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‫مل‬

ِ ‫وا‬
َ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ال‬
“The Governors”
By
Zaynud-Din Muhammad ibn Bir Ali
al-Birgivi

Translated
by

Amienoellah Abderoef
‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

All Praise be to Allah, the Lord and Cherisher of the worlds. Blessings and
Peace be upon our Master Muhammad and all of his family (and companions).

Thereafter, know that it is incumbent on everyone who desires to know


‫( العراب‬the science and art of syntactic analysis) to know a hundred
things:
♦ Sixty of which are called ‫( عامل‬governor i.e. that which causes the
ending of another word to change),
♦ Thirty of which are called ‫( معمول‬governed / governee i.e. the word
whose ending is changed by the governor) and
♦ Ten of which are called ‫( إعراب \ عمل‬governing effect / declension
i.e. the particular change that is effected by the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ِ ‫عا‬ at the end of the
‫ول‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ع‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ ).

I will explain to you – with Allah’s Permission – these three (categories) briefly
in three sections:

2
Section One: The Governor
(‫)العامل‬

It is of two types: ‫ي‬ ْ َ‫ل‬


ّ ِ ‫فظ‬ (i.e. a concrete word) and ‫ي‬
ّ ‫و‬
ِ َ ‫عن‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ (i.e. an
abstract idea).

1 The ‫ي‬ ْ ّ ‫الل‬


ّ ِ ‫فظ‬ constitutes two groups: ‫ي‬
ّ ‫ع‬
ِ ‫ما‬
َ ‫س‬
َ (i.e. it is confined to oral
transmission and hearsay) and ‫ي‬ ّ ‫س‬ِ ‫قَيا‬
ِ (i.e. it follows a rule instead of being
confined to oral transmission and hearsay).

1.1 The ‫ي‬


ّ ‫ع‬
ِ ‫ما‬
َ ‫س‬
ّ ‫ ال‬comprises forty-nine (words) and its classes are five:
The first class constitutes particles which cause only one ‫سم‬ ْ ‫ ا‬to become
‫ور‬
ْ ‫جُر‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ , and are called ‫ر‬ ّ ‫جج‬َ ْ ‫وف ال‬
ْ ‫حُر‬ُ and ‫ة‬ َ ‫ضججا‬
ِ ‫ف‬ َ ِ ‫وف ال‬ ْ ‫ح جُر‬
ُ
(prepositions / genitive particles), and they are twenty:

1) ‫ال َْباء‬ (with, through, by means), like:

ُ
َ ْ ‫َلب‬
ّ َ ‫عث‬
"‫ن‬ ‫ه‬
ِ ِ ‫وب‬
ِ ،‫ه‬
ِ ‫ت ِبالل‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
َ ‫"آ‬
(I believe in Allah and, By Him! I will be raised)

2) ‫ن‬
ْ ‫م‬
ِ (from, of), like:

ٍ ْ ‫ذَن‬
"‫ب‬ ّ ُ‫ن ك‬
‫ل‬ ْ ‫م‬
ِ ‫ت‬
ُ ْ ‫"ت ُب‬
(I repented from every sin)

3) ‫إ َِلى‬ (to, towards), like:

َ َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ ِ ‫ت إ َِلى الل‬
‫ه‬ ُ ْ ‫"ت ُب‬
(I turn to Allah – Most High – in repentance)

4) ‫ن‬
ْ ‫ع‬
َ (from, about, of), like:

"ِ ‫رام‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬


َ ‫ح‬ ‫ن‬
ِ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ت‬
ُ ‫ف‬ ِ ُ ‫"ك‬
ْ ‫ف‬
(I was restrained from what is unlawful)

5) ‫عَلى‬
َ (on, on top), like:

"ٍ ‫سل ِم‬


ْ ‫م‬
ُ ّ ُ ‫عَلى ك‬
‫ل‬ َ ‫ة‬
ُ َ ‫وب‬
ْ ّ ‫ب الت‬
ُ ‫ج‬
ْ َ ‫"ي‬
(Repentance is incumbent on every sinner)

3
6) ّ ‫ال‬
‫لم‬ (for, belonging to, to), like:

َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ ُ ‫"أ ََنا‬
ِ ‫عب َي ْدٌ لل‬
(I am a small and insignificant servant of Allah – Most High)

7) ‫ي‬
ْ ‫ف‬
ِ (in, at), like:

"‫ة‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ِ ّ ‫جن‬ ‫في‬
ِ ‫ع‬ ُ ْ ‫"ال‬
ُ ْ ‫مطِي‬
(The obedient one is in Paradise)

8) َ ْ ‫ال‬
‫كاف‬ (like, same as), like:

[ ٌ ‫يء‬ ِ ِ ‫مث ْل‬


َ ‫ه‬
ْ ‫ش‬ َ ْ ‫ل َي‬
ِ َ‫س ك‬
(There is nothing like unto Him)

9) ‫حّتى‬
َ (until, up to including), like:

"‫ت‬
ِ ‫و‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ ‫حّتى‬
َ ‫ه‬ ْ َ ‫"أ‬
َ ‫عب ُدُ الل‬
(I will worship Allah until death)

10) ‫ب‬
ّ ‫( ُر‬perhaps, sometimes), like:
"‫ن‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬
ُ ‫قْرآ‬ ‫ه‬ َ ْ ‫ل ي َل‬
ُ ُ ‫عن‬ ٍ ‫ب َتا‬
ّ ‫"ُر‬
(Perhaps there is a reader whom the Qur’an curses)

11) ِ ‫سم‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬


َ ‫ق‬ ‫واو‬ َ (the ‫واو‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬ indicating oath i.e. “by”), like:

َ ِ ‫ل ال ْك ََبائ‬
"‫ر‬ ُ ‫ع‬ ْ َ ‫ ل َ أ‬،‫ه‬
َ ‫ف‬ ِ ‫والل‬َ "
(By Allah, I will never perform major / grave sins)

12) ِ ‫سم‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬


َ ‫ق‬ ‫َتاء‬ ((the ‫تاء‬
ّ ‫ ال‬indicating oath i.e. “by”), like:
"‫ض‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ِ ‫فَرائ‬ ّ َ ‫عل‬
‫ن‬ ْ َ ‫ َل‬،‫ه‬
َ ‫ف‬ ِ ‫"َتالل‬
(By Allah, I will perform the obligatory acts_

َ ‫حا‬
13) ‫شا‬ َ (except, excluding), like:

َ ْ ‫ال‬
"ِ ‫عال ِم‬ َ ‫حا‬
‫شا‬ َ ‫س‬ َ َ ‫هل‬
ُ ‫ك الّنا‬ َ "

4
(All the people are doomed except the learned person)

ْ ‫م‬
14) ‫ذ‬ ُ (since, from the time), like:
"‫غ‬ ْ ُ ‫ال ْب ُل‬
ِ ‫و‬ ْ َ ‫مذْ ي‬
ِ ‫وم‬ ُ ُ ‫عل ْت‬
ُ ‫ه‬ َ ‫ب‬
َ ‫ف‬ ّ ُ‫ن ك‬
ٍ ْ ‫ل ذَن‬ ْ ‫م‬
ِ ‫ت‬
ُ ْ ‫"ت ُب‬
(I repented from every sin I performed since puberty)

ُ ْ ‫من‬
15) ‫ذ‬ ُ (since, from the time), like:
"‫غ‬ ْ ُ ‫ال ْب ُل‬
ِ ‫و‬ ِ ‫وم‬ ُ ُ‫صل َة‬
ْ َ ‫من ْذُ ي‬ ّ ‫ب ال‬
ُ ‫ج‬
ِ َ ‫"ت‬
(Ritual prayer is compulsory since the day of puberty)

16) َ ‫خل‬
َ (except, excluding), like:

"‫ه‬ ِ ْ ‫عل‬
ِ ‫م‬ ِ ِ‫ب‬ ‫ل‬
ِ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫خل َ ال‬
ِ ‫عا‬ َ ‫ن‬
َ ‫و‬
ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ك ال‬
ُ ِ ‫عال‬ َ َ ‫هل‬
َ "
(The learned people are doomed except the one who acts in accordance with
his knowledge)

17) ‫دا‬
َ ‫ع‬
َ (except, excluding), like:

"‫ص‬
ِ ِ ‫خل‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ ‫دا‬
َ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ن‬ ْ ُ ‫مل‬
َ ‫و‬ َ ْ ‫ك ال‬
ِ ‫عا‬ َ َ ‫هل‬
َ "
[All those who act (in accordance with their knowledge) are doomed except the
sincere person]

ْ َ ‫( ل‬had it not been for, if it was not for, was it not for), like:
18) َ ‫ول‬

"‫س‬
ُ ‫الّنا‬ َ َ ‫هل‬
‫ك‬ َ َ‫ه – ل‬
ِ ‫ة الل‬
َ ‫م‬
َ ‫ح‬
ْ ‫ك – َيا َر‬ ْ َ ‫"ل‬
ِ َ ‫ول‬
(Had it not been for You – O Mercy of Allah – then all the people would have
been doomed)

ْ َ ‫( ك‬for), like:
19) ‫ي‬

"‫ت‬
َ ْ ‫صي‬
َ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ه‬ َ ْ ‫"ك َي‬
ْ ‫م‬
(For what i.e. Why did you disobey?)

