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ENGINEERING

MATHEMATICS III
DOUBLE INTEGRALS OVER RECTANGULAR AND NON-RECTANGULAR REGIONS

Mohsen Aghaeiboorkheili
Department of Mathematics & Computer Science
The Papua New Guinea University of Technology

March 03, 2020


Double Integrals

In calculus of a single variable the definite integral


Z b
f (x)dx
a

for f (x) ≥ 0 is the area under the curve f (x) from x = a to x = b.


For general f (x) the definite integral is equal to the area above the
x-axis minus the area below the x-axis. The definite integral can be
extended to functions of more than one variable.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 2/56
Double Integrals

Consider a function of 2 variables z = f (x, y). The definite integral is denoted by

Z Z
f (x, y)dA,
R

where R is the region of integration in the xy-plane. For positive f (x, y), the definite integral is equal to the
volume under the surface z = f (x, y) and above xy − plane for x and y in the region R. This is shown in the
figure below.

For general f (x, y), the definite integral is equal to the volume above the xy-plane minus the volume below the
xy-plane.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 3/56
Double Integrals Application

Double integrals arise in a number of areas of science and engineer-


ing, including computations of
Area of a 2D region,

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 4/56
Double Integrals Application

Double integrals arise in a number of areas of science and engineer-


ing, including computations of
Area of a 2D region,
Volume,

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 4/56
Double Integrals Application

Double integrals arise in a number of areas of science and engineer-


ing, including computations of
Area of a 2D region,
Volume,
Mass of 2D plates,

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 4/56
Double Integrals Application

Double integrals arise in a number of areas of science and engineer-


ing, including computations of
Area of a 2D region,
Volume,
Mass of 2D plates,
Force on a 2D plate,

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 4/56
Double Integrals Application

Double integrals arise in a number of areas of science and engineer-


ing, including computations of
Area of a 2D region,
Volume,
Mass of 2D plates,
Force on a 2D plate,
Average of a function,

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 4/56
Double Integrals Application

Double integrals arise in a number of areas of science and engineer-


ing, including computations of
Area of a 2D region,
Volume,
Mass of 2D plates,
Force on a 2D plate,
Average of a function,
Center of Mass and Moment of Inertia,

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 4/56
Double Integrals Application

Double integrals arise in a number of areas of science and engineer-


ing, including computations of
Area of a 2D region,
Volume,
Mass of 2D plates,
Force on a 2D plate,
Average of a function,
Center of Mass and Moment of Inertia,
Surface Area.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 4/56
Double Integrals Riemann Sums

As in the case of an integral of a function of one variable, a double


integral is defined as a limit of a Riemann sum. Suppose we sub-
divide the region R into sub-rectangles as in the figure below (say
there are M rectangles in the x direction and N rectangles in the y
direction).

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 5/56
Double Integrals Riemann Sums

Label the rectangles Rij where 1 ≤ i ≤ M and 1 ≤ j ≤ N . Think


of the definite integral as representing volume. The volume under
the surface above rectangle Rij is approximately f (xi , yj )Aij , where
Aij is area of the rectangle and f (xi , yj ) is the approximate height
of the surface in the rectangle. Here (xi , yj ) is some point in the
rectangle Rij . If we sum over all rectangles we have
Z Z M X
X N
f (x, y)dA ≈ f (xi , yj )Aij .
R i=1 j=1

In the limit as the size of the rectangles goes to 0, the sum on the right
converges to a value which is the definite integral. The quantity f (x, y)dA
in the definite integral represents the volume in some infinitesimal region
around the point (x, y). The region is so small that the f (x, y) only varies
infinitesimally in the region. The double integral sign says: add up volumes
in all the small regions in R.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 6/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions

Suppose that f(x,y) is continuous on a rectangular region in the xy plane as shown


above. The double integral Z Z
f (x, y)dA,
R

represents the volume under the surface. We can compute the volume by slicing the
three-dimensional region like a loaf of bread. Suppose the slices are parallel to the
y-axis. An example of slice between x and x + dx is shown in the figure.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 7/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions

