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Soy flour with Coir as an Alternative Plywood Filler

An Investigatory Project

Presented by:

Jerelyn Y. Co

Bansud National High School

Regional Science High School for MIMAROPA

Pag-asa, Bansud, Oriental Mindoro


Abstract

This study proved that soy flour with coir can be used as plywood filler. Two set-ups
were conducted to test the quality of the experimental products. The first set-up was composed of
50g soy flour and 5g coir which were mixed together in a 150mL water. The second set-up was
composed of 50g soy flour and 150mL of water only. The mixtures were applied in 3x3 inches
ply woods and were dried under the sun for 24 hours. The fibers from the coconut husks were
obtained and undergone retting for 5 days. Both set-ups were tested by water absorption, and
shear strength test. Water absorption test was measured through recording the weight before and
after soaking the products in 1Lwater for 30 minutes. Shear strength test was performed by using
two chairs and the data of two set-ups were recorded using parameters. With an average rating of
4.1, set up 1 was comparable to the set up 2 with an average of 2.3 in Shear Strength. Water
absorption test showed that the first setup having the rate of 9.2 against the 10.8 of the second set
up. The results showed that the product from soy flour and coir is better than the soy flour only
in terms of water resistance and shear strength.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The researchers are grateful to the following persons:

First, to Almighty God, the source of all knowledge and wisdom, without Him this

Investigatory project would not have been successfully completed;

To Mr. Ian Fajardosa, the researchers’ project adviser, for his never ending guidance and

advice throughout the project;

To Mr. Amparo, for the encouragement and knowledge in completion of this research;

To Prof. Milagros for her useful articles related to the researchers’ Investigatory

project;

To the researchers’ parents, for their moral and financial support;

To Danica Pauline Nuestro, for her suggestions that helped the researchers conduct

their results and discussion;

To Mrs. Aurora Japon, the librarian, who lent books as a reference for their study;

To everyone who helped in one-way or another in conducting this research successfully.

You are the researchers’ inspiration and worthy to accept their sincerest thanks.

Without you, this research could not be made possible.

-J.Y.C-

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Table of Contents

Page
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….ii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………...…….iii

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………..iv

Chapter I: The Problem and its Setting………………………………………………………….1

Background of the Study…………………………………………………………...…...1

General and Specific Objectives………………………………………………………...3

Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………..….…..3

Significance of the Study………………………………………………………..…...…4

Scope and Limitations………………………………………………………….…….…4

Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………..4

Review of Related Literature……………………………………………………..….…5

Review of Related Studies………………………………………………………………11

Chapter II: Methodology

Materials and Equipment…………………………………………………………..…...13

General Procedure……………………………………………………………………...13

Chapter III: Results and Discussion……………………………………………………………16

Chapter IV: Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..20

Recommendation………………………………………………………………………20

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………...21

APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………….....23

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study


Plywood is a type of engineered wood composed of thin sheets of wood called plies or

wood veneers. These sheets are glued using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde which

have become the point of concern of health problems because of its carcinogenic component in

very high concentrations.

Formaldehyde which is used to glue wood veneers is an extremely useful industrial is

known to be the cause of health problems. Human exposure to formaldehyde gas emitted from

urea and phenol-formaldehyde resins used as adhesives in engineered woods had been suspected

to cause human health effects ranging from eye irritation to cancer. According to the National

Toxicology Program’s 2004 Report on Carcinogens, the amount of formaldehyde manufactured

has steadily risen over the last 75 years. In 1998, 11.3 billion pounds of formaldehyde were

produced in the United States. Noting that the formaldehyde used in wood make up half of all

formaldehyde made.

In 2001, the worldwide wood adhesive consumption was 13.3 million tons.

Formaldehyde based adhesive accounted for 99% of the total volume which indicated the

dominant role of formaldehyde adhesive in the market (Huang, 1997).

Concerning with this problem, the desire to make bio-based and lower cost wood

adhesive has led to an interest in replacing some phenol and formaldehyde in wood adhesive

with soy flour (Lorenz, 2006).


Sun (1999) studied about the improvement of plywood adhesive using soy protein entitled

“Shear strength and water resistance of modified soy protein adhesives” and discovered that

glues with modified soy protein is better that unmodified one.

Several studies on soybean-based plywood adhesives have reported that these glues

provided satisfactory bonding strength to veneers. It also appears to be a viable alternative to

animal blood as extender in foamed glue. Additional information is that soy flour based glues are

cost competitive and possess mixing, foaming and adhesive properties that match those of the

plywood industry’s current blood-based glue (Evangelista, 2006).