َ َ ‫( ل‬hopefully) in the dialect of ‘Uqail, like:


ّ ‫ع‬
20) ‫ل‬

ْ ِ ‫ذَن ْب‬
"‫ي‬ ‫فُر‬ ْ َ ‫عاَلى – ي‬
ِ ‫غ‬ َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ِ ‫ل الل‬ َ َ ‫"ل‬
ّ ‫ع‬

5
(Hopefully, Allah – Most High – will forgive my sin)

The second class is َ ْ ‫ع ال‬


‫خب ََر‬ َ ‫وت َْر‬
ُ ‫ف‬ َ ‫م‬
َ ‫س‬
ْ ‫ب ال‬ ُ ‫ص‬ِ ْ ‫وف ت َن‬ْ ‫حُر‬
ُ (particles
that govern the ‫سم‬ ْ ‫ ال‬in the case of ‫صب‬ ْ ّ ‫ الن‬and the ‫خَبر‬ ْ
َ ‫ ال‬in the case
of ‫فع‬ْ ‫ ) الّر‬and they are eight (particles):

1) ‫ن‬
ّ ِ‫إ‬ (indeed, truly, definitely), like:

"‫ء‬
ٍ ‫ي‬ َ
ْ ‫ش‬ ّ ُ‫م ك‬
‫ل‬ َ – ‫عاَلى‬
ُ ِ ‫عال‬ َ َ‫ه – ت‬
َ ‫ن الل‬
ّ ِ ‫"إ‬
(Indeed, Allah – the Most High – knows everything)

‫ن‬ َ
2) ّ ‫أ‬ (that, to), like:

"‫ء‬
ٍ ‫ي‬ َ ّ ُ ‫عَلى ك‬ َ – ‫عاَلى‬ َ َ َ ‫عت‬
ْ ‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ َ ‫قاِدٌر‬ َ َ‫ه – ت‬
َ ‫ن الل‬
ّ ‫تأ‬ّ ‫قد‬ ْ ‫"ا‬
(I believe that Allah – Most High – has power over everything)

َ
3) ّ ‫ك َأ‬
‫ن‬ (as if), like:

َ
"‫ر‬
ٌ ‫َنا‬ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ن ال‬
َ ‫حَرا‬ ّ ‫"ك َأ‬
(As if the unlawful is fire)

4) ّ ِ ‫ل َك‬
‫ن‬ (but), like:

"‫ز‬ َ
ٌ ِ ‫فائ‬ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ن ال‬
َ ِ ‫عال‬ ّ ِ ‫ل ل َك‬
ُ ‫ه‬ َ ْ ‫فاَز ال‬
ِ ‫جا‬ َ ‫ما‬
َ "
(The ignorant person is not victorious but the learned person is victorious)

5) ‫ت‬َ ْ ‫( ل َي‬how I wish), like:


َ ّ ُ ‫عل ْم مرزوقٌ ل ِك‬
"‫د‬
ٍ ‫ح‬
َ ‫لأ‬ ْ ُ ْ َ َ ِ ْ ‫ت ال‬
َ ْ ‫"ل َي‬
[How I wish that knowledge was a means of subsistence provided to everyone]

6) ‫ل‬ َ َ‫ل‬
ّ ‫ع‬ (hopefully), like:

ْ ِ ‫ذَن ْب‬
"‫ي‬ ‫فُر‬ َ ‫ه‬
ِ ‫غا‬ َ ‫ل الل‬ َ َ ‫"ل‬
ّ ‫ع‬
(Hopefully Allah – Most High – will forgive my sin)

These six (particles) are called ‫ل‬ ِ ‫ع‬ ِ ْ ‫ِبال‬


ْ ‫ف‬ ‫هة‬
َ ّ ‫شب‬ ُ ْ ‫وف ال‬
َ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫حُر‬ (the
particles that are likened to the verb).

6
7) "ّ ‫ع ] "إ ِل‬
ِ ‫قطِج‬ ُ ْ ‫ء ال‬
َ ْ ‫من‬ ِ ‫سجت ِث َْنا‬
ْ ‫فججي ال‬ ّ ِ ‫"إ‬
ِ "‫ل‬ (i.e. but) used in a
sentence where the object is different in kind from the whole from which it is
excluded], like:

"‫ها‬
َ ْ ‫من‬ ‫ة‬ َ ‫م‬
ٌ َ ‫قّرب‬ ُ ‫ة‬
َ ‫ع‬ ّ ‫ة إ ِل ّ ال‬
َ ‫طا‬ َ ْ ‫ن ال‬
ِ ّ ‫جن‬ َ ْ ‫"ال‬
ِ ِ ‫ع‬
َ ٌ‫عدَة‬
ِ ْ ‫مب‬
ُ ‫ة‬
ُ َ ‫صي‬
ِ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫م‬
[Disobedience distances from Paradise but obedience brings (one) close to it]

8) "َ ‫س ]"ل‬ ِ ْ ‫ي ال‬


ِ ْ ‫جن‬ ِ ‫ف‬ َ "
ْ َ ‫ل" ل ِن‬ (i.e. No) used to deny the whole genus /
class in the absolute sense], like:

"‫ز‬ َ
ٌ ِ ‫فائ‬ َ ‫ل‬
‫شّر‬ َ ‫ع‬ َ َ ‫"ل‬
ِ ‫فا‬
(No doer of evil is victorious)

The third class is ‫خب َر‬َ ْ ‫ن ال‬ِ ‫صَبا‬


ِ ْ ‫وي َن‬
َ ‫م‬
َ ‫س‬
ْ ‫ن ال‬
ِ ‫عا‬ َ ‫ن ي َْر‬
َ ‫ف‬ َ ‫حْر‬
ِ ‫فا‬ َ (two
particles that govern the ‫سم‬ ْ ‫ ال‬in the case of ‫فع‬ ْ ‫ الّر‬and the ‫خَبر‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬in
the case of ‫صب‬ ْ ّ ‫)الن‬, and they are:
1) ‫ما‬َ (not)
and
2) َ ‫( ل‬not)

(both of) which are likened to َ ْ ‫ل َي‬


‫س‬ (in meaning and function), like for
example:

"‫ن‬ َ ‫م‬
ٍ ‫كا‬ َ ِ‫ب‬ ً ‫كنا‬
ّ ‫م‬ ُ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ ‫مت‬ َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ُ ‫ما الل‬
َ "
(Allah – Most High – is not firmly located/positioned in a place)

َ ‫َتعا‬
"‫لى‬ ِ ‫شاِبها ً لل‬
–‫ه‬ َ ‫م‬
ُ ٌ ‫يء‬ َ َ ‫"ل‬
ْ ‫ش‬
(Nothing resembles Allah –Most High)

The fourth class is ‫ع‬


َ ‫ر‬ِ ‫ضا‬ ُ ْ ‫ل ال‬
َ ‫م‬ َ ‫ع‬ ِ ْ ‫ب ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫ص‬
ِ ْ ‫وف ت َن‬ْ ‫حُر‬
ُ (particles that
govern the ‫رع‬ ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ ْ
ُ ‫ ال‬in the case of ‫صب‬ ْ ّ ‫)الن‬, and they are four particles:
1) ‫ن‬
َ
ْ ‫( أ‬to, that), like:
َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬
ُ َ ِ ُ ‫"أ‬
َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
َ ‫ع الل‬
َ ْ ‫ن أطِي‬
ْ ‫بأ‬ّ ‫ح‬
(I love to obey Allah – Most High)

2) ْ َ‫ل‬
‫ن‬ (will / shall never), like:

7
"‫ن‬
َ ْ ‫ري‬
ِ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ل ِل‬
ِ ‫كا‬ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ُ ‫فَر الل‬
ِ ‫غ‬ ْ َ ‫"ل‬
ْ َ‫ن ي‬
(Allah – Most High – will never forgive the unbelievers)

3) ْ َ‫ك‬
‫ي‬ [(in order) to, that], like:

ُ ِ ُ ‫"أ‬
َ ْ ‫عل‬
"‫م‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬ َ ‫ص‬
‫ل‬ ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫يأ‬ْ َ‫ر ك‬
ِ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫ل ال‬
ُ ‫ع‬ ْ ُ‫ب ط‬
َ ‫و‬ ّ ‫ح‬
(I love long life in order that I may acquire knowledge)

4) ْ َ‫إ ِذ‬
‫ن‬ (In that case), like when you say:

"‫ة‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ّ ‫جن‬ َ ‫خ‬
‫ل‬ ْ َ‫"إ ِذ‬
ُ ْ‫ن ت َد‬
(In that case you will enter Paradise)

(in response) to someone who says:

َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬
ُ
َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
َ ‫ع الل‬
ُ ْ ‫"أطِي‬
(I obey Allah – Most High)

The fifth class constitutes ‫ع‬


َ ‫ر‬
ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫م ال‬
ُ ‫ز‬ِ ‫ج‬ َ ِ ‫( ك َل‬words that
ْ َ ‫مات ت‬ govern
the ‫رع‬
ِ ‫ضا‬ ُ ْ ‫ ال‬in the case of ‫جْزم‬
َ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫) ال‬, and they are fifteen (words):
1) ْ َ‫ل‬
‫م‬ (did not, has / have not), like His Statement:

ْ َ ‫ول‬
[ ‫د‬ ْ َ ‫ول‬
ْ ُ‫م ي‬ ْ َ ‫ل‬
َ ْ‫م ي َل ِد‬
(He does not give birth nor was He given birth to)

2) ّ َ‫ل‬
‫ما‬ (did not yet, has / have not yet), like:

"‫ي‬
ْ ‫ر‬
ِ ‫م‬
ْ ‫ع‬
ُ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ّ َ ‫"ل‬
َ ْ ‫ما ي َن‬
(My life has not been of benefit yet)

‫ر‬ َ َ ّ ‫ ال‬denoting a command), like:


