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CONTEMPORARY ART  is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century.

Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, and technologically advancing world. Their
art is a dynamic combination of materials, methods, concepts, and subjects that continue the challenging of
boundaries that was already well underway in the 20th century. Diverse and eclectic, contemporary art as a whole
is distinguished by the very lack of a uniform, organising principle, ideology, or "-ism". Contemporary art is part of
a cultural dialogue that concerns larger contextual frameworks such as personal and cultural identity, family,
community, and nationality.

It reflects to its society and non-Filipinos the wide range of cultural influences on the country's culture and how
these influences honed the country's arts. The art of the Philippines can refer to the visual arts, performing arts,
textile art traditions, literature, dance, pottery, and other art forms in the country.

Philippines Art

 Arts.
  Painting  Dancing  Weaving  Sculpting  Pottery  Other arts.
  Introduced by Spaniards during 16th century. ...
  Watercolor paintings  increased and the subject matter of paintings began to include landscapes,
Filipino inhabitants, Philippine fashion, and government officials.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY ART. In art, modern and contemporary forms are largely
interchangeable. ... Modern art refers to the period that began in the 1880s and that lasted until the
1960s. Contemporary art can be said to be the art that was developed after the 1960s and is still emerging.

Contemporary art is the art of today, produced by artists who are living in the twenty-first century. ... Their art is a
dynamic combination of materials, methods, concepts, and subjects that challenge traditional boundaries and defy
easy definition.


The most prominent FEATURE of contemporary art is the fact that it has no distinct feature or
a single characteristic. It is defined by the artist's ability to innovate and bring out a modern masterpiece.

Seven arts. Seven arts may refer to: The traditional subdivision of the Arts, beingArchitecture, Sculpture, Painting,
Literature, Music, Performing, and Film. TheSeven Liberal Arts, being grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic,
geometry, music, and astronomy


Further information: Nipa hut,  Bahay na bato, and Earthquake Baroque

Main article: Architecture of the Philippines
The vernacular architecture of the Philippines is diverse and developed according to the traditions, history and
influences exposure experienced by each culture or society. They ranged from simple Bahay Kubo which is the
basis of all Filipino cultural architecture which gave way to houses like Bahay na bato, up to the palaces such
as Torogans, fortifications like the Classical Kota's and Idjangs, Colonial Forts and mega structure such as Banaue
Rice Terraces which is built from carving of the mountain walls, and Mosques in Mindanao. Architectures like
Baroque was adopted to the Filipino culture, making their own interpretation through the Filipino culture climate
and environment. One of the product of Filipino Baroque is the Earthquake Baroque, which is especially designed
to adapt to the earthquake prone environment of the Philippines.

A Filipino loom for weaving rough fabrics of abaka fiber, 1905.

Philippine weaving involves many threads being measured, cut, and mounted on a wooden platform. The threads
are dyed and weaved on a loom.[21]
Before Spanish colonization, native Filipinos weaved using fibers from abaca, cotton, and bark cloth. Textiles,
clothes, rugs, and hats were weaved. Baskets were also weaved and used as vessels of transport and storage, and
for hunting. These baskets were used to transport grain, store food, and catching fish.[22] They also used weaving to
make just about all of the clothing that was worn. They weaved rugs that they used for quilts and bedding. The
quality of the quilt/bedding was based on how soft, how tight together, and the clean pattern. The patterns were
usually thick stripes with different colors and with a nice pattern.
However, during Spanish colonization, Filipinos used fabric called nipis to weave white clothing. These were
weaved with decorative, flower designs.[22]

