, there will be a proportion of locations at
distance R (cell radius) where a terminal would
experience a received signal above a threshold γ. (γ is
usually the receiver sensitivity)
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications β(γ ) = P [P ( R ) >γ] - cell
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
β(γ ) = P [P ( R ) >γ]
- cell boundary coverage,
r
2
1
1
X
P R
(
)
dB
r
βγ
(
)
=
exp
dX
dB
2
πσ
2
σ
γ
X
X
dB
dB
γ
P
( R )
r
=
Q
σ
X
dB
where Q(x) is the standard normal distribution.
must know how to use the table.
Cell coverage
Proportion of locations within the area defined by the
cell radius R, receiving a signal above the threshold γ.
1
U (
γ
) =
[
P P ( r
)
>
γ
]
dA
r
A
A
R
2
π
1
γ
− P ( r
)
r
=
Q
rdr d
θ
2
σ
π
R
0
0
X
dB
R
2
γ
− P ( r
)
r
=
Q
⋅ rdr
R
σ
0
X
dB
The solution is given in the
Rappaport p.107 (1 st
edition).
r
θ
dr
d
θ
R
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Solution can be found using the graph provided. (n : path
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Solution can be found using the graph provided. (n :
path loss exponent)
Example: if n=4, σ=8 dB, and if the boundary is to
have 75% coverage (75% of the time the signal is to
exceed the threshold at the boundary), then the area
coverage is equal to 94%.
If n=2, σ=8 dB, and if the boundary is to have 75%
coverage, then the area coverage is equal to 91%.
An operator needs to meet certain coverage criteria.
This is typically the “90% rule” – 90% of a given
geographical area must be covered for 90% of the
time.
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for Infocomm Research 59 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications The mean signal level
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications The mean signal level at any distance is determined by path
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
The mean signal level at any distance is determined
by path loss and the variance is determined by the
resulting fading distribution (log-normal shadowing,
Rayleigh fading, Nakagami-m, etc).
The proportion of locations covered at a given
distance (cell boundary, for example) from BS can be
found directly from the resultant signal p.d.f./c.d.f.
The proportion of locations covered within a circular
region defined by a radius R (the cell area, for
example) can be found by integrating the resultant
cdf over the cell area.
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integrating the resultant cdf over the cell area. Institute for Infocomm Research 60 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Cellular Traffic The basic consideration in the design of a cellular
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Cellular Traffic
The basic consideration in the design of a cellular
system is the sizing of the system. Sizing has two
components to be considered.
- Coverage area
- Traffic handling capability
After the system is sized, channels are assigned to cells.
Terminology in traffic theory
-
Trunking : exploits the statistical characteristics of
the users calling behavior. Any efficient
communication system relies on trunking to
accommodate a large number of users with a limited
number of channels.
-
Grade of service (GoS) : A user is allocated a channel
on a per call basis. GoS is a measure of the ability of
a user to access a trunked system during the busiest
hour. It is typically given as the likelihood that a call
is blocked (also known as blocking probability
mentioned before).
-
Trunking theory : is used to determine the number of
channels required to service a certain offered traffic
at a specific GoS.
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for Infocomm Research 61 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications - Call holding time
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications - Call holding time (H) : the average duration of a
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
- Call holding time (H) : the average duration of a call.
- Call arrival rate (λ) : average number of call requests
per unit time.
Traffic flow or intensity A
• Measured in Erlang, which is defined as the call-
minute per minute.
• Total offered traffic for such a system is given as
A =λ⋅ H
Exercise : There are 3000 calls per hour in a cell,
each lasting an average of 1.76 min.
Offered traffic A = (3000/60)(1.76) = 88 Erlangs
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Offered traffic A = (3000/60)(1.76) = 88 Erlangs Institute for Infocomm Research 62 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications One Erlang = offered load that would occupy a single channel
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
One Erlang = offered load that would occupy a single
channel 100% of the time
If the offered traffic exceeds the maximum possible
carried traffic, blocking occurs. There are three
different strategies to be used.
- Blocked calls cleared
- Blocked calls delayed
Trunking efficiency : is defined as the carried traffic
intensity in Erlangs per channel, which is a value
between zero and one. It is a function of the number
of channels per cell and the specific GoS parameters.
Call arrival process: it is widely accepted that calls
have a Poisson arrival.
Over an observation period T, divide this time into
n sub-intervals.
