Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 82

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Bachelor of Arts in Communication Research

RICA ANGELA AQUINO

In the Know with CDRRMO:

A Study on the Online Information Mechanism used by the City Disaster Risk Reduction

Office of Cagayan de Oro for Flood Disasters

Thesis Adviser:

Professor Elena E. Pernia, Ph.D.

College of Mass Communication

University of the Philippines

Date of Submission

June 2016

Thesis Classification:

This thesis is available to the public.


UNIVERSITY PERMISSION PAGE

I hereby grant the University of the Philippines non-exclusive worldwide, royalty-free


license to reproduce, publish and publicly distribute copies of this thesis or dissertation in
whatever form subject to the provisions of applicable laws, the provisions of the UP IPR
policy and any contractual obligation, as well as more specific permission marking on the
Title Page.

Specifically, I grant the following rights to the University:

a) To upload a copy of the work in the thesis database of the


college/school/institute/department and in any other databases available on the
public internet;

b) To publish the work in the college/school/institute/department journal, both in


print and electronic or digital format and online; and

c) To give open access to the above-mentioned work, thus allowing “fair use” of the
work in accordance with the provision of the Intellectual Property Code of the
Philippines (Republic Act No. 8293), especially for teaching, scholarly, and
research purposes.

RICA ANGELA AQUINO


College of Mass Communication
University of the Philippines
IN THE KNOW WITH CDRRMO: A STUDY ON THE ONLINE INFORMATION
MECHANISM USED BY THE CITY DISASTER RISK REDUCTION OFFICE OF
CAGAYAN DE ORO FOR FLOOD DISASTERS

by

RICA ANGELA AQUINO

has been approved for


the Department of Communication Research
and the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication
by

Professor Elena E. Pernia, PhD.

Professor Elena E. Pernia, PhD.


Dean, College of Mass Communication
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

PERSONAL DATA

Name Rica Angela Aquino

Permanent Address Blk 17 Lot 19 Kingfisher St. MMV

Pueblo de Oro, Cagayan de Oro City 9000

Contact Number (+63) 9177178698

Email Address icaaquino@gmail.com

EDUCATION

Secondary Level Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan

Primary Level St. Mary’s School

ORGANIZATIONS President, UP Kagayhaan, 2013-2014

Vice President for Internals, UP Kagayhaan, 2012-2013

OCVP for Programs, AIESEC UPD, 2014-2015

Member, UP Communication Research Society, 2011-2016

WORK EXPERIENCE Intern for Public Affairs & Communication

Coca-Cola Philippines, April-May 2014

ACHIEVEMENTS Parangal sa Mag-aaral Awardee 2015

Stanford Global Student Ambassador 2015

College Scholar: Second Semester AY 2011-2012


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

For my mother,

Angela Aquino.

I love you.
ABSTRACT

Aquino, R. (2016). In the Know with CDRRMO: A study on the online information

mechanism used by the City Disaster Risk Reduction Office of Cagayan de Oro for flood

disasters. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines College of

Mass Communication.

The study looked into the online information mechanism of CDRRMO during flood

disasters. Communication plays an essential role in bridging the gap between the

scientists and the people. By understanding how its users perceived the warning messages

and the warning signals found in the CDRRMO FB page and how they think they would

respond, the study concluded that information dissemination is indeed a crucial and an

important step in an early warning system. The knowledge and the flood experience, of

users have an influence on their behavior and intention. Results showed that among the

warning messages, they would prefer having an advisory that had an actual photo of the

situation. Regardless of the warning signal raised, users would still seek for more

information from people around them just to confirm. At the end of this paper is a

suggested communication plan that can be used by the CDRRMO for their information

dissemination mechanism, so that in times of disaster protective action can take place.
vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Approval Sheet iii

Biographical Data iv

Acknowledgments v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

List of Tables x

List of Figures xi

I. INTRODUCTION 1

A. Background of the Study 1

B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives 2

C. Significance of the Study 3

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 4

A. The Philippines 4

B. Warning System 6

C. Warning Communication 7

D. Social Media 12

E. Warning Response 12

F. Synthesis 15

G. Research Gap 16
viii

III. FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY 17

A. Conceptual Framework 17

B. Operational Framework 19

C. Operational Definition of Terms 20

IV. METHODOLOGY 21

A. Research Design and Methods 21

B. Variables and Measures 21

C. Respondents and Sampling 23

D. Research Instrument 23

E. Data Analysis 23

F. Scope and Limitations 24

G. The Researcher 24

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 25

A. The CDRRMO Facebook Page 25

B. Profile of the users of the CDRRMO Facebook Page 33

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 44

A. Summary 44

B. Conclusion 44

VII. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 46

BIBLIOGRAPHY 49
ix

APPENDICES 54

Appendix A: Interview Guide 54

Appendix B: Online Survey Questionnaire 55

Appendix C: Appropriate list of Actions during flood disaster 68

Appendix D: Evaluating Websites: A Checklist 69


x

LIST OF TABLES

Number Title Page

1 List of Information sought using Social Media 2

2 Criteria of a Warning Message 9

3 Preferred Communication Method 11

4 Concepts, Variables and Measures 22

5 Sources of Information to get flood updates 33

6 Summary of Responses-Factual Info 35

7 Summary of Responses-Action Advice 36

8 Summary of Responses-Consistency 36

9 Summary of Responses-Clarity 37

10 Summary of Responses-Alerting Function 38

11 Summary of Responses-Message Construction 38

12 Flood Disaster Response-Yellow Signal 40

13 Flood Disaster Response-Orange Signal 41

14 Flood Disaster Response-Red Signal 42


xi

LIST OF FIGURES

Number Title Page

No. Of People affected in 2011


1 5
Top Five Disasters in 2011
2 6
The EWS chain & key supporting process
3 7
Relationship between elements of Risk Perception
4 13
Theory of Reasoned Action
5 17
Exposure to communication leading to reasoned action
6 18
Integrated operational framework
7 20
CDRRMO FB Page
8 25
General Flood Advisory
9 28
City Flood Advisory
10 29
Flood Flow Advisory
11 30
Photo Advisory
12 30
Typhoon Track Advisory
13 31
Yellow Warning Protocol
14 31
Orange Warning Protocol
15 32
Red Warning Protocol
16 32
Facebook Live Button
17 48
I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Cagayan de Oro city (CDO) in the province of Misamis Oriental, Northern

Mindanao has low-lying areas that are prone to flooding. A study done by Tongco on

mitigating flood losses in 2011 revealed that metropolitan CDO is susceptible to floods

from prolonged and heavy rains, which drain into the several independent basins in the

CDO boundary.

Considering the city’s geographic structure, it is important that residents are

always alert and prepared in times of flood disasters. The local government of CDO and

its various concerned stakeholders should be aware of the city’s vulnerability to flooding.

Preparation is key to safety and one way to do that is to disseminate information in a

timely, accurate and reliable manner that people will quickly respond to. These days, the

social media, more than the conventional forms like newspapers, connect people in an

online environment using spontaneous, two-way and multiple dialogues (Dufty, 2014).

According to social media monitors (www.socialbakers.com as cited by Dufty, 2014),

there is a huge growth in social media usage, which is occurring particularly in South

America and Southeast Asia. This is because of an increasing worldwide access to the

Internet via smartphones, where wealth remains a factor (Pew Research Center, 2014).