Visual arts
Main article: List of Filipino painters
Prehistoric cave drawings were discovered in a number of sites in the Philippines. A notable set is the Angono
Petroglyphs, found in a shallow rock shelter. It measures 63 meters wide, 8 meters deep, and a maximum height of
5 meters. These were formed in volcanic soil during the Quaternary period. There are 127 drawings in forms of
animate and static figures with circular or dome-like heads on top of a 'V' shaped torso. The drawings are
distributed on a horizontal plane on a rock wall area measuring 25 meters by 3 meters. Only 51 of the total 127
drawings are distinct. Due to the complexity and plurality of the drawings, it is suggested that the drawings were
not only created by a single individual. the figures engraved on the rockwall were probably carved during the late
Neolithic, or before 2000 BC.[23] These inscriptions clearly show stylized human figures, frogs and lizards, along with
other designs that may have depicted other interesting figures. Erosion may have caused some to become
indistinguishable. The engravings are mostly symbolic representations and are associated with healing and
sympathetic magic.[24]
Artistic paintings were introduced to Filipinos in the 16th century when the Spaniards arrived. During this time, the
Spaniards used paintings as visual aids for their religious propaganda of spreading Catholicism. These paintings,
appearing mostly on church walls, featured religious figures that appear in Catholic teachings. The purpose of most
paintings in the Philippines from the 16th to the 19th century were to aid the Catholic Church.[25]
In the early 19th century, wealthier, educated Filipinos introduced more secular Filipino art, causing art in the
Philippines to deviate from religious motifs. The use of watercolour paintings increased and the subject matter of
paintings began to include landscapes, Filipino inhabitants, Philippine fashion, and government officials. Portrait
paintings featured the painters themselves, Filipino jewelry, and native furniture. Landscape paintings portrayed
scenes of average Filipinos partaking in their daily tasks. These paintings often showcased ornately painted artists'
names. These paintings were done on canvas, wood, and a variety of metals.[25]
During World War II, some painters focused their artwork on the effects of the war. Common themes included
battle scenes, destruction, and the suffering of the Filipino people.

Ceiling paintings of Argao Church by Canuto Avila and Raymundo Francia


Tampuhan by Juan Luna
Main articles:  Suyat  and  Calligraphy
The Philippines has numerous indigenous scripts collectively called as suyat. Various ethno-linguistic groups in the
Philippines prior to Spanish colonization in the 16th century up to the independence era in the 21st century have
used the scripts with various mediums. By the end of colonialism, only four of the suyat scripts survived and
continue to be used by certain communities in everyday life. These four scripts are hanunó'o/hanunoo of the
Hanuno'o Mangyan people, buhid/build of the Buhid Mangyan people, apurahuano/tagbanwa of the Tagbanwa
people, and palaw'an/pala'wan of the Palaw'an people. All four scripts were inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of
the World Programme, under the name Philippine Paleographs (Hanunoo, Buid, Tagbanua and Pala’wan), in 1999.

Due to dissent from colonialism, many artists and cultural experts have revived the usage of suyat scripts that went
extinct due to Spanish persecution. These scripts being revived include the kulitan script of the Kapampangan
people, the badlit script of various Visayan ethnic groups, the iniskaya script of the Eskaya people,
the baybayin script of the Tagalog people, and the kur-itan script of the Ilocano people, among many others.[27][28]
 Calligraphy using the Western alphabet and the Arabic alphabet are also prevalent in the Philippines due to its
colonial past, but the Western alphabet and the Arabic alphabet are not considered as suyat, and therefore
Western alphabet and Arabic calligraphy are not considered as suyat calligraphy.[30][31][32][33]

Kulitan calligraphy

Baybayin calligraphy

Tagbanwa musical instrument with Apurahuano calligraphy


Buhid calligraphy

Bow with Hanunó'o calligraphy
Sealing and Papermaking
Main article: Seal (East Asia)

The Butuan Ivory Seal, dated 1002 AD, housed and displayed at the National Museum of Anthropology in Manila.

Like Mongolia, Taiwan, China, Japan and Korea, the Philippines also had a sealing culture prior to Spanish

