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<<< eq/AL90P2_1a

1 (a) Consider the following equilibrium at constant pressure:

A2(g) + 3B2(g) 2AB3(g)
A mixture of 4.0 mol of A2(g) and 12.0 mol of B2 (g) was placed in a vessel of volume 20.0
dm3, and heated to 565 K. When the system had reached equilibrium, it was found that 4.0
mol of AB3(g) was present.
(i) Calculate the concentration of each species of equilibrium.
(ii) Calculate the equilibrium constant of this reaction at 565 K.
(iii) When the volume of the vessel was increased and the system allowed to come to a new
equilibrium at the same temperature, 9.0 mol of B2(g) was found to be present.
Calculate the new volume.
(7 marks)
<<< eq/AL90P2_2b
2. (b) Solid silver nitrate was slowly dissolved in a solution Q containing ethanedioate and
chromate(VI) ions of concentrations 2.50 x 10-2 M and 1.44 x 10-5 M respectively.
(i) When a permanent precipitate of silver ethanedioate first appeared, the concentration
of silver ions in the solution was 2.50 x 10-5 M. Calculate the solubility product of
silver ethanedioate.
(ii) The dissolving of solid silver nitrate in solution Q was continued until a permanent
red precipitate of silver chromate(VI) first appeared. Calculate the concentrations of
silver ions and ethanedioate ions in that instant. Also calculate the number of moles of
silver ethanedioate precipitated from 1.00 dm3 of the solution. [Ksp of silver
chromate(VI) is 1.2 x 10-12 mol3dm-9]
(7 marks)
<<< eq/AL92P1_4
4. The solubility of M(OH)2 in water at room temperature is about 0.02 mol dm-3. Determine the
solubility product at room temperature of the sample of pure anhydrous M(OH)2 provided.
(a) Outline the principle of the method you propose to use.
(4 marks)
(b) Briefly describe the procedure and give the apparatus and reagents that are required.
(6 marks)
<<< eq/ AL93_2c
2. (c) 1.7750 g of a chloride-containing compound R was dissolved in water. To this solution, 1.00
cm3 of 0.0010 M K2CrO4 was added and the mixture was titrated with 0.250 M silver nitrate
solution. After 46.00 cm3 of the titrant had been added, a permanent red colour appeared and
the volume of the solution at this point was exactly 250.0 cm3.
Given Ksp of AgCl = 1.5 × 10-10 mol2dm-6
Ksp of Ag2CrO4 = 9.0 × 10-12 mol3dm-9
(i) Determine the concentrations of CrO42-, Ag+ and Cl- in the solution at the end point of the
(ii) Calculate the number of moles of Ag+ added, and of AgCl precipitated.
(iii) Calculate the percentage by mass of chloride present in R.
(9 marks)
<<< eq/AL94P1_1f
1. (f) (i) Write an equation to show that HPO42-(aq) can act as a Brǿnsted base.(ii) For the following
equilibrium at 298 K, the equilibrium constant Kc = 2.84 x 10-22 (mol dm-3)5
Ag3PO4(s) + H2O(l) 3Ag+(aq) + HPO42-(aq) + OH-(aq)
Calculate the solubility, in mol dm-3, of silver phosphate(V) in 0.10 M disodium
hydrogenphosphate(V) solution at pH 10.
Given: Ionic product of water at 298 K = 1.0 × 10-14 (mol dm-3)2
(Assume the extent of dissociation of HPO42- ions at pH 10 is negligible.)
(4 marks)
<<< eq/AL94P2_1B
1. (b) A colorimetric method can be used to provide data for the determination of the equilibrium
constant of the following reaction.
Fe3+(aq) + NCS-(aq) FeNCS2+(aq)
Outline such a method for the determination of the equilibrium constant Kc of the above
(4 marks)
<<< eq/AL95P1_1e
1. (e) The reaction between ethanoic acid and ethanol can be represented by the following equation.
CH3COOH(l) + C2H5OH(l) CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)
12.01 g of ethanoic acid are treated with 4.61 g of ethanol in the presence of a catalyst. When
the reaction reaches equilibrium at 298 K, 5.04 g of ethanoic acid are found to have reacted.
(i) Name a suitable catalyst for this reaction in the forward direction.
(ii) Calculate the equilibrium constant, K c , for the reaction at 298 K.
(iii) What additional mass of ethanol would be required in order to use up a further 0.60 g of
ethanoic acid?
(iv) Would the addition of more of the same catalyst affect the value of Kc? Explain.
(7 marks)
<<< \PM\EQ AL95P1_4f
4. (f) In the volumetric determination of chloride ions with silver nitrate(V) in neutral solutions,
potassium chromate(VI) can be used as an indicator.
(i) Explain the action of the indicator
(ii) Why is this titration NOT carried out in strongly acidic or strongly basic conditions?
(3 marks)
<<< eq/AL95P2_2c
2. (c) The following reversible reaction occurs in an aqueous solution of ammonium ethanoate:
CH3COO-(aq) + NH4+(aq) CH3OOH(aq) + NH3(aq) (I)
(i) Write an expression for the dissociation constant, Ka, of ammonium ion.
(ii) Calculate the equilibrium constant of reaction(I) at 298 K.
(iii) For a 0.10 M solution of ammonium ethanoate at 298 K, calculate
(1) the concentration of ammonia, and
(2) the pH of the solution.
(At 298 K, the dissociation constants of ethanoic acid and ammonium ion are
1.76x10-5 mol dm-3 and 5.59x10-10 mol dm-3 respectively.)
(7 marks)
<<< eq/AL95P2_3b
3. (b) (i) at 298 K, the solubility product of calcium ethanedioate is 2.3x10-9 mol2dm-6. Predict, with
explanation, whether or not calcium ethanedioate will be precipitated when equal volumes
of 2.5x10-2 M calcium nitrate(V) and 4.0x10-6 M sodium ethanedioate are mixed together
at 298 K.
(ii) Explain why calcium ethanedioate is more soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid than in
(4 marks)
<<< eq/AL96P1_1f
1. (f) SO2(g) and O2(g) were mixed in the mole ratio of 3:1 at 1000 K in the presence of a catalyst.
When equilibrium was attained at 373 kPa pressure, one half of the SO2(g) had been converted
into SO3(g)
(i) Write an expression for Kp for the reaction of SO2(g) and O2(g) to SO3(g).
(ii) Calculate Kp for the above reaction under the given conditions.
(iii) If the above reaction takes place in the absence of the catalyst, but other conditions
remanin unchanged, will the value of Kp increase, decrease or remain the same?
(4 marks)
2. (a) Consider the following dissociation reaction:
PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)
At 400 K and 101 kPa pressure, the percentage dissociation of PCl5(g) is 86%.
(i) Calculate Kp for the reaction at 400 K.
(ii) State the effect of an increase in pressure.
(I) on Kp, and
(II) on the percentage dissociation of PCl5(g)
(4 marks)
<<< eq/AL97P2_8b
8.(b) The synthesis of ammonia using the Habe Process involves the following:
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) ∆ Ho = -92 kJ mol-1
(i) State the effect of a change in temperature on the reaction at equilibrium.
(ii) Name a catalyst for the process and state the effect of the catalyst on the reaction.
(iii) State how ammonia is isolated from unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen in the process.
(iv) Give TWO major uses of ammonia in industry.
(7 marks)
2. (c) At 4200K, the equilibrium constant for the following reaction is1.2x10-2.
N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g)
1.0 mol of O2(g) and 2.0 mol of N2(g) are allowed to react in a 2.0 dm3 closed container.
Calculate the concentration of N2(g), in mol dm-3, in the equilibrium mixture at 4200 K.
(3 marks)
<<< eq/AL98P2_8c>>
8. (c) The conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide in the Contact Process involves the

