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A Novel Approach for QoS in MANET

P.K.Suri, M.K.Soni, and Parul Tomar

Abstract— A Mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET) is a self organising network of nodes connected through wireless links. With
the increase in popularity of wireless network and various applications running over those networks, it is necessary to provide
the quality in terms of bandwidth and delay for the real time applications such as audio and video in MANET. Providing QoS in
MANET is a difficult task as they have random and dynamic topology. A few set of existing QoS models like CEDAR, QAODV,
FQMM etc have been proposed for MANET, but none of them has been able to satisfy the bandwidth and delay constraints to-
gether. Therefore, In this paper, a protocol called “A Novel Approach for QoS in MANET(NQM)” has been proposed for providing
the best suited route in accordance with the network traffic and QoS parameters.

Index Terms—Bandwidth, Delay, MANET, QoS

——————————  ——————————


C urrent world is the world of wireless technology.

The term wireless is broadly classified into Infra-
structure and Infrastructure less networks. Mobile
ly because of its inherent dynamic nature coupled with
constraints like limited bandwidth, limited battery power,
etc. The subsequent section highlights the related work
Ad hoc Networks (MANET’s) are infrastructure less net- carried out in the field of QoS in MANET.
works, which are temporary arrangement of mobile
nodes without any central access point. The movement of
nodes inside MANET is free i.e. they can organize in an
arbitrary manner. All the nodes with in the same vicinity The major characteristics of MANET which obstruct the
can communicate directly but outside the vicinity inter- efficient QoS enabled routing are given below:
mediate nodes are required for establishing a communi- 1. Inherent dynamic network topology
cation connection as shown in Fig. 1. Each node has the 2. Bandwidth constraints.
ability to act as a sender or receiver or as a router. 3. Limited battery power
Various characteristics such as flexibility, fast, and easy 4. Limited processing and storage capacity
deployment, robustness makes MANET an excellent tool Various models have been proposed to offer QoS in MA-
to handle the situations like disaster recovery, crowd con- NET:
trol, search and rescue operation, and automated battle-  Integrated Service (IntServ)[3]
fields, etc. where no infrastructure exists at the time of  Differential Service (DiffServ)[4]
occurrence of such events.  Flexible QoS Model for MANET (FQMM)[5]
 In-band signaling system (INSIGNIA) [6]
 Core-Extraction Distributed Ad-hoc Routing (CEDAR) [7]
 Ad-Hoc QoS on-demand routing (AQOR) [8]
 INORA-A Unified Signaling and Routing Mechanism for
QoS Support in Mobile Ad hoc Networks [9]
Each of the above cited protocol has their own limitations
Fig. 1. Connectivity of nodes S to node D using the intermediate
which hinders the optimized routing in MANETs. These
limitations will be compared in the subsequent section. In
this paper a new approach has been proposed for provid-
The nodes move arbitrarily and its topology also changes
ing a QoS based routing protocol for MANET. It deals
frequently and unpredictably [1,2]. The next generation of
with the important aspects of QoS i.e. bandwidth and
applications running on the wireless networks should
delay keeping in view to decrease the channel overhead,
carry diverse multimedia applications such as video, au-
increase the stability in the network and providing a loop
dio and data etc. Thus, it is imperative that MANET pro-
free routing among the mobile nodes. The proposed pro-
vides quality of service (QoS) pertaining to bandwidth
tocol known as “A novel approach for QoS in MANET
and delay sensitive applications. Routing and enabling
(NQM)” is described in the subsequent section.
QoS in MANET becomes extremely challenging especial-

———————————————— 3 NQM – THE PROPOSED PROTOCOL

 Prof. P. K. Suri is with Department of Computer Science & Applications,
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India. This protocol is partially based on the Table driven Desti-
 Prof. M. K. Soni is with Faculty of Enginnering and Technology, Manav nation Sequence Distance vector (DSDV) [10] routing pro-
Rachna International University, Faridabad, India. tocol where each node in the network maintains the table
 Parul Tomar is with Department of Computer Engineering, YMCA uni-
versity of Science and Technology, Faridabad, India.
containing the information regarding each and every des-
tination node which requires a larger storage area and
can have looping problems. Our proposed protocol tries

to provide QoS along with the solution of above cited The above defined Data Packet Header contains the fol-
problems. Before proceeding to discuss the algorithm of lowing fields:
NQM, a brief discussion about the various packets, tables Pkt_Type: This field defines the type of Packet. i.e. whether the packet is a data
and processes, required by the protocol is given in follow- packet or Beacon_REQ Packet, Beacon_REP Packet, RERR Packet.
ing subsections. Pkt_Seq_No: This field is use for the identification of the data packet. This field
can be used at the time of reassembling data packets at the destination node.

