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DIGESTION,

ABSORPTION AND TRANSPORT

FN 15 2 nd semester AY 2010-2011

MS. RHEA BENAVIDES-DE LEON, RND

Based on the works of CTBayaga, RMTMagbuhat and LWTengco

Digestion

The breakdown of food in the body in

preparation for absorption.

Digestion

Mechanical digestion: food is broken up by the teeth and moved along GI tract by peristalsis.

Chemical digestion: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are broken down into

nutrients tissues can absorb and use.

Digestion

Chemical changes occur through hydrolysis (the addition of water and breaking down of food molecules).

Enzymes act on food substances,

causing them to break down into simple compounds.

Anatomy of the Digestive System

Digestive

System

Anatomy of the Digestive System Digestive System Alimentary Canal or the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) Accessory Digestive

Alimentary Canal or the

Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)

Accessory

Digestive Organs

Mouth

Where digestion begins

Salivary amylase acts on starch

Teeth break up food; food mixes with saliva

“Bolus” formed

Small amounts of carbohydrates changed

Esophagus

Food travels through this muscular tube

Connects mouth to stomach

Peristalsis and gravity act to move bolus

Cardiac sphincter opens at lower end of esophagus to allow passage of bolus into

stomach

Stomach

Temporary storage of food

Mixing of food with gastric juices

Regulation of a slow, controlled emptying

of food into the intestine

Secretion of the intrinsic factor for vitamin

B 12

Stomach

Hydrochloric acid prepares the gastric area

for enzyme action

Pepsin breaks down proteins

In children, rennin breaks down milk

proteins

Lipase acts on emulsified fats

Stomach

Stomach

Small Intestine

Hormones released

Secretin causes pancreas to release sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme

Cholecystokinin triggers gallbladder to

release bile

Bile

Emulsifies fat after it is secreted into

small intestine

Produced in liver; stored in gallbladder

Small Intestine

Enzymes are found in the pancreatic juice

that is secreted into small intestine.

Pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidases):

split proteins

Pancreatic amylase: converts starches (polysaccharides) to simple

sugars

Pancreatic lipase: reduces fats to fatty acids and glycerol

Small Intestine

Produces enzymes

Prepares foods for absorption

Lactase, maltase, sucrase convert lactose,

maltose, sucrose to simple sugars

Peptidases reduce proteins to amino acids

Twenty-two feet long

Villi, hairlike projections, increase surface

area for maximum absorption

Small intestine

Small intestine

Large Intestine

Colon walls secrete mucus to protect against

acidic digestive juices in chyme.

Major tasks of the large intestine:

Absorb water

Synthesize some B vitamins and vitamin

K

Collect food residue

Large Intestine

Large Intestine

Rectum

Holds back semisolid waste from the colon

until it is time to defecate.

Anus

Last sphincter in the digestive system

Opens up to allow the passage of waste

Accessory Digestive Organs

Organs which assists digestion - salivary glands, teeth, pancreas, liver and gallbladder

Salivary Glands

Produces and secretes SALIVA

mucus: moistens and binds food into a BOLUS

serous: contains SALIVARY AMYLASE

Has a protective function (lysozyme and

antibodies) and allows food to be tasted

Teeth

Involved in the mastication (chewing)

of food

incisors biting, caninestearing, molarsgrinding/mashing

Pancreas

A soft triangular gland

that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the

duodenum

Produces and secretes digestive enzymes and juices into the

duodenum (exocrine)

Produces insulin and glucagon (endocrine)

(exocrine) • Produces insulin and glucagon (endocrine) (Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes,

(Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1998 )

Liver

Largest gland in the

body which overlies

the stomach

Functions include

synthesis of bile

salts, detoxification, excretion, and

energy metabolism

bile salts, detoxification, excretion, and energy metabolism (Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes,

(Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1998 )

Gallbladder

A small, pear

shaped thin-walled

sac that stores and concentrates the bile

Releases bile when it receives a signal that fat is present in

the duodenum

it receives a signal that fat is present in the duodenum (Mahan & Stump, 2004 and

Muscular Action of Digestion

1) Peristalsis (periround; stellein wrap)

Muscular contractions of the GI tract that

push intestinal contents along

2) Stomach Action

The stomach muscles churn and push the chyme downward while the pyloric

sphincter is tightly closed.

