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Applied mechanics (CE 101T)

(simple stress and strain)


By:
Poonam Savsani
Department of Mechanical Engineering
School of Technology

1
Types of Load

Axial Load Transverse Load


• There are three principal ways in which a load
may be applied: namely, tension,
compression, and shear or torsional.

Fig: (a) Tensile load


(b) Compressive
load
(c) Shear load
(d) Torsional load
Prismatic and Non Prismatic Bars

• A bar having the A bar which does


constant Cross section not have a constant
throughout length.
Cross section
throughout length.
Simple Stress

• When a member is loaded by external force/forces, internal forces


of cohesion between particles of the material are generated and
these internal forces will provide resistance to the action of
external force/forces.

• In fact due to external force/forces system undergoes some


deformation, and material offer resistance to this deformation.

• Deformation is proportional to the external force/forces and


resistance is proportional to the deformation within elastic range.
• Direct Stress:
• These internal forces of cohesion across the
section or resistance offered by material
against deformation is known as Stress.
• It is also known as The force per unit area, or
intensity of the forces distributed over a given
section.

• Unit of Stress: N/m2 , N/mm2 , Pascal(Pa)

Stresses, which are normal to the plane on which


they are act is called Direct stresses.
Direct Stresses are either tensile or Compressive.
Axial Stress/Direct Stress
Shear Stress

Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins, and rivets used to connect
various structural members and machine components.
Bolts Subject to Single Shear

Bolts Subject to Double Shear


• Determination of the Shearing Stress in Various Connections

Shear Stress at Pin Shear Stress at Pin


A C
Strain
• No material is perfectly rigid.
• Under the action of forces a material undergoes changes in
shape and size.
• linear strain
– The change in length per unit length is known as linear strain.
lateral strain

– The lateral strain may be defined as changes in the lateral dimension per
unit lateral dimension.
– i.e., if extension is taking place in longitudinal direction, the shortening of
lateral dimension takes place and if shortening is taking place in
longitudinal direction extension takes place in lateral directions.
Shear strain : deformation normal to length
Hooke’s Law
• Robert Hooke, an English mathematician conducted several
experiments and concluded that
• Stress is proportional to strain up to elastic limit.
• This is called Hooke’s law.
• Thus Hooke’s law is, up to elastic limit.

where E =constant of proportionality of the material, also


known as modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus.
Extension/Shortening of A Bar
(equation of deformation)
A hollow steel tube is to be used to carry an axial compressive load of 160 kN. The yield
stress for steel is 250 N/mm2. A factor of safety of 1.75 is to be used in the design. The
following three class of tubes of external diameter 101.6 mm are available.
Class Thickness
Light 3.65 mm
Medium 4.05 mm
Heavy 4.85 mm
Which section do you recommend?
Tension Tests
• One of the most common mechanical stress–strain tests is
performed in tension.
• A specimen is deformed, usually to fracture, with a
gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially
along the long axis of a specimen.
• The tensile testing machine is designed to elongate the
specimen at a constant rate, and to continuously and
simultaneously measure the instantaneous applied load
(with a load cell) and the resulting elongations (using an
extensometer).
• These load–deformation characteristics are dependent on
the specimen size.
– For example, it will require twice the load to produce the
same elongation if the cross-sectional area of the specimen
is doubled.
Stress-strain Relation

Fig: Stress-Strain Diagram


The following salient points are observed on stress-strain curve:

Limit of Proportionality (A): It is the limiting value


of the stress up to which stress is proportional to
strain.
Elastic Limit: This is the limiting value of stress up
to which if the material is stressed and then
released (unloaded) strain disappears completely
and the original length is regained. This point is
slightly beyond the limit of proportionality.
Upper Yield Point (B): This is the stress at which,
the load starts reducing and the extension
increases.
This phenomenon is called yielding of material.
Lower Yield Point (C): At this stage the stress remains same but strain
increases for some time.
• Ultimate Stress (D): This is the maximum stress the material can resist.
– At this stage cross-sectional area at a particular section starts reducing very fast.
– This is called neck formation. After this stage load resisted and hence the stress
developed starts reducing.
• Breaking Point (E): The stress at which finally the specimen fails is called
breaking point.
If unloading is made within elastic limit the
original length is regained i.e., the stress-
strain curve follows down the loading
curve.

