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Hosauxuh B. OMeKTPOMATHUTHBIe S:peKTL B TBepABIx Tenax: Tep. noabex, — M,; Mup, 1986, — 160 ¢., wa, Kinira Hanecrnord NOALCKOFO yUeHOrO, NOCBAULCHHAA TCOPHH qilat¥ecKUX No neh. B pamnax sHNeiinnN cooTHOMenn paceMaTpiualoTed scbekth CBssaHHOCTH MEXANMYECKHN, MCKTPOMANUTHN MW TeMlepatypHalx monet, pewer pig KOHKpeT- HBX NPHKAAHLIX salad. Kura xaeT upeacranacuie Taloke HO HOBbIX Hanpanae HWAX HCCTeqOBAaNHi, MMANNYTAX 9TH TeopHEl. ALAR MATCMATHKOR-NPHKAAAHHKOB, MCXAHHKOB, HIDKEHEPOB-HCcnemopaTe.ten. Mpeducaosue Hoe H MocTOAHHOe 9 C JI€EKTpOMAarHHTHoe IL x 104 one, a Mex rernopbie HarpyXeHHA IpHBOAAT K BOSTIKHOBEH HO roUaaes oe Se pecaemrHoro NOIa, BAMAOMero Ha iaiomayr ma Toma tta wbasonyio cHopocts pacnpoctpaneuua ynpyrux u oer p . yet 3aMeTuTD c ee uTO Tak ma HUTONTpYTOGTS BOSHHKJa [laBHbIM o6pasom B Mousa, faa Mebane C. Kanucckoro ero coTpyaHuKos aan eMaf MOHOrpaduA BO , SHHKIa Kak nape e3YyJIbT peep action] B eae 1977 rr. aaa OPeICUaSaNETe ae HHKH Ha Orgene’ ppapa HHH MaTeMaTHKH H M Fer ene emrera H WeKUHNA 5 Mexnysaponuom nexep aka B Ynune (Uranus) B utone 1977 r wn 7 ; nas one aan MpeqHasnavaetca riaBHbIM O6paso KOB, KOTOpbIe HHT ms L i epecyioTca Ti AAMC 34 PAMKH TpaMUMONHLIX LUCHUNHH. “weno Bapwasa, uoae 1978 a. 7 B. Hoeayxu nasa 1 OCHOBbI JIMHEMHOM TEOPMM MbESOSJIEKTPUYECTBA 1.1, BBEQEHVE Eon uexoropbe KpHcTaaibt (TaKue, Kak KBapU, TYpMasuH, fernerona COub H Ap.) MOABeprHyTb posselicTBHIO HallpsKeHHH, Jo HW MX HOMBIACTCA NICKTPHYeCKAad MoNAPHsALAA. OTo Tak Ha- jwibuemull upoctoH sek mbesosexTpuyectBa, OTKPHITEIA Opava bepom 1 >Kaxom Kiopu 8 1880 r. Hao6opor, Noa AIDC UPUTOKCHHOTO HSBHE SICKTPHIECKOTO MOA TIbe3O91CK- (piuecKnii KPHCTaT HsMeHAeT CBOIO cbopmy. Dror spexr Obl fipenyratan B 1881 7. JIunmMannom [28] ua ocHope TepMoaHHa- Miecknx coo6paxkenni# uw B TOM %e TOMY 9KCI€pHMeHTAaJIbHO HowrsepxKAeH Oparbamu Koopa [13]. B oOulem cny4ae Ipupowa KpucTasia aHWSOTPOMHa, HO {be30- gnoKrpHieckHht aekT MpoABAAeTCA TOMbKO B KpucTaaax onpe- jOuICHIOPO Kacca, a UMCHHO.B TX, B KOTOPHIX OTCyTCTByeT WeHT- pavibiiast CHMMeTPHA. O6mas Teopus MbesoseKTPHeCTBA, B KOTO- poll nome meopmauui comparaetca C¢ 3N€KTPHYeCKUM TMoJeM, Hila paspa6oTtana Polirtom [57]. Sty Teopuio Muuyaun pac- \poctpaHHst Ha TepMOMbesoITCKTPHYeCKHE COOTHOMICHUA. IIpaxruueckoe MpHjoxwenHe Tbhe30NICKTPUIECKHX 9cp(peKTOB oGiumpHo, C oAHOH CTOPOHE!, STH aceKTb HCNOAbSyIOTCA AAA PeiepalH YIbTPasBYKOBbIX BOJH, C apyroli— ana oOpamenua MeXaHHUeCKOH SHEPrHH B S/IeKTPHUeCKYy!O H Hao6opoT; H Aaqee, jit CO3MAHUA Te C MbesOseKTPUYECKUMH cBolicTBaMH, JIA He- paspyllaroulax uccnenopanuii wT. a. [58]. 