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# Best Approach

LIMITS
WorkBook
Pattern-2

By Mathematics Wizard
Manoj Chauhan Sir (IIT Delhi)
Exp. More than 12 Years
in Top Coaching of Kota
Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ MCSIR Limits
Limit f
lim f  x   lim g  x   0 , then lim take form
2
x 4 4 x a x a x a g
y=
x 2
0
=x+2;x2 0
2 Sometimes this limit exists and has finite
f(2) = not defined
value. The determination of limit in such
0 case is referred to as evaluation of
=form / indeterminant form
0 indeterminant form.
but as x  2, f  4 Determinant form
which means if x is sufficiently close to 2,   +  = 0 = 0
then f is arbitrarily close to 4.
(i) Limit f (x)  x  a
Solving limit actually means dividing by (x – xa

## 2) (Really!) (ii) Limit f (x) is said to exist at x = a if

xa
"Limit Bohot Aasaan hai"
Function identical in neighbourhood Limit f (a + h) = Limit f (a – h) =
h 0 h 0

## (a finite quantity, disregards whether f is

Deleted neighbourhood of a point 'a'
defined at x = a)
(a – , a + ) – {a} is called deleted f (a+) = f (a–)
neighbourhood of a. (R.H.L.) (L.H.L.)
 is small positive.
|x|
(a – , a) is left neighbourhood Q. f (x) = [ x ] and {x} Q. f (x) =
x
(a, a + ) is right neighbourhood
1
Meaning of small positive is something like Q. Limit tan 1 Q. Limit sin –
x0 x x0
0.00000000000000....... 1(secx)
To find limit, function must be defined in
neighbourhood of the point. Q. Limit cot 1 x 2
x 0

## Limit only comment when function is Limit f (x) = [x] +

Q. {x}
x 1
continuous in neighbourhood.
Left and Right hand limits Q. Limit x sgn(x  1)
x 1
Q. lim  sin x 

x
2
lim f  x     f  a 
 means as x tends to a
x a –
Q. lim  cos x 

from left hand side, f tends to  . x
2
xa One sided limit
lim f  x   M  f  a   means as x tends to 2x  3 , x  2
x a  
Q. Consider : f (x) =  . Find
a from right hand side, f tends to M. x  a  4  x2 x  2
Existence of limit.
lim f (x) .
If L.H.L = R.H.L = finite x 2

## f(a–) = f(a+) = finite Five Fundamental Theorems

7 indeterminant forms. Before we learn how evaluate limit of a
0  function, following 5 fundamental theorems
, , 0  ,   ,1 , 00 ,  0 should be remembered
0 
If Limit f (x) = L and Limit g (x) = M
x c x c

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ MCSIR Limits
where L and M are finite quantities then B.T Positive integral powers ; Condition for
(a) Sum rule : convergence : (n is a natural number)
Limit (f (x) + g (x)) = L + M (1 + x) n = C0 + C1x + C2x + .....Cn xn
x c

## (b) Difference rule : a 1  r n  a

Sn = if |r| < 1 So = after
Limit (f (x) – g (x)) = L – M 1 r 1 r
x c

## (c) Product rule : lim r n  0

n 
Limit (f (x) . g (x)) = L . M Important logic
x c

## (d) Quotient rule : n  n  1

f (x)
r  2
Limit L
= , M 0
x c g(x) M n  n  1 2n  1
2
(e) Constant Multiple rule : r 
6
Limit K. f (x) = K L 2
x c
 n  n  1 
3 n11
Note : (1) If lim f , lim g exists
r  2   r10  11
x C x C
 
