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Introduction to Behavior

and Design of Reinforced


Concrete Masonry Buildings

By
Ahmad Hamid, Ph.D., P.E.

Professor and Director of the Masonry Research Program


Drexel University, Philadelphia

UWO Masonry Workshop London, Ontario March 14, 2016


Content
Session 1 : 9:00 – 10:15
Introduction to Contemporary Concrete Masonry and Building Design

Session 2 : 10:30 – 11:45


Masonry Materials and Assemblages

Session 3 : 1:00 – 2:15


Behavior and Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Masonry
Walls under Out- of-Plane Bending and Axial Loads

Session 4 : 2:30 – 3:45


Behavior and Design of Reinforced Concrete Masonry Shear walls
Session 3

Beams and Flexural Walls


Masonry Beams and Lintels
Flexural Behavior
Shear Behavior
Design Philosophy
n  Promote ductile flexural behavior by
using proper amount of steel ratio ( 0.5
the balanced ratio)
n  Suppress brittle shear mode of behavior
by using stirrups.
Flexural Design
n  Steel area

n  Moment Capacity
Shear Design
n Vu= Φ ( Vm + Vs)
where Φ = 0.8
Vm= (0.32 sq root of f’m) (bd)
Vs = d ( Av fy)/s
Use 10 mm single
leg.. Av= 130 mm2
Load Distribution on Lintels
Load Distribution on Lintels
Example: Load Distribution
Design of Masonry Walls
Under Axial Load and
Out-of-Plane Bending
Interaction of Axial Load and Flexure
Design for Axial Load
n  Compression control P A

n  Slenderness effect/ ' a


fm b Inelastic
transition
curve b-c
buckling h

Stress, Pu/A
Limited by
material
strength
Euler P

Po = 0.8 f’m bt R c buckling


curve
Inelastic
Crushing buckling Elastic buckling

Where R is the Limited by stability


of cross section

slenderness coefficient Slenderness Ratio,h/r

which is a function of h/r


ratio 1.2

1.0
Relative strength

0.8
e/t = 0

Minimum accidental
0.6

n  0.4
e/t = 1/6

eccentricity of 0.1t
e/t = 1/3

0.2
Note: Walls bent in single curvature

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Slenderness ratio, h/t


Axial Load and Bending Moment
Interaction Diagram
t/6 t/2
t/3

Po=0.8 f’m bt
P = bt F m P = bt F m/ 2 P = bt F m/ 4 P=0

n 
(a) (b) (c) (d)

n  Mmax = (0.5 Po)(t/6)b t/2 t/2 t/2 t/2 t/2 t/2 t/2 t/2

Fm Fm Fm

Axial Load

Po

Note the beneficial effect


of axial load to
increase moment Ignore tensile strength

capacity up to
0.5 Po

Consider tensile strength

P=0.25 Po
Moment
Reinforced Flexural Walls
n  Ductile flexural behavior for
reinforcing steel ratio less than 0.3%


Load-Deflection Curves for RM walls
Spanning Vertically
n  The higher the percentage of steel the higher the
capacity and the lower the level of displacement ductility
n  Grouting increases cracking moment and wall stiffness
but does not appreciably affect wall strength and ductility


Cyclic Response
Moment Capacity
P-M Interaction Curves
Effect of Slenderness
n  Reducing axial load
… Effect of Slenderness
n  Increasing Moment
Horizontally Spanning Walls
Response : Load-Deflection Curve
Cyclic Response : Hysteresis Loops
Questions