A considerable proportion of people make use of social media in emergencies and

disasters. For example, an American Red Cross study (American Red Cross, 2012) found

that eight percent (8%) of all respondents have downloaded a smartphone app that could

help in a disaster or emergency. Twelve percent (12%) of survey respondents have used

social media to share or obtain information during an emergency, disaster or severe


2

weather event (Dufty, 2014). The type of emergency information that they had sought

using social media is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. List of information sought using social media


Information Sought using Social Media
Water conditions or warnings 79%
Road or traffic conditions 64%
Damage caused by the event 62%
The location and status of loved one 56%
Information about how others are coping with disaster 49%

It is in this context that this study aims to look into how social media sites may

serve as a source of information on flood disasters for CDO residents.

B Statement of the Research Problem and Objectives

This study wants to find out how users of the Cagayan de Oro (CDO) City

Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (CDRRMO) Facebook (FB) page uses it as

an information mechanism during flood disasters.

To be able to address this general objective, the researcher specifically aims:

1. To describe the CDRRMO use of FB as an information dissemination

mechanism for flood disaster;

2. To profile users of the CDRRMO FB page in terms of:

a. socio-demographic characteristics

b. previous flood experience

c. sources of information on flood disasters in the city


3

d. perception on the warning messages posted by the CDRRMO on their

FB page

e. flood disaster response to the warning signals

3. To design a communication plan that uses the strengths of FB as an information

dissemination tool and appropriate to its users in CDO

C. Significance of the Study

The 10-year Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) was first planned in Kobe,

Hyogo, Japan in January 2005 to help reduce disaster losses in all different sectors. The

HFA outlines five priorities for action and offers guiding principles and practical means

for achieving disaster resilience. Its goal is to substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015

by building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters (Dufty, 2014).

During an international conference in 2015, speaker Cumiskey said that there has

been a research gap on the communication aspect on disaster management.

Communication plays an essential role in bridging the gap between scientists and the

people. Information dissemination is a crucial yet important step in a system where the

message plays its purpose. Without the people understanding the message clearly in an

accurate and timely manner, no protective action shall take place.

By looking into the perception of the residents in the local flood warning

information system of the CDO local government, this study seeks to contribute to

improving strategies and methods for a more efficient and effective flood

communication.
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This study looks into the role of online media as a channel used for information

dissemination during flood disasters. The Philippines as a whole is exposed to natural

disasters and has been studied by scholars in multiple perspectives but this study

particularly focuses on CDO and the mode of communication used by CDRRMO.

This part of the study will look into the early warning system (EWS) but,

specifically, on the component, warning communication. It will review studies on risk

messages, risk channels and the use of social media for flood information dissemination.

This portion will also review studies on their influence on the behavior and flood

perception of the people.

A. The Philippines

The Philippines is one of the areas on earth most exposed to natural disasters. As

an archipelago with rapid urbanization in most of its coastal areas, it is also exposed to

the consequences of climate change. Between 15 and 25 tropical cyclones or storms enter

the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) in a year and out of these storms, 6 to 9

make landfall (Groupe U.R.D, 2013). The northern part of the archipelago is by far the

most exposed.

According to the Citizen Disaster Response Center (CDRC) database, the

Philippines occupies the top spot in the list of countries with the most number of disasters

in 2011. Out of the 302 natural disasters worldwide, 33 happened in the Philippines alone

ranking third and affecting over 11.7 million people as shown in Figure 1.
5

Figure 1. No. Of People Affected by Disasters in 2011

Among the top five reported disasters that affected the population, tropical

cyclones affected 10.3 million people according to the CDRC database in 2011 as shown

in Figure 2 below. The two most devastating that hit the Philippines were Tropical Storm

Sendong (Washi) and Typhoon Pedring (Nesat) particularly in Cagayan de Oro and Iligan

cities. Washi was the 19th tropical cyclone that entered the PAR in 2011. It was a

combined effect of heavy rain in the upstream of the CDO river basin from the evening of

December 16 until the morning of December 17. High tide, steep topography and debris

into the river contributed to the disaster.


6

Figure 2. Top Five Disasters in 2011

B. Warning System

An early warning system (EWS) is a tool that helps disseminate meaningful and

timely set of information to allow individuals in a community to respond to a flood

warning in the short term but contributes to an increased awareness and preparedness of

the people in the long term (Perrson, 2015). An EWS should have all these four key

elements in order to be effective: knowledge risks, monitoring and warning of hazards,

dissemination and communication of alerts and warnings, and local capabilities to

respond to the warnings received (Cumiskey, 2015; Perrson, 2015). Failure in one of the

components will mean failure in the entire system; there is then therefore a need to

oversee the entire process.

Studies show a weak communication link between scientists and the general

public, such that ordinary citizens – especially the ones living in vulnerable areas - are

unable to properly utilize available warnings and forecasts from scientists in government

agencies (Perrson, 2015). People do not always respond immediately to early warning
7

signals, instead they find other (more understandable) information in order to “confirm”

that they really are at risk (Mileti & Sorensen, 1990).

C. Warning Communication

This is an EWS developed by Parker and Priest in 2012, which is composed of

several supporting processes that form a chain with outcomes and end up with a feedback

that together should reduce disasters.

Figure 3. The EWS chain & key supporting process

This system, as shown in Figure 3, describes the flow in an EWS which begins

with detecting flood then disseminating flood information and then using the warning

information which will depend on the assessment of the receiver, and the most crucial

part which is formulating feedback from the performance which then goes back to the

beginning of the system, creating a feedback loop (Perrson, 2015).


8

1. Risk Message Model

While the EWS begins with gathering scientific information through modeling

and prognoses to determine if flood is nearing, communication is also taking place during

this process. It is this information that has to be communicated to community

organizations. Since these are technical messages, they may only be understood well only

when translated and transmitted in a manner understandable to the public.

Communicating uncertainty is important yet challenging in risk communication.

Therefore, there is a need to evaluate this flow of information especially at its

transmission and decoding phases before they are disseminated or else they may cause

miscommunication or worse alter public flood awareness (Demeritt, 2014). People

believe that individuals who have received risk information will act on it immediately.

But it must be considered that warning response is a social process, meaning that the

receiver will still deliberate the messages. Afterwards, they start assessing the risks,

which are influenced by prior experiences and their immediate environment (Perrson,

2015). It is important to note that the EWS system is not linear, rather, an integrated

system and that there is always a need to look into the several key processes.

2. Risk Message

For effective messages that are to be addressed to the public, three essential things

are the following: source, content and style. Table 2 shows the criterion, which includes

five characteristics for warning messages (Mileti & Sorensen, 1990).


9

Table 2. Criteria of a Warning Message

3. Source

Source credibility is crucial to whether people will believe what they hear on

emergency warnings. People have different opinions on whom they consider credible;

they change over time (Demeritt, 2014).

4. Content

People are concerned about four things when it comes to warning messages which

are the following: what they are supposed to do, what specific time will the disaster arrive

and what time should they start evacuating, which particular areas of CDO should take

protective action and what possible consequences could happen and how they could

prevent them (Demeritt, 2014).

5. Style
10

Statements should be clear. The simpler the words used; the better they will be

understood. It should be specific, accurate, and not ambiguous; something the public

could grasp and imagine that they can actually “do.” The message should be certain with

a clear source of authority and should be consistent throughout the message (Demeritt,

2014).

6. Risk Channels

There are plenty of ways to disseminate information to the public and each one

has its own strengths and weaknesses.

A case study on the 2014 flood in Bangladesh tried to incorporate the youth as

primary risk communicators since technology has become a vital tool for implementation.

Several channels for information dissemination such as the voice message broadcast

(VMB) were used to transmit forecast information to 300 people including government

officials, NGOs and volunteers. Water levels of flood were collected, translated and

disseminated by trained people and sent to the public via short messaging service (SMS).

Although 70% of the population in Bangladesh had mobile phones, there was still a need

to train the people on better communication. It also looked into the need to adjust

message length, frequency, and the need to increase volunteer groups (Cumiskey, 2015).