1.2, DJIEKTPOMATHUTHOE MOJIE OrnpaBHbIM MyHKTOM Hallux paccyxKaeHul ABAAIOTCA ypaB- nena Makcpesdia fa 9vleKTpOMarHuTHOrO TOA B cucteme cnmnny, MKCi (1) (2) rotH=J-+ 0D/d%, rot E == — OB/dt, (3) divB=0, (4) div D = p. 3necb E—BekTop SJleKTpHueckoro MOA, oro mors, B—BeKTOp MarHuTHOH HHAY KWH, D — BeKTOp 9/1eK- ‘ppHuecKoro CMeLILeHHA, J—nuorHocTs TOKa, Pe—mpocTpax- crreHHas MOTHOCTh 3apaja. Ypaprenue (4) onpexeaneT Mu0T- HOCTh QueKTPHYeCKUX 3apALOB (ypaBHeHne Taycca). H—sexTop MarHHT- 10 Ta. 1. Ockoset auneinot reopuu neesosrexrpurecrea 1.2. DaexrpomaenuTnoe none 11 Ypapuenua (1) w (4) npuBogat Kk caezyiomemy ypaBHeHu HeIlpePbIBHOCTH SJIeEKTPHYeCKOrO sapama: (5) div J+ dp,/at = 0. Cucremy ypasnenuii Maxcsesa coesyer AONOMHHTh MaTepHasb- HEIMH COOTHOWIcHHAMH. B cayyae TBepgoro Tena uMeeM (6) D=9,E+P, (7) B=,,(H + M). 3aecb P—bextop daextpuyeckoli nonapusauun, M— BeKTop HaMarHHYHBaHHA, a 99, [o—COOTBETCTBEHHO SvleKTpuyecKan A MarHHTHAd MpOHMaeMOCTH B BakyyMe. ; Paccmorpum o6sacTb B tena, orpannyenHoro MOBEpXHOCTbIO OB. Nycrb BuyrpH sto oOnacTH cyuyecTByeT 91eKTPOMarHHTHOe Noe, MpOTeKaloT TOKH H BbIeIAeTCA MKOyAeBO Ten10. BripasuM SHeprHio MOA C MOMONIbIO BeKTOPOB, ONMCHIBAIOIHX Mose. Ymuoxkum ypapnenne (1) na E, ypapnenue (2) na H, Buratem H3 TlepBoro ypaBHeHHA BTOpoe M MpouNTerpupyeM pesyabTaT 110 | o6aactu B. Torgza nowyanM (8) | (Brot H —Hrot BE) dv = { (ED + HB) dv + [EJ do. B B B . Yuurtbipas, Yo : — div(E X H)=Erot H — HrotE, H UcnOmb3yA NpeoGpasoBanue Taycca (9) | div(E x H)do = |n-hda= (n-(BXH) da, B OB OB UpuBefem ypapuenue (8) kK BuAy (10) —\n-hda=| (D+ HB) do + | BJdo, OB B B Tae BBeweH Tak Ha3bIBaeMBIt BeKTOp Tlofiuruura (11) h=EXH. Ypasnenve (10) ecrh MaTeMaTuyecKoe cjleqcTBHe ypaBHeHHit Makcpela HW MOxeT OLITh (H3SHYeCKH HHTepMpeTHpoBaHO Kak ypapuenHe Oananca sueprun. TaKumM o6pa3om, cKxansp n-h mpencraBsneT COOoH MpHTOK 9eKTPOMAarHuTHOH SHeprun yepes noBepxHocTb OB rea us oKpy2xKalollel ero cpeab. BupaxKeHne ED+ HB = uygentuyno npupocty 3a exuuMuy BpemeHu BHyTpeH- Heli 9leKTpoMarHuTHol sueprun U,. Hakonen, EJ ppexcrapaser co6ok AKOYIeBO TeNVJO. | oad Ypanucuuc (10) mpeo6pasyem K Busy (19) 2 \u,de=— \ n-hda—\Bsdo. ’ ‘ B OB B Panencrno (12) osnauaer, ¥TO MpupocT B eAMHHy BpeMeHH HiyTpeuuel s1eKTpoMarHHTHOH SHeprun paBeH MpHuTOKy ay qpomariiruol svepran Ypes MOBeCPXHOCTb OB u 9JCKTPHYECKO sileprin, paccesiioH BHYTpH Teta mM MpeBpamenHoH B TeMAO. | cvienylouem maparpade MbI TonyyHM O606meHHe ypaBue- jit Ganauca sNepruu, YIHTHIBaIONlee BebopManun Tema. Co- fiacuo papenctBy (3), B ech comenoudatbHbIit BeKTOp; ToSTOMy QO MoxKIO TpeACTABHTb Kak PpoTOp HeKoToporo BeKTopa Ap: (1) B=rot Ao. Ojako ypapnerne (13) He onpegetser BexTop Ap O2HOSHaYHEIM o6pasom, Tostomy umMeem (14) B=rotA, A=A)—grad‘p. floycrapaaa (13) a (14) B ypaBnenne (2), nonyyHM (16) rot(E-+ A,)=0, rot(E+A)=0, orKy lta (16) E=— A,— grad q, DyNKUHH ~, Po, P CBAAHDI MEKAY co6ol 3aBHCHMOCTbIO E=—A-—gradg. (17) — =o + Op/dt. Cy 