colonization, which is reasonable as the Philippines is within the Sinosphere, or East Asian cultural sphere.
However, when the Spaniards succeeded in colonizing the islands, they abolished the practice and burned all
documents they captured from the natives while forcefully establishing a Roman Catholic-based rule. Records on
Philippine seals were forgotten until in the 1970s when actual ancient seals made of ivory were found in an
archaeological site in Butuan.[34] The seal, now known as the Butuan Ivory Seal, has been declared as a National
Cultural Treasure. The seal is inscribed with the word "Butwan" through a native Suyat script. The discovery of the
seal proved the theory that pre-colonial Filipinos, or at least in coastal areas, used seals on paper. Before the
discovery of the seal, it was only thought that ancient Filipinos used bamboo, metal, bark, and palm leaves (lontar)
for writing. The presence of paper documents in the classical era of the Philippines is also backed by a research of
Dr. H. Otley Beyer, father of Philippine anthropology, stating that Spanish friars 'boasted' about burning ancient
Philippine documents with suyatinscriptions, one of the reasons why ancient documents from the Philippines are
almost non-existent in present time. The ivory seal is now housed at the National Museum of the Philippines.
Nowadays, younger generations are trying to revive the usage of seals, notably in signing pieces of art such as
drawings, paintings, calligraphy, and literary works. Additionally, traditional handmade paper-making practices
using native fibers, such as abaca, cogon, and pina have been revived by numerous organizations throughout the
The religion of the Ifugao people is based on ancestor worship and the veneration of spirits and gods of nature.
Rice deities are particularly revered. These bululs are activated through ritual, the bulol guardian figures are
believed to contain spirits capable of ensuring abundant harvests, increasing rice yields and protecting against
catastrophe. Shaped like a rice mortar, the distinctive base of the sculpture is a visual link to its spiritual purpose.
The pairing of male with female is a fundamental feature of Cordilleras ancestral art. These Bulul guardians
represent the harmonious union of opposing elements, the protection of communities from malevolent spirits and
the promise of good fortune. Carved from auspicious red sandalwood, these sculptures are differentiated by their
distinct genitalia, alluding to fertility and abundance. The figures have a rich patina of sacrificial blood and smoke
resulting from their use in religious practice and life-cycle ceremonies.[37] A Bul-ul is a carved wooden figure used to
guard the rice crop by the Ifugao (and their sub-tribe Kalanguya) peoples of northern Luzon. The sculptures are
highly stylized representations of ancestors, and are thought to gain power from the presence of the ancestral
spirit.[38]The Ifugao are particularly noted for their skill in carving bululs. Bul-uls are used in ceremonies associated
with rice production and with healing. Creation of a bul-ul involves alwen bul-ul ritual by a priest to ensure that the
statue gains power. The bul-ul is treated with care and respect to avoid the risk of the spirits of the ancestors
bringing sickness. The figures are placed together with the rice in the house or granaries to bring a plentiful
harvest. Bul-ul is important to Ifugaos because they believe they can protect and multiply the rice and help make
the harvest abundant.
The Sarimanok is a legendary bird of the Maranao people who originate from Mindanao. It comes from the
words sari and manok. Sari means cloth or garment, which is generally of assorted colors. Manok means "chicken".
The Sarimanok is the legendary bird that has become an ubiquitous symbol of Maranao art. It is depicted as a fowl
with colorful wings and feathered tail, holding a fish on its beak or talons. The head is profusely decorated with
scroll, leaf, and spiral motifs. It is said to be a symbol of good fortune.[39][40][41] And another example of Maranao
sculpture was in the Islamic tradition; the Buraq is often described as "a white animal, half-mule, half-donkey, with
wings". The Prophet Muhammad rode the Buraq to fly through the heavens in a single night, a journey known as
Mir'aj. Only in certain regions, such as Mindanao, is the animal depicted with a human face. Although the Buraq is
not uncommon in Islamic art, sculptures of the creature seem to be unique to the Philippines. It is possible that the
flourishing carving industry of religious images for Catholic Filipinos may have encouraged the making of such

A bulul guardian figure. Wine server of the Ifugao people. Wood and sacrificial remains, northern Luzon, c. 15th

Vega Ancestral House, carvings


Sculpture of Buraq unique to Mindanao Muslims in the Philippines.


La Madre Filipina

Carvings in Miagao Church in Iloilodescribes daily life, culture and nature of the Filipinos. A fine example of Filipino
baroque art.

Performing arts
Main article: Philippine dance

Filipino folk dancers performing at the Pistahan Festival in San Francisco, California.

There are numerous types of Filipino dances, varying in influence, from the country's regions. Types of Filipino
dance include Cordillera, Muslim, tribal, rural, and Spanish style dances. Jerrah is the most well known kind of
dance in the cordillera region. Within the Cordilleras' dances, there are the Banga, Bendayan, Lumagen/Tachok,
Manmanok, Ragragsakan, Salisid, Talip, Tarektek, and Uyaoy/Uyauy. The Banga dance shows the grace and
strength of women in the Kalinga tribe. Women performing the Banga balance heavy pots on their heads while
dancing to beat of wind chimes. This mimics Kalinga women collecting and transporting water. Another dance,
called Lumagen or Tachok, is performed to celebrate happy occasions. When Lumagen is performed, it is meant to
symbolize flying birds and is musically paired to the beat of gongs. Another cordillera dance, Salisid, is the dance to
show courtship. In the Salisid dance, a male and a female performer represent a rooster attempting to attract a

Igorot men performing a war dance, c. 1909.