In the limit of infinitesimal thickness dx, the volume of the slice is the
product of the cross-sectional area and the thickness dx. The cross sec-
tional area is the area under the curve f (x, y) for fixed x and y varying
between c and d. (Note that if the thickness dx is infinitesimal, x varies
only infinitesimally on the slice. We can assume that x is constant.) The
picture below shows the cross-sectional area.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 8/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions

The area is given by the integral


Z d
C(x) = f (x, y)dy
c

The variable of integration is y and x is a CONSTANT. The cross-


sectional area depends on x and this is why we write C = C(x).
The volume of the slice between x and x + dx is C(x)dx. The total
volume is the sum of the volumes of all the slices between x = a
and x = b: Z b
V = C(x)dx
a
If substitute for C(x), we obtain:
Z "Z b d
# Z bZ d
V = f (x, y)dy dx = f (x, y)dy dx
a c a c

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 9/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions

This is an example of an iterated integral. One integrates with


respect to y first, then x. The integrals with respect to y and x
are called the inner and outer integrals, respectively. Alternatively,
one can make slices that are parallel to the x-axis. In this case the
volume is given by
Z "Z d b
# Z Z d b
V = f (x, y)dx dy = f (x, y)dx dy
c a c a

The inner integral corresponds to the cross-sectional area of a slice


between y and y +dy. The quantities f (x, y)dy dx and f (x, y)dx dy
represent the value of the double integral in the infinitesimal rect-
angle between x and x + dx and y and y + dy. The length and
width of the rectangle are dx and dy, respectively. Hence dy dx(or
dx dy) is the area of the rectangle. We can make the connection
dA = dy dx(or dA = dx dy).
Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 10/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Example
Calculate the volume under the surface z = x2 + xy 3 over the
region R defined by 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 1 ≤ y ≤ 2.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 11/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Example
Calculate the volume under the surface z = x2 + xy 3 over the
region R defined by 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 1 ≤ y ≤ 2.

Solution
Suppose we integrate with respect to y first. Then
Z 1Z 2 Z 1
2 3

V = x + xy dy dx = C(x)dx (1)
0 1 0

The inner integral is(Note that we treat x as a constant as we


integrate with respect to y)
Z 2
x2 + xy 3 dy

C(x) =
1

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 11/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Z 2 Z 2
2
C(x) = x dy + xy 3 dy
1 1
Z 2 Z 2
=x2 dy + x y 3 dy
1 1
y=2
1
=x2 y + xy 4

4 y=1
1
=(2x2 + 4x) − (x2 + x) .
4
So
15
C(x) = x2 + x. (2)
4

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 12/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Replacing equation (2) into the equation (1)
Z 1
15
V = (x2 +
x)dx
0 4
Z 1 Z 1 Z 1
15 1
Z
2 15 2
= x dx + xdx = x dx + xdx
0 0 4 0 4 0
1 3 15 2 x=1

= x + x
3 8 x=0

that means
53
V = .
24

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 13/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Suppose we integrate with respect to x now. Then
Z 2Z 1 Z 2
x2 + xy 3 dx dy =

V = G(y)dy (3)
1 0 1

The inner integral is(Note that we treat y as a constant as we integrate


with respect to x)
Z 1
x2 + xy 3 dx

G(y) =
0

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 14/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Z 1 Z 1
2
G(y) = x dx + xy 3 dx
0 0
Z 1 Z 1
= x2 dx + y 3 xdx
0 0
1 3 1 2 3 x=1

= x + x y
3 2 x=0
1 1 3
=( + y ) − (0 + 0) .
3 2
So
1 1
G(y) = y 3 + . (4)
2 3

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 15/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Replacing equation (4) into the equation (3)
Z 2
1 1
V = ( y 3 + )dy
1 2 3
1 2 3 1 2
Z Z
= y dy + dy
2 1 3 1
y=2
1 1
= y 4 + y
8 3 y=1
2 1 1
=(2 + ) − ( + )
3 8 3
that means
53
V =
24
The two approaches yield the same answer. 