3) ِ ‫م‬
ْ ‫لم ال‬ (the ‫لم‬

"ً ‫لحا‬
ِ ‫صا‬
َ ً ‫مل‬
َ ‫ع‬ ْ ‫م‬
َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ع‬
ْ َ ‫"ل ِي‬
(Let him do righteous deeds)

4) "‫ي‬
ِ ‫ه‬
ْ ّ ‫الن‬ ‫في‬ َ
ِ "‫ل‬ (the "َ ‫ "ل‬used for prohibition), like:

ْ ِ ‫ت ُذْن‬
"‫ب‬ َ ‫"ل‬

8
(Do not sin)

these four cause one ‫عل‬


ْ ‫ف‬
ِ to be ‫وم‬
ْ ‫جُز‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ ,
5) "‫ن‬
ْ ِ ‫( "إ‬if …… , ……), like:
َ ُ ‫وب‬
"‫ك‬ ْ ُ ‫ذُن‬ َ ‫غ‬
‫فْر‬ ْ ُ‫ب ت‬
ْ ُ ‫ن ت َت‬
ْ ِ ‫"إ‬
(If you repent your sins will be forgiven)

6) ‫ما‬
َ ‫ه‬
ْ ‫م‬َ (whatever …... , ……), like:
"‫ه‬
ُ ْ ‫عن‬
َ ‫ل‬ ْ َ ‫سأ‬ ْ ‫ع‬
ْ ُ‫ل ت‬ ْ َ ‫ما ت‬
َ ‫ف‬ َ ‫ه‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ "
(Whatever you do, you will be asked about)

7) ‫ما‬
َ (whatever …… , ……), like:

"‫ه‬
ِ ‫الل‬ َ‫عن ْد‬
ِ ُ‫جدْه‬
ِ َ‫ر ت‬
ٍ ْ ‫خي‬
َ ‫ن‬
ْ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ع‬
ِ ‫ل‬ ْ َ ‫ما ت‬
َ ‫ف‬ َ "
(Whatever you do of good you will find it with Allah)

8) "‫ن‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ " (whoever …… , ……), like:
"ً ‫جيا‬
ِ ‫َنا‬ ْ ُ ‫صاِلحا ً ي َك‬
‫ن‬ َ ً ‫مل‬
َ ‫ع‬ ْ ‫م‬
َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ع‬
ْ َ‫ن ي‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ "
(Whosoever does righteous works will be successful)

9) "‫ن‬
َ
َ ْ ‫( "أي‬wherever …… , ……), like:
َ
"‫ت‬
ُ ‫و‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫رك‬
‫ك‬ ْ ُ ‫ن ت َك‬
ِ ْ‫ن ي ُد‬ َ ْ ‫"أي‬

(Wherever you are death will overtake you)

10) ‫تى‬
َ ‫م‬
َ (whenever …… , ……), like:
ْ ِ ‫هل‬
"‫ك‬ ْ َ‫ت‬ ْ‫سد‬
ُ ‫ح‬
ْ َ ‫مَتى ت‬
َ "
(Whenever you show jealousy you will be doomed)

11) ‫نى‬
َ
ّ ‫( أ‬wherever …… , ……), like:
َ ‫عا‬ َ
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
ُ ‫ك الل‬ ْ َ ‫عل‬
َ ‫م‬ ْ ِ ‫"أّنى ت ُذْن‬
ْ َ‫ب ي‬

9
(Wherever you sin, Allah knows you – Most High)

12) ‫ي‬
َ
ّ ‫( أ‬whichever …… , ……), like:
َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ ِ ْ ‫عال ِم ٍ ي َت َك َب ّْر ي ُب‬ َ
َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
ُ ‫ه الل‬
ُ ‫ض‬
ْ ‫غ‬ َ ‫ي‬
ّ ‫"أ‬
(Whichever scholar is arrogant, Allah – Most High – hates him)

َ ُ ‫حي ْث‬
13) ‫ما‬ َ (wherever …… , ……), like:
َ ُ ‫عل‬
"‫ك‬ ْ ‫ف‬
ِ ْ َ ‫ل ي ُك ْت‬
‫ب‬ ْ ‫ع‬ ْ َ ‫ما ت‬
َ ‫ف‬ َ ُ ‫حي ْث‬
َ "
(Wherever you do something your action will recorded)

َ ْ‫( إ ِذ‬whenever …… , …….), like:


14) ‫ما‬

َ ُ ‫وب َت‬
"‫ك‬ ْ َ‫ل ت‬ ْ ُ‫ت‬
ْ َ ‫قب‬ ‫ب‬ َ ْ‫( "إ ِذ‬Whenever you repent, your repentance will be
ْ ُ ‫ما ت َت‬
accepted)

15) ‫ما‬ َ ِ ‫( إ‬whenever …… , ……), like:


َ ‫ذا‬
"‫س‬
ِ ‫الّنا‬ ‫خي َْر‬ ْ ُ ‫ك ت َك‬
َ ‫ن‬ ِ ْ ‫عل‬
َ ‫م‬ ْ ‫م‬
ِ ِ‫ل ب‬ َ ‫ع‬
ْ َ ‫ما ت‬ َ ِ ‫"إ‬
َ ‫ذا‬
(Whenever you act according your knowledge, you will be the best of people)

These eleven cause two ِ َ ‫عل‬


‫ن‬ ْ ‫ف‬ِ to be ‫ن‬ ِ ‫ما‬
َ ‫و‬
ْ ‫جُز‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ which are called "
َ "
‫شجْرط‬ (condition) and "‫زاء‬ َ ‫جج‬
َ " (response / result of the condition)
respectively.

1.2 The ‫ي‬


ّ ‫س‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬comprises nine (categories):
ِ ‫قَيا‬
1) The ‫عل‬ْ ‫ف‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬generally speaking; for every ‫عل‬
ْ ‫ف‬
ِ makes ‫وع‬ ُ ‫مْر‬
ْ ‫ف‬ َ and
‫وب‬
ْ ‫ص‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
َ , like:
"‫ء‬
ٍ ‫ي‬ َ
ْ ‫ش‬ ّ ُ ‫عاَلى – ك‬
‫ل‬ َ َ‫ه – ت‬ َ َ ‫خل‬
ُ ‫ق الل‬ َ "
(Allah – Most High – created everything)

"ً ‫ول‬
ْ ‫ن ُُز‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ْ ‫ل ال‬
ُ ‫قْرآ‬ َ ‫"ن ََز‬
(The Qur’an came down definitely)

It is necessary for every ‫عل‬ ْ ‫ف‬


ِ to have a ‫وع‬ ُ ‫مْر‬
ْ ‫ف‬ َ and if the sentence is
complete with it (i.e. with that ‫وع‬ْ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ُ ‫مْر‬ ) then it (i.e. the ‫عل‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ) is called
"‫م‬
ّ ‫عل َتا‬
ْ ‫ف‬
ِ " (a complete verb), like:

10
َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
ُ ‫م الل‬
َ ِ ‫عل‬
َ "
(Allah – Most High – knows)

and if the sentence is not complete with it but instead requires a ‫خَبر‬
َ that is
‫وب‬
ْ ‫ص‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
َ , it (i.e. the ‫عل‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ) is called "‫قص‬
ِ ‫َنا‬ ‫عل‬
ْ ‫ف‬
ِ " (an incomplete
verb), like:

"ً ‫يما‬
ْ ِ ‫حك‬
َ ً ‫عل ِْيما‬
َ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ُ ‫ن الل‬ َ "
َ ‫كا‬
(Allah – Most High – is All-knowing, All-wise)

"‫ب‬ َ ْ ‫ل ِل‬
َ ‫ع‬
ِ ‫ذا‬ ّ ‫حقا‬
ِ َ ‫ست‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ي‬
ْ ‫ص‬ َ ْ ‫صاَر ال‬
ِ ‫عا‬ َ "
(The disobedient one has become deserving of punishment)

َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
ِ ‫ن الل‬ ِ ً ‫عْيدا‬
َ ‫م‬ ِ َ‫ب ب‬ ُ ْ ‫ل ال‬
ُ ِ ‫مذْن‬ َ ‫ما َزا‬
َ "
(The sinner continues to be distant from Allah – Most High)

ِ َ‫ال ْب َد‬
"‫ن‬ ِ ً ‫خل‬
‫في‬ ِ ‫دا‬
َ ‫ح‬
ُ ‫و‬
ْ ‫م الّر‬
َ ‫دا‬
َ ‫ما‬
َ ‫ة‬
ُ َ ‫وب‬
ْ ّ ‫ل الت‬ ْ ُ ‫"ت‬
ُ َ ‫قب‬
(Repentance is accepted for as long as the soul is inside the body)

"ً ‫سما‬
ْ ‫ج‬
ِ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬ َ ْ ‫"ل َي‬
ُ ‫س الل‬
(Allah – Most High – is not a body)

2) The ‫ل‬ِ ‫ع‬ َ ْ ‫سم ال‬


ِ ‫فا‬ ْ ‫( ا‬Active Participle); for it performs the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ع‬ of its
‫عل‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬which is ‫وم‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ْ ُ ‫عل‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ , like:

ُ َ ‫مل‬
"‫ه‬ َ ‫ع‬
َ ُ‫سدُه‬
َ ‫ح‬
َ ٌ‫رق‬
ِ ‫ح‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫وٍد‬
ْ ‫س‬
ُ ‫ح‬ ّ ُ ‫"ك‬
َ ‫ل‬
(Every jealous person ‘s jealousy burns down his action)