In a study on communication strategies for effective flood management in 2010,

they found out that people in Ireland would prefer direct contact in terms of giving

warning on flood preparation; and websites were the least preferred method as shown in

Table 3 below. There is then no “best” form of communication and may even vary

across cultures (Aaltonen et al., 2012).

Table 3. Preferred communication method


11

It is better to use channels to disseminate the same information to the public

because it better convinces them that they are at risk and they are more likely to take

action. Simply put, repeat the warning several times (Demeritt, 2014).

Another emerging channel is social media, which is defined as ‘all the devices

and platforms that allow users globally to virtually create and share information with

each other’ (Brooks & Gupta, 2013). “Platforms” are the virtual spaces that allow users to

come together, create and share information. “Devices” are the computing technologies

that enable users to access the platform (Brooks & Gupta, 2013, p. 18 as cited by Dufty,

2014). It emerged out of the Web 2.0 revolution that promotes interoperability, sharing,

and multiple-way communication. It first started in MySpace but expanded in 2004 when

FB was discovered (Dufty, 2014). According to eMarketer in 2013, one in four people on

earth has started using some form of social media regularly (eMarketer, 2013). FB was by

far the most popular social media site as of 2013 with over 800 million users worldwide.

Twitter (the fastest growing social media site) was second with over 220 million users

worldwide, then LinkedIn (100 million) and MySpace (80 million) (Dufty, N. 2014).
12

D. Social Media

Traditional media, such as newspapers and television, remain important disaster

communication channels but they only primarily facilitate one-way information

dissemination. On the other hand, social media can create opportunities for two-way

dialogue and interaction among organizations, the public, and individuals (Bortree &

Seltzer, 2009 as cited in START, 2012). Shown below is a list why the public uses social

media during disasters:

1. Convenience 10. Check-in with family and friends

2. Social norms 11. Self-mobilize

3. Personal recommendations 12. Maintain sense of community

4. Humor and levity 13. Seek emotional support and

5. Information seeking healing

6. Timely information 14. Privacy and security fears

7. Unique information 15. Accuracy concerns

8. Unfiltered information 16. Access issues

9. Determine disaster magnitude 17. Knowledge deficiencies

E. Warning Response

1. Flood Risk Perception

Knowing the public’s flood risk perception is essential to an effective risk

communication as it involves investigating into their awareness, emotion and behavior

towards hazards (De Maeyer, et al., 2011).


13

As shown in Figure 4, when one is exposed to a flood risk, three things could

happen. The first one is awareness. It means that an individual adapts to the information

or knowledge he/she has already known. Second is worry. It is the emotional reaction to

an individual when he/she is exposed to a certain risk, which will increase his/her

initiative, to prepare for the flood, which is the third part or preparedness. (Raaijmakers et

al., 2008; as cited in Aaltonen, et al., 2012).

Figure 4. Relationship between elements of Risk Perception

There are four influences to flood risk perception (De Maeyer, et al., 2011), which

are the following: (1) Demographics - Risk appears to favor men over women. Those

who own a house over those who rent perceive higher risk. People with lower educational

attainment show higher level of risk. Age has also shown a positive correlation to

disasters. (2) Location - Those who live in one-story houses located in low-lying areas

are more vulnerable to floods and thus perceive higher risk. Hazard proximity of the

home especially near the coastal areas also increases risk perception. (3) Knowledge - In

a study conducted in Kenya, those who were in high risk areas were more aware of

traditional flood knowledge compared to those in low risk areas. Researchers conclude
14

that this is brought about by previous flood experience (Nyakundi et al., 2010). (4) Prior

experience - Those who have a direct experience of recent floods are more aware of the

hazard and have a higher risk perception (De Maeyer, et al., 2011).

Additionally, a study entitled, “Risk Perceptions and Preparedness among Mid-

Atlantic Coastal Residents in Advance of Hurricane Sandy” conducted a telephone

survey among random samples of residents in coastal southeastern Virginia, Maryland,

Delaware, and New Jersey, including suburban New York city that included seven

domains to measure awareness and preparedness (Baker et al., 2012). This included the

following:

a. Objective storm and warning knowledge (e.g., knowledge of storm strength, time

until impact, current warnings);

b. Threat perceptions (e.g., judged probability of hurricane-force winds and damage

due to wind, surge flooding, or rain flooding);

c. Information sources (e.g., media usage and exposure to forecast graphics);

d. Short-term preparation actions and evacuation intentions (e.g., storm-related

purchases of food, water, batteries; filling the car with gasoline);

e. Longer-term preparation (e.g., supplies on hand before the storm, ownership of

flood insurance;

f. Expectations of government aid;

g. Socio-demographics and previous storm experience.

2. Flood Preparedness

The UNISDR defines preparedness as “the knowledge and capacities developed

by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities and


15

individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely,

imminent or current hazard events or conditions” (UNISDR, 2009). Though it may be

costly, societies who continually try to implement projects for prevention, preparedness

and vulnerability reduction towards disaster have greater chances of surviving in the

future, especially at a time when climate change has taken its toll (Perrson, 2015).

F. Synthesis

There are many researches that focus on how organizations manage information

during disasters (START, 2012). It has also evolved into studying various information

dissemination channels including social media. One study concluded that it is because of

the convenience it provides such as an immediate access to up-to-date information,

community interaction, and support for the public during disasters. These features are not

only efficient but also convenient (START, 2012).

There are several factors that affect the flood preparedness of the public; one of

these is flood warning perception. This process begins from flood detection up until how

residents respond to warning. In between this flow is the communication process playing

an important role in the dissemination of information. In the age of technology where

social media has been used for flood warning information dissemination in the

Philippines, there is a need to evaluate and look into this phenomenon and how it may

affect disaster preparedness in the country.

G. Research Gap

There are many research studies on flood disasters and even on the aspect of

communication but only a few have been done on the use of social media specifically the

use FB for flood communication. These studies on social media and flood disasters are
16

mostly in Asian countries but not much has been done in the Philippines. This research

would like to add to the emerging and growing literature on studies of social media and

flood disasters in the Philippine context.


III. FRAMEWORK

A. Conceptual Framework

This study considers action as the result of an individual’s intention and behavior

to a communication message. Very simply, it conceives that communication influences

intention that subsequently results to an action or behavior.

It is anchored on the theory of reasoned action. In particular, Martin Fishbein

and Icek Ajzen’s theory formulated in 1975 which states that a person’s behavior is

voluntary and is determined by his/her intention to perform that behavior, believing that

doing that behavior will result to an outcome (University of Twente, n.d.).

Fishbein and Ajzen believe that two factors affect intention: attitudes and

subjective norms. Attitudes are what a person believes which may be positive or negative

and subjective norms are the social pressures an individual feels to perform or not

perform specific behaviors. However, preceding the action and the influences of attitude

and subjective norms is the exposure to a communication message (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Theory of Reasoned Action


18

The model in Figure 6 illustrates that an individual needs to be exposed to a

message prior to deciding what action to take and therefore, reasoned action. This model

shows that the content of the messages trigger both the intention and behavior of the

public which is affected by four variables which are the following: (1) background factors

include demographics, prior experience, knowledge - where the use of the online media

comes in; (2) beliefs, attitudes and perception of warning messages - according to the

theory of reasoned action, beliefs come in three types: behavioral beliefs or their beliefs

about the consequences as well as their judgments which may be either positive or

negative, normative beliefs which are subjective norms or beliefs about how individuals,

groups or the society expects them to behave, and control beliefs or how they would

actually behave; while attitude and perception are their judgments towards the given

warning messages.