Tribal dances include Malakas at Maganda, Kadal Blelah, Kadal Tahaw, Binaylan, Bagobo Rice Cycle, and Dugso.
Malakas at Maganda is a national folklore dance. It tells the story of the origin of the Filipino people on the islands.
Another dance, called the Binaylan dance, tells the story of a hen, the hen's baby, and a hawk. In this dance, the
hawk is said to control a tribe's well-being, and is killed by hunters after attempting to harm the hen's baby.[44]
Two examples of traditional Filipino dances are Tinikling and Binasuan and many more. Filipinos have unique folk
dances like tinikling where assistants take two long bamboo sticks rapidly and in rhythm, clap sticks for dancers to
artistically and daringly try to avoid getting their feet caught between them. Also in the southern part of the
Philippines, there is another dance called Singkil using long bamboo poles found in tinikling; however, it is primarily
a dance showing off lavish Muslim royalty. In this dance, there are four bamboo sticks arranged in a tic-tac-
toe pattern in which the dancers exploit every position of these clashing sticks. Dancers can be found trying to
avoid all 4 bamboo sticks all together in the middle. They can also try to dance an entire rotation around the
middle avoiding all sticks. Usually these stick dances performed in teamwork fashion not solo. The Singkil dance is
identifiable with the use of umbrellas and silk clothing.[45]

Sagayan, a war dance of the Maguindanaon and Maranao peoples.


Kappa Malong Malong (also called Sambi sa Malong), a traditional Maranao dance showing many ways of
wearing a malong.

Panderetas, a María Clara dance originated from Tanza, Iloilo.


Tinikling, a Filipino folk dance with its origins from Leyte.


Jota Cagayana dance from Enrile, Cagayan.

Main article: Holy Week in the Philippines
Many towns have their own versions of the Senakulo, using traditional scripts that are decades or centuries old. A
version is held at the Cultural Center of the Philippines, sponsored by the Department of Tourism. Popular film and
televisions stars often join the cast of the play. In Taguig, they popularize the modern version of Jesus Christ
Superstar reshown at the Fort Santiago Amphitheater for the benefit of Manileños. In Mexico,
Pampanga and Dinalupihan, Bataan, the actor portraying Jesus has been actually nailed to the cross to simulate
Christ's passion as best and as painfully possible. Similar shows are also held in Makati and in the Santa Ana
district of Manila.

Arnis, a well known Filipino martial art which emphasize weapon-based fighting with the use of sticks.

The Arnis, also known as Kali or Eskrima, is the national sport and martial art of the Philippines. The three are
roughly interchangeable umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines ("Filipino Martial Arts", or
FMA) that emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives, bladed weapons and various improvised
weapons as well as "open hand" or techniques without weapons. It is also known
as Estoque (Spanish for rapier), Estocada (Spanish for thrust or stab) and Garrote (Spanish for club). In Luzon they
may go by the name of Arnis de Mano. The indigenous martial art that the Spanish encountered in 1610 was not
yet called "Eskrima" at that time. During those times, this martial art was known as Paccalicali-t to the Ibanags,
 Didya (later changed to Kabaroan) to the Ilocanos, Sitbatan or Kalirongan to Pangasinenses, Sinawali ("to
weave") to the Kapampangans, Calis or Pananandata (use of weapons) to the Tagalogs, Pagaradman to
the Ilonggos and Kaliradman to the Cebuanos. Kuntaw and Silat are separate martial arts that are also practiced in
the Philippine archipelago.

Main articles:  Philippine ceramics and Tapayan
The late Neolithic Manunggul Jar(c. 890–710 BC) used for burial, was found in the Manunggul Cave. This elaborate
burial jar is topped with two figures. The front figure is the deceased man. The rear figure is holding a steering
paddle directing the boat and soul of the man to the afterlife.