3.1 Terminology for NQM S_Addr: This field contains the address of source node

 MN: Mobile Node D_Addr: This field contains the address of the destination node
 Q: The occupancy of the wireless media by the QoS L_V_N: This field contains the list of visited nodes. This field is helpful in
connections observed at any MN (i.e. transmitted or re- removing the loops.

ceived by any MN antenna) is Q bps. i.e. the occupancy of TTL: This filed contains the maximum no of hops that a particular data packet
the QoS traffic competing for the same shared media at can visit to reach its destination.

any MN is <= Q bps. r: Required bandwidth for routing the data packet
 Req_Bandwidth (r): It signifies the minimum bandwidth TOS: Type of service for a particular data packet.
required by the MN for transmitting the data in terms of
bps. i.e. unless the Require Bandwidth parameter is not 3.3 Neighboring Node Table (NNT)
fulfilled the data will not be transmitted
In NQM, each node in the networks maintains a table
 Overall_Avail_Bandwidth (OAB): Overall available
called as “Neighboring Node Table” (NNT) which con-
bandwidth at any node say MNi is initially set to its max- tains the information regarding each node with in its own
imium limit say MB. However, when ever a node MNi vicinity given in Table 1. This NNT will be very helpful in
requires a percentage of bandwidth for transmission, it finding the best node for routing the data packet. The
reserve it using ‘r’ parameter and OAB is set to OABi = nodes in the NNT are arranged in the decreasing order of
OABi – r their stable power signals.

 Avail_Bandwidth (AB): Available Bandwidth, When the Neighbor Node Ad- AB Delay
data packet is sent to the destination or intermediate node it dress
will reserve the bandwidth required by it , the maximum N1 100 1,4,3,0
available bandwidth now is: N2 90 2,3,5,1
N3 110 1,4,0,0
Min(OAB i, OABj ) N4 150 0,1,0,0
This information is refreshed after a certain interval of
i.e this is the minima of the overall available bandwidth time by broadcasting a Bacon_Request Packet. The format
of MNi and MNj, which are trying to reserve a part of of Beacon_Request packet is given in Fig. 3.
overall available bandwidth from the communication
channel. Pkt_Type S_Addr D_Addr OAB
Fig. 3. Beacon_Request Packet Header
 TOS(Type of Service): This parameter can be used to
identify the actual service need of the data packet. The Pkt_Type: Beacon_Request Packet
major choice is a three way tradeoff between low-delay, S_Addr: Source Address
high-reliability, and high-throughput. Depending up on D_Addr: Destination Address
the various kinds of applications running on the mobile MAB: Maximum Available Bandwidth at the Source node.
nodes, the applications have been categorized into 4 sets
of services and maximum delay parameters has been ap- Every neighbor node sends back the Beacon_Reply Packet
propriately allocated as given below: (Fig. 4.)to the source node from where the Bea-
con_Request Packet has been arrived.Whenever a node
Type of Service : A B C D receives the Beacon_Request packet, the node calculate
the Avail_Bandwidth parameter on the basis of the fol-
(D)Delay possible: 0 1 2 3
lowing function: AB = Min(OABi,OABj) and subsequently
3.2 Data Packet Header stores the information into its NNT table.
This packet is used for exchange of data between the mo-
bile nodes. The format of data packet header is given in
Fig. 2.
Pkt_Type S_Addr D_Addr AB Delay

Fig. 4. Beacon_Reply Packet Header

Pkt_Type Pkt_Seq_No S_Addr D_Addr L_V_N TTL r TOS
Fig. 2. Format of Data Packet Header

Pkt_Type: Beacon_Reply Packet 6. At the intermediate node, check whether the address of
S_Addr: Source Address the node is same as destination address. If yes, then
D_Addr: Destination Address consume the Data packet. Otherwise, check for the
AB: Min(OABi, OABj) node address in List of visited node (L_V_N). If found
Delay: Average delay for different type of services e.g.(1,0,0,2) then ignore the data packet.
7. At the intermediate node the max hop count (TTL) is
The neighboring nodes send the computed ABij value and
compared with the no of nodes visited. If number of vi-
the average delay parameter value for various services to the
requesting node which in turn update its NNT table. Entries sited nodes is less the TTL entry then continue the
in NNT also get updated whenever a node moves from one process from step 1. Otherwise, drop the data packet
vicinity to another. This process helps in maintaining a and send an error message to the message originating
consistent network view. node.