3) The ‫ل‬
ِ ‫و‬ْ ‫ع‬ُ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫سم ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ ْ ‫( ا‬Passive Participle); for it performs the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ع‬ of
its ‫عل‬ْ ‫ف‬ِ ْ ‫ ال‬which is ‫ول‬ْ ‫ه‬
ُ ‫ج‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ , like:
"‫ه‬
ُ ُ ‫وب َت‬
ْ َ‫ت‬ ٌ ‫و‬
‫ل‬ ْ ‫م‬
ْ ُ ‫قب‬ َ ‫ب‬ ّ ُ ‫"ك‬
ٍ ِ ‫ل َتائ‬
(Every one that repents his repentance is accepted)

11
4) The ‫ل‬
ِ ‫عج‬ ِ ‫فا‬ َ ْ ‫سججم ال‬ْ ‫هة )ِبا‬َ ّ ‫ش جب‬ ُ ْ ‫فة ال‬
َ ‫م‬ َ ‫صج‬
ّ ‫( )ال‬Descriptive noun
resembling the ‫ل‬ ِ ‫ع‬ َ ْ ‫سم ال‬
ِ ‫فا‬ ْ ‫) ا‬, for it also performs the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ع‬ of its
‫عل‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬, like:
ْ ‫ف‬
"‫ها‬ َ َ‫ث‬
َ ُ ‫واب‬ ‫ن‬
ٌ ‫س‬
َ ‫ح‬ ِ ْ ‫"ال‬
َ ُ‫عَبادَة‬
(Worship has a good reward)

5) The ‫ل‬ ِ ْ ‫ضي‬ ْ ّ ‫الت‬


ِ ‫ف‬ ‫سم‬
ْ ‫ا‬ , for it also performs the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ع‬ of its ‫عل‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ,
like:

َ
َ ْ ‫ال‬
"ِ ‫عال ِم‬ ‫في‬
ِ ‫ه‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬ ُ ْ ‫حل‬
ِ ‫م‬ ِ ْ ‫ه ال‬
ِ ْ ‫في‬
ِ ‫ن‬
َ ‫س‬
َ ‫ح‬
ْ ‫لأ‬ٍ ‫ج‬
ُ ‫ن َر‬
ْ ‫م‬
ِ ‫ما‬
َ "
(There is no man in whom clemency is better than the scholar)

6) The ‫در‬
َ ‫ص‬ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫( ال‬Infinitive / Verbal Noun), for it also performs the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ع‬
of its ‫عل‬ْ ‫ف‬ِ ْ ‫ ال‬, like:
"ً ‫هما‬
َ ‫ِدْر‬ ُ‫عب ْدُه‬ ُ َ ‫طاءً ل‬
َ ‫ه‬ َ ‫ع‬
ْ ِ ‫عاَلى – إ‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ُ ‫ب الل‬
ّ ‫ح‬
ِ ُ ‫"ي‬
(Allah – Most High – loves his servant to give a dirham for His Sake)

7) The ‫ضاف‬ َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫ال‬ (Annexed Noun), for it also performs the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ع‬ of
َ ْ ‫ ال‬, like:
‫جّر‬

"‫ر‬
ٌ ْ ‫خي‬
َ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ِ ‫عَبادَةُ الل‬
ِ "
(Worshiping Allah – Most High – is good)

8) The ‫م‬
ّ ‫هججم الت ّججا‬ ُ ْ ‫سم ال‬
َ ْ ‫مب‬ ْ ‫ال‬ (Complete Vague Noun), for it also
performs the ‫مل‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬of ‫صب‬
َ ‫ع‬ ْ ّ ‫الن‬ , like:

"‫ة‬ َ ْ ‫َرك‬
ً ‫ع‬ ‫ن‬
َ ‫و‬ ْ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫شُر‬ ِ ‫ح‬
ُ ْ ‫وي‬
ِ ‫"الت َّرا‬
(Tarawih is twenty bowings)

9) ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ع‬ ِ ْ ‫عَنى ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ْ ‫م‬
َ (Verbal Meaning), that is, every word from which the
meaning of a ‫عل‬ ْ ‫ف‬
ِ is understood, like:
َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
ِ ‫ن الل‬
َ ‫م‬
ِ ‫ب‬ ُ ْ ‫ت ال‬
ُ ِ ‫مذْن‬ َ ‫ها‬
َ ْ ‫هي‬
َ "
(Distant is the sinner from the Mercy of Allah – Most High)

"ً ‫نبا‬
ْ َ‫ذ‬ ‫ك‬
ِ ‫"ت ََرا‬

12
(Abandon sinning)

"‫ة‬
ٌ ‫ح‬
َ ‫َرا‬ ‫في الدّن َْيا‬
ِ ‫ما‬
َ "
(There is no peace of mind in this Life)

ُ ُ ‫خل‬ ّ ‫ديا‬ َ
"‫ه‬
ُ ‫ق‬ ُ ِ ‫م‬
ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ن‬ ْ ُ ‫ن ي َك‬
َ ‫و‬ َ ْ ‫ي ل ِل‬
ْ ‫عال ِم ِ أ‬ ْ ‫غ‬
ِ َ ‫"ي َن ْب‬
(It is necessary for the scholar to be Muhammadi / Muhammad-like in his
character

2. The ‫ي‬
ّ ‫و‬
ِ َ ‫عن‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬is of two (types):
ْ ‫م‬
2.1 The ‫ر‬ َ ْ ‫وال‬
ِ َ ‫خب‬ َ ‫دإ‬ ُ ْ ‫فع ال‬
َ َ ‫مب ْت‬ ِ ‫َرا‬ (that which causes the ‫دأ‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬
َ َ ‫مب ْت‬ and
َ ْ ‫ ال‬to be ‫وع‬
‫خَبر‬ ْ ‫ف‬ُ ‫مْر‬َ ), like:
"‫ه‬
ِ ‫الل‬ ُ ‫و‬
‫ل‬ ْ ‫س‬ َ ّ ‫سل‬
ُ ‫م( َر‬ َ ‫و‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
َ ‫ه‬ ُ ‫صّلى الل‬
َ ‫ه‬ َ ) ٌ‫مد‬
ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫م‬
ُ "
[Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah]

2.2 The ‫ع‬ِ ‫ر‬


ِ ‫ضا‬ ُ ْ ‫ل ال‬
َ ‫م‬ ِ ‫ع‬ ِ ْ ‫فع ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ِ ‫َرا‬ (that which causes the ‫عل‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬
‫رع‬
ِ ‫ضا‬ ُ ْ ‫ ال‬to be ‫وع‬
َ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫مْر‬
َ ), like:
"‫ب‬
َ ِ ‫الّتائ‬ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ُ ‫م الل‬
ُ ‫ح‬
َ ‫"ي َْر‬
(Allah – Most High – shows mercy to the one who repents)

13
∗ Section Two: The Governed / Governee

(‫)المعمول‬

ِ َ ‫صال‬
‫ة‬ َ
It is of two kinds: َ ‫ول ِبال‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ (governed directly) and ‫ول‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ
‫ة‬
ِ ّ ‫عي‬
ِ َ ‫ِبالت ّب‬ (governed by succession), that is, its declension is the same as the
declension of its ‫وع‬
ْ ُ ‫مت ْب‬
َ (the noun which it follows).

ِ َ ‫صال‬ َ
The first kind (i.e. the‫ة‬ َ ‫ول ِبال‬ ْ ‫م‬ُ ‫ع‬ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ ) ال‬is of four types: , ‫وع‬ ُ ‫مْر‬
ْ ‫ف‬ َ
‫ور‬
ْ ‫جُر‬ْ ‫م‬َ , ‫وب‬ ْ ‫ص‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
َ – (the latter of) which is specific to the ‫سم‬ ْ ‫ال‬, and
‫وم‬ْ ‫جُز‬ْ ‫م‬َ – which is specific to the ‫عل‬ ْ ‫ف‬ِ ْ ‫ ال‬.
As for the ‫وع‬
ْ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬it comprises nine (things):
ُ ‫مْر‬

1. The ‫عل‬ َ ْ ‫( ال‬Doer / Subject of the Verbal Sentence), like:


ِ ‫فا‬
"‫ب‬
َ ِ ‫الّتائ‬ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ُ ‫م الل‬
َ ‫ح‬
ِ ‫"َر‬
(Allah – Most High – showed mercy to the one who repents / May Allah – Most
High – show mercy to the one who repents)

2. The ‫ل‬
ِ ‫ع‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ِ ‫فا‬ ‫َناِئب‬ (Agent of the Doer), like:

"‫ب‬
ُ ِ ‫م الّتائ‬
َ ‫ح‬
ِ ‫( "ُر‬The one who repented was shown mercy to / May the one
who repents be shown mercy to)

3. The ‫دأ‬ ُ ْ ‫( ال‬Subject of the Nominal Sentence), and


َ َ ‫مب ْت‬
4. the ‫بر‬ َ ْ ‫( ال‬Predicate)
َ ‫خ‬
َ ِ ‫عل َْيججج‬
"‫ء‬
ِ ‫الن ْب َِيجججا‬
‫م‬ُ َ ‫خجججات‬ ُ َ ‫سجججل‬
َ –‫م‬ َ ُ‫صجججل َة‬
ّ ‫وال‬ ّ ‫ه ال‬ َ – ٌ‫مجججد‬
ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫م‬
ُ
‫ن‬
َ ْ ‫سل ِي‬
َ ‫مْر‬ ْ
ُ ‫وال‬
َ "
(Muhammad – On him be Peace and Blessings – is the Seal of the Prophets
and Messengers)