Traditional pot-making in certain areas of the Philippines would use clay found near the Sibalom River. Molding the
clay required the use of wooden paddles, and the clay had to be kept away from sunlight.[47]
Native Filipinos created pottery since 3500 years ago.[47] They used these ceramic jars to hold the deceased.[48]
Other pottery used to hold remains of the deceased were decorated with anthropomorphic designs. These
anthropomorphic earthenware pots date back to 5 BC. - 225 A.D and had pot covers shaped like human heads.[48]
Filipino pottery had other uses as well. During the Neolithic period of the Philippines, pottery was made for water
vessels, plates, cups, and for many other uses.[49]
Kalinga Pottery[50]
Ceramic vessels of Kalinga are divided into three types: rice cooking (ittoyom), vegetable/meat cooking (oppaya),
and water storage (immosso) pots. According to Skibo, the rice cooking pots are usually larger, thinner and have a
smaller opening than vegetable/meat pots. On the other hand, water storage pots have an average and uniform
size and a smaller neck size.
Except for water storage pots, which have a uniform size, the other two kinds can come in three different sizes,
large, medium and small. Although this is true in some cases, another larger type of vegetable/meat pot and
smaller water storage pot exists.
• Manufacture of Kalinga potteries
Pottery Functions [50]
Pots are ceramic vessels that are made by molding clay into its wanted shape and then leaving it in an environment
with an elevated temperature thereby making it solid and sturdy. It is widely recognized as one of better tools that
humans invented since it managed to store the surplus of food Neolithic humans gathered.
In the book Pottery Function: A Use-Alteration Perspective, the author, James Skibo, reasoned out why the use of
pots is far more advantageous than baskets and other organic containers. He said that since potteries are
commonly made in clay, heat has little to none effect on the container, and its contents, and that it protects the
food from moisture and pests. Furthermore, its range of storable contents is far wider than baskets and animal
skins since it can store both liquid and dry goods.
Also, Rice, in his book Pottery Analysis, classified ceramic vessels into 17 categories depending on various factors
that concern the use and production of the tool. One of these is the content wherein he further divided a type of
pot into four depending on the state (liquid or solid) and temperature (hot or cold) of the food inside it. He also
said that a ceramic has three main uses. These three are storage, processing, and transfer.
Based from these three uses that Rice gave, Skibo further characterized the usage of ceramic vessels by dividing
the tool's function into two, (1) intended use and (2) actual use.
Intended use, as the name implies, is how the tool's supposed to be used. This is the basis of the manufacture of
the ceramic vessel since the form follows the function. On the other hand, actual use is how the tool was used.
This sometimes disregards the pot's form as long it can do a specific function.
Kalinga Pottery and its Uses[50]

Burnay (tapayan) jars used as lawn ornaments.

In Kalinga, ceramic vessels can be used for two situations: daily life use and ceremonial use. Daily life uses include
the making of rice from the pots and the transfer of water from nearby water bodies to their homes.
Iron Age pottery[51]
There are three major complexes in Philippine Iron Age according to Solheim, Kalanay, Novaliches and Bau pottery
complexes. Kalanay pottery complex pertains to Beyer's Early Iron Age pottery of the Visayan Islands found in
Negros and Mindoro; novaliches pottery complex to Beyer's Early Iron Age pottery from Rizal province. Bau
pottery, on the other hand, does not fit into the two previous complexes and could correspond instead to the Late
Iron Age pottery.

Kalanay Pottery Complex[51]

A double ikat weaving from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá).

The type site of the Kalanay pottery complex is the Kalanay Cave found in Masbate. From this site, the pottery is
further subdivided into pottery types Kalanay and Bagupantao.

Main article: Filipino cuisine

A bowl of Halo-halo.

Filipino cuisine is composed of the cuisines of 144 distinct ethnolinguistic groups found within the Philippine
archipelago. The majority of mainstream Filipino dishes that compose Filipino cuisine are from the cuisines of the
Bikol, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Maranao, Pangasinan, Cebuano (or Bisaya), Tagalog, and
Waray ethnolinguistic tribes. The style of cooking and the food associated with it have evolved over many
centuries from their Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine of Indian, Chinese, Spanish, and American influences,
in line with the major waves of influence that had enriched the cultures of the archipelago, as well as others
adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate.[52] Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried
salted fish and rice, to the complex paellas and cocidos created for fiestas of Spanish origin. Popular dishes
include: lechón[53] (whole roasted pig), longganisa (Philippine sausage), tapa(cured
beef), torta (omelette), adobo (chicken or pork braised in garlic, vinegar, oil and soy sauce, or cooked until
dry), kaldereta (meat in tomato sauce stew), mechado (larded beef in soy and tomato sauce), puchero (beef in
bananas and tomato sauce), afritada (chicken or pork simmered in tomato sauce with vegetables), kare-
kare (oxtail and vegetables cooked in peanut sauce), pinakbet (kabocha squash, eggplant, beans, okra, and tomato
stew flavored with shrimp paste), crispy pata (deep-fried pig's leg), hamonado (pork sweetened in pineapple
sauce), sinigang (meat or seafood in sour broth), pancit (noodles), and lumpia (fresh or fried spring rolls).