A
If unloading is made after loading the
specimen beyond elastic limit, it follows
a straight line parallel to the original
straight portion as shown by line FF′ in
Fig.
Thus if it is loaded beyond elastic limit
and then unloaded a permanent strain
(OF’) is left in the specimen. This is
called permanent set.

• If the material is loaded again from Point F’, the curve will follow back to
Point F with the same Elastic Modulus (slope).
- The material now has a higher yield strength of Point F’.
- Raising the yield strength by permanently straining the material is called
Strain Hardening.
Plastic Deformation

Fig: Typical stress–strain behavior for a metal showing elastic and plastic
deformations
Percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area
• Percentage Elongation: It is defined as the ratio of the final
extension at rupture to original length expressed, as
percentage. Thus,

• Percentage Reduction in Area: It is defined as the ratio of


maximum changes in the cross sectional area to original
cross-sectional area, expressed as percentage. Thus

Where , A–original cross-sectional area, A′–minimum cross-sectional area


Nominal Stress v/s True Stress
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
• Determination of the Ultimate Strength of a Material.

• Factor of Safety
• The maximum stress to which any member is
designed is much less than the ultimate stress,
and this stress is called Working Stress.
• The ratio of ultimate stress to working stress is
called factor of safety.
A specimen of steel 20 mm diameter with a gauge length of 200 mm
is tested to destruction. It has an extension of 0.25 mm under a load
of 80 kN and the load at elastic limit is 102 kN. The maximum load is
130 kN. The total extension at fracture is 56 mm and diameter at neck
is 15 mm. Find
(i) The stress at elastic limit.
(ii) Young’s modulus.
(iii) Percentage elongation.
(iv) Percentage reduction in area.
(v) Ultimate tensile stress.
Bars With Cross-sections Varying In Steps
The bar shown in Fig. is tested in universal testing machine. It is
observed that at a load of 40 kN the total extension of the bar is 0.280
mm. Determine the Young’s modulus of the material.
The stepped bar shown in Fig. 8.17 is made up of two different
materials. The material 1 has Young’s modulus = 2 × 105 N/mm,
while that of material 2 is 1 × 105 N/mm2. Find the extension of the
bar under a pull of 30 kN if both the portions are 20 mm in thickness.
1Kips= 4.4482216 (kN)
DEFORMATION OF THE BODY DUE TO SELF WEIGHT
A steel wire ABC 16m long having cross-sectional area of 4 mm2 weighs 20 N. if E=200 Gpa,
find the deflection at C and B.
A
Deflection at C:
8m dlc = Wl/2AE =20*(16*103)/2*4*(200*103 )
B = 0.2 mm

8m
Deflection at B:
C
dlb=d1+d2
Due to self
weight of AB d1= Wl/2AE =10*(8*103)/2*4*(200*103 ) =0.05mm
d2= Wl/AE = 10*(8*103)/4*(200*103 ) =0.1 mm
Due to weight of dlb = 0.05 +0.1 =0.15 mm
wire BC
Bars With Continuously Varying Cross-
Cross-sections
A 2.0 m long steel bar is having uniform diameter of 40 mm for a length of 1 m and
in the next 0.5 m its diameter gradually reduces from 40 mm to 20 mm as shown in Fig.
Determine the elongation of this bar when subjected to an axial tensile load of 200 kN.
Given E = 200 GN/m2.
Stress in Composite/Compound Bars

They may have same length or different lengths as shown in Fig.

The ends of different materials of the bar are held together under loaded conditions.
A steel rod 20 mm diameter is passed through a brass tube 25 mm internal diameter
and 30 mm external diameter. The tube is 1 m long and is closed by thin rigid washers
and fastened by nuts, screwed to the rod, as shown in Fig. The nuts are tightened until
the compressive force in the tube is 5 kN. Calculate the stresses In the rod and the
tube. Es = 200 GPa, Eb =80 GPa.
A rigid beam BD is suspended, from two rods AB and CD as shown In Fig. Rod
AB is of steel of 20 mm diameter and rod B is of copper of 25 mm diameter. At
what distance from rod AB the load P be applied if the beam is to remain
horizontal ? Calculate the stresses in the rods if P = 25 kN.
Take E5 =200 GPa and E =100 GPa

Let Ps and Pc = forces in rods AB and CD


respectively. Taking moments about rod AB, we
have
1m

2m
1.5m

P(2-x)/2 P(x)/2
A B
δ

x
P
A Concrete column of C.S. area 400 x 400 mm reinforced by 4 longitudinal
50 mm diameter round steel bars placed at each corner of the column
carries a compressive load of 300 kN. Calculate (i) loads carried by each
material & compressive stresses produced in each material. Take σs = 15
σc Also calculate change in length of the column. Assume the column in 2m
long. Take Es = 200GPa