The stomach wall releases gastric juices to completely liquefy the chyme

Muscular Action of Digestion

3) Segmentation

A periodic squeezing or partitioning of

the intestine at intervals along its length

by its circular muscle

4) Sphincter contraction

Sphincter Contraction

a) Upper Esophageal Sphincter

Opens in response to swallowing

b) Lower Esophageal Sphincter A.k.a. cardiac sphincter

Prevents gastric reflux

c) Pyloric Sphincter Found at the bottom of the stomach

Prevents intestinal contents from

backing up into the stomach

Sphincter Contraction

d) Ileocecal Valve

Found at the end of the small

intestine

Empties the contents of the small

intestine

e) Anus

Prevents elimination until you

choose to perform

Digestive Glands

and

their Secretions

Salivary Glands

Gland

Target

Secretion

Action

Organ

Salivary

Mouth

Saliva

- Contains water, salt

glands

and enzymes that

initiate

carbohydrate

digestion

- Protects the linings

of the mouth, esophagus and stomach from harmful substances

(Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1998 )

Stomach

Gland

Target

Secretion

Action

Organ

Gastric

Stomach

Gastric

Fluid: mixes with bolus HCl: uncoils

proteins &

gland

juice

destroys bacteria Enzyme: breaks down proteins

Mucus: protects

stomach cells

(Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1998 )

Liver

Gland

Target

Secretion

Action

Organ

Liver

Gallbladder

Bile

Bile: an emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion Stored in the gallbladder until

needed

(Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1998 )

Pancreas

Gland

Target

Secretion

Action

Organ

Pancreas

Small

Pancreatic

Bicarbonate:

intestine

juice

neutralizes acidic gastric juices

(pH=8)

Pancreatic enzymes: break down

carbohydrates,

protein and fat

(Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1998 )

Small intestines

Gland

Target

Secretion

Action

Organ

Intestinal

Small

Intestinal

Brush border

glands

intestine

juice

Enzymes: breaks down proteins and

carbohydrate fragments Mucus: protects intestinal wall

(Mahan & Stump, 2004 and Whitney, Cataldo, & Rolfes, 1998 )

Digestive Enzymes

Source

Enzyme

Food Acted Upon

Mouth

Salivary amylase

Starch

Stomach

Pepsin

Proteins

Rennin

Proteins in milk

Gastric lipase

Emulsified fat

Small

Pancreatic Amylase Pancreatic Proteases Pancreatic Lipases

Starch

Intestine/

Proteins

Pancreas

Fats

Lactase

Lactose

Maltase

Maltose

Sucrase

Sucrose

Peptidases

Proteins

Absorption

Absorption

Transport of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract to the blood or lymph

Nutrients must first enter the cells through

ACTIVE or PASSIVE TRANSPORT

ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS

ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS H2O soluble vitamins Glucose, AA, large molecules, H2O, small ions, small lipids

H2O soluble vitamins

Glucose, AA, large molecules,

ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS H2O soluble vitamins Glucose, AA, large molecules, H2O, small ions, small lipids

H2O, small ions, small lipids

Absorption

Nutrients MUST BE in their simplest form

Carbohydrates: simple sugars

Proteins: amino acids

Fats: fatty acids and glycerol

Absorption

Most absorption occurs in the small intestine;

some occurs in the large intestine.

Water is absorbed in the stomach, small

intestine, and large intestine.

Transport

Transport

Process by which the nutrients are delivered to any part of the body and

used by any of the cells that need them.

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

Is a closed system of vessels through which blood flows continuously, with the heart serving as a

pump at the crossover point

The blood simply travels the following route:

heart arteries capillaries (in intestines) vein capillaries (in liver) vein heart

The Vascular System

Artery

A vessel that carries blood away from

the heart

Capillary

A small vessel that branches from an

artery

The capillary walls serve as the site for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials

Veins

A vessel that carries blood back to the heart

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Provides one-way route for fluid from the tissue spaces to enter the blood

As muscles contract and create pressure, lymph is squeezed from one portion of the body (large duct behind the heart) to another (vascular system)

Materials from the GI tract that enter

lymphatic vessels are the large fats and fat soluble vitamins (by-passing the liver)

Absorption & Transport

Absorption & Transport

DIGESTION,

ABSORPTION AND

TRANSPORT

DIGESTION, ABSORPTION AND TRANSPORT