14) u (16) mpegctapum ypaBnenua MaxcBenaa a ec Soon TlOTeHIHaOB — BeKTOpHoro A H CKaJAp- Horo @: . (18) rotH=D+4J, (19) B=rotA, (20) =-—gradg—A. K 9THM paBencTBaM fo6asum ypaBHeHne Taycca (4) w onpe- jesiiouywe cooTHomenua (6), (7). PaccMoTpHM BbIpaxKenne divh == div(E XH); ¢ yserom cooruowenua (16) nonyuaem divh= — div(grad @ X H) — div (A X H) = =gradg-rotH — div(A X H) = div(grotH —A X H). IlpunuMas BO BHHMaHHe ypaBHenne (1), uMeem (21) divh = div [p(D + J)—AX H]. 12 Ta. 1. Ochosst aunednod reopuu neesoanrexrpurecTaa Tlogctapaaa (21) B (10) m yauTbiBat (9), umeem 22) — f n [oD + J) —AXH]da= | (ED + HB) do + | BSdo OB B B Tloatomy (28) h=o(D+J)—AXH, Benmunna h=EXH apasnetca BeCHYMHOH OMHOSHAUHOH, TO- ra Kak, cormacHo cooTHoMenmo (23), OHa TAKOBOH He ABUAeTC BBHAy HeowHosHayHoctu yHKuni A u y. Ognako Bblpaxkenne \ n-hda, rae h 3anaetca popmys0n (23), onHOSHadHO, ecu 6B TOKO noBepxnocTh OB samKuyta ». PaccmorpuM mbesoaseKTpHyeckoe Teo (KoTOpoe sABMAeTCA qMaaeKTpHkoM). B npunynne 9TO TeTo SNeKTPHYeCKH HeliTpasb- HO: OHO COMep%KUT OMMNAKOBOE THCMO MOMOMKUTEMbUBIX H OTPH- WaTeMbHLIX DICKTPHYECKUX 3apsAAOB HM HE MPOBOAUT TOKOB. Be- JeHUe H9CKTPUKA B JICKTPOMATHHTHOe Mose MPHBOAHT K HS- MeHeHHIO HocegHero. BcuegcTBue storo BexTopyl E u D He ma- padeAbHE H OTANYAIOTCA Ha BeKTOP NOJApHsalM P. [aa mpe- 303JICKTPHKOB MpHMeM Te 2%ke YHPOUeHHA, YTO H B CulyHae He- HAMAFHHUMBaIOWlHXCA AH9ICKTPHKOB, a HMCHHO (24) J=0, M=0, e,.=0. Tipu stTux mpeanonoxKeHuAx ypaBHeHHA (18)—(20) npumyr Bug (25) rotH =D, (26) B=rotA, (27) Be: —pradg—A. Onipesemoniee coornomenne (6) ocraerca MCH3MeHHBIM, a CO- eriowenne (7) sHAUHTedbUO YHpOCTHTCH: (28) B wm ptgH. Banjy Toro YTO p, == 0, ypapienne (4) cranoBuTcs OMHOPOAHBIM: (29) divD =0, a pcesegqcraue ycrosua J == 0 Bextop Ilofintunra MpHHuMaerT Mpo- croft BHI (30) h=gD—AXH. ) Bupmvenne (21) ne wemenntes, ecu K h Ha (23) mpuOaBuTh :byHKUHIO fal G, rae G—— nponsponnupiit BeKTop. 3amerTum, 4TO \ n-rol G das \ div rot Gdu=0. on B 1.8, Ypaenenue 6ananca snepeur 13 = - — Ofedyouum ynpomennem 6yger mpeneOpexenwe MarHHTHBIM ajeiom An pexrope Mofutunra, Tak ¥TO (il) h~ qb. OBocnonaune npuBexewHoro BEILIe ynpomjenua (oATBepxKTeH- Horo 9kKcHepnMenTasbHo) OBO ZaHo B HHTepecnoh paGoTe Tup- erena [52]. Baugy gonymenua A 0 Mbl MpwxXoquM K COOT- HOWeHINO (42) E=-—gradg. Takum o6pa30mM, MbI HMeeM eNO C KBaSHCTATHYCCKHM 93J1€K- PpuueckiM MOeM, ONHCHIBACMBIM ypaBHeHHeM . (43) divD =0 Il ONPC/LCIAIOLLAM COOTHOMMeHHEM (34) D=a3,E +P. IpouspeqeHHble YIpOUeHHA cIpaBeATHBb AMA 9eKTPOMArHHT- LIX BOJH, H€ COMPs2KeHHBIX C YUPYTHMM BOWHAaMH, H TO B CJLy- uae, Kora AIMHEI paccCMaTpHBaeMBIX BOJH OAWSKH K JIMHAM yiipyrnx BOMH (8TH TocweqHHe SHaUHTeAbHO KOpOye aeKTPO- MATIHIHTHBIX BOJIH TOM 2K€ YaCTOTE!). Bepuemes K ypaBHenmio Gananca sHeprun (12). [na