Thus, the researcher tried to create product out of soy flour together with coir as Li

(2007) suggested the advantages of natural fiber in fiber-reinforced composites.

General Objectives

The aim of this study is to produce alternative plywood filler by the addition of coir in

soy flour which is a Formaldehyde free product.

Specific Objectives
This study specifically aimed to know:

1. if soy flour with coir can be alternative plywood filler.

2. if there is a significant difference between the soy flour with coir and soy flour

product only.

Statement of the Problem/Objectives

This study sought to determine the potential of soy flour with the coir addition as binder.

Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:

1. Can soy flour and coir be used as alternative plywood filler?

1.1 Which of the two set-ups produces the better alternative to plywood filler?

2. Is there a significant difference between the soy flour only and soy flour with coir product?

2.1. Shear Strength

2.2. Water Absorption

Null Hypothesis

1. Soy flour with coir as an alternative plywood filler is rejected.

2. There is no significant difference between the experimental product and soy flour in terms of:

2.1. Shear Strength

2.2. Water Absorption

3. Set-up two which is the coir less product is better than soy flour with coir.

Significance of the Study


Alternative plywood filler can be produced from the utilization of soy flour and coir

improving its quality with soy flour alone.

The result of this study will be of great help for the society and industry not only because

it is an environmental friendly but also safe to breathe product because it is formaldehyde free.

Furthermore, this study would be very beneficial to people because the construction materials are

locally available, low cost and effective as plywood filler.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study is limited on the production of alternative plywood filler with the use of soy

flour and coir. It is further focused unto the comparability of it with the soy flour only. The

product’s efficiency was then tested and recorded through the evaluation of Shear Strength and

Water Absorption. The experiments were conducted in the Science Laboratory of Learning

Resource Center, Pag-asa, Bansud, Oriental Mindoro. The time span of the experiments ranges

from June 2010 to July 2010.

Definition of Terms

Coir-material extracted from the fibrous husk of coconut drupe (Cocos nucifera Linne) (Bato

balani, 1993-1994)

Soybeans- leguminous crop and of great economic significance.

Formaldehyde-is an organic compound which is an important precursor to many other chemical

compounds, especially for polymers.

Plywood- thin laminar pieces of wood glued together. (Grolier Encyclopedia, 1995)

Review of Related Literature

Formaldehyde
Formaldehyde is a colorless pungent gas used in solutions applied as disinfectant and

preservative (Webster’s Universal Dictionary and Thesaurus, 2002).

de Jesus (2007) included in his work entitled “Building ecology and indoor air quality”

that in the Philippines, average person breathes about 20 cubic meters of air which is more than

the two to three kilograms of food and water that he takes each day. If it is polluted, lungs will

absorb these harmful elements, passing them onto the blood and carrying them throughout the

body where they may damage the organs.

It was further stated in his work that one of the chemical pollutant easily found is

formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is a colorless gas has been used in hundreds of products such as

plastics, clothing, resins, glues, vaccines and even for tissue and organ preservation. It is an

ingredient in many construction materials especially plywood and spray-on foams.

Formaldehyde is one of the most common indoor air pollutants, especially in hot humid

climates like the Philippines.

Formaldehyde is very powerful. When one inhales the fumes, the breathing passages

are blocked. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer in the United

States, formaldehyde is classified as a human carcinogen. It is a known fact that it can worsen

respiratory health.

The nose, eyes and lungs can easily be irritated if more than 0.1 parts per million of

formaldehyde is found in the air (www.inquirer.net).

Plywood
Wood is one of the most valuable raw materials supplied by nature and as the civilization

advances, the use of wood with the help of modern science turned into hundred of valuable

materials. There are different types of woods; the most common known is the engineered wood

which the plywood is under it. Plywood is made of two or more veneers glued together with its

grain at right angles for greater strength. It is strong, light weight, and adaptable for many uses.

There are usually an odd number of plies, as the symmetry makes the board less prone to

warping. Natural adhesives in the wood keep the fibers firmly together. A resin adhesive is

sometimes added greater strength.

