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By:

Poonam Savsani

Department of Mechanical Engineering

School of Technology

1

Types of Load

• There are three principal ways in which a load

may be applied: namely, tension,

compression, and shear or torsional.

(b) Compressive

load

(c) Shear load

(d) Torsional load

Prismatic and Non Prismatic Bars

constant Cross section not have a constant

throughout length.

Cross section

throughout length.

Simple Stress

of cohesion between particles of the material are generated and

these internal forces will provide resistance to the action of

external force/forces.

deformation, and material offer resistance to this deformation.

resistance is proportional to the deformation within elastic range.

• Direct Stress:

• These internal forces of cohesion across the

section or resistance offered by material

against deformation is known as Stress.

• It is also known as The force per unit area, or

intensity of the forces distributed over a given

section.

they are act is called Direct stresses.

Direct Stresses are either tensile or Compressive.

Axial Stress/Direct Stress

Shear Stress

Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins, and rivets used to connect

various structural members and machine components.

Bolts Subject to Single Shear

• Determination of the Shearing Stress in Various Connections

A C

Strain

• No material is perfectly rigid.

• Under the action of forces a material undergoes changes in

shape and size.

• linear strain

– The change in length per unit length is known as linear strain.

lateral strain

– The lateral strain may be defined as changes in the lateral dimension per

unit lateral dimension.

– i.e., if extension is taking place in longitudinal direction, the shortening of

lateral dimension takes place and if shortening is taking place in

longitudinal direction extension takes place in lateral directions.

Shear strain : deformation normal to length

Hooke’s Law

• Robert Hooke, an English mathematician conducted several

experiments and concluded that

• Stress is proportional to strain up to elastic limit.

• This is called Hooke’s law.

• Thus Hooke’s law is, up to elastic limit.

known as modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus.

Extension/Shortening of A Bar

(equation of deformation)

A hollow steel tube is to be used to carry an axial compressive load of 160 kN. The yield

stress for steel is 250 N/mm2. A factor of safety of 1.75 is to be used in the design. The

following three class of tubes of external diameter 101.6 mm are available.

Class Thickness

Light 3.65 mm

Medium 4.05 mm

Heavy 4.85 mm

Which section do you recommend?

Tension Tests

• One of the most common mechanical stress–strain tests is

performed in tension.

• A specimen is deformed, usually to fracture, with a

gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially

along the long axis of a specimen.

• The tensile testing machine is designed to elongate the

specimen at a constant rate, and to continuously and

simultaneously measure the instantaneous applied load

(with a load cell) and the resulting elongations (using an

extensometer).

• These load–deformation characteristics are dependent on

the specimen size.

– For example, it will require twice the load to produce the

same elongation if the cross-sectional area of the specimen

is doubled.

Stress-strain Relation

The following salient points are observed on stress-strain curve:

of the stress up to which stress is proportional to

strain.

Elastic Limit: This is the limiting value of stress up

to which if the material is stressed and then

released (unloaded) strain disappears completely

and the original length is regained. This point is

slightly beyond the limit of proportionality.

Upper Yield Point (B): This is the stress at which,

the load starts reducing and the extension

increases.

This phenomenon is called yielding of material.

Lower Yield Point (C): At this stage the stress remains same but strain

increases for some time.

• Ultimate Stress (D): This is the maximum stress the material can resist.

– At this stage cross-sectional area at a particular section starts reducing very fast.

– This is called neck formation. After this stage load resisted and hence the stress

developed starts reducing.

• Breaking Point (E): The stress at which finally the specimen fails is called

breaking point.

If unloading is made within elastic limit the

original length is regained i.e., the stress-

strain curve follows down the loading

curve.

A

If unloading is made after loading the

specimen beyond elastic limit, it follows

a straight line parallel to the original

straight portion as shown by line FF′ in

Fig.

Thus if it is loaded beyond elastic limit

and then unloaded a permanent strain

(OF’) is left in the specimen. This is

called permanent set.

• If the material is loaded again from Point F’, the curve will follow back to

Point F with the same Elastic Modulus (slope).

- The material now has a higher yield strength of Point F’.