(i) State, with explanation, the effect of each of the following changes, on the position of the
(I) increasing the total pressre
(II) increasing the temperature
(ii) Briefly describe how sulphur trioxide is converted to sulphuric(VI) acid in this process.
(5 marks)
<<< eq/AL99P2_4a>>
4. (a) In the Haber process, ammonia is synthesized by the exothermic reaction of nitrogen and
hydrogen at around 723 K.
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
In a simulation of the process, a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen was placed in a closed
container. The initial concentration of nitrogen and hydrogen were 0.50 mol dm -3and
1.50 mol dm-3 respectively. When the equilibrium was attained at 723 K, 25.0% of the
original nitrogen was consumed.
(i) Calculate the respective concentrations of nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia in the
equilibrium mixture.
(ii) Calculate Kc for the reaction at 723 K.
(iii) (I) State, with explanation, the effect of temperature on Kc for the reaction.
(II) Explain why the Haber process is not operated at temperatures much higher or
much lower than 723 K
(8 marks)
<<< eq/AL00P1_2c>>
2. (c) Cerium(III) iodate(V), Ce(IO3)3, is a sparingly soluble ionic compound.
(i) Explain why in a solution saturated with cerium(III) iodate(V), the ionic product, [Ce3+
(aq)][IO3-(aq)]3 is a constant at a given temperature.
(ii) At 298 K, the solubility of cerium(III) iodate(V) in water is 1.87× 10-3 mol dm-3. For a
saturated solution of cerium(III) iodate(V), calculate the ionic product [Ce3+(aq)][IO3-
(aq)]3 at 298 K.
(4 marks)
<<< eq/AL01P1_3a>>
3. (a) In an enclosed reaction vessel at 1100 K and in the presence of a catalyst, an initial 1:1 mole
ratio mixture of SO2(g) and O2(g) was allowed to attain equilibrium:
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
(i) At 1100 K, Kp of the reaction is 0.13 atm-1. Calculate the total pressre of the reaction
mixture if the conversion of SO2(g) to SO3(g) is 20%.
(ii) At 700 K and under the same total pressure, Kp of the reaction is 3.0x104 atm-1. Calculate
the enthalpy change for the conversion of SO2(g) to SO3(g).
(You may assume that ln Kp = contstant - .)
(iii) State, with explanation, the effect of each of the following changes on the position of the
above equilibrium.
(I) Reducing the volume of the reaction vessel.
(II) Injecting helium gas while keeping the volume of the reaction vessel unchanged.
(7 marks)
2. (a) A closed sytem consisting of a mixture of N2O4(g) and NO2(g) is allowed to attain
equilibrium at 350 K and 700 kPa. The mixture hs a light brown colour.
N2O4(g) NO2(g)
pale yellow brown
(i) The mixture is known to contain 46 mol % of N2O4(g). Calculate Kp for the
dissociation of N2O4(g) at 350 K and 700 kPa.
(ii) Describe the colour change of the mixture when its temperature is increased under the
same pressure. Explain your answer.
(4 marks)
<<< eq/AL02P2_3c>>
3. (c) At 298 K, the equilibrium constant, Kc, for reactions (1) and (2) below are 1.8× 107 mol-2
dm6 and 2.0× 10-10 mol-2 dm-6 respectively.
Ag+(aq) + 2NH3(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) (1)
+ -
AgCl(s) Ag (aq) + Cl (aq) (2)
(i) For each of the reactions (1) and (2), write an expression for its Kc.
(ii) Calculate the Kc at 298 K for the following reaction:
AgCl(s) + 2NH3(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
(iii) Using your result in (ii), calculate the solubility, in mol dm-3, of AgCl(s) in 0.10 M
NH3(aq) at 298 K.
(7 marks)