Figure 6. Exposure to communication leading to reasoned action


19

B. Operational Framework

The operational framework as shown in figure 7 begins with the communication

message, which pertains to the FB page of the CDRRMO particularly, the content and

design of its FB page (i.e., authority and accuracy, purpose and content, currency and

design, organization and ease of use). Moreover, the study looks into how the

characteristics of the users of the CDRRMO FB page affect their intention and behavior.

Specifically: (a) Background factors which are: gender, age, barangay address in CDO,

prior flood experience and media use in getting flood updates. (b) Attitudes, beliefs and

perception of the warning messages found in the CDRRMO FB page through respondents

ratings in terms of: completion of factual information, provision of action advice,

consistency of information, clarity of information, sense of urgency and correctness of

grammar and style. This then leads to an action or their perceived warning response. The

respondents stated various responses to warning signals found in the CDRRMO FB page

particularly: do nothing, form own assessment of flood risk, seek advice and/or

information, take steps to minimize water entry into property, protect personal property

and help other people.


20

Figure 7. Integrated operational framework

C. Operational Definition of Terms

CDRRMO FB Page – The medium used by the CDRRMO to disseminate flood

information and inform the public about an incoming typhoon. It contains the

warning messages and warning signals

Background Factors – Stated personal information of respondents

Attitudes, Beliefs and Perception of Warning Messages – These are the ratings to

the warning messages in the CDRRMO FB page given by the respondents

according to criteria

Perceived Warning Response - Respondents stated action responses to warning

signals
21

IV. METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design & Methods

The study utilized both a combination of quantitative and qualitative approach to

understand the information mechanism during flood disasters. To describe the content of

the CDRRMO FB and its flood dissemination mechanism, the FB page was analyzed

using content analysis; it made use of a checklist in evaluating websites from the

University of Maryland (i.e., authority and accuracy, purpose and content, currency and

design, organization and ease of use). The researcher then gathered five types of warning

messages found in the CDRRMO FB page which are the following: General Flood

Advisory, City Flood Advisory, Flood Flow Advisory, Typhoon Track Advisory and

Photo Advisory. The respondents then rated each warning message from one (very poor)

to five (very good) using the six categories: factual information, action advice,

consistency, clarity, alerting function, and message construction. Lastly, aside from the

warning message are the three types of warning signals found in the CDRRMO FB page.

The respondents were then asked to give their perceived warning response from the list of

actions (i.e. do nothing, form own assessment of flood risk, seek advice and/or

information, take steps to minimize water entry into property, protect personal property

and help other people; see Appendix C) based on the three warning signals: yellow,

orange and red.

B. Variable and Measures

The core variables of this study are the CDRRMO FB page, background factors,

attitudes, beliefs and perception of warning messages and perceived warning response.
22

These variables are directed towards users of the CDRRMO FB page and how they

perceive the warning communication used by the CDRRMO. These are manifested in

the measures along with the variables in Table 4.

Table 4. Concepts, Variables and Measures

Concepts/Variables Measures
Use of FB as an Content and design of • Authority and Accuracy
information the CDRRMO FB page • Purpose and Content
dissemination • Currency and Design
mechanism
• Organization and Ease of use
Characteristics of Background Factors: Gender, Age, Barangay Address in
CDRRMO FB users • Socio-demographic CDO, Prior flood experience and Media
characteristics use in getting flood updates
• Prior flood experience
• Media characteristics
Attitudes, Beliefs and Extent of respondents’
Perception of Warning agreement/disagreement with
Messages • Factual information
• Action advice
• Consistency
• Clarity
• Tone
• Alerting function
• Message construction
Perceived Recommended action corresponding
Warning Response to warning signal:
• Do Nothing,
• Form own assessment of flood risk,
• Seek advice and/or information,
• Take steps to minimize water entry
into property,
• Protect personal property,
• Help others,
23

C. Respondents and Sampling

Purposive Sampling was employed to select respondents. Among the users of the

CDRRMO FB page, which were 2, 077 based on the likes of the page, respondents were

selected. The respondents should be residents of CDO. A total of 120 respondents were

asked to answer the survey (see appendix A). Two males and two females for a total of

four focus interviews were also done among the respondents for an in depth analysis.

D. Research Instrument

The research instruments used in this study are the online survey using

Google docs (http://goo.gl/forms/lUV7LW7PFQ) and the focus interview guide for the

CDRRMO - Cagayan de Oro FB page users (see Appendix B). The purpose of the survey

was to gauge the media usage of the FB users, how they found out about the CDRRMO

CDO FB page and what they think about the warning messages posted through a Likert

scale. This will help obtain the background of each FB user and their perceptions of the

FB page. To further understand the data, selected key informants from FB users of the

CDRRMO - CDO FB page were requested for an interview. The focus interview guide

was used to gain more insight on the questions found on the survey questionnaire.

E. Data Analysis

The researcher used simple descriptive statistics (simple means and percentage

distributions) for the quantitative data analysis. As explained by Fishbein and Ajzen’s

model of reasoned action, a person’s background factors as well as her/his beliefs affect

intention and behavior. In this case, the researcher profiled the users of the CDRRMO FB

page and analyzed their ratings on their perception of the flood warning messages using

scoring equivalents which are as follows: low for those who scored the category 1-2,
24

medium for those who scored 3, and high for those who scored it 4-5. The mean scores

were computed after the ratings were analyzed. Their perceived warning responses were

analyzed based on the warning signals.

F. Scope and Limitations

Data gathering was limited to only one type of online media used by the

CDRRMO to disseminate information, which is their Facebook account:

www.facebook.com/cdrrmo16513. Since their website is still on the process, this is the

only channel of communication being used online. The study is limited only to the

perception of the warning messages posted by the CDRRMO on the FB page and does

not include other activities that the CDRRMO covers. The respondents are also limited

for three reasons. First, respondents were only users living in CDO and not in the nearby

cities. Since the CDO river is the catch basin of floodwater whenever there is a typhoon,

it makes CDO more vulnerable to flood compared to other nearby cities. Second,

informants are varied in terms of age. FB pages are open to the public and anyone of any

age has the liberty to follow. Lastly, informants are not at all representative of certain

barangays that were highly affected by the previous flood in CDO.

G. The Researcher

The researcher is a resident of CDO and has been residing in the area for almost

23 years. During her years of stay, she only witnessed a typhoon that brought huge

devastation to her city once. Realizing that flood disaster management was not much of a

priority, she took the initiative of evaluating efforts of the government of CDO after

typhoon Sendong in 2011.


IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. The CDRRMO Facebook page

Figure 8 shows how the CDRRMO FB page looks like. Like how all FB pages,

the CDRRMO FB page has its own name and logo. Its official name is “Cdrrmo –

Cagayan De Oro” and is categorized as “Government Organization.” This is their official

online dissemination channel. It includes varied posts related to disaster management in

CDO.

Figure 8. CDRRMO official Facebook page

In order to describe the CDRRMO FB page, the researcher looked into how the

contents of the page reflected the quality and accuracy of websites using the parameters

presented by the University of Maryland in 2014 (see Appendix D). The main points for

evaluating the CDRRMO FB page were the following: Authority and Accuracy, Purpose
26

and Content, Currency or the regularity of updates on the website and lastly, Design,

Organization and Ease of Use. Each one will be analyzed below.

1. Authority and Accuracy

The author of the site is the head of the CDRRMO of CDO, Mr. Verner

Monsanto. They use FB as their main channel for information dissemination, made use of

the Official Logo of the City and indicated that they are a “Government Organization”.

Hence, the FB page can be said to be high in terms of authority and accuracy.