3.4 Algorithm and Flow chart for the Proposed

In order to provide QoS along with minimum delay from
source to destination a new approach is proposed. This
algorithm tries to find the suitable neighboring node as
intermediate node to reach the destination node. If the
destination node is with in the same vicinity and satisfies
the QoS conditions i.e. available bandwidth should be
greater than or equal to the bandwidth required for
transmission of data packet, then Data Packet is for-
warded towards the destination node. If the destination
node is not in the vicinity then a node satisfying the QoS
conditions (i.e. bandwidth and delay) is searched inside
the neighboring list. This chosen node is taken as inter-
mediate node for forwarding the data packet ahead.
When the data packet is sent to the destination or inter-
mediate node it will reserve the bandwidth required by it
, the maximum available bandwidth for the sender node
now is: overall_avail_bandwidth = over-
all_avail_bandwidth. – req_bandwidth. This process con-
tinues till the data packet reaches the destination node.
While forwarding the data packet each source node ap-
Fig. 5. Algorithm for NQM
pends its own address to List of visited node field. This
field is helpful in removing the loops. When the for- 3.5 Analysis of NQM
warded packet reach a particular node, the node checks
is the protocol that deals with the satisfaction of two im-
for its address in the L_V_N. If address is found then it
portant QoS Parameters (i.e. bandwidth and delay) while
ignores the packet as this node is already visited.
routing of information between mobile nodes. The me-
Again in order to reach the destination node with in the
chanism in comparison with the existing models provides
stipulated interval this algorithm limits the number of
self adjusting routing mechanism and ensured the ful-
hop count that a particular data packet can visit. Number
fillment of QoS parameter from source to destination.
of nodes in the L_V_N is compared with the hop count
Looping in the network can also be avoided by using
limit in TTL field. If number of visited node exceeds the
L_V_N(List of visited nodes). The loss of data packet is re-
max hop count then the data packet is dropped and an
duced as the bandwidth and delay require-
error message is sent back to the source node. The algo-
ment/availability are already known to each node, thus
rithm for the proposed protocol is as follows:
the data packet will be transmitted only to those nodes
1. Source node generates the data packet for transmis-
which satisfies the prerequisite conditions. Waiting time
due to congestion at a particular node also gets reduced
2. Check for the availability of destination node in NNT.
as the delay or waiting time for a particular type of ser-
3. If destination found in NNT then forward the packet. vice is already maintained in the NNT at each node. A
4. If destination is not available in NNT then find a node brief comparison of various protocols is given below:
which fulfills the QoS conditions. TABLE 2
5. Copy the address of source node in L_V_N. Reduce the
required bandwidth (r) from the overall available
bandwidth (OAB) and forward the packet to the next
node. FQMM 1. First QoS model for MANET.
2. Hybrid of both IntServ and DiffServ.

3. Problems of DiffServ and IntServ are Delay possible: 0 1 2 3

INSIGNIA 1. First signaling protocol proposed for MA- Example
2. Information is carried out in IP option of IP
Nodes in the
data packet. Node AB Delay
3. Does not send error and rejection messages
CEDAR 1. Proposed to reduce the control overhead.
1 2 100 (1,2,3,0)
2. Have 3 main components: core extraction,
link state propagation, and route computa-
tion. 2 4, 3,1 70,110,130 (2,0,0,1),(1,2,0,1), (2,1,0,3)

3. Perform only under centralized network.

AQOR 1. Deals with bandwidth and end to end
3 6, 4,2 40,150,70 (3,1,1,0),(,2,4,1,1), (2,4,1,0)
2. Includes three main steps: on demand route
discovery, signaling function and hop to 200,100,150,170, (0,2,1,2),(1,1,0,0),(1,0,3,3),(
hop routing. 4 7,5,3,8,6
10 1,2,0,1),(2,4,1,1)
3. Does not deal with the latency delay.
NQM 1. Provide QoS support in terms of b/w and
5 9,8,4 4,8,9 140,10,200 (2,3,1,0),(2,1,1,4),(0,2,1,3 )
latency delay.
2. Self adjusting routing protocol deals with 6 3,4, 7 100,10,130 (2,3,2,1),(1,3,0,0), (2,1,1,0)
the mobile nodes. 7 4, 6 130,20 (0,2,1,0),(0,0,1,1)
3. Includes 3 main components: maintaining
the Neighboring Node Table, Finding the 8 9,5,4 130,200,160 (1,2,0,2),(0,0,0,1),(0,0,1,0)
best suited route, and transmitting the data.
9 10,5, 8 100,130,230 (1,2,1,2),(1,2,3,4),(0,0,0,0)
10 9 190 (1,1,1,0)
If Node 1 wants to send data packet to 7(r = 100 kbps, Service
Each node constructs its NNT table. The entries of NNT The Traversal of Data Packet from node 1 to destination
table of participating nodes have been compiled in table node is through the path 1 →2→3→4→7.
shown in Table 3. At node no. 2 , node 3 is chosen as intermediate node be-
cause the QoS criteria(req. b/w=100) is not fulfilled by
node no 4. At node no. 3, node no. 4 is choosen as the next
intermediate node as this node fulfills the required QoS