400 mm
4-50φ bar
400 mm
Solution:-
Gross C.S. area of column =0.16 m2
C.S. area of steel = 4*π*0.0252 = 0.00785 m2
Area of concrete =0.16 - 0.00785=0.1521m2
Steel bar and concrete shorten by same amount. So,
εs = εc => σs /Es = σc /Ec = > σs= σcx (Es /Ec)
= 15σc
load carried by steel +concrete=300000 N
Ws +Wc= 300000
σs As + σc Ac = 300000
15 σc x 0.00785 + σc x0.1521 = 300000
σc = 1.11 x 10 6 N/ m2
σs =15x σc=15 x1.11x 10 6=16.65 x10 6 N/ m2

Ws =16.65x10 6 x0.00785 / 10 3 =130.7 kN


Wc = 1.11x 10 6 x 0.1521/103= 168.83 kN
(error in result is due to less no. of digits considered in stress
calculation.)
we know that,
σs /Es= σc /E (= ε = δL /L)
σc = 1.11 MPa
σs =15x σc=15 x1.11x 10 6=16.65 MPa
The length of the column is 2m
Change in length
dL = 1.11*2000/[13.333*1000] = 0.1665mm
OR
dL = 16.65*2000/[200000] = 0.1665mm
A rigid beam is placed on there columns of identical cross-sectional
areas of 200 cm2 each as shown in Fig. Calculate the stresses in the
columns if there was a gap of 2 mm between the beam and the middle
column before the load was applied. Take E = 18 GPa.
1 2 3
Three pillars, two of aluminium and one of steel support a rigid
platform of 250 kN as shown in Fig. If area of each aluminium
pillar is 1200 mm2 and that of steel pillar is 1000 mm2, find
the stresses developed in each pillar.
Let force shared by each aluminium pillar be Pa and that
shared by steel pillar be Ps .
∴ The forces in vertical direction
Pa + Ps + Pa = 250
2Pa + Ps = 250 .................................................(1)

……………….
2Pa + Ps = 250
A compound bar loaded as shown in Fig. has a gap of 1.0 mm.
Calculate the stresses in the two bars Es = 200 GPa, Ec = 105 GPa.
The steel bar is subjected to a tensile load of 100 kN.
Its free extension is:

1.194 mm
Temperature stresses:-

Material
Constrained
Change in temp.
No Expansion/
no constraint is contraction
present

Temperature
Expands/ Shortens stresses
Induced in material
Free expansion

The constant of proportionality α is called coefficient of thermal expansion and is


defined as change in unit length of material due to unit change in temperature.
If the free expansion is prevented fully

If free expansion is permitted the bar would


constrain have expanded by

Δ = α tL

Since support is not permitting it, the support


No Free expansion force P develops to keep it at the original
position. Magnitude of this force is such that
contraction is equal to free expansion, i.e.
If the free expansion is prevented partially
Compound bar
Let α1, α2 be coefficient of thermal expansion and E1, E2 be moduli of
elasticity of the two materials respectively. If rise in temperature is ‘t’
Free expansion of bar 1 = α1 tL
Free expansion of bar 2 = α2 tL
Let α1 > α2.
A railway is laid so that there is no stress in rail at 10º C. If rails are 30 m
long Calculate,
1. The stress in rails at 60 º C if there is no allowance for
expansion.
2. The stress in the rails at 60 º C if there is an expansion allowance
of 10 mm per rail.
3. The expansion allowance if the stress in the rail is to be zero
when temperature is 60 º C.
4. The maximum temp. to have no stress in the rails if the
expansion allowance is 13 mm/rail.
Take α = 12 x 10 -6 per 1ºC E= 2 x 10 5 N/mm 2
Solution:
1. Rise in temp. = 60 º - 10 º = 50 ºC
so stress = α t E =12 x 10 -6 x50x 2 x 10 5 = 120 MPa
2. The stress in the rails at 60 º C if there is an expansion allowance of
10 mm per rail.
σtp x L/E = ∆ = (Lα t -10)
= (30000 x 12 x 10 -6 x50-10)
= 18 -10 = 8 mm
σtp =∆E /L =8x 2 x 10 5 /30000 = 53.3 MPa
3. If stresses are zero ,
Expansion allowed =(Lα t )
= (30000 x 12 x 10 -6 x50)
=18 mm
4. The maximum temp. to have no stress in the rails if the
expansion allowance is 13 mm/rail.
σtp =E /L*(Lα t -13)=0
Lα t=13
t=13/ (30000 x 12 x 10 -6 )=360 C
allowable temp.=10+36=460c.
A composite bar made up of aluminum and steel is held
between two supports. The bars are stress free at 400c. What will be
the stresses in the bars
when the temp. drops to 200C, if
(a) the supports are unyielding
(b)the supports come nearer to each other by 0.1 mm.
Take E al =0.7*105 N/mm2 ; αal =23.4*10-6 /0C
ES=2.1*105 N/mm2 αs =11.7*10-6 /0C Aal=3 cm2 As=2 cm2