- only one arrival can occur in any one sub-
interval.
- call arrivals are independent from each other.
- the probability that an arrival occurs in one of
the sub-intervals is proportional to the sub-
interval length.
The probability of exactly k arrivals in n sub-
intervals can be evaluated using the binomial
distribution.
In the limit when n→∞ , this
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for Infocomm Research 63 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications approach to a Poisson
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications approach to a Poisson Process, with its mean equal to λT
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
approach to a Poisson Process, with its mean equal
to λT .
(Refer to tutorial 1 and extend the concept from
Poisson distribution to Poisson Process)
k
(
λ
T
)
p
=
exp −
(
λ
T )
k
k
!
-
Mean inter-arrival time
F t
τ ( ) =
P
≤ = 1−
t
)
P
> = 1−
t
)
P
(
no arrival = 1− exp −
)
()λt
f
( ) =
t
λ
exp −
( λt )
τ
Call holding time : it is normally assume that it has a
negative exponential distribution.
- The probability that a call terminates within one
subinterval is proportional to its length.
- The call termination occurs independently of which
subinterval is considered.
The probability that the holding time h is less than
or equal t is given as
n
μ
t ⎞
1
F
( )
t
= −
1
P h
(
t
)
=
P h
(
>
t
)
=
lim
1
(
t )
=
exp
μ
h
n
→∞
n ⎠
F
( ) = 1− exp − μ
t
(
t )
f t
( ) = μ exp − μ
(
t )
h
h
This gives a mean holding time of H = 1 μ .
Memoryless property of the negative exponential
distribution: the past history has no influence in
predicting its future.
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Markov chain : probability that the next state is x n
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Markov chain : probability that the next state is
x
n
+1
depends only upon the current state
x
and not any
n
previous value. A special case is the birth-death
process.
Block calls cleared : Assuming that there are altogether
C trunks, and
• An infinite subscriber population
• Poisson call arrivals with rate λ calls/sec
• Exponentially distributed call durations with mean
H
=1/ μ .
• Blocked calls are cleared.
1− λ dt
1− λ dt − μ dt
1− λ dt − 2μ dt
1− λ dt − C μ dt
λ ⋅ dt
λ ⋅ dt
λ ⋅ dt
0
1
2
C
μ ⋅ dt
2μ ⋅ dt
C μ ⋅ dt
Under steady state conditions
λ dt P
=⋅⋅ ⋅
n μ dt P
n
1
n
Solving for different values of n, we have
n
λ
λ
1
λ
P
=
P
, …,
P =
P
=
, …
1
0
n
n −
1
0
μ
n
μ
n
!
μ
⎝ ⎜ ⎜
⎟ ⎟ ⎠ P
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications C 1 From ∑ P = 1 , we get P
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
C
1
From
P
=
1
, we get
P
n
0
n
= C
n
= 0
1 ⎛
λ
n !
μ
n
= 0
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
The probability of blocking for C trunked channel is
C
1 ⎛
λ
1
⎟ ⎞
C
C
A
λ
C
!
μ
⎠ ⎟
C
!
GoS =
P
=
1 ⎛ ⎜
P =
=
c
0
C
!
μ
n
C
⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
C
1
1 ⎛
λ
n
A
n !
n !
μ
n
= 0
n
= 0
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
which is the Erlang B formula, and A = λH = λ μ .
• Must know how to use the table.
Examples on Erlang B models
1. There are 3000 calls per hour in a cell, each lasting
an average of 1.76 minutes. For a 2% blocking
probability, how many channels are needed in the
cell?
2. A cell contains 50 channels. The average call
duration is 100s. How many calls per hour can be
handle if PB=2%?
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Blocked calls delayed : in this model, the blocked calls are
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Blocked calls delayed : in this model, the blocked
calls are allowed to queue up and wait to be served.
Normally assume that the queue is infinitely long
(M/M/C/∞)
1− λ dt
1 − λ dt − μ dt
1 − λ dt −−(C 1) μ dt 1 − λ dt − C μ dt 1 − λ dt − C μ dt
λ ⋅ dt
λ ⋅ dt
λ ⋅ dt
λ ⋅ dt
λ ⋅ dt
λ ⋅ dt
0
1
C-1
C
C+1
μ ⋅ dt
2μ ⋅ dt
(C − 1) μ ⋅ dt
C μ ⋅ dt
C μ ⋅ dt
C μ ⋅ dt
At steady state,
λ dt P
− n μ dt P
=
⋅⋅ for k ≤ C
n
1
n
λ dt P
− C μ dt P
=
⋅⋅
for k ≥ C
n
1
n
This leads to
n
λ
1 ⎛ ⎜
P
n ≤ C
0
⎪ n !