Plywood is used in many applications that need high-quality, high-strength sheet

material. Quality in this context means resistance to cracking, breaking, and shrinkage, twisting

and warping (www.wikipedia.com)

Exterior glued plywood is suitable for outdoor use, but because moisture affects on the

strength of wood, optimal performance is achieved in end uses where woods moisture content

remains relatively low. On the other hand subzero conditions don't affect on plywood's

dimensional or strength properties which opens some special application possibilities. In

addition, plywood can be manufactured in sheets far wider than the trees from which it was

made.

Coir

Coir is the fibers obtained from the husk of a coconut. The individual fiber cells are

narrow and hallow, with thick walls made of cellulose. They are pale when immature but later

become hardened and yellowed as large amount of lignin is deposited on their walls. There are
two varieties of coir. Brown coir is harvested from fully ripened coconuts. It is thick, strong and

has high abrasion resistance. Mature brown coir fibers contain more lignin and less cellulose

than fibers such as flax and cotton and so stronger but less flexible. It is used in floor mats and

doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles and sacking and the small amount is also made into

twine. White coir fibers are harvested from coconuts before they are ripe. These fibers are white

or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but also weaker.

At present, commercial synthetic fibers used to reinforce polyester matrix for plastic

production are relatively expensive. It consists of chemicals that are not readily available in the

market, more so, to small local industries. Ascano find a possible substitute for these fibers by

using a cheaper indigenous material-the coconut coir (Bato Balani, 1994).

Sen (2010) studied the ability of Coir-fiber-based fire retardant nano filler for epoxy resin

in his paper entitled “Coir-fiber-based fire retardant nano filler for epoxy composites”. He found

out the strong interfacial adhesion takes place between the filler and the matrix and the study also

cocluded that coir-fibre-based fire retardant filler is effective for epoxy resins.

Soybean (Soy flour)

Soybean is a plant native to Asia, grown internationally for food, forage, green manure

and oil, its seeds is an important source of protein. (World Encyclopedia, 2006)

It is an erect, hairy plant with white or purple flowers and short pods with one to four

seeds which contains about 20% oil and 40% protein (Gunther, 1997 as mentioned in the study

of Garbin, 2008)
Soybean is between 40-50% protein compared to meat containing for about 20% protein.

It yields more protein per acre than other crops. These contains four times protein than wheat and

eggs, five to six time as that of bread, twice that of most nuts and twelve times than milk

(Rodale, 1969 as cited in the study of Malaluan, 2007).

Only a small percent of our soybeans are produced locally, while the rest are imported.

Despite its high domestic consumption, local supply is not enough to meet our needs. Soybeans

are made into several processed products like soy sauce (toyo), taho, textured vegetable protein

(TVP), tawsi and soybean curd or tokwa (Esguerra, 1994, as cited in the study of Romey, 2010).

Soybeans are now known for their variety of uses from particleboards, laminated

plywoods, commercial carpets, auto upholstery, clean-burning diesel engines, environmentally

friendly solvents, industrial lubricants, cleaners, paints, non-toxic crayons, candles, ink

cartridges, high-quality lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and foams.

Soy flour refers to defatted soybeans where special care was taken during desolventizing

(not toasted) in order to minimize denaturation of the protein to retain a high Nitrogen Solubility

Index (NSI), for uses such as extruder texturizing (TVP). It is the starting material for production

of soy concentrate and soy protein isolate.

Sailaja (2007) investigated a new bio-based composite which was developed by adding

soy flour (SF) to polypropylene (PP) in his study entitled “Effect of compatibilization on
mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene composite”, his product showed an

enhanced tensile strength and modulus but decrease in elongation at break.

Tests

Several Tests can be done to determine whether the experimental product can be used as

substitute to the soy flour one. These include shear strength test and water absorption test.

Water Absorption

Water absorption is used to determine the amount of water absorbed under specified

conditions. The data sheds light on the performance of the materials in water or humid

environments.

After the products were both sun dried for 24 hours, they are subjected to water

absorption test.

Water absorption is expressed as increase in weight percent.

Percent Water Absorption = [(Wet weight - Dry weight)/ Dry weight] x 100.

Shear Strength

Shear Strength is determined by rating both set-ups with the use of a parameter as 500 g

weight is added to the set-ups as testing material on which set-ups shows a better adhesive

ability.(Rose Wyler-Polyken Probe Tack Test)


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Review of Related Studies

Soy Flour

Evangelista (2001) studied the foaming of soy adhesives and as a part of her evaluation,

Hojilla-Evangelista and ARS technician Rick Haig checked each experimental formulation for

soy adhesives foaming ability, refoaming ability, foam strand quality, and adhesive properties.