Whang-od, the 'last' mambabatokand a national icon, performing the batek tattoo art of the Butbut Kalinga. She
has passed on the batek art to at least three of her apprentices who she trained for 8 years, thus preserving the
last living tattoo tradition of the Philippines.

 The term indigenous art is sometimes used to refer to the utility of indigenous materials as a medium for
the creation of different kinds of artworks, as with the paintings by Elito Circa, a famous folk artist of
Pantabangan and a pioneer in using indigenous materials as well as natural raw materials including human
blood.[54] Many Filipino painters and foreign artists were influenced by Filipino indigenous art and started
using these indigenous materials, which include extracts from onion, tomato, tuba (palm wine), coffee, rust,
molasses and other materials available anywhere to be used as paint.
 Jewelry design. In 2015/16, the Asia Society in New York presented an exhibit called Philippine Gold:
Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms.The exhibition presents spectacular works of gold primarily discovered over
the past forty years on the Philippine islands of Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao. The regalia, jewelry,
ceremonial weapons, and ritualistic and funerary objects attest to the recently uncovered evidence of
prosperity and achievement of Philippine polities that flourished between the tenth and thirteenth centuries,
long before the Spanish discovered and colonized the region. Although the forms and styles of the majority of
these works developed locally, some indicate that Philippine craftsmen had been exposed to objects from
beyond their borders through the robust cultural connections and maritime trade in Southeast Asia during
what was an early Asian economic boom.
 Kut-kut is a painting technique combining ancient Oriental and European art process. Considered lost art
and highly collectible art form. Very few known art pieces existed today. The technique was practiced by the
indigenous people of Samar Island between early 1600 and late 1800 AD. Kut-kut is an exotic Philippine art
form based on early century techniques—sgraffito, encaustic and layering. The merging of these ancient styles
produces a unique artwork characterized by delicate swirling interwoven lines, multi-layered texture and an
illusion of three-dimensional space.
 The tanaga is a type of Filipino poetry.
 The batek or batok is a form of indigenous tattooing of the Kalinga people in the Cordilleras. The most
prominent tattoo artist in the country is Whang-od, who has been known as the last mambabatok until has
started mentoring her niece on the art so that the tattoo artistry of the Kalinga will continue. The art form has
been critically acclaimed internationally in the United States, Germany, France, Canada, and many others.


The bells of Balangiga on display at the Philippine Air Force Aerospace Museum in Pasay.
Various artifacts and art pieces have either been looted or directly bought from the Philippines by various foreign
entities since the Spanish colonial period. The majority of stolen or bought Philippine artifacts and art pieces were
shipped into foreign hands during the American period, World War II, and post-war era, where the economy was
crippled. During the post-war era, Philippine artifacts and art pieces became easy pickings for foreigners as
Filipinos were forced to sell the items in extremely low prices because of the immediate need for money during an
era marred with high inflation and high cost of living. These pieces include the Golden Tara (in United States
possession), the Balangiga bells (formerly in United States possession), the two remaining copies of Doctrina
Christiana (in United States and Spain's possession), the Boxer Codex (in United States possession), and many
others. Most pieces are currently under the possession of the United States and Spain. Various attempts to return
stolen or looted Philippine artifacts and art pieces have been made by the Philippine government since the 1990s.
The most recent is the national call to return the Balangiga bells in 2017 and the Golden Tara in 2018.[55][56][57]The
Balangiga bells have been repatriated to the Philippines on 11 December 2018.[58]


Past notable Filipino artists include Juan Luna, Fernando Amorsolo, Augusto Arbizo, Félix Hidalgo, Ang
Kiukok, Anita Magsaysay-Ho, Lito Mayo, Mauro Malang Santos, Santiago Bosé, Rey Paz Contreras and David Cortés
Medalla. Present-day Filipino artists featuring Filipino culture include Benedicto Cabrera, Elito Circa, Fred DeAsis,
Daniel Coquilla, Francisco Viri, and Nunelucio Alvarado.[59] The art or paintings by Zóbel, Amorsolo and many more
could be seen in most of the art museums in the Philippines. Zobel's paintings can be seen in the Ayala Museum.