The ‫ها‬
َ َ " ‫سم‬ َ " and its Sisters), like:
5. َ ِ ‫وات‬
َ ‫خ‬
َ ‫وأ‬
َ "‫ن‬
َ ‫كا‬ ْ ‫ا‬ (Noun of "‫ن‬
َ ‫كا‬
"ً ‫يما‬
ْ ِ ‫حك‬
َ ً ‫عل ِْيما‬
َ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
ُ ‫ن الل‬ َ "
َ ‫كا‬
(Allah – Most High – is All-knowing and All-wise)

14
The ‫ها‬
َ
6. َ ِ ‫وات‬
َ ‫خ‬
َ ‫وأ‬
َ "‫ن‬
ّ ِ ‫خَبر "إ‬
َ (Predicate of "‫ن‬
ّ ِ ‫ "إ‬and its Sisters), like:
"‫ق‬
ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫ث‬ ْ َ ‫ن ال ْب‬
َ ‫ع‬ ّ ِ ‫"إ‬
(The Resurrection is real)

7. The ‫س‬ِ ‫جْنج‬ ِ ْ ‫ي ال‬


ِ ‫ف‬ َ " ‫خَبر‬
ْ َ ‫ل" ل ِن‬ َ (Predicate of "َ ‫ "ل‬used for the
absolute negation of the genus), like:

ٌ ‫و‬
"‫ل‬ ْ ‫م‬
ْ ُ ‫قب‬ َ ‫ء‬
ٍ ‫مَرا‬ َ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ل‬ َ َ ‫"ل‬
َ ‫ع‬
(The deeds of the show-off will not be accepted)

8. The َ ْ ‫ن ِبج"ل َي‬


‫س‬ ِ ْ ‫هت َي‬ َ ‫م‬
َ ّ ‫شب‬ ُ ْ ‫ل" ال‬
َ "‫و‬ َ "‫ما‬
َ " ‫سم‬
ْ ‫( "ا‬Noun of "‫ما‬
َ " and
"َ ‫ "ل‬which are likened to "‫س‬ َ ْ ‫) "ل َي‬, like:
َ ْ ‫ل ِل‬
"ِ ‫عال ِم‬ ً ‫ما الت ّك َب ُّر ل َِئقا‬
َ "
(Arrogance is not befitting for the scholar)

"ً ‫حل َل‬


َ ٌ‫سد‬ َ َ ‫"ل‬
َ ‫ح‬
(Jealousy is not lawful)

9. The ِ ‫زم‬ ِ ‫وا‬ َ ‫جج‬َ ْ ‫وال‬


َ ‫ب‬ِ ‫صج‬ ِ ‫وا‬
َ ّ ‫ن الن‬
ِ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ي‬ َ ْ ‫رع ال‬
ْ ِ ‫خال‬ ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬
(the ‫رع‬ ِ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ْ ‫ف‬ِ ْ ‫ ال‬that is stripped of the ‫صججب‬ ِ ‫وا‬ َ ّ ‫ الن‬and
‫زم‬ ِ ‫وا‬
َ ‫ج‬ َ ْ ‫) ال‬, like:
"‫ع‬
َ ‫ض‬
ُ ‫وا‬
َ ّ ‫الت‬ ‫ه‬
ُ ‫ب الل‬
ّ ‫ح‬
ِ ُ ‫"ي‬
(Allah loves humbleness / humility)

As for the ‫وب‬


ْ ‫ص‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬it comprises thirteen (things):
ُ ْ ‫من‬
1. َ ْ ‫مط‬
The ‫لق‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬ ‫ول‬
ْ ‫ع‬
ُ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ (Absolute / Unrestricted Object), like:

"ً ‫وحا‬
ْ ‫ص‬
ُ َ‫ن‬ ‫ة‬
ً َ ‫وب‬
ْ َ‫ت ت‬
ُ ْ ‫"ت ُب‬
(I made sincere repentance)

2. The ‫ه‬
ِ ِ‫ب‬
‫ول‬ْ ‫ع‬ ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬ (Direct Object), like:

َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ه – ت‬ ْ َ ‫"أ‬
َ ‫عب ُدُ الل‬

15
(I worship Allah – Most High)

3. The ‫ه‬
ِ ْ ‫في‬
ِ ‫ول‬
ْ ‫ع‬
ُ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ (Adverbial Object), like:

"‫ن‬
َ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬
َ ‫َر‬ ‫هَر‬ َ ‫م‬
ْ ‫ش‬ ْ ‫ص‬
ُ "
(Fast the month of Ramadhan)

4. ُ َ‫ل‬
The ‫ه‬ ‫ول‬
ْ ‫ع‬
ُ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ (Object of Purpose / Reason), like:

َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
ِ ‫ة الل‬
ِ ‫ضا‬ َ ِ ‫ل طََلبا ً ل‬
َ ‫مْر‬ ْ ‫م‬
َ ‫ع‬
ْ ِ ‫"ا‬
(Do deeds seeking the pleasure of Allah – Most High)

5. The ‫ه‬
ُ ‫ع‬
َ ‫م‬
َ ‫ول‬
ْ ‫ع‬
ُ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ (Object of Accompaniment), like:

َ َ ‫مل‬
"‫ك‬ َ ‫ع‬
َ ‫و‬
َ َ ْ ‫وت َب‬
‫قى‬ َ ‫ل‬ َ ْ ‫فَنى ال‬
ُ ‫ما‬ ْ َ ‫"ي‬
(Wealth will perish and you will remain with your deeds)

6. َ ْ ‫( ال‬State / Condition), like:


The ‫حال‬

"ً ‫جيا‬
ِ ‫َرا‬ ً ‫خاِئفا‬
َ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
َ ‫د الل‬ ْ ُ ‫"ا‬
ِ ُ ‫عب‬
(Worship Allah Most High – fearing and hoping)

7. The ‫يز‬
ْ ِ ‫مي‬
ْ ّ ‫( الت‬Specification), like:
"‫ة‬
ً َ‫عَباد‬
ِ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ب ال‬
ُ ِ ‫عال‬ َ "
َ ‫طا‬
(The scholar is good in ‘ibadah)

8. َ ْ ‫ست َث‬
The ‫نى‬ ُ ْ ‫( ال‬Exceptive / Noun Excluded), like:
ْ ‫م‬
"‫ر‬
َ ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ِ ‫كا‬ ّ ‫س إ ِل‬
ُ ‫ة الّنا‬ َ ْ ‫ل ال‬
َ ّ ‫جن‬ ُ ‫خ‬
ُ ْ‫"ي َد‬
(The people will enter Paradise except the unbeliever)

9. The ‫ن‬ َ "


َ ‫كا‬ ‫ب‬
ِ ‫خَبر َبا‬
َ " (Predicate of the Class of "‫ن‬ َ " verbs), like:
َ ‫كا‬
َ ‫عا‬
"‫لى‬ َ َ‫ت‬ –‫ه‬
ِ ‫عَبادَ الل‬
ِ ‫ة‬ َ ْ ‫ت ال‬
ُ َ ‫مل َئ ِك‬ َ "
ِ َ ‫كان‬
(The angels are the servants of Allah – Most)

10. The ‫ن‬


ّ ِ ‫"إ‬ ‫ب‬
ِ ‫سم َبا‬
ْ ‫( "ا‬Noun of the Class of "‫ن‬
ّ ِ ‫ "إ‬particles),like:

16
"‫ق‬
ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫س‬
َ ‫ؤا‬ ّ ‫ن ال‬
ّ ِ ‫"إ‬
[Truly, the questioning (on the Day of Judgment) is real]

11. The ‫س‬ِ ْ ‫جن‬ِ ْ ‫ي ال‬


ِ ‫ف‬ َ "
ْ َ ‫ل" ل ِن‬ ‫سم‬
ْ ‫ا‬ (Noun of " َ ‫ "ل‬for the absolute
negation of the genus), like:

ٌ َ ‫ول‬
"‫ة‬ ْ ‫م‬
ْ ُ ‫قب‬ َ ‫ب‬
ٍ ‫غَتا‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ة‬
َ ‫ع‬ َ َ ‫"ل‬
َ ‫طا‬
(The obedience of the backbiter is not accepted)

12. The ‫س‬َ ْ ‫ن ِبج"ل َي‬


ِ ْ ‫هت َي‬
َ ّ ‫شب‬ ُ ْ ‫ل" ال‬
َ ‫م‬ َ "‫و‬ َ "‫ما‬ َ " ‫خَبر‬
َ " (Predicate of "‫ما‬
َ "
and "َ ‫ "ل‬that are likened to "‫س‬ َ ْ ‫) "ل َي‬, like:
"ً ‫حل َل‬
َ ‫ة‬ ِ ْ ‫ما ال‬
ُ َ ‫غي ْب‬ َ "
(Backbiting is not lawful)

"‫ة‬
ً ‫جائ َِز‬
َ ‫ة‬
ٌ ‫م‬ ِ َ ‫"ل َ ن‬
َ ْ ‫مي‬
(Slandering is not permissible)

13. The ‫ب‬ِ ‫صج‬ِ ‫وا‬ َ ّ ‫دى الن‬َ ‫حج‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
ْ ِ‫ه إ‬ َ ‫خ‬
َ ‫ل‬ َ َ‫ي د‬ ِ ّ ‫رع ال‬
ْ ‫ذ‬ ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬
(the ‫رع‬ِ ‫ضا‬ ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬
َ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ف‬ِ ْ ‫ ال‬that has one of the ‫صب‬ ِ ‫وا‬ َ ّ ‫ الن‬preceding
and governing it), like:

َ ‫غ‬ َ ِ ُ ‫"أ‬
"‫ي‬ ْ ُ ‫ذُن‬
ْ ِ ‫وب‬ ‫فَر‬ ْ ُ‫ن ت‬
ْ ‫بأ‬ّ ‫ح‬
(I love that my sins would be forgiven)