- Raising the yield strength by permanently straining the material is called

Strain Hardening.

Plastic Deformation

Fig: Typical stress–strain behavior for a metal showing elastic and plastic

deformations

Percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area

• Percentage Elongation: It is defined as the ratio of the final

extension at rupture to original length expressed, as

percentage. Thus,

maximum changes in the cross sectional area to original

cross-sectional area, expressed as percentage. Thus

Nominal Stress v/s True Stress

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

• Determination of the Ultimate Strength of a Material.

• Factor of Safety

• The maximum stress to which any member is

designed is much less than the ultimate stress,

and this stress is called Working Stress.

• The ratio of ultimate stress to working stress is

called factor of safety.

A specimen of steel 20 mm diameter with a gauge length of 200 mm

is tested to destruction. It has an extension of 0.25 mm under a load

of 80 kN and the load at elastic limit is 102 kN. The maximum load is

130 kN. The total extension at fracture is 56 mm and diameter at neck

is 15 mm. Find

(i) The stress at elastic limit.

(ii) Young’s modulus.

(iii) Percentage elongation.

(iv) Percentage reduction in area.

(v) Ultimate tensile stress.

Bars With Cross-sections Varying In Steps

The bar shown in Fig. is tested in universal testing machine. It is

observed that at a load of 40 kN the total extension of the bar is 0.280

mm. Determine the Young’s modulus of the material.

The stepped bar shown in Fig. 8.17 is made up of two different

materials. The material 1 has Young’s modulus = 2 × 105 N/mm,

while that of material 2 is 1 × 105 N/mm2. Find the extension of the

bar under a pull of 30 kN if both the portions are 20 mm in thickness.

1Kips= 4.4482216 (kN)

DEFORMATION OF THE BODY DUE TO SELF WEIGHT

A steel wire ABC 16m long having cross-sectional area of 4 mm2 weighs 20 N. if E=200 Gpa,

find the deflection at C and B.

A

Deflection at C:

8m dlc = Wl/2AE =20*(16*103)/2*4*(200*103 )

B = 0.2 mm

8m

Deflection at B:

C

dlb=d1+d2

Due to self

weight of AB d1= Wl/2AE =10*(8*103)/2*4*(200*103 ) =0.05mm

d2= Wl/AE = 10*(8*103)/4*(200*103 ) =0.1 mm

Due to weight of dlb = 0.05 +0.1 =0.15 mm

wire BC

Bars With Continuously Varying Cross-

Cross-sections

A 2.0 m long steel bar is having uniform diameter of 40 mm for a length of 1 m and

in the next 0.5 m its diameter gradually reduces from 40 mm to 20 mm as shown in Fig.

Determine the elongation of this bar when subjected to an axial tensile load of 200 kN.

Given E = 200 GN/m2.

Stress in Composite/Compound Bars

The ends of different materials of the bar are held together under loaded conditions.

A steel rod 20 mm diameter is passed through a brass tube 25 mm internal diameter

and 30 mm external diameter. The tube is 1 m long and is closed by thin rigid washers

and fastened by nuts, screwed to the rod, as shown in Fig. The nuts are tightened until

the compressive force in the tube is 5 kN. Calculate the stresses In the rod and the

tube. Es = 200 GPa, Eb =80 GPa.

A rigid beam BD is suspended, from two rods AB and CD as shown In Fig. Rod

AB is of steel of 20 mm diameter and rod B is of copper of 25 mm diameter. At

what distance from rod AB the load P be applied if the beam is to remain

horizontal ? Calculate the stresses in the rods if P = 25 kN.