Then lim f  g, lim fg, lim f / g exists
x C x C x C Various Strategies (To evaluate limit ):
(2) f exists, g does not exist then f ± g does Algebraic Methods
not exist and we can't say anything about Factorisation / Rationalisation / Double
fg, f/g. rationalisation / Use of binomial theorem/
(3) f and g does not exist then we can't say algebric identities/ involving law of love
anything about f ± g, fg, f/g. if necessary (We love  in Denominator
lim x  x  and 0 in Numerator)
Q. Q. lim x  x 
x 0 x 1
x3 1 x5 1
x x Q. lim Q. lim
x 1 x  1 x 1 x  1
Q. lim Q. lim
x  0 Sgn  x  x 2  x 
Standard limits
Q. lim  x x Q . xn  an
x0
1. lim  na n 1 ; n  N
x a x a
lim sgn  x    x 
x 0
xn  an
lim  x   x lim  x x 2. lim  na n 1 ; n  Q
Q. x 0
Q. x 1
x a x a
Important Notes before starting limits x100  1
Q. lim
x 1 x 20  1
(1) a4 + a2b2 + b4
= (a2 + ab + b2 (a2 – ab + b2) x3  n
Q. lim . Limit exists. Find n & limit
x 1 x  1
(2) x4 + x2 + 1
B.T Any index ; |x| < 1 ; Condition for (cos x)1 3  (cos x)1 2
convergence Q. Lim equals?.
x 0 sin 2 x
(n is a real number)
Q. 1  cot 3 x
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx + Limit
x
 2  cot x  cot 3 x
n  n  1 2 n  n  1 n  2  3 4
x  x  .......
2 3 2 x  23 x  6
Q. Limit
x2 2 x  21 x

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ MCSIR Limits

## x f is a four degree polynomial. Find f(1).

Q. Limit
x 0 5 x  5 x
e tan x  1 
 x3 1 
Q. lim tan x Q.   3 
3 x 1 x e
 1
Q. Limit Q. lim x sin 2 x 2  x  1 
x 9 4  2x  2 x 0 x
1/ 2

      Q. lim
1  h  1
Q .
Q. Lim cos   ·cos   h 0 h
x 1
 x 1  x 1 
1/3
ax  b  2  1
Q. If Lim = 1 find a and b. 1  h   1
x 0 x lim  
h  1/ h
2x 2  3x  7
Q. lim 3 1/3
x  x 2  4x  2
Q. lim
7  x   3  x2
2x 2  7x  7 x 1 x 1
Q. lim ; xN
x  x4 1  h 
1/3
1
2
Q. lim
3x  7x  4 h 0 h
Q. lim ; xN
x  4x 3  3x 2  7x  5
3
Q. Limit x 3  3x 2  x 2  2x
2 2 2 2 x 
Q. Limit 1  2  3  ....  n 1/3
n 
n3 Q. lim   x  1 x  2  x  3   x .
x 

Limit x2 1 1/n
Q. x   Q. lim  2n  3n  4n 
3x  6 n 

sin 2 x

Q. lim
3x 2  1  2x 2  1
;
Q. lim
x 0
 2 2 2
1cosec x  2cosec x  3cos ec x  ......  100cosec x
2

x  4x  3
x2 1
Q. lim  ax  b = 0 . Find a, b.
3x 2  1  2x 2  1 x  x  1
Q. lim
x  4x  3
x2 1
Q. lim  ax  b = 3 . Find a, b.
1 12 
Limit 
x  x  1
Q.  3 
x  2
 x  2 x 8 
x2 1
Q. lim  ax  b =  . Find a, b.
Q. Limit
x    x 2  2x  1  x 2  7x  3  x  x  1

x 2  9x  20
 Q. Limit ; [x] step up function
4x  3
x 5 x  [x]
Q. Lim  4x 2  x  
x   x  2 
 Sandwich / Squeeze Play Theorem
If f , g and h are 3 functions such that
Q. Limit tan 2 x ( 2 sin 2 x  3sin x  4
x
 f (x)  g (x) < h (x) for all x in some
2
interval containing the point x =c, and
 sin 2 x  6sin x  2 ) if
Limit f (x) = Limit h(x) = L
ax 3  bx 2  cx  d x c x c
Q. lim .
x 0 x2 then Limit g (x) = L
Limit exists. Find a, b, c, d. x c

f x
Q. lim = 3.
x 0 x 4

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ MCSIR Limits

 tan x  sin 2x
Q. Lim  Q. Lim
x  0  x  x 0 5x
1  cos x
Q. Lim Q.
x 0 x2
From the figure note that Limit g (x) = 1  cos 5x
Lim
x 0 x 0 3x 2
1.
x3  x2  2
Note: T h e q u a n t i t y c m a y b e a f i n i t e Q. Lim
x1 sin(x  1)
number, +  or – . Similarly L may
be finit e number + or – . 1  tan x  1  sin x
Q. Lim
x  x x 0 x3
Q. lim Q. lim
x  x x  x x
Q. Lim (1  x) tan
sin x 5x 2  sin 3x x1 2
Q. lim Q. Lim
x  x x  x 2  10 Limit
1  cos(1  cos x)
Q.
x b
x 0 sin 4 x
Q. The value o f t he limit Lim  
x 0 a  x  1  cos x cos 2x
Lim
( a  0 ) ( w h e r e [ ] d e n o t e s t h e Q. x 0 tan 2 x
great est int eger funct ion) is equal t o
(A) a (B) b sin x sin  x 
Q. lim Q. lim
b b
x 1 x x 1 x 1
(C) (D) 1 –
a a 2  3 cos x  sin x
Q. lim
[12 x ]  [2 2 x ]  [32 x ]  ....  [n 2 x ] x