mbeso- gieKrpukos upn B= 0, J=0 uc yuetom (31) umeem (35) 4 \U.dv=— | n- Boda B OB HH (36) 2 \u,do=—\9,Dide. B B [Ip mepexoge or Bbipaxenna (35) K (36) mcHomD30BanOcb peoGpasopanve Taycca H MpHHaTO BO: BHUMAHHe ypaBHenue (29). OxonyateabHo, yuuTbIBast (32), MonydHH (37) 4 \U,do= | ED, do, E:=—-Or B B PanenctBo (37) MOxXHO TpakTOBaTb Kak ypaBHenve GOavaHca QICKTPOMATHHTHOM SHEPrHH AIA Mbeso2eKTPHYeCKOrO Tea. 1.3. YPABHEHME BAJIAHCA SHEPIMM PaccMOTpHM MIbe3091€KTPHK, NOABeprHyTHIH WelicTBHIO BHELL- WHX Harpy30K H HaxOfamulicd B SJIeKTPOMArHHTHOM rose. K BHeLIHHM Harpy3KaM OTHeECeM MaCCOBBIC CHILI X H MOBepxX- 22 Ta. 1. Ockoser auxednot reopuu neesosneKTpurecTad 6, Mpunyun eupryascneix pabor. Eduncreexnocrs pewenutl 23 meulennir u; u mona Di: @ OAHOPOAHbIM KpaeBbIM yCOBHAM Ou, aD, . es 4, buy = ot dt = oy dt, 8D, = Gt dt = Dy dt, a4=0 wa Ty, 6j,=0 na Ty g=0 na 73, Byun =0 na Ty OMNLIMH 6yLyT HW Hayasbuble ycoBHA i; (x, 0)=0, €@;(x,0)=0 na B. ACCMOTPHM OCHOBHOe 93Hepre é i THYCCKOe COOTHOIL - Ais pemenni 2,, . Umeem enn’, aime ad sé ~ GR +# +8) =\ Ko,do+ \ p,6,da— \ Dyn; da:. B TiUTe T3UTs Masa BO BHUMAHHe OHOpOLHO! eee Pp CTb ypaBHenufi (15) u Kpae- (8) . . W=W dt, 6 = dt. Broaa KUHeTHYeCKYy!O SHEprHio of wv ee Bapuarnio 5%’, = 2 vodv, 0 =i dt=0 { odido dt, B B mpeycTaBHM ypaBHeHHe (7) B Bune (9) Lt + + 8)=\Xeidot \ (p:0; — pny) da. B aB Jlerko BugeTb, uo 9TO ypaBHeHHe, Ha3bIBaeMoe OCHOBHDIM SHC} reTHueCKUM ypaBHeHveM, eCTb He YTO unoe, Kak Apyro BH Oanaca 9Hepruu (CM. ypaBHenne (1) B § 1.8). Ocnopnoe ailepreTuyeckoe ypaBHeHve (9) mMoxeT OpiTb Hd onp30BaHo AAA AoKasaTe/bcTBa eMHCTBeHHOCTH = pellleHy -ypaBHenuit mpezoguiekTpuyectBa. PaccMoTpuM ypaBHeHhA 2B 2KeHHA (10) Oy, 4+ X= Olle (C KpaeBbiIMH ycJIOBHAMH d ja - 3 Ta (L+W + &)=0, PHBOAHT K COOTHOIMEHHIO K+ + & =const. Huas 2o12KHa OITD paBHa HyJIO B CHJy HavaJIbHbIX ycno- ,TaK Kak, BBM Toro yo a;==0, d,=0, E;=0 apa Meem Takxe “A =0, W=0, & =0. Cregopatenpuo, pst e—l(Ps4 4 . _ +W7+é= \ ($ 0,0: + $F eunttyerty 9yExE,)do=0. B (U1) uj Uz (x, ft) Ha Ty Hoyt; = pix f) Ha To, OB=T\U Gora mehopMauuii, a Take KHHeTH4ecCKad aHeprua He ) IpHHHMaTb OTpAMaTembuBIX snaveHHii. Buipaxenne i MOWKHO OFITh NOMOKUTEHO ONpeeteHHOl KBaspa- 1 Cc Hava bUBIMH yCJOBHAMH (12) w(x, OHA), ae O)=gi(x), xeB, t=0, ‘a TakiKe ypaBHeHHe QJeKTPHYeCCKOTO TOA yHKIHeH, Heo6xoquMO TOAbKO MOJOKUTH, ITO ( }5u %12 9 (13) D;,1.=0 —_ 8 >0 du M12 1 992 8 © KpaeBbIMH YCAOBMAMH a > la Om >0, 9,>0, 931 932 933 * (14) o=0(%, f) wa T's a Dinj=—olx, ua Ty OB=T3U Th TipeqnosoxuM, 4TO pemeHnua ypaBuennit (10) « (18) eMHCTBEHHE! H 4TO HM yAoBneTBOpHIOT ABe Nap yHK (up @) 4 (uy, @”)- PasnHocTh pelleHHit a,=u,— Uj, o=q 4 — gp’ yAoBAeTBOpsAeT, cekOBaTeAbHO, OAHOPOAHEIM ypabil HMAM JBWKEHHA MH OMHOPOAHOMY ypaBieHwI0 SJ1eKTPHYECKO mona (5) 81, ; — 94 =0, By1=9, 