As for the ‫ور‬


ْ ‫جُر‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬it comprises two (things):
ْ ‫م‬
1. the َ ْ ‫ف ال‬
‫جّر‬ ِ ‫حْر‬
َ ِ ‫ور ب‬
ْ ‫جُر‬ َ ْ ‫( ال‬the Noun governed in
ْ ‫م‬ the case of
َ ْ ‫ ال‬by means of the genitive particle / preposition), like:
‫جّر‬

ٍ َ ‫خل‬
"‫ص‬ ْ ِ ‫ب ِإ‬ ْ ‫م‬
‫ل‬ َ ‫ع‬
ْ ِ ‫"ا‬
(Do deeds with sincerity)

2. the ‫ة‬ َ ‫ضا‬


ِ ‫ف‬ َ ِ ‫ور ِبال‬
ْ ‫جُر‬ َ ْ ‫( ال‬the Noun governed in the case of
ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
‫جّر‬
by means of annexation), like:

ُ َ ‫قل ْب‬
"‫ه‬ َ ُ‫ود‬
ّ ‫س‬
َ ُ‫د ي‬ َ ْ ‫ب ال‬
ِ ْ ‫عب‬ ُ ْ ‫"ذَن‬

17
(The sin of the servant blackens his heart)

As for the ‫وم‬


ْ ‫جُز‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬it comprises one (thing only):
ْ ‫م‬
The ‫زم‬
ِ ‫وا‬ َ ْ ‫دى ال‬
َ ‫جج‬ َ ‫حج‬ ِ ‫عل َي ْج‬
ْ ِ‫ه إ‬ َ ‫خ‬
َ ‫ل‬ َ َ‫ي د‬ْ ‫ذ‬ِ ّ ‫رع ال‬ ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫( ال‬the
ْ ‫ف‬
‫رع‬
ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬that has one of the ‫زم‬
ْ ‫ف‬ ِ ‫وا‬
َ ‫ج‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬preceding and governing
it), like:

َ ُ ‫مل‬
"‫ك‬ َ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ل‬ ْ ُ‫ص ي‬
ْ َ ‫قب‬ ْ ِ ‫خل‬
ْ ُ‫ن ت‬
ْ ِ ‫"إ‬
(If you are sincere your deeds will be accepted)

The second kind (i.e. the ‫ة‬


ِ ّ ‫عي‬
ِ َ ‫ول ِبالت ّب‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ع‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ ) is of five types:

َ ‫ص‬
The first is the ‫فة‬ ّ ‫( ال‬attributive adjective), like:
"‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ْ ‫عظِي‬ ‫ه‬
َ ‫د الل‬ ْ ُ ‫( "ا‬Worship Allah, the Magnifecent)
ِ ُ ‫عب‬
The second is ْ ‫ع‬
‫طف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬ (conjunction) by means of one of the ten ‫وف‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫حُر‬
:

1. َ ْ ‫( ال‬and), like:
the ‫واو‬

َ ‫و‬
"‫ل‬
َ
ْ ‫س‬
ُ ‫والّر‬
َ ‫ه‬
َ ‫ع الل‬
ِ ِ‫"أط‬
(Obey Allah and the Messenger)

2. َ ْ ‫( ال‬immediately after), like:


the ‫فاء‬

"‫م‬ ِ ْ ‫فال‬
ُ ‫قَيا‬ َ ‫ح‬ ْ ‫ب ت َك ْب ِي َْرةُ ال‬
ِ ‫فت َِتا‬ ُ ‫ج‬
ِ َ ‫"ت‬
(The Takbirah of Consecration is compulsory, then the standing position)

3. ‫م‬
ّ ‫ث‬ (after awhile), like:

ُ ‫م‬
"‫ل‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ع‬ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫عل‬
ّ ُ‫م ث‬ ِ ْ ‫ب ال‬
ُ ‫ج‬
ِ َ ‫"ي‬
(Knowledge is compulsory then action)

4. ‫حّتى‬
َ (even, until, up to including), like:

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫وال‬ ُ‫صل َة‬
ّ ‫م ال‬
ُ ‫ه‬ َ َ – ُ‫حّتى ال َن ْب َِياء‬
َ ِ ْ ‫علي‬ َ ‫س‬
ُ ‫ت الّنا‬
َ ‫ما‬
َ "

18
(People are mortal and will die even the Prophets – May Peace and Blessings
be upon them)

‫و‬ َ
5. ْ ‫أ‬ (or), like:

"ً ‫نيا‬
َ َ
َ َ‫ث‬
ِ ‫ما‬ ْ ‫حى أْرَبعا ً أ‬
‫و‬ َ ‫ض‬ ّ ‫ص‬
ّ ‫ل ال‬ َ "
[Prayer the Dawn prayer four or eight (bowings)]

6. ‫ما‬
ّ ِ‫إ‬ (or), like:

"ّ ‫حبا‬
َ َ ‫ست‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ما‬ َ ً ‫جبا‬
ّ ِ ‫وإ‬ ِ ‫وا‬
َ ‫ما‬ ْ ‫م‬
ّ ِ‫ل إ‬ َ ‫ع‬
ْ ِ ‫"ا‬
(Do either what is compulsory or what is highly recommended)

‫م‬ َ
7. ْ ‫أ‬ (or), like:

َ َ
ُ َ ‫خط‬
"‫ه‬ َ ‫س‬
َ ‫م‬
ْ ‫بأ‬ُ ُ ‫ه ت َطْل‬
ِ ‫ضاءَ الل‬
َ ‫ر‬
ِ ‫"أ‬
(Is it the Pleasure of Allah that you seek or His Anger)

8. َ‫ل‬ (not), like:

"ً ‫يئا‬ َ َ‫ل‬


ّ ‫س‬ ً ‫صاِلحا‬ ْ ‫م‬
َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ع‬
ْ ِ ‫"ا‬
(Do what is righteous not what is evil)

9. ْ َ‫ب‬
‫ل‬ (even better, rather, instead), like:

"ً ‫يبا‬
ّ َ‫ط‬ ْ َ ‫حل َل ً ب‬
‫ل‬ ْ ُ ‫"ا ُطْل‬
َ ‫ب‬
(Seek what is lawful even better the good things)

10. ْ ِ ‫ل َك‬
‫ن‬ (but), like:

ٌ َ ‫خل‬
"‫ص‬ ْ ِ‫إ‬ ْ ِ ‫رَياءٌ ل َك‬
‫ن‬ ِ ‫ل‬ ِ َ ‫"ل َ ي‬
ّ ‫ح‬
(Showing-off is not lawful but sincerity is)

The third is the ‫يد‬


ْ
ْ ِ ‫( الت ّأك‬corroboration), like:

َ َ ‫خل‬
"‫ص‬ ْ ِ ‫ال‬ َ َ ‫خل‬
‫ص‬ ِ ُ ‫"ا ُطْل‬
ْ ِ ‫ب ال‬
(Seek sincerity sincerity)

َ ّ ‫ك ُل‬
"‫ها‬ ‫ب‬
َ ‫و‬ ِ ‫"ا ُت ُْر‬
ْ ُ ‫ك الذّن‬

19
(Abandon sin, all of it)

َ َ ‫( ال ْب‬Substitute), like:
The fourth is the ‫دل‬

َ ّ ‫َرب‬
"‫ك‬ ‫ه‬
َ ‫د الل‬ ْ ُ ‫"ا‬
ِ ُ ‫عب‬
(Worship Allah, your Lord and Cherisher)

"‫م‬
ْ ‫ه‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
ِ ‫ه‬
َ ‫صى الل‬
َ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ن‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ ‫س‬
َ ‫ض الّنا‬ ُ ْ ‫"ا ُب‬
ِ ‫غ‬
(Hate the people, those who disobey Allah amongst them)

"‫ه‬ ّ ‫ح‬
ُ ‫ق‬ َ – ‫عاَلى‬
َ َ‫ه – ت‬
َ ‫ظ الل‬ َ ‫ح‬
ِ ‫ف‬ ْ ِ ‫"ا‬
(Protect Allah – Most High – His Right)

ِ ‫ال ْب ََيا‬
The fifth is the ‫ن‬ ْ ‫ع‬
‫طف‬ َ (Explicative / Explanatory Apposition)

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫وال‬
َ ُ‫صل َة‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
ّ ‫ه ال‬ َ –‫د‬
ٍ ‫م‬
ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫م‬
ُ ‫مّنا ب ِن َب ِي َّنا‬
َ ‫"آ‬
(We believe in our Prophet, Muhammad – Upon him be Peace and Blessings)

20
∗ Section Three: The Governing Effect / Declension

(‫)العمل \ العراب‬

It is either a َ ‫حَر‬
‫كجة‬ َ (vowel), a ‫حجْرف‬
َ (letter/consonant) or ْ ‫حج‬
‫ذف‬ َ
(omission).