Take E5 =200 GPa and E =100 GPa

respectively. Taking moments about rod AB, we

have

1m

2m

1.5m

P(2-x)/2 P(x)/2

A B

δ

x

P

A Concrete column of C.S. area 400 x 400 mm reinforced by 4 longitudinal

50 mm diameter round steel bars placed at each corner of the column

carries a compressive load of 300 kN. Calculate (i) loads carried by each

material & compressive stresses produced in each material. Take σs = 15

σc Also calculate change in length of the column. Assume the column in 2m

long. Take Es = 200GPa

400 mm

4-50φ bar

400 mm

Solution:-

Gross C.S. area of column =0.16 m2

C.S. area of steel = 4*π*0.0252 = 0.00785 m2

Area of concrete =0.16 - 0.00785=0.1521m2

Steel bar and concrete shorten by same amount. So,

εs = εc => σs /Es = σc /Ec = > σs= σcx (Es /Ec)

= 15σc

load carried by steel +concrete=300000 N

Ws +Wc= 300000

σs As + σc Ac = 300000

15 σc x 0.00785 + σc x0.1521 = 300000

σc = 1.11 x 10 6 N/ m2

σs =15x σc=15 x1.11x 10 6=16.65 x10 6 N/ m2

Wc = 1.11x 10 6 x 0.1521/103= 168.83 kN

(error in result is due to less no. of digits considered in stress

calculation.)

we know that,

σs /Es= σc /E (= ε = δL /L)

σc = 1.11 MPa

σs =15x σc=15 x1.11x 10 6=16.65 MPa

The length of the column is 2m

Change in length

dL = 1.11*2000/[13.333*1000] = 0.1665mm

OR

dL = 16.65*2000/[200000] = 0.1665mm

A rigid beam is placed on there columns of identical cross-sectional

areas of 200 cm2 each as shown in Fig. Calculate the stresses in the

columns if there was a gap of 2 mm between the beam and the middle

column before the load was applied. Take E = 18 GPa.

1 2 3

Three pillars, two of aluminium and one of steel support a rigid

platform of 250 kN as shown in Fig. If area of each aluminium

pillar is 1200 mm2 and that of steel pillar is 1000 mm2, find

the stresses developed in each pillar.

Let force shared by each aluminium pillar be Pa and that

shared by steel pillar be Ps .

∴ The forces in vertical direction

Pa + Ps + Pa = 250

2Pa + Ps = 250 .................................................(1)

……………….

2Pa + Ps = 250

A compound bar loaded as shown in Fig. has a gap of 1.0 mm.

Calculate the stresses in the two bars Es = 200 GPa, Ec = 105 GPa.

The steel bar is subjected to a tensile load of 100 kN.

Its free extension is:

1.194 mm

Temperature stresses:-

Material

Constrained

Change in temp.

No Expansion/

no constraint is contraction

present

Temperature

Expands/ Shortens stresses

Induced in material

Free expansion

defined as change in unit length of material due to unit change in temperature.

If the free expansion is prevented fully

constrain have expanded by

Δ = α tL

No Free expansion force P develops to keep it at the original

position. Magnitude of this force is such that

contraction is equal to free expansion, i.e.

If the free expansion is prevented partially

Compound bar

Let α1, α2 be coefficient of thermal expansion and E1, E2 be moduli of

elasticity of the two materials respectively. If rise in temperature is ‘t’

Free expansion of bar 1 = α1 tL

Free expansion of bar 2 = α2 tL

Let α1 > α2.

A railway is laid so that there is no stress in rail at 10º C. If rails are 30 m

long Calculate,

1. The stress in rails at 60 º C if there is no allowance for

expansion.

2. The stress in the rails at 60 º C if there is an expansion allowance

of 10 mm per rail.

3. The expansion allowance if the stress in the rail is to be zero

when temperature is 60 º C.

4. The maximum temp. to have no stress in the rails if the

expansion allowance is 13 mm/rail.

Take α = 12 x 10 -6 per 1ºC E= 2 x 10 5 N/mm 2

Solution:

1. Rise in temp. = 60 º - 10 º = 50 ºC

so stress = α t E =12 x 10 -6 x50x 2 x 10 5 = 120 MPa

2. The stress in the rails at 60 º C if there is an expansion allowance of

10 mm per rail.

σtp x L/E = ∆ = (Lα t -10)

= (30000 x 12 x 10 -6 x50-10)

= 18 -10 = 8 mm

σtp =∆E /L =8x 2 x 10 5 /30000 = 53.3 MPa

3. If stresses are zero ,

Expansion allowed =(Lα t )

= (30000 x 12 x 10 -6 x50)

=18 mm

4. The maximum temp. to have no stress in the rails if the

expansion allowance is 13 mm/rail.