6;=0, 8,=0, £,=0. ObKy 0; = 0, 2; = 0 npn ¢=0, To , a uu, ey =e, EES, Y =e" IpeAensouux cooTHomenni nony4aem oy= OF Di = Di, 24 Ta. 1. OcHoset aunednol Teopuu nbhegoaNeKTpUNecTEa 1.7. Tpunyun Pamuavr af ‘ona 98 Ecau Teio HarpykeHo 10 eeli nopepxnoctu OB, TO ppiiemen K ‘ wr ypasnennio (2), Hclombpsya mpH , x na 7 ” fi fie (5): J yA IIpH STOM COOTHOLIe- (26) uu; + auneiutit wiex, & =” + const. a Jlnnetiapiit wien oTBeuaeT nepemelleHHIo H mopopoty Tela Ki 3KeCTKOFO Were. te : (H) 0 Var — tata \atf — 0 | you do — B alt OH 1.7. MPMHLIWN FAMMSIBTOHA - \(% ; dey br “aE, OF — X, bu; )do + \ (p;, 8u;—0 59) dal PaccmoTpuM (pyHkWHoHal ] oe | Boenonisyenen 3aTeM ONPeMeAAIOMHMH COOTHOUICHHAMH (1) We | (H — Xiu) do — (pitts — 99) da. (f) 0, = 0H, = \ \ rn y= OH|de,, D,=—OHIOE, A TMOKE WoRCCTHBIMH 8aBueH M 3nech H — suleKTpuveckad SHTANbIAA, & — snexTpuieckuhi ovnnn Tenunal, o— 3apsa Ha OB. Tipwanan Tamuabtona, o6oOnLeHHE (H) pion; wa OB. Ha TeopHio npesoguieKTpuyectBa, HMeeT BUA fh HOO UpocTLIx npeo6pasoBannh aB ts H yponnonio P papencrso (8) mpHBoaurca (2) 6\ (I dt=0. th \ W \ aS \ lop p+ Xe an Ih t fis) Ou 3nech # —KuneTuueckas aHeprun, at, — ti — Bpemennolt Nip i {\ t otis) bu; + Dy, 139] 40 + mexyToK. JonycTHMoe RBHDKeHHe rena AOWKHO OBITD corsa Mano c OFPAaHHuckHAMH 1a 9TO ABWKCHHS. Jlomknbt OsITb B MOWHeHEI YCOBUA OB + { [(p — 044) 8; — (Ditty + 0) dq] da } =0. ' Tax wax npupanenua 6u;, 5p MpOMSBOADHLI, TO H3 PpaBeHCTBAa B (3) 8u;(X, ty) = O41 (X ty) = 0. : Wl Hiouyiaem CienyloulHe ypaBHeHusA, ONpeseAOUMe ABHAKE- Bapuauna nogpepraorca TepeMenieHva wi H anexTpuyeckuit HG Toa HW 9AeKTPHYECKOe Toe. penunat @. IHpouspewem BapHanliio xuneruueckoh anepmm (11) oy, + Xi= pil ij = ’ = (012) \, 010140. Tonyuum (11) D,;=0, xB io te hh AoiounirenbHo K ypaBHe Hl Jb) E (4) 5 | #dt= {at\ po, d0,d0= Hpieniie youloBHA Plena be m (11) monysaem TaoKe th ty B t , be (1) 6jnj==p, wa Ty =p \do Q ge Gadd) — but dt =p | (a buy), do — (1h) Dinj=—o na Ty Bf Mia i 8 Pej un 1) 3aqaubt MepemMeneHna, TO 3ecb Su; = 0. Eoau na T's aaaan yilekrpHueckni MOTeHNHA, TO COOTBETCTBEHHO 6p = Hpi Tamuaprona IpHBOAMT K Tak HaSbIBaeMbIM eC oer. fii Kpaebtim ycqoBuaM. O6oOmenve npunyuna TamMaa Onn, HO peop HbC309CKTPHYeCTBA ObIIO aHoO TupcTeHom (31). m th J —o\ do \ ii ug Vicnomp3ya orpannienne (3), mpHmem K BLIP ake Mio Ipeneraprennbit 3 Neve e t ty febe vacrupilt cayaall Bay aaoarees ee ee 5 6\ ¢dt=— di \ ii; 6u;, de HuNOrO TedLE Hae eee eopnectpaecKoro 9b. (6 6 (ou; dv, thes 5 rela, He ({pOABAMIOMerO MbesoseKTpHYeCKorO a ra. aT ; ; ; 3 Wn 9TOM YaCTHOM CIy¥ae 3aMCHHM 9/I€KTPHYeCKYIO 9H- 38 Ta. 1. Ocnoset auneiinod reopuu neesoaaextpurectea 3aecb Mbl HMeeM 3 He3aBHCHMBIX KOSpPHUMEHTA Cijx1, 1 KOSd- (puLveNT gi; H 1 KOSpPUNMeHT 9;;. Peeyaspxaa cuctema kaacca 432, Koropad OOManqaeT npusHa- KaMH