The study concluded that soy flour-based glues are cost competitive and possess mixing,

foaming and adhesive properties that match those of the plywood industry’s current blood-based

glue which is the supported the researcher’s idea for this study.
Kumar (2003) studied the adhesive strength of protein adhesive and discovered that it

depends on the polar and non polar interaction between the adhesive and wood to be used. He

further concluded that concentration of soy protein, pH and type of wood greatly affects the

strength of it. The study further stated in its results that increase in press time produced increased

in shear strength.

One of the tests is the water absorption test which is supported by Mungara (2004) when

he performed a research which is all about the utilization of Soy protein to produce plastics that

exhibits low water absorption and had good stability under ambient conditions.

Coir

There is a wide scope of commercial utilization of coir and coir dust, to make products

like mat and matting, tawashi brush, twine and rope, fertilizer, rubberized coir, carpet underlay

and particle board.

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It is also discovered that coir can be used as fiberboard which is classified as semi-

hardboard or medium-density hardboard because of fibers’ main component lignin which is

responsible for the stiffness of the coir (Tejano, 1985).

Khayat ( as cited in Romey, 2010) published his work all about the use of fiber in

improvement of cement strength and evaluated the compressive strength and flexural toughness

of their product containing fibers in the cement. This influenced the researcher to use coir as

mixture in the product to improve its properties.

Banzon and Velasco (as cited in Tejano, 1985) studied coir dust which is rich in lignins

and tannins. They found out that under high pressure and temperature, these compounds soften

and act as thermoplastic binding materials.


Synopsis

As Li (2005) discovered the ability of soy protein as effective plywood adhesive. This

study turned to be the basis of the researcher to work with coir together with soy flour to produce

an alternative to plywood filler. Since the soy flour with coir is being hailed by many as a

nontoxic, cheap in terms of price, and are safer to a long-standing environmental health issue and

coir which has its ability as a good binder in different materials as the studies cited suggest.

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CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

Materials and Equipment

The following are the materials used in making the plywood filler: 100 g soy flour (50 g

for both set-ups), 5 g coir, 3x3 ply woods, 300 mL water, stirrer, triple beam balance, containers,

basin and beakers.

Treatment and General Procedure

100 g soy beans as well as dry and 5 g coir were collected and prepared for different

processes. The soy beans were grounded into powder form while coir or coconut fibers were

separated manually after retting it in water for 5 days.


Set-Ups

To test the experimental product’s quality, two set-ups were conducted. The first set-up is

the researchers’ product which includes both soy flour and coir while the second set-up includes

the 50 g pure soy flour only. All quantities and processes in the first set-up are the same with the

second set-up except that the second set-up is prohibited with the usage of coir.

Set-up 1

The gathered soy beans were grounded into powder. The 50g soy flour was heated into a

150ml water maintaining its low temperature.

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Retting

The fibrous husks of coconuts were soaked for 5 days in 2L water. After retting it the

fibers were separated from the spongy material.

Mixing

After the processes treated to the 5g coir and 50g soy flour, the materials were mixed

together by stirring.

Drying

The mixture was applied to 3x3 inches plywoods and was dried under the sun for 24

hours.

Set-up 2
The gathered soy beans were grounded into powder. The 50 g soy flour was heated into a

150ml water maintaining its low temperature. It was applied in 3x3 ply woods and then dried

under the sun for 24 hours.

Testing

The experimental product had undergone two tests; water absorption and shear strength

test which will be compared with the product in which includes only the soy flour.

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Water Absorption

For the water absorption test, the products were weighted using triple beam balance and

were soaked in 1000mL of water for 30 minutes. It was then again weighed to determine its

absorption capacity. The results were then recorded.

Shear Strength Test

For the shear strength test, both set-ups were subjected into a 1kg weight test. Using two

chairs, a 1kg weight was placed in between the ply woods. The results were recorded using the

following parameters:

1 – both ply woods are separated

2 – one ply wood is separated

3 – slightly opened

4 – left a mark
5- nothing happened

For every test, the results of the set-up 1 and set-up 2 were recorded and compared.