σtp =E /L*(Lα t -13)=0

Lα t=13

t=13/ (30000 x 12 x 10 -6 )=360 C

allowable temp.=10+36=460c.

A composite bar made up of aluminum and steel is held

between two supports. The bars are stress free at 400c. What will be

the stresses in the bars

when the temp. drops to 200C, if

(a) the supports are unyielding

(b)the supports come nearer to each other by 0.1 mm.

Take E al =0.7*105 N/mm2 ; αal =23.4*10-6 /0C

ES=2.1*105 N/mm2 αs =11.7*10-6 /0C Aal=3 cm2 As=2 cm2

3 cm2

2 cm2

Steel Aluminum

60cm 30cm

Free contraction ∆=Ls αs t+ LALαAlt

∆=600*11.7*10-6*(40-20)+300*23.4*10-6*(40-20)

=0.2808 mm.

Since contraction is constrained tensile stresses will be set up.

Force being same in both

As σs= Aal σal

2 σs= 3 σal ==> σs= 1.5 σal

2 cm2 3 cm2

Ps Aluminum

Steel Pal

60cm 30cm

contraction of steel bar ∆s = (σs/Es)*Ls

=[600/(2.1*105)]* σs

contra.of aluminum bar ∆al = (σal/Eal)*Lal

=[300/(0.7*105)]* σal

(a) When supports are unyielding

σs= 1.5 σal

∆s+ ∆al= ∆ (free contraction)

[600/(2.1*105)]* σs +[300/(0.7*105)]* σal =0.2808 mm

σs =49.14 N/mm2(tensile)

(b) Supports are yielding

[600/(2.1*105)]* σs +[300/(0.7*105)]* σal =0.1808 mm

σs =31.64 N/mm2(tensile)

Volumetric Strain

• The ratio of the change in volume to original

volume is called volumetric strain.

in three mutually perpendicular directions.

Elastic Constants

• Modulus of elasticity (Young’s Modulus) E,

• Modulus of Rigidity G,

• Bulk Modulus k,

Modulus of elasticity (Young’s Modulus) E

Defined as the ratio of linear stress to linear strain within

elastic limit.

Modulus of Rigidity

Defined as the ratio of shearing stress to shearing strain

within elastic limit and is usually denoted by letter G or N.

G= τ / γ

where G = Modulus of rigidity

τ= Shearing stress

and γ= Shearing strain

• Bulk Modulus

• When a body is subjected to identical Pressure/stresses p in three

mutually perpendicular directions, the body undergoes uniform

changes in three directions without undergoing distortion of shape.

hydrostatic pressure/stresses p. Each of the stress components is

then equal to –p.

the material

• Then the bulk modulus, K is defined as

mutually perpendicular directions

ev =Δv/v= Volumetric strain

Δv = Change in volume

v = Original volume

pressure/stress ‘p’ acting in three mutually perpendicular directions

to corresponding volumetric strain.

• Observation and common sense indicate that a stable material

subjected to a hydrostatic pressure can only decrease in volume;

thus the dilatation ev in above Eq. is negative.

So, bulk modulus k is a positive quantity.

So, 0 < ν < 1/2

stretched in one direction without any lateral contraction.

On the other hand, an ideal material for which ν = 1/2, and thus k =

∞, would be perfectly incompressible (e = 0).

• Relationship Between Modulus Of Elasticity and

Modulus Of Rigidity and Poisson Ratios

– E=2G(1+ν)

E= Modulus Of Elasticity,

G= Modulus Of Rigidity,

ν= Young Modulus

Modulus

– E=3k(1-ν)

K= Bulk Modulus,

– Relationship Between Modulus of Elasticity and Bulk

Modulus and Modulus Of Rigidity

Stress in Composite/Compound Bars

• Bars made up of two or more materials are called

composite/compound bars.

• They may have same length or different lengths as shown in Fig.

• The ends of different materials of the bar are held together

under loaded conditions.