TeTParoHaJbHOl CHCTeMBI Kacca 422 M MMeeT YeTEIPe OCH TP€XKPaTHOTO NOBOpOTA, pacioNO%RKeHHble Kak LHaTOHaJH B Kye, Ne nponBAAeT NoesoaneKTpureckoeo adqexta. Haxonell, peey- AnpHan cuctema 43m cBOMMTCH K TeM Ke MaTpHlaM Koapdu- WHeHTOB, YTO HM peryAApHasn cucTema kulacca 23. Tlepexoaum Kk 2excazonaaoHolm CUCTeMaM, B KOTOPHIX UMeeTCA UWIeCTHKpaTHaA OCb MOBOpOTa HIM HHBepcHH. CHatasa 3aiiMeMca rekcaroHaJbHOll cHcTemol Kacca 6, B KOTOpOH mecTHKpaTHaAd Ocb Mapansenbua ocn x3. Huxke mpeAcTaBAeHb] MATPHIbI ee Ma- TepHabHbIX KOIPDUUHCHTOB: Ox411 C1122 Cix33. 0 0 0 0 0 esis y111 Criss 0 0 0 0 0 es 3333 0 0 0 0 0 e333 (28) 2328 (0 0 , @%23 ear 0 , €2323 9 @31 —C123 0 1 Cu ~ C1122) 0 0 0 = ay, 0 0 1 0 |. 233, B sTux MaTpuuax uMeetca 11 He3aBHCHMBIX MOCTOAHHEIX? 5 MOCTOAHABIX Cijp, 4 MOCTOAHHBIC &g;; H 2 MOCTOAHHBIE 3;;. Texcaronanbuaa cuctema Kaacca 6 (ulecTuKpaTHaa ocb ma- PasletIbHa OCH x3) COMep2%KHT TpexKpaTHy!0 OCb HM MIpHsHaKu, XapaKTepH3yIOWHe MONOKAUHHYIO CucTemy KNacca m c WI0- CKOCTbIO CHMMETPHH 1X2. Jeno cBOANTCA K Clesylomel MaTpuue BeHYHH g/t C111 —€222 0 erat €222 0 0 0 0 (9) 0 0 of 0 0 0 C242 “e111 0 OctanbHble MaTpHUbl BEAHYMH Cijz2 H 94; OCTAIOTCA 6e3 HBsMeHes Hux (opMyvbI (28);, 3). i Tekcaeonanonaa cuctema kaacca 622 umeet wecTHKpaTuyi0) Ocb NoBopota (iapamnenbHy!0 OCH x3) H epTE pomOnuecKoh cucTeMbl Kiacca 222, YueT sTHX MPHSHAKOB MpMBOAMT K Cie 1.10. Marepuaacnsie nocronunoie TeOpuu nbesoaneKTpurecTea 39 AY!OWUM MaTpHlaM MaTepHadbHEIX KoSp@uuMeHTOB: Ctitt Cy122 C133 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cr1a1 Crr33 0 0 0 0 0 0 3333 0 0 0 0 0 0 (30) 2323 0 0 , 123 00 C2323 0 0 ~-e;53 0 1 Hy Crs11 ~ C1422) 0 0 0 a1 0 0 ay, 0 933, 3iecb HMeem 8 He3aBHCHMBIX koaduynentos: 5 Koapunnentos Cijet, 1 Koahhuunent epi; u 2 Kospunveura 9;;. Texcazonanonaa cucrema xaacca 6mm wMeet mecTuKpaTHy1o OCb MOBOPOTA, NapatenbHy!o OCH xs, M MpHsHaKH, XapakTepHBIe AIA PoMOwyecKoH cucTembI KNacca mm2. TMocae cokpaleHua koabpuuwenTos uMeeM MaTpHun (30), a (30)3. Oramunoli aB- AACTCH IML MaTpula KOspHUHeHTOB epi): 0 0 ess; 0 0 esr, 0 Oe (31) 333 9 es, 0 | {31 0 O 0 0 0 Texcazonanenaa cuctema xaacca 6m2 OObeaHHAeT B ce6e e€pTbl TekCarOHaIbHOW CHCTeMEI Kacca 6 u MOHOKJIHHHON cu- cTrembl Klacca 2 c JByKpaTHO ocbIO CHMMCTDPHH, Napanenbuoh ocH Xa. Coxpauenie Koaddunuentos IpHBOAHT K MaTpuuaM (30) 4 (30)3, Ho ¢ apyrum Bugom Mbe3OS/IEKTPHYECKUX KOad- (pullHeHTos: e222 0 €222 0 0 0 0 0 (32) cooocoo coco * 222 Paccmotpum elle TPHrOHaJIbHy10 CucTeMy, KOTUpaad uMmeerT OMY OCb TpexkpaTuoro MOBOpOoTa HH HHBepcHH. Tpueonanenxan 56 Ta. 1, Ochoeot aunedinoil reopuu nvesoaaexrpurecrea OrnpaBHbIM MYHKTOM paccCMOTpeHHA NOCyAKUT NPHHWHN BAp- TyabuBIx padot Jlarpanxa (1) { (Xi — pai) bu, do + \ pidu;da= \ oy; dey, dv. B OB B Stor MpHHuN Tpe6yeT paBeHCTBa BUPTYabHBIX paGOT