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 16/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

In applications, integrals like the one above arise in computations of

Area: if f (x, y) = 1, then the double integrals gives the area


of region R.
Volume : the integral is equal to volume under the surface
z = f (x, y) above the region R.
Mass: if R is a plate and f (x, y) is density per unit area of
the plate, then the integral is equal to the mass of the plate.
Force: if f (x, y) is the force per unit area on the plate in the
downward direction, then integral is the total force on the
plate.
Average: the integral divided by the area of the region R is
the the average of the function f (x, y) on R.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 17/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Example
Compute the integral
ZZ
xy 2 dA
R

where R is the rectangle defined by 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1


pictured below.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 18/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution
Suppose we integrate with respect to y first. Then
Z 2Z 1 Z 2
2
xy dy dx = C(x)dx (5)
0 0 0

The inner integral is(Note that we treat x as a constant as we


integrate with respect to y)
1 1
1 3 y=1
Z Z
2 2
C(x) = xy dy = x y dy = xy
0 0 3 y=0
1
= x−0
3
So
1
C(x) = x. (6)
3
Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 19/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Replacing equation (6) into the equation (5)
Z 2Z 1 Z 2
1
xy 2 dy dx = xdx
0 0 0 3
Z 2
1
= xdx
3 0
1 2 x=2

= x
6 x=0
4
= −0
6
that means Z 2Z 1
2
xy 2 dy dx = .
0 0 3
Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 20/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Suppose we integrate with respect to x now. Then
Z 1Z 2 Z 1
2
xy dx dy = G(y)dy (7)
0 0 0

The inner integral is(Note that we treat x as a constant as we


integrate with respect to y)
2 2
1 2 2 x=2
Z Z
2 2
G(y) = xy dx = y xdx = x y
0 0 2 x=0
2
=2y − 0

So
G(y) = 2y 2 . (8)

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 21/56
Double Integrals D.integrals over rec.regions Example of D.integrals RR

Solution ( Cont.)
Replacing equation (8) into the equation (7)
Z 1 Z 2 Z 1
xy 2 dx dy = 2y 2 dy
0 0 0
Z 1
=2 y 2 dy
0
y=1
2 3
= y
3 y=0
2
= −0
3
that means Z 1 Z 2
2
xy 2 dx dy = .
0 0 3
The two approaches yield the same answer. 
Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 22/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions

In this section we consider double integrals over more general regions. Suppose that the
region R is defined by C1 (x) ≤ y ≤ C2 (x) with a ≤ x ≤ b. This is called a vertically
simple region. The double integral is given by
Z Z Z b Z C2 (x)
f (x, y)dA = f (x, y)dy dx
R a C1 (x)

To derive this formula we slice the three-dimensional region into slices parallel to the
y-axis. The figure below shows a top view of slice between x and x + dx.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 23/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions

The inner integral


Z C2 (x)
C(x) = f (x, y)dy
C1 (x)

is the cross-sectional area of the slice between x and x + dx. The


volume of the slice between x and x + dx is C(x)dx. The total
volume is the sum of the volumes of all the slices:
Z b
C(x)dx.
a

If R is the horizontally simple region - that is, if the region is defined


by c ≤ y ≤ d and G1 (y) ≤ x ≤ G2 (y), then

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 24/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions

Z Z Z d Z G2 (y)
f (x, y)dA = f (x, y)dx dy.
R c G1 (y)

In this case the slices are parallel to the x-axis. The inner integral
Z G2 (y)
G(y) = f (x, y)dx
G1 (y)

is the cross-sectional area of the slice between y and y + dy. The volume
of the slice between y and y + dy is G(y)dy. The total volume is the sum
of the volumes of all the slices:
Z d
G(y)dy.
c

In some cases a region may be neither vertically nor horizontally simple.