Thermal Stresses

AB of uniform cross section, which rests

freely on a smooth horizontal surface. If

the temperature of the rod is raised by

∆T, we observe that the rod elongates by

an amount δT which is proportional to

both the temperature change ∆T and the

length L of the rod.

α= Co efficient of thermal expansion

associated a strain,

If the free expansion is prevented fully or partially the stresses are induced

in the bar, by the support forces.

• Rod AB of length L is placed between two fixed

supports at a distance L from each other.

• If we raise the temperature by ∆T, the rod cannot

elongate because of the restraints imposed on its

ends; the elongation ∆ T of the rod is thus zero.

• Since the rod is homogeneous and of uniform cross

/

section, the strain εT at any point is εT = δT L and,

thus, also zero.

• The supports will exert equal and opposite forces P

and P’ on the rod after the temperature has been

raised, to keep it from elongating.

Examples

• Example: The bar shown in Fig. is tested in universal testing

machine. It is observed that at a load of 40 kN the total extension of

the bar is 0.280 mm. Determine the Young’s modulus of the material.

Thank You

Applied mechanics (CE 101T)

(truss)

By:

Poonam Savsani

Department of Mechanical Engineering

School of Technology

• A truss consists of straight members connected

at joints. No member is continuous

through a joint.

ed together to form a space framework. Each tr

uss carries those loads which act in its plane a

nd may be treated as a two-dimensional structur

e.

e pinned together. Forces acting at the member

ends reduce to a single force and no couple. O

nly two-force members are considered.

in tension. When the forces tend to compress t

he member, it is in compression.

Truss - Definition

• A framework composed of members joined at their ends

to form a rigid structure is called a truss.

• i.e bridges, roof supports

• When the members of truss lie in a single plane, the trus

s is called a plane truss.

The combined weights of roadway and vehicle is transferred to

the longitudinal stringers, then to the cross beams, and finally,

to the upper joints of two plane trusses which form the vertical

sides of structure.

• The weights of the members of the truss are also assumed to be

applied to the joints, half of the weight of each member being app

lied to each of the two joints the member connects.

• Members of a truss are slender and not capable of supporting

large lateral loads.

• Loads must be applied at the joints.

Uses of truss

• Roof of factory shade

• Ware house

• Railway platform

• Garage shed

• Transmission towers

• Crane truss

• Bridge Truss

• Sport Stadium Truss

Types of Truss

• Perfect/stable/sufficient Truss

• Imperfect/unstable/Deficient Truss

h does not change in shape) when loaded i

s called a perfect/stable/sufficient truss.

nge in shape) when loaded is called a impe

rfect/unstable/deficient truss.

Stability and Determinacy of Trusses

m=2j-r

j- number of joints.

m- number of members.

r- number of support re-

action

m=2j-r Statically determinate

(Perfect truss)

Truss unstable

m<2j-r (Deficient truss)

Statically indeterminate

m>2j-r (Redundant truss)

Loads on Truss

• Weight of the roof

• Wind load acting on the roof

• Travelling loads of cars, trucks, trains etc. On the bridge

structure

• Weight of the structure it self. ( Generally Neglected)

• Reactions at the supports.

Internal Stresses in the Members

support. In transmitting the loads, members are subjecte

d to either compressive stresses or tensile stresses.

• Member subjected to tensile is called a Tie.

Assumptions for Analysis of Truss

• Truss joints are frictionless pin joints. They cannot resist

moments.

• Load are applied only at the joints.

• Truss members are straight and uniform in section.

• Each member of the truss is subjected to axial force onl

y.

• The truss is assumed perfect.(i.e. m= 2j-3)

• Members of truss has negligible weight as compare to th

e loads applied.

• Each member of the truss is two force member.

• The truss is rigid and does not change in shape.

Methods of analysis of Truss

1. Method of joints

2. Method of sections

Method of Joints

in equilibrium.

• The method of joints consists of satisfying the equilib

rium equations for forces acting on each joint.

Σ Fx = 0, Σ Fy = 0, Σ M = 0

mbers are required to be obtained.

Method of Joints

Steps

• Decide whether a truss is perfect or not, using equation; m = 2j-3.