BHEMIHHX W BHYTpeHHAX cus. [IpuMeM, YTO BUPTYabHbIe Mpupamenun Su; coBmaaioT C MelCTBUTebHO BOSHHKAIOWHMH MpHpaleHHamy; Ce LOBAaTeJIbHO, Ou; de; . bu, =p dt = 0, dl, bei) =—5zt dt = by dt. Ypapuenne (1) B 9TOM Cily4uae NpHHHMaeT BUA (2) \ (Xi — pd,;) 0, do + \ piv; da= { O84; dd. B oB B Tloncrapuiaa B (2) onpezenmouiee cooTHOUeHHe (3) Oyj = Cizet®et — CnizEe — Vis fipHBeyeM ero K BUY d * (4) at (4+ w)—\ X,v;, do \ piv; da {v8 beg ijE p21) a0, B 6B B rae # —kuneruyeckan sneprua, #7’ —pa6ota rzeopmauni: 1 KH =f \ 0,0,d0, P=> \ Cippi€ijeet AV. B B UroObl HcKOUNTD W3 ypaBHeHHa (4) Wien \, yijeijf9 dv, pac- CMOTPHM ypaBHeHHe TenJONpOBOAHOCTH (5) h,8, ij — c.0 —_ To (vizeiz + Subs) =—VW. Tlomuoxum 9To ypaBHeHve Ha 6 H MponHTerpupyem No o6macTH tena. Ilocne npoctTblx npeo6pas0BaHH noyyuM . k . (6) | vués0 do =e \ 00, ; muda — gy | 0B, dv 4 B OB B ag +\ Wede—F—%, B ce. 2, Ri; rae P= af | Ode, t= 718.185 de 1.13. [Tpunyun eupryarsnex pabor 57 Hloacrasasna (6) B (4), MpHXOAMM K ypaBHeHHIO ) LFF) +re=\Xwido+t | peda + B aB iy d by — gebix0) d + \ WO do + > \ 00, 2 da + \ (e4iE x iy — BeE 28) 40. B OB B Uro6bl UCKIOUNTb YWICHDI Cpiz \, é,,E, dv u3 mocaeaHero MHTerpa- via ypapuenua (7), HcTONDsyeM oMpenenatoMMe COOTHOMCHAA (8) De = Cnij®ty + 829 + 347Er- Torga nolyyHM 3 : dé d @) § (erst — gob) do= — Gp — ae (@ { 218 a) _ B B = { DzQ, , 22, B re BBeeHa 9Heprua ; & =F diy { EE; dv. a B Yuurnpas (9) Ww Henombsya paBencTBo Di, i = 0, mpHxoqum K clenylouieMy MOLMpUUAPOBAHHOMY YPaBHeHHIo Oananca 9Hep- THE: (10) Gr (BAW + E+ H+ as | Eide) + 10 B k; =| Xd0+ \ piwida +z { 60, jn; da — B OB OB _— { Dywnwqda+ \ We dv. OB B YpapHenve sHepreTHuecKoro 6aauca B Bude (10) nosBouHT HaM TlOKa3aTb CAHHCTBEHHOCTh pellenna AudepentmabHbIx ypaBHeHHii TeOpHH Mbes0seKTpHucCTBA. TIpeanoaoxuM, Kak A B § 1.6, TO MBI HMeeM eno C UBYMA PasJIHUHbIMH pelleHHAMH (uw, 9, 8) a (uf, @”, 8”), yaoBmeTBopmoNLUMH HeOmNOpOAHOH cucreme QubdepenunaMbHbIX ypaBHeHM TeOpuH MbesoI/1eKTPH- yectBa. O6pa3syeM pasHOCTh 3THX pelleHHH d,=u,—u7, O= = —9”, b=0 — ut. a Pemenua c «KpbileuKaMH» YOBJeTBOPAWWT OJHOPOHBIM ypaBHeHHAM TCOPHH MbesosseKTPH4eCTBA H OAHOPORHEIM Kpae- BLIM H HavabubiM ycOBHaM. BBHAy OMHOpOAHOCTH ypaBHenuit 538 Ta. 1. Ockoset aunetinod reopuu nvesoaaexrpuuecrea H KpaeBbIX YC/IOBHHi paBHa HYyvII0 NpaBad 4acTb paBeuctBa (10). Ocraetca HepaBeHcTBO (11) a (%+ P+ P+ + as\ Bibdo) — — p< 0. B Ucnonpsyem 3qecb TOT PakT, YTO NOALIHTerpasbHoe BEpaxkenue yHKUMM DMCCHMAaNAH SHEPrHu fp eCTb MOJO*KUTeEMbHO oMpese- weHHad KBawpaTuunaa dopma. Vurerpas, Bxogauuii B neByio uaCTb H€paBeHCTBA, B HaYaJIbHLI MOMCHT BPeMeHHM paBeHn Hy, MOCKOIbKy yHKunH ti, 9;, 8;;, 0 yAOBNeTBOpAIOT OAHOPOAHEIM HavaNbHEIM ycloBHaM. C Apyrof cropouti, HepaBenctBo (11) MOKA3bIBaeT, YTO MeBad YaCTb HepaBeHCTBa M60 npHHuMaeT OTpuaTerbHoe 