Place Museum Description

Bahay Tsinoy A typical Chinese Filipino house in the Philippines

Casa Manila A typical Spanish colonial house in the Philippines

A church museum with wide collections of catholic religious

San Agustín Museum

National Museum of Fine Arts The national museum which showcases Philippine Arts

Malacañang Museum A museum inside the Presidential Palace complex

Metropolitan Museum of
A museum of contemporary arts

Museum of Contemporary Arts A museum of contemporary Filipino arts

and Design

The Museum A museum of contemporary Filipino arts

The oldest existing museum in the Philippines. UST Museum

has permanent display on natural history specimens, coins,
UST Museum
medals, memorabilia, ethnographic materials and oriental arts

Museo Pambata A museum for children

CCP Museo ng Kalinangang

Pasay Pilipino and Asian Traditional A museum of performing arts.
Musical Instruments

GSIS Museo ng Sining A museum of Filipino Arts

See also[edit]

 Spoliarium
 El Pacto De Sangre
 España y Filipinas
 Juan Luna
 José Rizal
 Justiniano Asuncion
 José Honorato Lozano
 Damián Domingo
 Fernando Amorsolo
 Fabián de la Rosa
 National Arts Center in Los Baños, Laguna
 Architecture of the Philippines
 Baroque Churches of the Philippines
 Earthquake Baroque
 Cinema of the Philippines
 Philippine comics
 Filipino cartoon and animation
 Literature of the Philippines
 Music of the Philippines
 Filipino martial arts
 Culture of the Philippines
 National Artist of the Philippines
 National Living Treasures Award (Philippines)
 Living Human Treasure


1. ^ http://ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/culture-profile/gamaba/national-living-treasures-
2. ^ http://ncca.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/ONA-Guidelines-1.pdf
3. ^ Jump up to:a b Jocano, F. Landa (2001). Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage.
Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. ISBN 971-622-006-5.
4. ^ Scott, William Henry  (1994).  Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society.
Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.  ISBN  971-550-135-4.
5. ^ Jocano, Felipe Jr. (2012-08-07). Wiley, Mark (ed.). A Question of Origins.  Arnis: Reflections on
the History and Development of Filipino Martial Arts. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0742-7.
6. ^ Churchill, Malcolm H. (1977).  "Indian Penetration of Pre-Spanish Philippines" (PDF).  Asian
Studies. Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines Asian Center.  15.
7. ^ Osborne, Milton  (2004).  Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth ed.). Australia: Allen &
Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-448-5.
8. ^ Laszlo Legeza, "Tantric Elements in the Philippines PreHispanic Gold Arts," Arts of Asia, 1988,
9. ^ Rizal, Jose (2000).  Political and Historical Writings (Vol. 7). Manila: National Historical Institute.
10. ^ Prehispanic Source Materials: for the study of Philippine History" (Published by New Day
Publishers, Copyright 1984) Written by William Henry Scott, Page 68.
11. ^ "tribhanga". Archived from the original  on 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
12. ^ http://asj.upd.edu.ph/mediabox/archive/ASJ-01-01-1963/Francisco%20Buddhist.pdf
13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Golden Tara Government of the Philippines
14. ^ H. Otley Beyer, "Outline Review of Philippine Archaeology by Islands and Provinces," Philippine
Journal of Science, Vol.77,Nos.34 (July–August 1947),pp. 205–374
15. ^ Juan Francisco (1963), A Note on the Golden Image of Agusan, Philippine Studies vol. 11, no. 3
(1963): 390—400
16. ^ Jump up to:a b Anna T. N. Bennett (2009), Gold in early Southeast Asia, ArcheoSciences, Volume 33,
pp 99–107
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Archaeology 17: 30–37
18. ^ Jump up to:a b Zafra, Jessica  (2008-04-26).  "Art Exhibit: Philippines' 'Gold of Ancestors'".  Newsweek.
Retrieved 2017-12-27.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b c "National Museum Collections: Ling-ling O".  Official Website National Museum of
the Philippines (Beta Website). Archived  from the original on 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
20. ^ Jump up to:a b Apostol, Virgil Mayor (2010). Way of the Ancient Healer: Sacred Teachings from the
Philippine Ancestral Traditions (2010 ed.). North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1556439415.
21. ^ "Banton Cloth  : Age of Contact  : Banton Is., Romblon". Nationalmuseum.gov.ph. Retrieved 22
February  2015.
22. ^ Jump up to:a b Trish Sotto.  "Fa 28 weaving history". Slideshare.net. Retrieved  2013-08-01