َ ْ ‫ ال‬constitutes three (things):


َ ‫حَر‬
The ‫كة‬

1. ‫مة‬
ّ ‫ض‬
َ
2. ‫حة‬ َ
َ ْ ‫فت‬
3. ْ َ‫ك‬
‫سَرة‬

The ‫رف‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬constitutes four (things)


ْ ‫ح‬
1. ‫واو‬
َ
2. ‫َياء‬

3. ‫أ َِلف‬

4. ‫ون‬
ْ ُ‫ن‬
‫ذف‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ح‬ constitutes three (things) that are specific to the al-fi‘l:

1. ‫ة‬ َ ْ ‫ذف ال‬


ِ َ ‫حَرك‬ ْ ‫ح‬
َ (omission of the vowel)

2. ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ذف ال‬


ِ ‫حْر‬ ْ ‫ح‬
َ (omission of the letter)

3. ‫ن‬
ِ ‫و‬ ْ ‫ح‬
ْ ّ ‫ذف الن‬ َ (omission of the ‫ون‬
ْ ّ ‫) الن‬. The sum total is ten.
The types of ‫رب‬ َ ‫ع‬ ُ ْ ‫( ال‬declinable word) – with reference to what they have
ْ ‫م‬
been afforded of these ten (signs) – are nine, because their declension is either
by means of ‫ضججة‬ َ ‫ح‬ َ ْ ‫كججات ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫( ال‬i.e. pure vowel-markings), or
َ ‫حَر‬
‫ضة‬َ ‫ح‬ْ ‫م‬َ ْ ‫وف ال‬ ْ ‫حُر‬ ُ ْ ‫( ال‬i.e. pure letters) – which are specific to the ‫سم‬ ْ ‫ال‬
– or by means of ِ ْ‫حذ‬
‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ع ال‬ َ ‫م‬
َ ‫كات‬ َ ْ ‫( ال‬vowel-markings plus
َ ‫حَر‬
omission) or ‫ف‬ ِ ْ‫حذ‬ َ ْ ‫ع ال‬َ ‫م‬َ ‫وف‬ ْ ‫حُر‬ ُ ْ ‫( ال‬letters plus omission) – which are
specific to the ‫عل‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬.
ْ ‫ف‬

21
The first (i.e. that which is declined by means of ‫ضة‬
َ ‫ح‬ َ ْ ‫كات ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫حَر‬ ) is
either:

• ‫ب‬
ِ ‫عَرا‬
ْ ِ ‫م ال‬ّ ‫( َتا‬complete in its declension) by being ‫وع‬ ْ ‫ف‬ُ ‫مْر‬
َ with the
‫وب‬ْ ‫ص‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬َ ,‫مة‬ ّ ‫ض‬ّ ‫ ال‬with ‫حة‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬and ‫ور‬
َ ْ ‫فت‬ ْ ‫جُر‬
ْ ‫م‬َ with the ‫سَرة‬ ْ َ ‫ال ْك‬
– and that is the ‫رف‬ ِ ‫ص‬ ُ ْ ‫فَرد ال‬
َ ْ ‫من‬ ُ ْ ‫( ال‬fully-declinable
ْ ‫م‬
singular noun), like:

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ ُ ‫و‬
َ –‫ل‬ ْ ‫س‬
ُ ‫جاءََنا الّر‬
َ "
(The Messenger – Upon him be Peace – came to us)

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ َ ‫و‬
َ –‫ل‬ ْ ‫س‬ ْ ّ‫صد‬
ُ ‫قَنا الّر‬ َ "
(We believe the Messenger – Upon him be Peace)

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ َ –‫ل‬
ِ ‫و‬
ْ ‫س‬
ُ ‫مّنا ِبالّر‬
َ ‫"آ‬
(We believe in the Messenger – Upon him be Peace)

ٌ ُ ‫ك َت‬
"‫ب‬ ‫ء‬
ِ ‫ما‬
َ ‫س‬
ّ ‫ن ال‬
َ ‫م‬ َ ‫"ن ََز‬
ِ ‫ل‬
(Books descended from Heaven)

َ ُ ‫ال ْك ُت‬
"‫ب‬ ْ ّ‫صد‬
‫قَنا‬ َ "
(We believe the Books)

ِ ُ ‫ِبال ْك ُت‬
"‫ب‬ ‫مّنا‬
َ ‫"آ‬
(We believe in the Books)

• ‫ب‬
ِ ‫عَرا‬
ْ ِ ‫قص ال‬
ِ ‫َنا‬ (incomplete in its declension), which is of two
groups: a group which is ‫وع‬ ُ ‫مْر‬
ْ ‫ف‬ َ with the ‫وب‬
ْ ‫ص‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
َ , ‫مة‬
ّ ‫ض‬
ّ ‫ال‬ and
‫ور‬ْ ‫جُر‬ْ ‫م‬
َ with the ‫حة‬ َ ْ ‫فت‬َ ْ ‫ ال‬, like:
َ
ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ه ال‬ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
َ – ُ‫مد‬ َ ‫ح‬ ْ ‫جاءََنا أ‬ َ "
(Ahmad – Upon him be Peace – came to us)

َ
ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ َ – َ‫مد‬
َ ‫ح‬ ْ ّ‫صد‬
ْ ‫قَنا أ‬ َ "
(We believe Ahmad – Upon him be Peace)

َ
ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ َ – َ‫مد‬
َ ‫ح‬
ْ ‫مّنا ب ِأ‬
َ ‫"آ‬

22
(We believe in Ahmad – Upon him be Peace)

and a group which is ‫وع‬ ْ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫مْر‬


َ with the ‫وب‬
ْ ‫ص‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
َ , ‫مة‬
ّ ‫ض‬
ّ ‫ال‬ and
‫ور‬
ْ ‫جُر‬
ْ ‫م‬ ْ َ ‫ ال ْك‬, like:
َ with the ‫سَرة‬

"‫ت‬
ٌ ‫جَزا‬
ِ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫جاءََنا‬
َ "
(Miracles came to us)

"‫ت‬
ٍ ‫جَزا‬
ِ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ْ ّ‫صد‬
‫قَنا‬ َ "
(We believe Miracles)

"‫ت‬
ٍ ‫جَزا‬
ِ ‫ع‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ِ‫ب‬ ‫مّنا‬
َ ‫"آ‬
(We believe in Miracles)

The second (i.e. that which is declined by means of ‫ضة‬


َ ‫ح‬ َ ْ ‫وف ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫حُر‬ )
is either:

• ‫ب‬ِ ‫عَرا‬ ْ ِ ‫م ال‬ّ ‫( َتا‬complete in its declension), by being ‫وع‬ ُ ‫مْر‬


ْ ‫ف‬ َ with the
َ
‫وب‬ ْ ‫ص‬ ُ ْ ‫من‬ َ , ‫واو‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬with the ‫ الِلف‬and ‫ور‬ ْ ‫جُر‬ ْ ‫م‬ َ with the ‫– ال َْياء‬
َ
and that is the ‫فة‬ َ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫عت َّلة ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫سّتة ال‬ ّ ‫ماء ال‬ َ ‫س‬
ْ ‫ال‬
‫مك َب َّرة‬ُ ْ ‫دة ال‬ ْ ‫م‬
َ ‫فَر‬ ُ ْ ‫مت َك َل ّم ِ ال‬ُ ْ ‫ء ال‬ ِ ‫ر َيا‬ َ ‫( إ َِلى‬i.e. the six weak-
ِ ْ ‫غي‬
ended nouns annexed to a noun other than the ‫ياء‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬of the first person
singular and which are singular and non-diminutive), and they are:
‫ه‬ َ ُ َ ‫( أ‬his brother), ‫ها‬
ُ ‫و‬
ْ ُ ‫( أب‬his father), ‫ه‬
ُ ‫و‬
ْ ‫خ‬ َ ‫و‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ح‬
َ (her in-law), ‫ه‬
ُ ‫و‬
ْ ُ ‫هن‬
َ
(his shameful object), ‫ه‬ ُ ‫و‬ ُ (his mouth) and
ْ ‫ف‬ ‫ل‬
ٍ ‫ما‬ ْ ُ‫ذ‬
َ ‫و‬ (possessor of
wealth i.e. wealthy), like:

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ َ – ِ ‫سم‬ َ ْ ‫جاءََنا أ َُبو ال‬
ِ ‫قا‬ َ "
(The Father of Qasim – Upon him be Peace – came to us)

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ َ – ِ ‫سم‬ َ ْ ‫قَنا أ ََبا ال‬
ِ ‫قا‬ ْ ّ‫صد‬
َ "
(We believe Father of Qasim – Upon him be Peace)

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ِ ْ ‫عل َي‬
‫ه‬ َ – ِ ‫سم‬ َ ْ ‫مّنا ب ِأ َِبي ال‬
ِ ‫قا‬ َ ‫"آ‬
(We believe in Father of Qasim – Upon him be Peace)

23
• ‫ب‬
ِ ‫عَرا‬
ْ ِ ‫قص ال‬
ِ ‫َنا‬ (incomplete in its declension), which are two groups:

(a) a group which is ‫وع‬ ُ ‫مْر‬


ْ ‫ف‬ َ with the‫وب‬ ْ ‫صج‬ُ ْ ‫من‬ َ ,‫واو‬ َ ‫ ال ْج‬and
‫ور‬
ْ ‫جُر‬
ْ ‫م‬
َ with the ‫ال َْياء‬, which is the ‫لم‬ ِ ‫سججا‬ّ ‫ر ال‬ ُ ْ ‫مع ال‬
ِ ّ ‫مذَك‬ ْ ‫ج‬
َ
as " ‫و‬ ُ ُ ْ ‫ع‬
(sound masculine plural) as well ْ ‫ "أول‬and "‫ن‬ َ ‫و‬ْ ‫شُر‬ ِ " and its
sisters, like:

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ه‬ َ َ –‫ن‬ ْ ُ ‫سل‬ ُ ْ ‫جاءََنا ال‬
ِ ْ ‫علي‬ َ ‫و‬ َ ‫مْر‬ َ "
(The Messengers – Upon them be Peace – came to us)

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ه‬ َ َ –‫ن‬ ُ ْ ‫قَنا ال‬
ْ ّ‫صد‬
ِ ْ ‫علي‬ َ ْ ‫سل ِي‬
َ ‫مْر‬ َ "
(We believe the Messengers – Upon them be Peace)