2. Purpose and Content

The FB page serves as the CDRRMO’s official organization website for public

service information. Its purpose is to inform and spread awareness to the residents about

the efforts being done by the local government in preparing for disasters. It provides

balanced, objective and factual information. For example: “Nihunong na ang ulan ug

anam-anam namituon sa CDO. Walay ulan sa Lindaban, Mampayag, Manolo Fortich,

Talakag ug Libona. NORMAL LEVEL ang mga suba ug tributaries sa CDO karong

orasa.” (Rain has stopped in CDO and skies are slowly clearing up. There is no rain in

Lindaban, Mampayag, Manolo Fortich, Talakag and Libona. The CDO river and its

tributaries have been raised to normal level at this time). It also provides the necessary

contact details in case there is a need to contact the admin of the FB page.

3. Currency

The website was last updated 24 hours ago at the time this part of the thesis was

written. The site is well maintained, as evident by the regular updates. The feedback

mechanism through FB messaging is used regularly. Hence, the FB page can be said to

be high in terms of providing current information.


27

4. Design, Organization and Ease of Use

Since the site is already a page template of FB, then the page is easy to read and

navigate. It is, however, poorly organized in terms of how they post updates. There is no

order of when, how or what they post. For example, if there is no typhoon during that

time then expect no warning posts to come up.

The CDRRMO page included varied posts but for this study, the focus shall only

be on the warning messages used by the CDRRMO to disseminate flood information.

There are five types and each one will be presented below.

The General Flood advisory is first issued by the Department of Science and

Technology (DOST) and the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical

Services Administration (PAGASA). This warning message is issued by region, which is

then forwarded to the officials in the local cities (Figure 9).

The City Flood Advisory is issued by the local government after being given

warning and advisory by the DOST and the PAGASA (Figure 10).
28

Figure 9. General Flood Advisory


29

Figure 10. City Flood Advisory


30

The local government also issues the Flood flow advisory. It is a photo of the

CDO terrain map to find out which areas are being affected by heavy rains or are already

flooded.

Figure 11. Flood Flow Advisory

The Photo Advisory is a photo of the actual flood level in the city. This will give

users an idea of the flood levels and the current situation.

Figure 12. Photo Advisory

.
31

Figure 13. Typhoon Track Advisory

The Typhoon Track Advisory is also a photo that traces the whereabouts of the

typhoon. The date and time are specifically posted. Color codes are being used in order to

differentiate the movement or progress of the typhoon.

Information on the page also contained perceived warning responses to the three

types of warning signals which are in the CDRRMO FB page namely: yellow, orange and

red. Each type of warning signal was elaborated by the CDRRMO as shown below.

Figure 14. Yellow warning protocol


32

Figure 15. Orange warning protocol

Figure 16. Red warning protocol


33

B. Profile of the Users of the CDRRMO Facebook Page

1. Socio-demographic characteristics

Online survey respondents totaled 120, with females (64) slightly outnumbering

males (56). Actual ages ranged from 20 to 55, with mean age being 25 years old.

Most of the respondents were from Barangay Carmen, followed by Balulang and

Macasandig; all three areas were highly damaged during Sendong in 2011.

2. Sources of information on flood disasters in the city

About 77.5% of respondents said that they use social media to get flood updates,

particularly posts on FB. Some, still tune in to radio announcements for information

while there are also those who rely on text messages for updates. In terms of using the

CDRRMO FB page, almost all of the respondents said that they only check for updates

when there is an incoming flood. There is a notion that people do not always immediately

respond to warning signals and still have to look for sources and confirmation before they

can say that they really are at risk and should be prepared.

Table 5. Sources of information to get flood updates

Source of Information Frequency Percentage

Posts on Facebook 93 77.5

Radio Announcement 90 75

Mobile Patrols 27 22.5

Neighbors 34 28.3

Government Facebook Page 38 31.7


34

Text Message 50 41.7

Phone call from a


2 1.7
Government official

Loud Hailer on the street 9 7.5

Government official
3 2.5
knocking on the door

Floodline 3 2.5

Others 11 9.2

*Multiple responses

3. Previous Flood Experience

Majority of respondents or 80% of respondents have had prior flood experience,

which was Typhoon Sendong in December 2011 followed by Typhoon Pablo, which

happened a year later in December 2012.

4. Perception on the Warning Messages Posted by the CDRRMO on their FB Page

The respondents were asked to rate each advisory based on five categories, 1

being very poor or the lowest and 5 being very good or the highest. The researcher tallied

the ratings of all the respondents by frequency but classified their ranking accordingly.

Those who ranked the advisory on that category under 1-2 belong to low, those who

ranked it 3 belong to medium and those who ranked it 4-5 belong to high. Afterwards,

their mean scores were computed.


35

Photo Advisory scored highest with a 3.89 mean score, which means that it

provides good and sufficient factual information. For this type of warning message, the

respondents were given a perspective of the current situation through a photograph of the

flood along with the facts, bringing in a sense of truthfulness in seeing the evidence of the

flood level. Overall, the provision of factual information in all CDRRMO advisories is

reasonable enough with a mean score of 3.6.

Table 6. Summary of Responses – Factual Information (N=120)

Low Medium High


Total Mean score

General Flood
14 44 62 120 3.50
Advisory
City Flood
6 40 74 120 3.69
Advisory
Flood Flow
12 43 65 120 3.55
Advisory
Typhoon
Track 8 32 80 120 3.80
Advisory
Photo
5 30 85 120 3.89
Advisory

Photo Advisory still scored the highest with a mean score of 3.75 meaning that it

provides substantial information on what action to take. After finding out the water levels

and the current situation through the photo, given a set of instructions by the CDRRMO,

they can already gauge what they should do next. Overall, in giving provision on what

action take, the CDRRMO is satisfactory with a mean score of 3.5.


36

Table 7. Summary of Responses – Action Advice (N=120)

Low Medium High Mean score

General Flood 20 46 54 3.35


Advisory
City Flood 12 50 58 3.45
Advisory
Flood Flow 27 44 49 3.23
Advisory
Typhoon 9 36 75 3.70
Track
Advisory
Photo 5 39 76 3.75
Advisory

Photo Advisory ranked highest with 3.68 as its mean score. Respondents are

neutral on the consistency of the way the warning messages are composed. But since this

advisory has a photo attached to it, users can still tell the consistency between the picture

and the warning message itself. Most users cannot understand the Flood Flow Advisory,

which scored the lowest mean of 3.33 since it contains a terrain of mostly tributaries

around CDO, which makes it difficult to identify where the flood is at the moment.

Overall, with a mean score of 3.49 for consistency in its advisories, CDRRMO did

average work.

Table 8. Summary of Responses – Consistency (N=120)

Low Medium High Mean score

General Flood 13 58 49 3.35


Advisory
City Flood 11 52 57 3.44
Advisory
37

Flood Flow 18 49 53 3.33


Advisory
Typhoon 9 40 71 3.65
Track
Advisory
Photo 5 42 73 3.68
Advisory

The Typhoon Track Advisory scored highest with a mean score of 3.68 in clarity

of information. Just like the consistency of the warning messages, respondents feel

neutral on its clarity. This warning message gives an actual update of the progress of the

typhoon at a certain time. Overall, the CDRRMO has a mean score of 3.5 making it

satisfactory terms of clarity in its warning messages.

Table 9. Summary of Responses – Clarity (N=120)

Low Medium High Mean score

General Flood 21 48 51 3.33


Advisory
City Flood 9 52 59 3.49
Advisory
Flood Flow 19 47 54 3.35
Advisory
Typhoon 8 40 72 3.69
Track
Advisory
Photo 6 42 72 3.68
Advisory

The alerting function of Typhoon Track Advisory with a mean score of 3.73 is

good. With its provision of the time and an update of the speed of the typhoon, users can
38

actually feel the sense of urgency on the warning message itself. Overall, its alerting

function is acceptable with a mean score of 3.4.