• Find support reactions for simply supported truss, using three conditions of equilibrium.

– Considering entire truss as a single unit.

• Force acting at all the joints are coplanar concurrent and assumed to be in static equilibriu

m and hence

– (i) apply (a) Σ H= 0 and (b) Σ V= 0 for the purpose of analysis.

• Each members of the truss is assumed to be in equilibrium hence apply equal, opposite a

nd collinear forces at the two ends along the centre line of the member.

• Start the analysis only with a joint where there are only two unknowns. Do not start t

he analysis with a joint where unknowns are more than two.

– Since, Σ H= 0 and (b) Σ V= 0 provide only two equations to solve the unknowns.

Method of Joints

a free body diagram for each m

ember and pin.

member are equal, have the

same line of action, and

opposite sense.

Method of Joints

Tensile(T) axial member force is indicated on the joint by an arrow

pulling away from the joint.

toward the joint.

The Method of Joints

Method of Joints

• Example - Consider the following truss

B

500 N

2m

45o

A C

2m

The Method of Joints

B

500 N

2m

A 45o

Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint B + ΣFx = 0:

y

500 - FBCsin45o = 0

B 500 N x FBC = 707.11 N (C)

45o FBC

+ ΣFy = 0:

FBA

- FBA + FBCcos45o = 0

FBA = 500 N (T)

The Method of Joints

B

500 N

2m

A 45o

Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint A

+ ΣFx = 0:

500 N

500 - FAC = 0

FAC = 500 N (T)

500 N FAC

500 N

Zero-force members

• Frequently the analysis can be simplified by identifying mem

bers that carry no load

– two typical cases are found

• When only two members form a non-collinear joint and there

is no external force or reaction at that joint, then both memb

ers must be zero-force.

P If either FCB or FCD

A B ≠ 0, then C cannot be

C

in equilibrium, since

there is no restoring

FCB force towards the

C

D right.

Hence both BC and

FCD CD are zero-load

members here.

E

When three members form a truss joint for which two members are

collinear and the third is at an angle to these, then this third membe

r must be zero-force

in the absence of an external force or reaction from a support

P

A Here, joint B has only

B one force in the verti-

C

cal direction.

Hence, this force

must be zero or B

D B would move (provided

there are no external

FAB FBC loads/reactions)

Also FAB = FBC

E FBD

While zero-force members can be removed in this configurati

on, care should be taken

any change in the loading can lead to the member carrying a load

the stability of the truss can be degraded by removing the zero-force

member P

You may think that we can

A B remove AD and BD to make a

C triangle …

This satisfies the statics requi-

rements

D However, this leaves a long

CE member to carry a com-

pressive load. This long mem-

ber is highly susceptible to fai-

lure by buckling.

E

Zero Force Member

B C

P

E D

A Dx

C Ey Dy

FCB

+ ΣFx = 0: FCB = 0

θ

A FAE + ΣFx = 0: FAE + 0 = 0, FAE = 0

Methods of Sections

• The method of joints is most effective when the forces in

all the members of a truss are to be determined.

• If however, the force is only one or a few members are n

eeded, then the method of sections is more efficient.

Methods of Sections

vide the truss into two parts, cutting

the truss along the members in whi

ch the forces are required to be fou

nd out.

• After cutting the truss into two parts

external forces are drawn on each

part of the truss and forces are als

o drawn acting in the cut members.

• Apply the equilibrium condition:

• Fx = 0, Σ Fy = 0, Σ M = 0

Methods of Sections

• Cutting a truss care should be taken, not to cut more tha

n three members of the truss at one time in which the

forces are not known.

The Method of Sections

Find the forces in the member

BC, GC and GF.

a Dy

B C D Dx

2m

A

G F E Ex

a

100 N

2m 2m 2m

+ ΣMG = 0:

100(2) - FBC(2) = 0

B FBC FBC = 100 N (T)

C

+ ΣFy = 0:

FGC -100 + FGCsin45o = 0

45o FGC = 141.42 N (T)

A FGF

G

+ ΣMC = 0:

100 N

2m 100(4) - FGF(2) = 0

FGF = 200 N (C)

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