μ
P =
n
n
1
λ
1
⎜ ⎛
⎟ ⎞
P
n ≥ C
0
n
− C
C !
μ
⎠ C
From
P
= 1
, we get
n
n
= 0
1
P =
0
n
C
C
− 1
λ
λ
1
1 ⎛ ⎜
⎟ ⎞
+
1 ⎛ ⎜
⎞ ⎟
n
!
μ
C !
μ
λ
n
= 0
1 −
μ
C
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications The probability that the call will not have immediate access to
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
The probability that the call will not have
immediate access to a channel (i.e. having nonzero
delay)
C
A
Pr(delay
> 0)
= ∑ P =
1 P
k
0
C
!
A
k C
=
1 −
C
where A = λ / μ . This is the Erlang C formula.
- This probability of non-zero delay that can be
tolerated is also known to be the GoS parameter of
the Erlang C system.
- If no channels are immediately available, the call
is delayed, and the probability that the delayed
call is forced to wait more than t seconds is given
by the probability that a call is delayed, multiplied
by the conditional probability that the delay is
greater than t seconds (the delay threshold).
Pr(delay
>
t
)
=
Pr(delay
>
0) Pr(delay
>
t
delay
> 0)
= Pr(delay
>
0) exp[ (
C −
A t H
)
/
]
- The average delay D for all calls in a queued
system is given by
H
D
= ∞ ∫ Pr(delay
>
t ) dt
=
Pr(delay
>
0)
C
A
0
or the average delay for those calls which are
queue is given by H /( C − A) .
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calls which are queue is given by H /( C − A) . Institute for Infocomm
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Note: Proof for Pr(delay > t delay > 0) = exp[
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Note: Proof for
Pr(delay
> t
delay
>
0)
=
exp[
(
C −
A t H
)
/
]
Consider C=1, this corresponding to the M/M/1 queue
model. The waiting time W consists of the service times of
the existing N customers in the system, ie.,
W = S + S + + S
N where
S
follows exponential
1
2
i
distribution f
( ) = μ exp − μ
t
(
t
)
and W is the sum of these N
S
i
independent random variables. Note that implicity we
assume that N > 0 .
λ λ
Also can easily show that
P
= (1
)(
)
n , i.e. n follows a
n
μ μ
geometric distribution (memoryless property).
The pdf of W is then given by
Erlang n +
(
1,
μ )
∞ ∞
n
(
μ t )
λ λ
− t
μ
n
f
( )
t
= ∑
f
( ,
t n P
)
=
μ
e
(1
)(
)
W
W | n
n
n !
μ μ
n = 0
n =
0
(
μ λ
) t
=
(
μ λ
) e
Note that μ = 1/ H , A = λ H , integrate this from t to ∞ will
obtain
Pr(delay > t
delay
> 0)
For M/M/C queue, the system behaves as an M/M/1 queue
with higher service rate C μ (rather than μ ).
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Channel Assignment Strategies Channel allocation schemes can affect system
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Channel Assignment Strategies
Channel allocation schemes can affect system performance.
Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) :
• Channels are divided in sets.
• A set of channels is permanently allocated to each cell
in the network. Same set of channels must be assigned
to cells separated by a certain distance to reduce co-
channel interference.
• Any call attempt within the cell can only be served by
the unused channels in that particular cell. The
service is blocked if all channels have used up.
• Most easiest to implement but least flexibility.
• An modification to this is ‘borrowing scheme’. Cell
(acceptor cell) that has used all its nominal channels
can borrow free channels from its neighboring cell
(donor cell) to accommodate new calls.
• Borrowing can be done in a few ways: borrowing from
the adjacent cell which has largest number of free
channels, select the first free channel found, etc.
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channels, select the first free channel found, etc. Institute for Infocomm Research 70 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications • To be available for borrowing, the channel must not interfere
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
• To be available for borrowing, the channel must not
interfere with existing calls. The borrowed channel
should be returned once the channel becomes free.
Dynamic Channel Allocaton (DCA) :
• Voice channels are not allocated to any cell
permanently. All channels are kept in a central pool
and are assigned dynamically to new calls as they
arrive in the system.