Table 10. Summary of Responses – Alerting Function (N=120)

Low Medium High Mean score

General Flood 27 46 47 3.20


Advisory
City Flood 13 48 59 3.40
Advisory
Flood Flow 20 45 55 3.33
Advisory
Typhoon 8 36 76 3.73
Track
Advisory
Photo 6 43 71 3.66
Advisory

Typhoon Track Advisory scored the highest with a mean score of 3.70 meaning

that it is good with message construction. With a photograph beside a warning message,

it is easier to comprehend and understand. Overall, the CDRRMO has a mean score of

3.5 making it satisfactory in constructing the messages of its advisories.

Table 11. Summary of Responses – Message Construction (N=120)

Low Medium High Mean score

General Flood 19 48 53 3.36


Advisory
City Flood 10 47 63 3.54
Advisory
Flood Flow 16 50 54 3.40
Advisory
39

Typhoon 8 39 73 3.70
Track
Advisory
Photo 6 40 74 3.69
Advisory

Both the Photo Advisory and the Typhoon Track yielded good results from

respondents with a mean score of 3.73. What is similar to these advisories is on the way

the warning messages gave the respondents a perspective of the current situation.

Furthermore, the Flood Flow Advisory looks like a map with labels and colors

that really seemed unclear. It is supposed to show where the flood levels are in the area

yet the respondents could not tell exactly where the floodwaters are starting to rise.

The City Flow Advisory, which is similar to a General Flood Advisory, shows

more connection to the respondents, as it was clear in its warning message as well as its

consistency with the facts. It has a strong appeal to the respondents since this warning

message uses terms and places that are familiar to them.

Overall, the warning messages produced by the CDRRMO - CDO posted on their

FB page are reliable since they all come from and are verified by the DOST and

PAGASA. Second, they should have a photograph or a visual representation that will

allow its readers to believe and make sense of the situation, which was why the Photo

Advisory scored highest in almost four categories. Third, the warning message should be

constructed formally using direct and simple words such that anybody could understand

without any misinterpretation or doubt.


40

5. Flood disaster response to the warning signals

When the warning signal yellow is raised, majority or 67.5% respondents report

to form their own assessment about the flood. Since the yellow signal means “READY”,

it is only normal for residents to assess their own situation since flood is possible.

Table 12. Flood Disaster Response – Yellow Signal

Warning Response Frequency Percentage

Do nothing 0 0

Form own assessment of 42 35


flood risk

Seek advice and/or 65 54.2


information

Take steps to minimize 67 55.8


water entry into property

Protect personal property 69 57.5

Help other people 32 26.7

*Multiple responses

When the orange warning signal is raised half of the respondents would choose to

do three things: seek advice and/or information, take steps to minimize water entry into

property and protect personal property. The orange warning signal is on a “GET SET”

status which means that the rain is very hard and flood is threatening; thus, respondents
41

would perceive doing precautionary measures just in case and possibly even move out to

be sure of safety.

Table 13. Flood Disaster Response – Orange Signal

Warning Response Frequency Percentage

Do nothing 3 2.5

Form own assessment of 50 41.7


flood risk

Seek advice and/or 81 67.5


information

Take steps to minimize 38 31.7


water entry into property

Protect personal property 32 26.7

Help other people 23 19.2

*Multiple responses

When the warning signal red is raised, majority of respondents would protect

personal property (move the car up to a higher place, unplug electric wires, pull up the

furniture). This also means finding ways to stay out of danger and create getaway areas in

case water comes in the house and cause serious flooding. Half of respondents (about

55%) also said that they would take steps to minimize entry of flood into property and

would still seek for advice and/or information given that almost all of these respondents
42

have had prior flood experience. But despite that, half of the respondents or 56.7 %

would still choose to help others in times of flood.

Table 14. Flood Disaster Response – Red Signal

Warning Response Frequency Percentage

Do nothing 3 2.5

Form own assessment of 42 35


flood risk

Seek advice and/or 62 51.7


information

Take steps to minimize 67 55.8


water entry into property

Protect personal property 86 71.7

Help other people 68 56.7

*Multiple responses

It is important to note that perceived warning responses are affected by several

factors such as demographics, location, knowledge and prior experience. Only 2.5% will

do nothing on a red signal, which could be because of their location as a factor as they

might be living in the upper area of CDO. But almost all respondents would definitely do

something at the least, which is to form their own assessment when given a warning

signal. This may be because of prior experience as a factor. When one is exposed to a
43

risk, in this case, Typhoon Sendong in 2011, it somehow increases their initiative to

prepare for the flood.

For all the three warning protocols, about 40-55% of respondents would still seek

for advice and information from other sources even if the warning signal raised was

already red and the warning message already demand for forced evacuation.
VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

A. Summary

This study was conducted in order to look into the role of online media

particularly FB and the flood warning communication used by the CDRRMO of

CDO. It evaluated the users of the CDRRMO – CDO FB page and looked into their

perceptions on the five types of warning messages and the perceived warning

response of respondents based on a warning signal. It made use of a survey to gather

data and was supported by interviews. FB posts are the most widely used medium to

get information on flood disasters and among the advisories posted on the FB page,

the photo advisory and the typhoon track were the most favored. Among the three

warning signals, their perceived warning response at all times is to seek for advice

and/or other information despite the warning given. Prior experience to flood was a

major factor in their response and this must have prompted why they had to verify

information and seek more advice. Overall, the CDRRMO CDO FB page is very

helpful but it must be more aggressive in terms of reaching more people since

respondents find out about it only through referral from those who work there or

through related pages on FB.

B. Conclusion

According to Demeritt, D. (2014), the more channels used to disseminate

information, the more you convince them to believe in the warning message. The

CDRRMO must not limit itself to using one medium for information dissemination. A

focus on social media must be given especially in this age of technology and
45

development, where it allows people to communicate and interact with each other more

effectively (Bortree & Seltzer, 2009 as cited in START, 2012). But with the influx of

information, it is quite difficult to fully comprehend which one is true and credible,

reason enough for CDRRMO to make use of efficient media in creating warning

messages and focus on the three categories: source, content and style. To capture

attention, it must come from reliable sources, make use of pictures and be direct to the

point in stating the facts. The most popular social media site is FB in 2013 with over 800

million users worldwide (Dufty, 2014). It remains to be the largest social media site today

and is coming up with more developments. In an article from Emergency Management in

2014, it states that Facebook has developed a disaster specific tool called Safety Check

Feature, which allows its users to let others know that they are in a safe place. This is just

one of those innovations and there are plenty more of opportunities that will revolutionize

the way flood disasters will be communicated in the future. FB pages, if used efficiently

and effectively can reach thousands of users and the CDRRMO, as the responsible

governing body for disasters in the city, has the capacity to do so.
VII. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The researcher prepared a communication plan as a result of this study. This will

help the CDRRMO in their efforts to disseminate information to FB users in CDO

especially during flood disasters.

The goal is to provide a better communication system through FB that will give

residents of CDO an up-to-date, real time and reliable flood updates in the city through

the following objectives: (1) have more residents follow the CDRRMO FB page; (2)

instigate the need for residents of CDO to be aware of the various warning messages and

warning signals posted on their FB page; and (3) enable CDRRMO to produce flood

update materials that can be well understood by the public.

The residents of CDO generally have this insight or concern whenever there is an

incoming typhoon in the city: “we [residents of CDO] know the urgency whenever there

is rain in the city but we are not that sure of the information that we receive about the

typhoon….”and in order to address this concern, this communication plan shall give the

residents of CDO a primary source of information and announcement about an incoming

typhoon from the CDRRMO (24 hours a day, 7 days a week).