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CHAPTER III

Results and Discussion

Table 1

The Rating of the Set-ups in the Shear Strength Test

Trials Set-up 1 Set-up 2


1 5 2
2 5 3
3 4 2
4 2 2
5 5 2
6 3 2
7 5 2
8 5 2
9 3 3
10 4 3
Total 41 23
Average 4.1 2.3
Table 1 shows the rating of the set-ups in the shear strength test using a parameter

(see appendix). Set-up 1 has an average rating of 4.1. Set-up 2 has an average rating of 2.3.

Since the p-value of .0002, which falls in the rejection area at a 5% level of significance,

the hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. Based on the data in Table 1, Set-up 1 is

better in terms of shear strength test.

The result was supported by the study of Café stating that coconut coir has been reported

to contain lignin and tannin in much greater amount than wood which is used as binder. Thus,

the use of coir improves the properties of material to be more compact and sturdy.

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Table 2

Weight of Set-ups Before Soaking in the water (g)

Trials Set-up 1 Set-up 2


1 42 43
2 40 45
3 44 41
4 43 44
5 41 43
6 40 42
7 42 40
8 43 41
9 42 43
10 43 42
Total 420 424
Average 42 42.4
Table 2 shows the weight of the set-ups before soaking in the water. Set-up 1 has an

average weight of 42g. Set-up 2 has an average weight of 42.4g. After 30 minutes of soaking in

the water, the set-ups were again weighed to measure how much water was absorbed by the

products.

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Table 3

Weight of Set-ups After Soaking in the water (g)

Trials Set-up 1 Set-up 2


1 51 53
2 50 54
3 52 52
4 50 53
5 51 54
6 52 53
7 53 55
8 50 53
9 51 52
10 51 53
Total 511 532
Average 51.1 53.2

Table 3 shows the weight of the set-ups after soaking in the water. Set-up 1 has an

average weight of 51.1g. Set-up 2 has an average weight of 53.2g.


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Table 4

Change in Weight of the Set-ups After Soaking in the Water (g)

(Weight after-Weight before)

Trials Set-up 1 Set-up 2


1 9 10
2 10 9
3 8 11
4 7 9
5 10 11
6 12 11
7 11 15
8 7 12
9 9 9
10 8 11
Total 91 108
Average 9.2 10.8

The water absorption percentage of set up 1 is 21.6% and set up 2 with 25.5%.
Table 4 shows the change in weight of the set-ups after soaking in the water. Set up 1 has

an average change in weight of 9.2g. Set up 2 has an average change in weight of 10.8g.

Since the p-value of .0424 falls in the rejection area at a 5% level of significance, the

hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. Based on the data in Table 4, Set-up 1 is better

in terms of Water absorption.

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Chapter IV

Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

Based on the results on the study, it can be concluded that soy flour with coir is suitable

and potential raw materials in making good plywood filler. For the shear strength test, there is a

significant difference between the two set-ups. It shows that set-up 1, which is the soy flour with

coir is better than set-up 2 which is the soy flour only. For the water absorption test, set-up 1 also

has significant difference comparing with the weight gained by the set up 2. Generally, set-up 1

is better than set-up 2 in terms of Shear Strength Test and Water Absorption Test.

Recommendation

The data and results obtained led the researchers to recommend using the construction

material from Soy flour and coir as alternative plywood filler. It is highly recommended that the

amount of coir is to be increased to make the product more compact and sturdier.
Alkali-modification of the product is also advised to improve its adhesive and

hydrophobic properties (Hettiarachchy, 1995). Use other cheaper chemicals not only to improve

its firmness but also the quality of the product.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ascano, D., & Ignacio, I. (1995). Characterization of Coco-coir-Reinforced Polyester. Bato


Balani for Science and Technology (1994-1995). Junior, Volume 14 (No. 2), Pp. 16-18.

Esguerra, E. (1995). Dry Soybean Curd (Tokwa). Bato Balani for Science and Technology
(1994-1995). Sophomore, Volume 14 (No.5), Pp.15.

Romey, M. K. J. (2010) Utilization of Used Paper with Banana Stem Waste, Coir and Sawdust
as Particle Board, unpublished science investigatory project from MIMAROPA Regional
Science High School.

Garbin, J. L. (2008) Ply Board Sandwich; Ply board made up of rice hulls and Sawdust,
unpublished science investigatory project from MIMAROPA Regional Science High
School.

Malaluan, M. R. (2007) Hulls from Oryza Sativa(rice) and Sawdust as an alternative to Oriented
Strand Board, unpublished science investigatory project from MIMAROPA Regional
Science High School.