 6x   2
Q. Lim 6
n  n3
where [ ] = step up function and x  R Q .

## Q. Evaluate :  sin x sin 22 x sin 32 x sin n 2 x 

lim     .......  
x 0  x x x x 
 n n n n  
Limit     ....  
2 2 2
n   n  1 n  2 n  3 2
n n sin x  x 1
Q. Show that lim 
THEOREM–2 x 0 x3 6
(Limits of Trigonometric Functions) 1  2 
If x is small and is measured in radians Q. x1 = 1, xn+1 = x  1  x n  1
n
then
n1;nN
sin x x
Limit
x 0 x
= 1 = Limit
x  0 sin x
= Limit x
x 0 x 
 
Then lim 2n x n  ?

## sin 1 x x sin(a  2x)  2sin(a  x)  sin a

cosecx = Limit = Limit Q. Lim
x 0 x
1
x  0 sin x x 0 x2
sin x tan(a  2x)  2 tan(a  x)  tan a
Note: The Limit always approaches 1 Q. Lim
x 0 x x 0 x2
from its left hand i.e. 0.9999.... tan x
Q. Lim Q.
 sin x   sin x  x  2 tan 3x
Q. Lim  Q.  Lim
x  0  x  x 0 x 

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ MCSIR Limits

x 4 sin(1 x)  x 2 x 2 5x 4 61x 6
Lim (ix) sec –1 x =1     ......
x  1 | x |3 2! 4! 6!
Exponential Functions and Logarithmic
  
cos   Functions
Q. Lim  2cos x  Theorem:
x 0 sin(sin x 2 )
ax  1
Lim   n a (a > 0) ;
cos 1 (1  x) x 0 x
Q. Lim

x 0 x
ex  1
Lim  1 and
x
cos 1  2x 1  x 2 
x 0
 
Q. lim
x
1

x
1 x

Lim x e1 x  1  1 
2 2 ln(1  x)
Lim 1
x x x  x  x 0 x
Q. lim cos   cos   cos   ........cos  
n 2 4 8  2n  e 4x  1
Q. Lim
EXPANSION OF FUNCTION x 0 tan x
Expansion of funct ion like Binomial e tan x  e x
expansion, exponential & logarithmic Q. Lim
x  0 tan x  x
expansion, expansion of sinx , cosx ,
2
tanx should be remembered by heart & e x  cos x
are given below : Q. Lim
x 0 x2
(i)
esin 2x  esin x
x x ln a x 2 ln 2 a x 3 ln 3 a Q. Lim
a  1    .........a  0 x 0 x
1! 2! 3!
x x 2 x3 a x h  a x h  2a x
x
(ii) e  1     ............ Q. Lim ,a>0
1! 2! 3! h 0 h
(iii) ln(1+ x) = x2
e1 1
Lim
x2 x3 x4 Q.
x  2 arc tan x 2  
x    .........for  1  x  1
2 3 4
3 5 7 1  3x  4x  12 x
x x x Q. lim
(iv) sin x  x     ....... x 0 2cos x  7  3
3! 5! 7!
e tan x  1
x 2 x 4 x6 Q. lim
(v) cos x  1     ...... x 0 tan x
2! 4! 6!
ecos x  1
lim
x 3 2x 5 Q. x
 cos x
(vi) tan x = x    ........ 2
3 15
 ln1 x  
x3 x5 x 7  1
(vii) tan–1 x = x    ....... x
3 5 7 e  1
Q. lim
(viii) sin –1 x x 0 ln 1  x 
1
12 12.32 5 12.32.52 7 x
= x  x3  x  x  .......
3! 5! 7!