However, in general, a region can be split up into vertically and horizontally
simple regions.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 25/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Compute the double integral Z Z
30xydA,
R

where R is bounded by y = x and y = x2 . See figure below.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 26/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution
We treat the region R as a vertically simple region, first. In this
case the integral is given by
Z Z Z 1Z x
30xydA = 30xydy dx,
R 0 x2

The inner integral is (remember x is a constant)


Z x Z x y=x
2
= 15x3 − 15x5 .

30xydy = 30x ydy = 15xy
x2 x2 y=x2

So the outer integral is


Z 1 Z 1 Z 1
3 5 3 15 15 5
(15x − 15x )dx = 15 x dx − 15 x5 dx = − =
0 0 0 4 6 4

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 27/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
We treat the region R as a horizontally simple region, now. In this case the integral is
given by
Z Z Z 1 Z √y
30xydA = 30xydx dy,
R 0 y

The inner integral is (remember y is a constant)

Z √
y Z √
y
x= √y
2
= 15y 2 − 15y 3 .

30xydx = 30y xdx = 15x y
y y x=y

So the outer integral is


Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 15 15 5
(15y 2 − 15y 3 )dy = 15 y 2 dy − 15 y 3 dy = − =
0 0 0 3 4 4

The two approaches yield the same answer. 

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 28/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Compute the integral
ZZ
xy 2 dA
R

where R is the triangle defined by 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and 0 ≤ y ≤ x/2,


pictured below.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 29/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution
We treat the region R as a vertically simple region, first. In this
case the integral is given by
Z Z Z 2 Z x/2
2
xy dA = xy 2 dy dx,
R 0 0

The inner integral is (remember x is a constant)


x/2 x/2
1 3 y=x/2
Z Z
2 2 1
xy dy = x y dy = xy = x4 .
0 0 3 y=0 24

So the outer integral is


2 2
1 5 x=2
Z Z
1 4 1 4 4
x dx = x dx = x = .
0 24 24 0 120 x=0 15
Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 30/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
We treat the region R as a horizontally simple region, now. In this case the integral is
given by Z Z Z 1Z 2
xy 2 dA = xy 2 dx dy,
R 0 2y

The inner integral is (remember y is a constant)

2 2 1 2 2 x=2
Z Z
xy 2 dx = y 2 xdx = x y = 2y 2 − 2y 4 .
2y 2y 2 x=2y

So the outer integral is


Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 2 2 4
(2y 2 − 2y 4 )dy = 2 y 2 dy − 2 y 4 dy = − = .
0 0 0 3 5 15

The two approaches yield the same answer. 

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 31/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Calculate the volume under the surface z = 3 + x2 − 2y over the
region R defined by 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and −x ≤ y ≤ x.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 32/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution
The volume V is the double integral of 3 + x2 − 2y over R.
ZZ Z 1Z x
2
V = (3 + x − 2y)dx dy = (3 + x2 − 2y)dy dx
R 0 −x

The inner integral is (remember x is a constant)


Z x Z x Z x Z x
2 2
(3 + x − 2y)dy =3 dy + x dy − 2 ydy =
−x −x −x −x
y=x
2 2

=3y + x y − y
y=−x
3
=6x + 2x

So the outer integral is

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 33/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
1
1 4 x=1 3
Z
3 2
V = (6x + 2x )dx = 3x + x = .
0 2 x=0 2


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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
1
1 4 x=1 3
Z
3 2
V = (6x + 2x )dx = 3x + x = .
0 2 x=0 2


Remark
Volume between two surfaces f (x, y) and g(x, y) can be find by
ZZ h i
V = f (x, y) − g(x, y) dA
R

where R is the obtained region by solving

f (x, y) − g(x, y) = 0.
Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 34/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Calculate the volume between the surfaces

f (x, y) = 3 − x2 − y 2

and the surface


g(x, y) = 2x2 + 2y 2 .