Plastics Technology Laboratories, Inc. (1997). Water absorption Test. Retrieved Sept. 3, 2007
from http:/www.ptli.com/testlopedia/tests/water_absorption-D570.asp

Café, A. (2008). Coconut Coir Dust can be made into Particle Board. Retrieved Dec. 27, 2010
from http://affleap.com/coconut-coir-dust-can-be-made-into-particle-board/

Li, K. & Huang, J. (2007). The potential of soy flour as an adhesive. Retrieved from
http://www.springerlink.com/content/47454483q1765644/?
p=08a428c79d8447f095e02322566bbb70&pi=66
Sen, A. & Kumar, S. (3 December 2009). Coir-fibre-based fire retardant nano filler for epoxy
composites. J Therm Anal Calorim, Volume 101, Number 1, 265-271, DOI:
10..1007/s10973-009-0637-8.

Kumar, R., Choudhary, V., Mishra, S., Varma, I.K. (27 November 2003). Enzymatically-
modified soy protein part 2: adhesion behavior. J. Adhesion Science Technology,
Volume 18, Number 2, 261-273.

Lorenz, L., Frihart, C., Wescott, J. (23 March 2006). Chromatographic Analysis of the Reaction
of Soy Flour with Formaldehyde and Phenol for Wood Adhesives. J Amer Oil Chem Soc
(2007), Volume 84, 769-776; DOI: 10.1007/s 11746-007-1097-6.

Evangelista, M. (November 2002). Adhesive Qualities of Soybean Protein-based Foamed


Plywood Glues. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (JAOCS), Volume 79,
No. 11, pp. 1145-1149; DOI: 10.1007/s 11746-002-0618-2.

Weimer, P. J., Conner, A.H., Lorenz, L. F. (30 January 2003). Solid Residues from
Ruminococcus Cellulose fermentations as components of wood adhesive formulations.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol., Volume 63, pp. 29-34; DOI: 10.1007/s 00253-003-1334.

Kumar, R., Choudhary, V., Mishra, S., Varma, I. K., Mattiason, B. (9 January 2002). Adhesives
and plastics based on soy protein products. Industrial Crops and Products, Volume 16,
pp. 155-172.

World Encyclopedia (2006). Soya Bean. (Pp. 698). India: Philip’s London.

The New Book of Knowledge (2003). Coconuts. (Vol. 3, Pp. 392). United States of America:
Grolier Publishing Company.

Webster’s Universal Dictionary and Thesaurus (2002). Formaldehyde. (Pp. 209). Scotland:
Infinity Books International Trading.

Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge (1995). Plywood. (Pp. 408). United States of America:
Grolier Incorporated.

de. Jesus, A. (2007). Building ecology and indoor air quality. Retrieved from
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/2007033158019/Building_ecol
ogy_and_indoor_air_quality
Sun, X., & Bian, K. (August 2008). Shear Strength and Water Resistance of Modified Soy
Protein Adhesives. Journal of the American Oil Chemist’s Society (JAOCS), Vol. 76,
No. 8, 997-980; DOI: 10.1007/s11746-999-0115-2

Sailaja, R.R.N., Girija, B. G., Madras, G. & Balasubramanian, N. (2007). Effect of


Compatibilization in Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polypropylene-soy flour
composites. Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 43, No. 1, 64-74; DOI: 10.1007/s10853-
007-2094-8

Hettiarachchy, N.S., Kalapathy, U. & Myers, D. J. (1995). Alkali-modified soy protein with
improved adhesive and hydrophobic properties. Journal of the American Oil Chemist’s
Society (JAOCS), Vol. 72, No. 12, 1461-1464; DOI: 10.1007/BF02577838
APPENDIX

A. FORMS

B. COMMUNICATION LETTER

Good Day!

I am a fourth year student from the MIMAROPA Regional Science High


School Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. My school is a public secondary school which
offers special science curriculum to research and scientifically inclined students, thus
we are required to do science investigations in the field we are interested. My name is
Jerelyn Y. Co. My investigatory project is about the use of Soy Flour with coir as an
alternative Plywood Filler. I learned about your research as I surf the net and find it
very timely and useful to my current study. In as much as I wanted to improve my
project write-up, the school library lacks the necessary research journals wherein I
could use in the review of related studies. I also cannot afford to subscribe the journal
wherein your study is published.

In this regard, may I ask for a free copy of your research paper? I am very
much interested on your study that I would like to incorporate your results in my
current work. Rest assured that I will properly cite and acknowledge you in my write-
up.