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ MCSIR Limits
x
 e x 1 
 1 Q. Lim cos n
 x 

n  n
e 1
Q. lim 1
x 0 ex  1    x
1 Q. Lim  tan   x  
x x 0  4 
ln (1  x) ln x  1
Q. Lim Q. Lim 2 n 2  n 1
x 0 x x e xe  n 2  n 1 
3 1
Q. Q. lim  
Lim (1  x) log x 2 n   n 
x 1  
Theorem : For 1 indeterminant form 1 1
 x 2 
1 x Q. lim  1  5     x  1
 1 x 2  
Lim (1  x) x = e = Lim 1  
x 0 x   x 4 x
Q. lim  x  6  Q. lim  x  6 
x 4 x 4
5x
Q. Lim 1  2x  nx
x 0  11 x  21 x  31 x  ..........  n1 x 
Q. Lim  
x   n
 
GENERALISED FORMULA FOR 1 n N
Let Lim f (x)  1 and Lim  (x)   LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS HAVING
x a x a
BUILT IN LIMIT WITH THEM
then
cos  x  x 2n sin(x  1)
 (x) Lim  (x)  f (x)  1 Q. f (x) = Lim ,
Lim  f (x)   e x a n  1  x 2n 1  x 2n
x a find Lim f ( x )
x1
1 x
 1 x  1x tan  x 2  (x  1) n sin x
Q. Lim   Q. f (x)= Lim ,
x 1  2  x  n x 2  (x  1) n
x 0 find Lim f ( x ) .
x  x0

2x 1 1 1  cos x
 x 2  2x  1  x 1 Q. Limit
Q. Lim 
x 0 x 1  cos x

x    2x 2  3x  2 
  3 sin x  x 2  x 3
Q. Limit
x2 1 1 x 0 tan x  2 sin 2 x  5x 4
 x2 
Q. Lim   Q. Lim (5 n  3n  1) n 1  cos x  2 sin x  sin 3 x  x 2  3x 4
x    2x  1  n  Limit
Q.
x 0 tan 3 x  6 sin 2 x  x  5x 3
x x4
 x   x6
Q. Lim   Q. Lim  
x   1  x  x   x  1  Special limits
cos ec x
x  sin x 1
 1  tan x  Lim 3

Q. Lim  
x 0 x 6
x  0  1  sin x  x  tan x 1
Lim 3

1 1
x x 0 x 3

Q. Lim  sin  cos 
x   x x L' Hospital Rule

 5 
cos ec x ex 1  x e x  e  x  2x
Lim  Q. Lim Q. Lim
Q.  x 0 x2 x 0 x3
x 0  2  9  x 

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Maths IIT-JEE ‘Best Approach’ MCSIR Limits

1 1 P
Q. Limit 1 2
 2
x 0 (sin x) x
e x  e  x  2x A() B() R
Q. Lim C 
x 0 x  sin x
sin x  x 2  {x}.{ x}
Q. Lim
x 0 x cos x  x 2  {x}.{ x}
Q
1 1
(A) – (B) (C) 1 (D) DNE Q. Suppose that circles of equal dimeter are
3 3
packed tightly in n rows inside equilateral
A cos x  Bx sin x  5
Q. If Lim exist s & tringle. Case shown for n = 4. If A is area of
x 0 x4 the triangle and An is total area occupied by
finite. Find A & B and also the limit the circles
4  sin 2 x  A sin x  B cos x An
in all n rows then Lim ?
Q. Let f (x) = . n  A
x2
If Lim f ( x ) exists and finite find A and B
x0
and the limit.
1  sin x  cos x  ln(1  x)
Q. Lim
x 0 x tan 2 x
sin x  ln  e x cos x 
Q. Lim
x0 6x 2
x3
Q. Lim  2 . Find a and b. Important Questions
x 0 a  x  bx  sin x  Expansion of (1 + x)1/x
e ax  e x  x
Q. Lim  b . Find a and b.
x 0 x2   x x2 
2

   
Q. An arc PQ of a circle subtends a central 1  x x 2   2 3  
angle  as shown. Let A() be the area e 1        .........
between the chord PQ and the arc PQ. Let   2 3  2 
B() be the area between the tangent lines
PR and QR and the arc PQ.  x 11x 2 
 e 1   ......
A()  2 24 
Find Lim
0 B()
1  x 1/ x  e
Q. lim
x 0 x

1  x 1/ x  e  ex
Q. lim 2
x 0 x2

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