The key message of this campaign is, “Be in the Know with CDRRMO!”and in

the dialect, “Basta impormasyon sa baha, sa CDRRMO sigurado ang balita!”

(When it comes to information about flood, you are sure with CDRRMO).

Five activities will be launched for the campaign: (1) media launch - not all

residents of CDO know that there is a special department in the government that handles

disaster risk affairs in the city more so an FB page that they officially use to disseminate

important information about flood in the city. In order to raise awareness and gain more
47

following on their FB page, there will be a media launch that will be held in several areas

in CDO especially in public parks to reach more people and let them know of the services

provided by the CDRRMO. The launch will also partner with schools as well as

barangays; (2) flood risk 101 - back to basics on educating the residents on flood

warnings and signals as well as disaster drills to ensure the right knowledge and actions

for safety in cases of typhoons in the city; (3) inquiry system – there will be a designated

person aside from the admin to check up on the FB page that will answer questions,

feedbacks or queries sent via FB message. This will establish communication ties with

the residents of CDO and ensure that the residents are making use of the information

being posted on the FB page; (4) flood advisory template – since there are about five

types of warning advisories on their FB page, it is most likely to cause confusion among

residents. Thus, in order to be straightforward and precise, there will be a flood advisory

template where all the important details and other information residents need to know are

available that is written down in a concise yet understandable way. There should also be

an official hashtag that residents could click on to get related information during

typhoons such as #CDRRMOinCDO and #BantayBahaCDO. This will also help monitor

those who need help or other related news that happened before, during and after a

typhoon. And lastly (5) live stream - to see is to believe, they say. FB recently launched

their LIVE app button as seen in Figure 17. It means that anywhere, as long as there is

Wi-Fi, people could see you wherever you are and whatever you’re doing in real time.

This will help CDRRMO officers better give live status updates about the typhoon to

residents via FB.


48

Figure 17. Facebook live button

Source: Slash Gear. Retrieved from <http://www.slashgear.com/how-do-i-use-facebook-


live-video-04417024/>

But before plans are executed, there should be a SWOT analysis in order to

anticipate the positive and negative points of this campaign. For this campaign, its

strengths are the following: (1) keep the residents aware and in the know of CDRRMO

activities; (2) help residents be alert in cases of typhoons in the city; (3) make the

residents feel secure since there is an actual inquiry system that they can contact in cases

of disasters. Its weaknesses are: (1) there is limited internet access in some areas in CDO;

(2) no assurance that residents will be reminded of the CDRRMO page for flood updates;

(3) online data can be misinterpreted/misused by some users and lastly (4) since there is

only one medium of communication, there is also a limited reach to users. Its

opportunities are the following: (1) possible increase in the number of followers and

potential reach of audience on FB; (2) be given notice to create an official CDRRMO

website designed for disaster risk information for the city; and lastly (3) have potential

partnerships with local NGOs. The only possible threat could be the misuse of

information posted by non-resident users of CDO or other FB users.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aaltonen, J., Bonaiuto, M., Bradford, R., De Dominicis, S., Langan, S., O’Sullivan, J. &

Waylen, K. (2012). Enhancing flood resilience through improved risk

communications. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Retrieved from

http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/12/2271/2012/nhess-12-2271-2012.pdf

Baker, E., Broad, K., Czajkowski, J., Meyer, R., & Orlove, B. (2012). Risk Perceptions

and Preparedness among Mid-Atlantic Coastal Residents in Advance of Hurricane

Sandy. Retrieved from http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/risk/library/WP2012-

18_EJB-etal_RiskPerceptions-Sandy.pdf

Bird, D., Ling, M., & Haynes, K. (2012). Flooding Facebook – the Use of Social Media

During the Queensland and Victorian floods. The Australian Journal of

Emergency Management, 27 (1). Retrieved from

https://riskfrontiers.com/pdf/flooding_facebook.pdf

Brooks, H. & Gupta, R. (2013). Using Social Media for Global Security. John Wiley &

Sons, Inc.: Indiana. Retrieved from

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=wVUWPEHUEwkC&pg=PA18&dq=all+t

he+devices+and+platforms+that+allow+users+globally+to+virtually+create+and

+share+information+with+each+other&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjI9MP_s5r

NAhULH5QKHSwyBpMQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=all%20the%20devices%
50

20and%20platforms%20that%20allow%20users%20globally%20to%20virtually

%20create%20and%20share%20information%20with%20each%20other&f=false

Cumiskey, L. (2015). Case Study: Flood Early Warning Systems. Retrieved from

http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/waterandsustainabledevelopment2015/pdf/

Lydia_CumiskeyGDG.pdf.

Chan, J. (n.d.). The Role of Social Media in Crisis Preparedness, response and recovery.

Retrieved from

http://www.oecd.org/governance/risk/The%20role%20of%20Social%20media%2

0in%20crisis%20preparedness,%20response%20and%20recovery.pdf.

Dufty, N. (2014). A Review of the Value of Social Media in Countrywide Disaster Risk

Reduction Public Awareness Strategies. Retrieved from

http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2015/en/bgdocs/inputs/Dufty,%

202014.%20A%20Review%20Of%20The%20Value%20Of%20Social%20Media

%20In%20Countrywide%20Disaster%20Risk%20Reduction%20Public%20Awar

eness%20Strategies.pdf.

De Maeyer, P., Kellens, W., Neutens, T., Vanneuville, W., & Zaalberg, R. (2011). An

Analysis of the Public Perception of Flood Risk on the Belgian Coast. Risk

Analysis, 31 (7), 1055-1068. 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01571.x.


51

Demeritt, D. & Nobert, S. (2014). Models of Best Practice in Flood Risk

Communication and Management. Environmental Hazards, 13, (4), 313-328.

DOI:10.1080/17477891.2014.924897.

Emergency Management. (2014). Facebook Debuts Safety Check Feature For Disasters.

Retrieved from http://www.emergencymgmt.com/disaster/Facebook-Safety-

Check-Feature-Disasters.html.

Fernández-Bilbao, A & Twigger-Ross, C. (2009). Improving Response, Recovery and

Resilience. Environment Agency: UK. Retrieved from

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/29

1087/scho0509bqbn-e-e.pdf

Khyn, H. (2008). Situational Crisis Communication Theory: Its Use In A Complex Crisis

With Scandinavian Airlines’ Grounding Of Dash 8-Q400 Airplanes (Unpublished

master’s thesis). Aarhus University, Denmark.

Mileti, D. (n.d.). Public Response to Disaster Warnings. Retrieved from

http://swfound.org/media/82620/public%20response%20to%20disaster%20warni

ngs%20-%20dennis%20s.%20mileti.pdf
52

Nyakundi, H., Mogere, S., Mwanzo, I. & Yitambe, A. (2010). Community Perceptions

and Response to Flood Risks in Nyando District, Western Kenya. Journal of

Disaster Risk Studies, 3 (1). DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v3i1.35

Persson, E. (2015). Flood Warnings in a Risk Management Context: A Case of Swedish

Municipalities. Disaster Prevention and Management, 24 (3), 383-396. DOI:

10.1108/DPM-07-2014-0140

Philippine Disaster Report. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.cdrc-phil.com/wp-

content/uploads/2009/08/PDR-2011.pdf

Mabao, K. & Cabahug, R. (2014). Assessment and Analysis of the Floodplain of

Cagayan de Oro River Basin. Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology, 12,

147-170. Retrieved from http://www.must.edu.ph/mjst/wp-

content/uploads/2014/12/10.-IECT0916.pdf

Orr, P. & Twigger-Ross, C. (2009). Delivering Benefits Through Science. Retrieved from

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/29

1010/scho0909bqyh-e-e.pdf

START. (2012). Social Media Use During Disasters. Retrieved from

http://www.start.umd.edu/sites/default/files/files/publications/START_SocialMed

iaUseduringDisasters_LitReview.pdf
53

Tongco, A. (2011). Mitigating Flood Losses: An Introduction to Implementing a Basin-

wide Approach Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

(GIS). Asian Journal of Business and Governance, 1 (1), 103-113. Retrieved from

http://asianscientificjournals.com/publication/index.php/ajobg/article/view/146

University of Twente. (n.d.). Theory of Planned Behavior. Retrieved from

https://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Co

mmunication/theory_planned_behavior/

University of Maryland. (2014). Evaluating Web Sites: A Checklist. Retrieved from

http://www.lib.umd.edu/binaries/content/assets/public/usereducation/evaluating-

web-sites-checklist-form.pd
54

APPENDIX A

Interview Guide

1. Have you experienced flood in Cagayan de Oro city?

2. If yes, after that flood experience, what did you do?

3. Whenever there's a typhoon or a possible flood incoming in the city, what would you

do?