3HayeHHe, 1H60 paBHa Hys0. U3 npupesennnx BOSMOXKHOCTeH CipaBeAHBO BTOPOe, ECM BEIPAKeHHE ECTb CyM- Ma kBafpatos. IIpuHumaem, cueqoBaTenbHo, (12) #H=0, #=0, P+ E+ @,\ Bbdo>0. B V3 stux cooTHouennit noyuaem (13) 0:=0, @;=0, 6-=0, E,=0. K stTomy creqyeT o6aBuTb COOTHOWMeHHA Mexy NOCTOAHHEIMH Ce, Gi, 9ij, YYNTHIBad HepaBeHcTBO (12)3. IIpeqnonoxmum, uTO 91; — 3aanubIi CHMMeTpHYHI TeH30p, MOMOKUTeENLHO onpe- AeneHHbI, g;— HeKOTOPHI BeEKTOP H ¢ = C,/2T) > 0. Pacecmor- puM dyHKuHI0 A(8, E,) = cB + 2¢,E0 + 9,,E;E;. @ynxuua A neorpunatenbua (A> 0) aaa m060% Mapbl 3Ha4e- Hu (0, £;), ecau |gil?< chm, THe Am— HaWMeHbIee momOKH- TeIbHOe COOCTBeEHHOe 3HaYeHHe TeH30pa 9;;. STO ocTaTouHoe yenopue npeqoxnn Mruayak [21]. M3 ypapuenuit (13) cnegyer equncrBennocth pemennit nud- epeHumaibHbIX ypaBHeHHH TeOpHH MbesoaneKTpHyuectBa (14) uu", =", O=0", ELEY. Kpome Toro, 43 onpefeamouyux cooTHomenni noyyaem (15) o,= of Di=Di, S’=8". Ecam wa rpanuue Tela 3afanbi warpysKu, TO u;=4" + u9+ +,,,x,Q,. Tlocaequwe apa wena mpeactasnator nepemenye- HHe€ H NOBOPOT Tela KaK XKeCTKOFO Weoro; OHH PaBHbI HyJIIO, Korda Ha rpanulle 3afanbl MepeMelleHHaA, 1.14. TIpunyun Tamuastoua 6 reopuu TrepmonvesosreKtTpuuectead 59 1.14, NPMHLUMN TAMMSIbTOHA B TEOPMM TEPMOMbE3SO3JIEKTPUYECTBA PaccmorpuM apa pyHKuMoHasa: QM f art st — Xu) do+ | (pas — 09) da, B "OB (2) y= \ (f —STt—Wr)do + \ TQin; da. B OB 3necb H —anextpwueckaa ouTanpnua, S—9suTponHs, @ — 91eK- TpHueckHit NOTeHWHAN, 6 — WICKTPHYCCKHH 3apaAn Ha OB, T— noreHivaa mpuToka Tena, W— HHTeHCHBHOCTb UCTOYHHKa renga (3) P= Yok il. G2 = O/T, - = — Rail p gi—BekTOp Mputoka Tena u Q;—3aqannbiit MpHTOK Tela Ha OB. Obobwenuw Ha cnyvali MbesooveKTpHyectBa npununn Ta- MHJIbTOHA IIpHMeM B BH te te (4) 8 | “mat, 6 | wat=0. t th Bappupylores repeMenlenHAa wi, SleKTpHYeCKH noTeHuMal @ u Temnepatypa 0. Honaraem, ¥TO AOMOAHUTENDHO AOUKHBI 6bITb BEIMOJIHeHBI YCJOBHA (5) 6a, (x, f) = 6; (x, f) = 0, 68 (x, ty) = 60(x, t)) = 0. BpmmonuuM 9TO BapbHpoBaHve B BbIpaxenun (4). Ucnoup3ya onpesemiollue COOTHOMeHHA (2), (3) 3 § 1.11 4 Bapnaumo oH oH OH 3p = 64 be, —SOT —Di8En oH =F bey + Gr OT + OE, bE, = 04 084, 1E; MpvXO2uM K ypaBHeHHio t h 0 Hat —\ at (04 ey —S OF —D, SE, + SOF — Xj bu) do — ‘B th ty te — \ a \ (p; Su; — od) da =0. f OB YuuTbIBasn, YTO dH = —p \ i uj do, E;x=—-Qu 8 74 Ta. 1, Ochoeet auxednoit Teopuu noesoanexTpusecTea BuipasuM yHKuUHH ue, (%# = 1,2), us=0 Yepes Tpu pynkunn yi (i= 1, 2,3) caexyioujum o6pasom: % Ly Lis Ly m1 Lis Ly Ly % (9) w=] Xo Loe Log}, Uo==|Lor Xo Los), us==|Lo Lo xe]. Xa Le. Lag Ls; 3 Lag La La Xe OyHKUMH Y, NOMKHDI YAOBNETBOPATb ypaBHeHHIO Ly Lig Lis (10) Loy Log Log |Xi = —53W, i=1, 2, 3, Ly, La: Lag HJ (11) CxyCap (2,08 A408 — €,0,) (1208 + 08) (139 + 08) 4, =~ Wy rae ot Vo? —1, o>, (12) Whaat) o=h {Vman VV : 3 Si aft o