If Dynamic and unpredictable topology, limited band-
width, limited resources in terms of battery and storing
capacity are the major characteristics of MANET, and
with the increase popularity of the mobile applications, it
has become very important to provide quality in terms of
bandwidth and delay. NQM, a table driven routing pro-
Fig. 6. Participating nodes in MANET tocol has handled the core issues of QoS parameters i.e.
bandwidth and delay efficiently. Thus, NQM() algorithm
ensures that the routes are readjusted by itself depending
upon the mobility of the nodes. The NNT table endures
that QoS parameters are fulfilled as per the requirement.
The NQM thus provides the reduction in data processing,
saves the battery backup, reduces the delay in transmis-
TABLE 3 sion of data packet, and avoidloops.
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Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks”, IEEE Personal Communications,
Type Of Service: A B C D Vol. 6, April 1999,pp. 46-55.
[2] Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu, and tor C.R. State Engg. College Murthal, Haryana India from 2004 to
JorjetaJetcheva. "A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad 2005. Presently he is working as Executive Director & Dean, Faculty
Hoc Network Routing Protocols". Proceedings of the 4th Annual of Engineering & Technology, Faridabad, India. He has supervised
ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking six Ph.D.’s. He has more than 90 publications in International / Na-
(MOBICOM-98), pages 85-97, October 1998. tional Journals and Conferences. He is recipient of Best Paper
[3] R. Braden, D. Clark, and S. Shenker, “Integrated services in the Internet Award from the System Society of India in 1987.His areas of interest
are control, microprocessor-based instruments, and networking.
architecture: an overview,” 1994, IETF RFC 1633.
[4] S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z.Wang, andW. Weiss, “An
Parul Tomar received her M.Tech degree in computer Engineering
architecture for differentiated services,” 1998, IETF RFC 2475. from Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak in 2006. Presently, she
[5] Hannan XIAO, Winston K.G. SEAH, Anthony LO and Kee Chiang is working as Assistant Professor in Department of Computer Engi-
CHUA “ Flexible Quality Service Model for Ad-HOC Networks”, pro- neering, YMCA University of Science and Technology, Faridabad,
ceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Tokio, Japan, May India. She is pursuing Ph.D. in Computer Science and Applications
2000. from Kurukshtra University, Kurukshetra. Her areas of interest are
[6] [ACLZ99]G-S. Ahn, A.T. Campbell, S-B. Lee, and X. Zhang, “INSIG- adhoc networks, Databases, software engineering, programming.
NIA”, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-insignia-01.txt,Oct 1999.
[7] R. Sivakumar, P.Sinha, and V. Bharghavan.”CEDAR: A Core Extraction
Distributed Ad Hoc Routing Algorithm”, IEEE JSAC, Special Issue on
Ad hoc Networks aand Applications, Vol 3 N 8, august 1999
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S. Baras, "INORA - A Unified Signaling and Routing Mechanism for
QoS Support in Mobile Ad hoc Networks", International Conference on
Parallel Processing Workshops (ICPPW'02), 2002.
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Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR),”IETF Draft, April 2003,
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Dr. P. K. Suri received his Ph.D. degree from Faculty of Engineeing,

Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India and Master’s degree from
Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (formerly known as Roorkee
University), India. He has earlier worked as Reader, Computer Sc. &
Applications, at Bhopal University, Bhopal from 1985-90. Presently,
he is Dean, Faculty of Sciences, Dean, Faculty of Engineering, Ku-
rukshetra University and is working as Professor in the Department
of Computer Science & Applications, Kurukshetra University, Kuruk-
shetra, India since Oct. 1993. He has supervised six Ph.D.’s in
Computer Science and thirteen students are working under his su-
pervision. He has more than 110 publications in International / Na-
tional Journals and Conferences. He is recipient of ‘THE GEORGE
OOMAN MEMORIAL PRIZE' for the year 1991-92 and a RE-
SEARCH AWARD –“The Certificate of Merit – 2000” for the paper
entitled ESMD – An Expert System for Medical Diagnosis from IN-
STITUTION OF ENGINEERS, INDIA. His areas of interest are Simu-
lation and Modeling, SQA, Software Reliability, Software testing &
Software Engineering processes, Temporal Databases, Ad hoc Net-
works, Grid Computing and Biomechanics.

Dr. M.K. Soni received the B.Sc. Eng. And M.Sc. Eng. degrees from
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India, in 1972 and 1975, re-
spectively, and the Ph.D. degree from Kurukshetra niversity in colla-
boration with Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India, in 1988.
Earlier, he has worked as Professor , Chairman and Dean Electrical
Engg. Deptt. N.I.T. Kurukshetra, India. He has also worked as Direc-