Hoping that this request merit your favorable consideration. Thank you and
more power!

Sincerely yours,
Jerelyn Y. Co
(jerelyn_co2008@yahoo.com)
Team Leader

C. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE

Pounding of Soy Beans using Mixing of soy flour


mortar and pestle. and water

Separation of the Retting of coconut


fibers
Mixing soy flour and coir End product
D. THE PARAMETER IN RATING THE SET-UPS IN SHEAR STRENGTH TEST

5 Nothing happened
4 Left a mark
3 Slightly opened
2 One ply wood is separated
1 Both ply woods are separated

E. CHARTS OF DATA

Fig. 1. Rating of the Shear Strength test for 10 trials

(Series 1-Set up 1, Series 2-Set up 2)

Fig. 2. Weight of Set-ups Before Soaking in the water (g)

Fig. 3. Weight of Set-ups After Soaking in the water (g)

Trial
Fig. 4. Change in weight of two set-ups (g)

(Where series 1-set up 1, Series 2-set-up 2)

F. ONE FACTOR ANOVA COMPUTATION OF RATING OF THE SET-UPS IN THE


SHEAR STRENGTH TEST

One factor ANOVA

Mea
n n Std. Dev
Group
4.1 10 1.10 1
Group
2.3 10 0.48 2
3.2 20 1.24 Total

ANOVA
table
p-
Source SS df MS F value
Treatment 16.20 1 16.200 22.43 .0002
Error 13.00 18 0.722
Total 29.20 19

E. ONE FACTOR ANOVA COMPUTATION OF CHANGE IN WATER ABSORPTION

One factor ANOVA

Mea
n n Std. Dev
Group
9.1 10 1.66 1
Group
10.8 10 1.81 2
10.0 20 1.90 Total

ANOVA table
p-
Source SS df MS F value
Treatment 14.45 1 14.450 4.77 .0424
Error 54.50 18 3.028
Total 68.95 19

RE: Water Absorption


From: Richard Kondel Intertek <richard.kondel@intertek.com>
Add to Contacts
To: jerelyn co <jerelyn_co2008@yahoo.com>

Jerelyn:

Sorry, I do not know the value that makes a material water resistant. It all depends on the application and requirements of the
material. One material may have the value at 0.01% while another material may have the value of 1.00%. It all depends on the
application and material.

Regards.

Rick Kondel
Laboratory Manager
Intertek Plastics Technology Labs
www.ptli.com
Intertek Analytical Services
50 Pearl Street
Pittsfield, MA 01201
Phone : 413-499-0983
Fax : 413-499-2339
From: jerelyn co [mailto: jerelyn_co2008@yahoo.com ]
Sent: Monday, December 27, 2010 10:24 PM
To: Richard Kondel Intertek
Subject: Re: Water Absorption

Richard Kondel Intertek,

Sir, I have done the water absoprtion test by myself and obtained the weight change percentage. What percentage is the product
said to be water resistant?

Sorry because I'm just a High School student and can't comprehend scientific methods because of lack of resources.

Thank you for understanding and doing a response in my letter.

Sincerely yours,
Jerelyn Y. Co
( jerelyn_co2008@yahoo.com )

From: Richard Kondel Intertek <richard.kondel@intertek.com>


To: jerelyn_co2008@yahoo.com
Cc: Laura Howland Intertek <Laura.Howland@intertek.com>
Sent: Tue, December 28, 2010 1:14:09 AM
Subject: RE: Water Absorption

Jerelyn:

Water absorption can be measured easily down to 0.01%. What value is significant is dependent on the application. There are no
set significant values for water absorption.

Regards.

Rick Kondel
Laboratory Manager
Intertek Plastics Technology Labs
www.ptli.com
Intertek Analytical Services
50 Pearl Street
Pittsfield, MA 01201
Phone : 413-499-0983
Fax : 413-499-2339

-----Original Message-----
From: "jerelyn co" < jerelyn_co2008@yahoo.com >
Sent: 12/27/2010 8:45 AM
To: "*AS AMER USA Pittsfield PTLI Web Inquiries" <iptl@intertek.com>
Subject: Water Absorption

Good Day!

I just want to ask on what weight change percentage is the water absorption test significant?

Hoping your deepest consideration in answering this letter for my Investigatory Project.

Jerelyn Y. Co
( jerelyn_co2008@yahoo.com )
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