ُ َ ‫سل‬
"‫م‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬
ُ ‫ه‬ َ َ –‫ن‬ ُ ْ ‫مّنا ِبال‬
ِ ْ ‫علي‬ َ ْ ‫سل ِي‬
َ ‫مْر‬ َ ‫"آ‬
(We believe in the Messengers – Upon them be Peace)

‫وع‬ ُ ‫مْر‬ َ
(b) a group which is ْ ‫ف‬ َ with the ‫وب‬ ْ ‫صج‬
ُ ْ ‫من‬
َ ,‫ الِلف‬and
‫ور‬ْ ‫جُر‬ ْ ‫م‬ َ with the ‫ال َْياء‬, which is the ‫( الت ّث ْن َِية‬dual) as well as "
ِ ‫ "ا ِث َْنا‬and "َ ‫ "ك ِل‬annexed to a ‫مر‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫ض‬
ْ ‫م‬
ُ (personal pronoun), like:
َ
"‫ة‬
ُ ّ ‫سن‬
ّ ‫وال‬
َ ُ ‫ي ال ْك ََتا‬
‫ب‬ ْ ‫ما" أ‬ ُ َ ‫ن ك ِل‬
َ ‫ه‬ ِ ‫جاءََنا الث َْنا‬
َ
(The two, both of them, came), that is, the Book and the Sunnah

َ
"‫ما‬
َ ‫ه‬
ِ ْ ‫ك ِلي‬ ِ ْ ‫عَنا الث ْن َي‬
‫ن‬ ْ َ ‫"ا ِت ّب‬
(We follow the two, both of them)

َ ْ ِ ‫ع‬
"‫ما‬ ِ ْ ‫ك َلي‬
َ ‫ه‬ ِ ْ ‫ملَنا ِبالث ْن َي‬
‫ن‬ َ "
(We act according to the two, both of them)

ِ ْ‫حذ‬
The third (i.e. that which is declined by means of ‫ف‬ َ ْ ‫ع ال‬
َ ‫م‬
َ ‫كات‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫حَر‬ )
is only complete in its declension, and comprises two groups:

(a) a group which is ‫وع‬ْ ‫ف‬ُ ‫مْر‬


َ with the ‫وب‬ ْ ‫ص‬ُ ْ ‫من‬ َ ,‫مة‬ ّ ‫ض‬ ّ ‫ ال‬with the
‫حة‬ َ ْ ‫ ال‬and ‫وم‬
َ ْ ‫فت‬ ْ ‫جُز‬ْ ‫م‬َ with the ‫ة‬ ِ َ ‫حَرك‬َ ْ ‫ذف ال‬ ْ ‫ح‬َ (omission of the vowel),
which is the ْ ‫ص‬
‫ل‬ ْ َ‫ي ل‬
ِ ّ ‫م ي َت‬ ْ ‫ذ‬ِ ّ ‫رع ال‬ِ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬
‫ح‬
ٌ ْ ‫حي‬
ِ ‫ص‬ َ ‫ف‬ ٌ ‫حْر‬َ ‫و‬َ ‫ه‬
ُ ‫و‬ َ ‫مي ٌْر‬ِ ‫ض‬
َ ‫ه‬ِ ‫ر‬ ِ ‫خ‬
ِ ‫( ِبآ‬i.e. the ‫رع‬ ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬that
ْ ‫ف‬
does not have a personal pronoun attached at its ending with the latter being a
strong letter), like:

24
َ
"‫م‬
ْ ‫حَر‬
ْ ُ‫ن‬ ْ َ ‫ول‬
‫م‬ َ ‫ع‬ َ ‫ش‬
َ ‫ف‬ ْ َ‫ن ت‬
ْ ‫بأ‬ّ ‫ح‬
ِ ُ ‫"ن‬
[We would like that you (O Muhammad) intercede (for us) and that we not be
deprived)

(b) a group which is ‫وع‬ْ ‫ف‬ُ ‫مْر‬َ with the ‫وب‬ ْ ‫ص‬ُ ْ ‫من‬َ , ‫مة‬ ّ ‫ض‬ّ ‫ ال‬with the
‫حة‬ َ ْ ‫فت‬ ْ
َ ‫ ال‬and ‫وم‬ْ ‫جُز‬ْ ‫م‬
َ with the ‫ر‬ ِ ‫خ‬ ِ ‫ذف ال‬ ْ ‫ح‬ َ (omission of the ending),
which is the ‫ل‬ْ ‫ص‬ ْ َ‫ي ل‬
ِ ّ ‫م ي َت‬ ْ ‫ذ‬ِ ّ ‫رع ال‬ِ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
ْ ‫ف‬
‫ح‬
ٌ ْ ‫حي‬
ِ ‫ص‬ َ ‫ف‬ٌ ‫حْر‬َ ‫و‬َ ‫ه‬
ُ ‫و‬َ ‫مي ٌْر‬ِ ‫ض‬
َ ‫ه‬ِ ‫ر‬ِ ‫خ‬ ِ ‫( ِبآ‬i.e. the ‫رع‬ ِ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬that
ْ ‫ف‬
does not have a personal pronoun attached at its ending with the latter being a
weak letter), like:

َ
"‫ر‬
ِ ‫الّنا‬ ‫في‬
ِ ‫مَنا‬ ْ َ ‫ول‬
ِ ‫م ي َْر‬ َ ،‫عّنا‬
َ ‫و‬ ُ ‫ع‬
َ ‫ف‬ ْ ‫عاَلى – أ‬
ْ َ‫ن ي‬ َ َ‫ه – ت‬
َ ‫عو الل‬
ُ ْ‫"ن َد‬
(We beseech Allah – Most High – to pardon us and not cast us in the Fire)

The fourth is only incomplete in its declension, which is the


‫غي ْجُر‬ َ ‫ع‬ ٌ ‫و‬ ْ ‫فج‬ُ ‫مْر‬ َ ‫مي ٌْر‬ ِ ‫ضج‬َ ‫ه‬ ِ ‫ر‬ِ ‫خ‬ ِ ‫ل ب ِججآ‬ َ ‫صج‬ َ ّ ‫ي ات‬
ْ ‫ذ‬ ِ ّ ‫رع ال‬ ِ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫م‬ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ْ ‫ف‬ ِ ْ ‫ال‬
‫ن‬ِ ‫و‬ ْ ّ ‫( الن‬i.e. the ‫رع‬ ِ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫عل ال‬ ِ ْ ‫ ال‬that has a personal pronoun that is
ْ ‫ف‬
‫وع‬ ْ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫مْر‬ َ other than the ‫ون‬ ْ ّ ‫ الن‬attached at its ending). It is ‫وع‬ ْ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫مْر‬
َ with
the ‫ون‬ ْ ّ ‫ الن‬, and ‫وب‬ ْ ‫ص‬ُ ْ ‫من‬ َ and ‫وم‬ ْ ‫جُز‬ْ ‫م‬َ with the ‫ن‬ ِ ‫و‬
ْ ّ ‫ذف الن‬ ْ ‫ح‬ َ , like:
َ ‫فن َرججج‬ ِ ْ ‫م ال‬ َ
"‫ن‬ْ ‫وأ‬ ْ ُ ْ َ ،‫ة‬ ِ ‫مجج‬ َ ‫قَيا‬ َ ‫و‬ ْ ‫ن َيجج‬ ِ ‫عا‬َ ‫ف‬َ ‫شجج‬ْ َ ‫مججاءُ ي‬ َ َ ‫عل‬ُ ْ ‫وال‬
َ ُ‫ول َِيججاء‬ ْ ‫ال‬
‫عّنا‬َ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫ر‬ ِ ‫ع‬ْ ُ‫م ي‬ْ َ ‫ول‬َ ‫عا ل ََنا‬ َ ‫ف‬ َ ‫ش‬ ْ َ ‫"ي‬
[The Friends (of Allah) and Scholars will intercede on the Day of Resurrection,
so we hope that they will intercede for us and not turn away from us]

Thereafter, ‫عجَراب‬
ْ ِ ‫ال‬ (declension) – if it is evident in ْ ّ ‫الل‬
‫فجظ‬ (oral
expression) – it is called ‫ي‬ ْ َ‫ل‬
ّ ِ ‫فظ‬ (orally expressed / explicit), like in the case
of the previous examples, and – if it is not evident in ْ ّ ‫الل‬
‫فظ‬ but instead is
implied at its ending – it is called ‫ي‬
ّ ‫ر‬
ِ ْ ‫دي‬ ْ َ ‫( ت‬implied / implicit), like:
ِ ‫ق‬
"‫ي‬
ْ ‫ص‬ َ ْ ‫ال‬
ِ ‫عا‬ ‫"أ ََنا‬
(I am the one that is disobedient)

and – if it is not evident at its ending (whether in ْ ّ ‫الل‬


‫فظ‬ or ‫دْير‬ ْ ّ ‫الت‬
ِ ‫ق‬ ) – it is
ّ ّ ‫حل‬
called ‫ي‬ َ ‫م‬
َ (place-related), like:
"‫ه‬
ِ ِ ‫هت‬
َ ‫ج‬
ِ ‫ن‬
ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫ن ل َ ي َأ ِْتي ال‬
ِ ّ ‫خي ُْر إ ِل‬ َ ‫عَلى‬
ْ ‫م‬ َ ‫وك ّل َْنا‬
َ َ ‫"ت‬
(We put our trust in the One from Whose “Direction” alone Good comes)

25
‫‪End‬‬

‫∗‬
‫والحمد لله رب العالمين‬

‫‪26‬‬