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 35/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Calculate the volume between the surfaces

f (x, y) = 3 − x2 − y 2

and the surface


g(x, y) = 2x2 + 2y 2 .
Solution
ZZ h i
V = f (x, y) − g(x, y) dA
Z ZR h i
= (3 − x2 − y 2 ) − (2x2 + 2y 2 ) dA
Z ZR h i
= 3 − 3x2 − 3y 2 dA
R
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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
where R is the obtained region by solving

f (x, y) − g(x, y) = 0 =⇒ x2 + y 2 = 1.

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
Please remember that in polar coordinates

Z Z Z Z !
f (x, y)dx dy = rf r cos(θ), r sin(θ) dr dθ.
R R∗

FIRST SOLUTION:
By these definitions, region R can be stated in the following form
q q
−1 ≤ x ≤ 1, − 1 − (x2 ) ≤ y ≤ 1 − (x2 ).

So
Z 1 Z √1−x2 h i
V = √ 3 − 3x2 − 3y 2 dy dx.
−1 − 1−x2

Using polar coordinate for this integral, we have


ZZ Z 2π Z 1
V = (3 − 3x2 − 3y 2 )dx dy = (3 − 3r2 )r dr dθ.
R 0 0

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
The inner integral is (remember θ is a constant)
Z 1 Z 1
(3 − 3r2 )r dr = (3r − 3r3 )dr
0 0
1 1
3 2 3 4 r=1
Z Z
3
= 3rdr − 3r dr = r − r
0 0 2 4 r=0
3 3 3
= − = .
2 4 4
So the outer integral is
Z 2π Z 2π
3 3 3π
V = dθ = dθ = .
0 4 4 0 2

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
SECOND SOLUTION:
By these definitions, region R can be stated in the following form
p p
−1 ≤ x ≤ 1, − 1 − (x2 ) ≤ y ≤ 1 − (x2 ).

So √
Z 1 Z 1−x2 h i
V = √ 3 − 3x2 − 3y 2 dy dx.
−1 − 1−x2

The inner integral is (remember x is a constant)


Z 1−x2 h i
2 2
Inner = √ 3 − 3x − 3y dy
− 1−x2

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)

Z 1−x2 h i
Inner = √ 3 − 3x2 − 3y 2 dy
− 1−x2
Z √1−x2 Z √
1−x2 Z √
1−x2
2
=3 √ dy − 3x √ dy − 3 √ y 2 dy
− 1−x2 − 1−x2 − 1−x2
y=√1−x2
=3y − 3x2 y − y 3


y=− 1−x2
p p 3/2
=6 1 − x2 − 6x2 1 − x2 − 2 1 − x2

So the outer integral is

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
Z 1 h p p 3/2 i
V = 6 1 − x2 − 6x2 1 − x2 − 2 1 − x2 dx
−1
Z 1 p Z 1 p Z 1 3/2
=6 1 − x2 dx − 6 (x2 1 − x2 )dx − 2 1 − x2 dx.
−1 −1 −1

We’ll have to do a trigonometric substitution x = sin θ as well as other


trigonometric identities to evaluate the integral. With this trigonometric
substitution, the range of θ is −π/2 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 so that x = sin θ ranges
from −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. Rather than explain every step, we’ll just show some
of the intermediate calculations. You won’t want to try to follow this
anyway unless you are already skilled at integration. Here’s the
calculation:

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
Z π/2 p p
V = (6 1 − sin2 θ − 6 sin2 θ 1 − sin2 θ − 2(1 − sin2 θ)3/2 ) cos θdθ
−π/2
Z π/2
= (6 cos θ − 6 sin2 θ cos θ − 2 cos3 θ) cos θdθ
−π/2
Z π/2 Z π/2 
3 1

= 4 cos4 θdθ = + 2 cos 2θ + cos 4θ dθ
−π/2 −π/2 2 2
 π/2
3 1 3π
= θ + sin 2θ + sin 4θ = .
2 8 −π/2 2

The two approaches yield the same answer. 

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Remark
Area between two curves(or one curve and one line) can be find by
ZZ
V = dA
R

where R is the area between two curves.