• Each time a call request is made, the serving BS
requests a channel from the MSC. It then allocates a
channel to the requested cell following an algorithm
that takes into acount the likelihood of future blocking
within the cell, the reuse distance of the channel and
other cost functions ⇒ increase in complexity
• Centralized DCA scheme involves a single controller
selecting a channel for each cell. Distributed DCA
scheme involves a number of controllers scattered
across the network.
• For a new call, a free channel from central pool is
selected based on either the co-channel distance, signal
strength or signal to noise interference ratio.
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EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Flexible channel assignment • Divide the total number of channels into
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Flexible channel assignment
• Divide the total number of channels into two groups,
one of which is used for fixed allocation to the cells,
while the other is kept as a central poor to be shared
by all users.
• Mix the advantages the FCA and DCA, available
schemes are scheduled and predictive.
Channels need to be assigned to users to accommodate
- new calls
- handovers
• With the objective of increasing capacity and
minimizing probability of a blocked call.
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and minimizing probability of a blocked call. Institute for Infocomm Research 72 National University of Singapore
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications System Expansion Techniques As demand for wireless services increases, the number
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
System Expansion Techniques
As demand for wireless services increases, the number
of channels assigned to a cell eventually becomes
insufficient to support the required number of users.
More channels must therefore be made available per
unit area.
• This can be accomplished by dividing each initial cell
area into a number of smaller cells, a technique known
as cell-splitting.
• It can also be accomplished by having more channels
per cell, i.e. by having a smaller reuse factor. However,
to have a smaller reuse factor, the co-channel
interference must be reduced. This can be done by
using antenna sectorization.
Cell splitting
• Cell splitting increases the number of BSs in order to
increase capacity. There will be a corresponding
reduction in antenna height and transmitter power.
• Cell splitting accommodates a modular growth
capability. This in turn leads to capacity increase
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for Infocomm Research 73 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications essentially via a
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications essentially via a system re-scaling of the cellular geometry without any
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
essentially via a system re-scaling of the cellular
geometry without any changes in frequency planning.
• Small cells lead to more cells/area which in turn leads
to increased traffic capacity.
• For new cells to be smaller in size, the transmit power
must be reduced. If n=4, then with a reduction of cell
radius by a factor of 2, the transmit power should be
reduced by a factor of 2 4 (why?)
• In theory, cell splitting could be repeated indefinitely.
In practice it is limited
1. by the cost of base stations
2. handover (fast and low speed traffic)
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stations 2. handover (fast and low speed traffic) Institute for Infocomm Research 74 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications 3. not all cells are split at the same time :
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
3. not all cells are split at the same time : practical
problems of BS sites, such as co-channel
interference exist.
4. Innovative channel assignment schemes must
be developed to address this problem for
practical systems.
Sectorization
• Keep the cell radius but decrease the D/R ratio. In
order to do this, we must reduce the relative
interference without increasing the transmit power.
• Sectorization relies on antenna placement and
directivity to reduce co-channel interference. Beams
are kept within either a 60° or a 120° sector.
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for Infocomm Research 75 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications • If we partition
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications • If we partition a cell into three 120° sectors, the
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
• If we partition a cell into three 120° sectors, the
number of co-channel cells are reduced from 6 to 2 in
the first tier.
• Using six sectors of 60°, we have only one co-channel
cell in the first tier.
• Each sector is limited to only using 1/3 or 1/6 of the
available channels. We therefore have a decrease in
trunking efficiency and an increase in the number of
required antennas.
• But how can the increase in system capacity be
achieved?
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can the increase in system capacity be achieved? Institute for Infocomm Research 76 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Institute for Infocomm Research 77 National University of Singapore
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
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for Infocomm Research 77 National University of Singapore EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Micro cells •
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Micro cells • Micro cells can be introduced to alleviate capacity
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
Micro cells
• Micro cells can be introduced to alleviate capacity
problems caused by “hotspots”.
• By clever channel assignment, the reuse factor is
unchanged. As for cell splitting, there will occur
interference problems when macro and micro cells
must co-exist.
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problems when macro and micro cells must co-exist. Institute for Infocomm Research 78 National University of
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Institute for Infocomm Research 79 National University of Singapore
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications
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National University of Singapore
EE5401 Cellular Mobile Communications Institute for Infocomm Research 79 National University of Singapore