4. Is there anything that might have triggered this act?

5. You follow the CDRRMO. Since when?

6. How did you know about it?

7. What do you know about it?

8. Do you find it helpful? Do you check it?

9. What features of the CDRRMO page do you find useful?

10. What do the following signs mean and what would you do if the signal was raised to

that warning?

a. White (normal)

b. Yellow

c. Orange

d. Red

11. How do you think can the CDRRMO FB page improve it communication system?
55

APPENDIX B

Online Survey

Flood Warning Information System

HELLO! May I ask you to answer a survey? Don't worry; all your answers will be kept

confidential.

* Required

Let's start with the basics

1. What is your name?

2. Are you: *

Mark only one oval.

Male
Female

3. How old are you? *

4. In which barangay do you live in Cagayan de Oro? *

Mark only one oval.

Agusan Cugman, F.S. Pagatpat


Balubal Catanico Patag
Balulang Dansolihon Pigsagan
Baikingon Gusa Poblacion
Bayabas Indahag Puerto
Bayanga Iponan Puntod
Besigan Kauswagan Tablon
Bonbon Lapasan Taglimao
Bugo Lumbia Tagpangi
Bulua Macabalan Tignapoloan
Camamanan Macasandig Tuburan
Canitoan Mambuaya Tumpagon
Carmen Nazareth
Consolacion Pagalungan
56

5. What is your monthly family income? *

Mark only one oval.

Less than P10,000


P10,000P30,000
P30,001P50,000
P50,001P70,000
P70,001P90,000
P90,001 and above
Don't know

Ready for the next part?

6. Did you have any previous flood experience with the floods listed below? * please

check all that applies.

Check all that apply.

Sendong (2011)
Pablo (2012)
Agaton (2014)
Onyok (2015)
Other:

7. Which of the following do you use to get flood information in the city? *

please check all that applies.

Check all that apply.

Posts on Facebook
Radio Announcement
Mobile Patrols
Neighbor
Government Facebook Page
Text Message
Phone call from a Government Official
Loud hailer on the street
Government Official knocking on the door
Floodline
Other:
57

8. Do you check Government related pages about Cagayan de Oro on Facebook? *

Mark only one oval.

Yes
No

9. Do you check the City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office

(CDRRMO) Facebook page for flood information and updates? *

https://www.facebook.com/cdrrmo16513

Mark only one oval.

Yes
No

10. How did you find out about the CDRRMO Facebook page? * please check all

that applies.

Check all that apply.

Referred
Search engine (Google, Yahoo, etc.)
Related pages on Facebook
Other:

11. How often do you check the CDRRMO Facebook page for flood

information/updates?

Mark only one oval.

Once a month
Twice a month
Once a week
Every other day
Everyday
Only when there is flood incoming
Other:
58

Hold on. We're almost done...

For the next questions, please refer to the samples of warning messages posted by the

CDRRMO on their Facebook page.

Please rate the given warning message based on the categories by putting a check

mark on the column of your choice, with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest.

Warning message #1: General Flood Advisory

12. Factual Information


Mark only one oval.
1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

13. Action Advice


Mark only one oval.
1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

14. Consistency
Mark only one oval.
1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

15. Clarity
Mark only one oval.
1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

16. Tone

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very
Poor Very Good
59

17. Alerting Function

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very
Poor Very Good

18. Message Construction

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very
Poor Very Good

Hold on. We're almost done...

For the next questions, please refer to the samples of warning messages posted by the
CDRRMO on their Facebook page.

Please rate the given warning message based on the categories by putting a check
mark on the column of your choice, with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest.
Warning Message #2: City Flood Advisory

19. Factual Information

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good
60

20. Action Advice

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

21. Consistency

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

22. Clarity

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

23. Tone

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

24. Alerting Function

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good
61

25. Message Construction

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

Hold on. We're almost done...


For the next questions, please refer to the samples of warning messages posted by the

CDRRMO on their Facebook page.

Please rate the given warning message based on the categories by putting a check

mark on the column of your choice, with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest.

Warning Message #3: Flood Flow Advisory

26. Factual Information

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very
Poor Very Good

27. Action Advice

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very
Poor Very Good
62

28. Consistency

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

29. Clarity

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

30. Tone

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

31. Alerting Function

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

32. Message Construction

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

Hold on. We're almost done...


63

For the next questions, please refer to the samples of warning messages posted by the

CDRRMO on their Facebook page.

Please rate the given warning message based on the categories by putting a check

mark on the column of your choice, with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest.

Warning Message #4: Photo Advisory

33. Factual Information

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

34. Action Advice

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

35. Consistency

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

36. Clarity

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good
64

37. Tone

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

38. Alerting Function

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

39. Message Construction

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

Hold on. We're almost done...

For the next questions, please refer to the samples of warning messages posted by the
CDRRMO on their Facebook page.

Please rate the given warning message based on the categories by putting a
check mark on the column of your choice, with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the
highest.
Warning Message #5: Typhoon Track Advisory

40. Factual Information

Mark only one oval.


65

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

41. Action Advice

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

42. Consistency

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

43. Clarity

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

44. Tone

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

45. Alerting Function

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good
66

46. Message Construction

Mark only one oval.

1 2 3 4 5
Very Poor Very Good

Last few questions...


47. If the warning message posted by the CDRRMO on their Facebook page had a
warning on WHITE status (Normal), which of the following would you do? *
Check all that apply.

Do Nothing
Form own assessment of flood risk
Seek advice and/or information
Take steps to minimize water entry into property
Protect personal property
Help other people

48. If the warning message posted by the CDRRMO on their Facebook page had a
warning on YELLOW status, which of the following would you do? *
Check all that apply.

Do Nothing
Form own assessment of flood risk
Seek advice and/or information
Take steps to minimize water entry into property
Protect personal property
Help other people

49. If the warning message posted by the CDRRMO on their Facebook page had a
warning on ORANGE status, which of the following would you do? *
Check all that apply.
Do Nothing
Form own assessment of flood risk
Seek advice and/or information
Take steps to minimize water entry into property
Protect personal property
Help other people
67

50. If the warning message posted by the CDRRMO on their Facebook page had a
warning on RED status, which of the following would you do? *
Check all that apply.

Do Nothing
Form own assessment of flood risk
Seek advice and/or information
Take steps to minimize water entry into property
Protect personal property
Help other people
68

APPENDIX C

Table of Appropriate list of Actions during Flood Disasters

Source: Fernández-Bilbao, A. & Twigger-Ross, C. (2009)


69

APPENDIX D

Evaluating Websites: A Checklist


70
71