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Remark
Area between two curves(or one curve and one line) can be find by
ZZ
V = dA
R

where R is the area between two curves.

Remark
Sometimes you need to change the order of integration to get a
tractable integral.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 43/56
Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Find area of region bounded by parabola x = y 2 and the line
y = x. The region is pictured below.

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution
We’ll let y go from 0 to 1. Then x goes from y 2 to y. The area is
Z 1Z y
Area = dx dy.
0 y2

The inner integral is (remember y is a constant)


Z y
dx = y − y 2 ,
y2

So the outer integral is


1 y=1
y2 y3
Z 
1 1 1
Area = (y − y 2 )dy = − = − =
0 2 3 y=0 2 3 6

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Evaluate
Z 1Z 1
2
ey dy dx.
0 x

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution
The inner integral is Z 1
2
ey dy.
x
2
There is no antiderivative of ey , so you get stuck trying to
compute the integral with respect to y. But, if we change the order
of integration, then we can integrate with respect to x first, which
is doable. And, it turns out that the integral with respect to y also
becomes possible after we finish integrating with respect to x.
We can also describe the region by

0≤y≤1
0 ≤ x ≤ y,

the integral with the order changed is


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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
Z 1Z 1 Z 1Z y
2 2
ey dy dx = ey dx dy
0 x 0 0

with this new dx dy order. The inner integral is (remember y is a


constant)
Z y Z y x=y
y2 y2 y2 2
= yey .

e dx = e dx = xe
0 0 x=0

So the outer integral is Z 1


2
yey dy,
0

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)
Since the integration with respect to x gave us an extra factor of
y, we can compute the integral with respect to y by using a
u-substitution, u = y 2 , so du = 2y dy. With this substitution, u
ranges from 0 to 1, and we calculate the integral as
Z 1Z y Z 1
y2 2
e dx dy = yey dy
0 0 0
1 u 1 1
Z 1
1 u
= e du = e = (e − 1).
0 2 2 0 2

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Center of mass, Total mass and moment around axis

Definition
For a given object with density function of f (x, y),
Z Z
Total mass M= f (x, y)dA
R
Z Z
Moment around the x-axis Mx = yf (x, y)dA
R
Z Z
Moment around the y-axis My = xf (x, y)dA
R
M y Mx
Center of mass (x̄, ȳ) = ( , )
M M

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Remark
The center of mass when the density is 1 everywhere is called
centroid.

Example
Find the centroid of mass of a thin, uniform plate whose shape is
the region between y = cos(x) and the x-axis between x = −π/2
and x = π/2.

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution

π π
As it is clear, the limits of integration are − ≤x≤ and 0 ≤
2 2
y ≤ cos(x). So we have

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)

Z Z Z +π/2 Z cos(x)
M= f (x, y)dA = dy dx
R −π/2 0
Z +π/2
= cos(x)dx = 2,
−π/2
Z Z Z +π/2 Z cos(x)
Mx = yf (x, y)dA = ydy dx
R −π/2 0
" #
Z +π/2
1 π
= 1 + cos(2x) dx = ,
4 −π/2 4

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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Solution ( Cont.)

Z Z Z +π/2 Z cos(x)
My = xf (x, y)dA = xdy dx
R −π/2 0
Z +π/2 h i
= x cos(x) dx = 0,
−π/2
My Mx
(x̄, ȳ) =( , )
M M
0 π/4 π
=( , ) = (0, ).
2 2 8


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Double Integrals D.Integrals General Regions Example of D.I General.R

Example
Find the center of mass of a two-dimensional plate that occupies
the quarter circle x2 + y 2 ≤ 1 in the first quadrant and has density
κ(x2 + y 2 ).

Example
Find the center of mass of a two-dimensional plate that occupies
the triangle formed by x = 2, y = x, and y = 2x and has density
function 2x.

Mohsen Aghaei PNG Unitech ENG. MATHEMATICS III March 03, 2020 55/56
Thanks for your attention...