3 cm2
2 cm2
Steel Aluminum

60cm 30cm
Free contraction ∆=Ls αs t+ LALαAlt
∆=600*11.7*10-6*(40-20)+300*23.4*10-6*(40-20)
=0.2808 mm.
Since contraction is constrained tensile stresses will be set up.
Force being same in both
As σs= Aal σal
2 σs= 3 σal ==> σs= 1.5 σal

2 cm2 3 cm2
Ps Aluminum
Steel Pal

60cm 30cm
contraction of steel bar ∆s = (σs/Es)*Ls
=[600/(2.1*105)]* σs
contra.of aluminum bar ∆al = (σal/Eal)*Lal
=[300/(0.7*105)]* σal
(a) When supports are unyielding
σs= 1.5 σal
∆s+ ∆al= ∆ (free contraction)
[600/(2.1*105)]* σs +[300/(0.7*105)]* σal =0.2808 mm

σal =32.76 N/mm2(tensile)


σs =49.14 N/mm2(tensile)
(b) Supports are yielding

∆s+ ∆al = (∆ - 0.1mm)= 0.2808 – 0.1 =0.1808


[600/(2.1*105)]* σs +[300/(0.7*105)]* σal =0.1808 mm

σal =21.09 N/mm2(tensile)


σs =31.64 N/mm2(tensile)
Volumetric Strain
• The ratio of the change in volume to original
volume is called volumetric strain.

It can be shown that volumetric strain is sum of strains


in three mutually perpendicular directions.
Elastic Constants
• Modulus of elasticity (Young’s Modulus) E,
• Modulus of Rigidity G,
• Bulk Modulus k,
Modulus of elasticity (Young’s Modulus) E
Defined as the ratio of linear stress to linear strain within
elastic limit.
Modulus of Rigidity
Defined as the ratio of shearing stress to shearing strain
within elastic limit and is usually denoted by letter G or N.
G= τ / γ
where G = Modulus of rigidity
τ= Shearing stress
and γ= Shearing strain
• Bulk Modulus
• When a body is subjected to identical Pressure/stresses p in three
mutually perpendicular directions, the body undergoes uniform
changes in three directions without undergoing distortion of shape.

A case of special interest is that of a body subjected to a uniform


hydrostatic pressure/stresses p. Each of the stress components is
then equal to –p.

The constant k is known as the bulk modulus or modulus of compression of


the material
• Then the bulk modulus, K is defined as

p = identical pressure in three


mutually perpendicular directions
ev =Δv/v= Volumetric strain
Δv = Change in volume
v = Original volume

• Thus bulk modulus may be defined as the ratio of identical


pressure/stress ‘p’ acting in three mutually perpendicular directions
to corresponding volumetric strain.
• Observation and common sense indicate that a stable material
subjected to a hydrostatic pressure can only decrease in volume;
thus the dilatation ev in above Eq. is negative.
So, bulk modulus k is a positive quantity.

It means 1-2ν >0 or ν=1/2

We know that ν is positive for all engineering materials.


So, 0 < ν < 1/2

An ideal material having a value of v equal to zero could be


stretched in one direction without any lateral contraction.
On the other hand, an ideal material for which ν = 1/2, and thus k =
∞, would be perfectly incompressible (e = 0).
• Relationship Between Modulus Of Elasticity and
Modulus Of Rigidity and Poisson Ratios
– E=2G(1+ν)
E= Modulus Of Elasticity,
G= Modulus Of Rigidity,
ν= Young Modulus

• Relationship Between Modulus of Elasticity and Bulk


Modulus
– E=3k(1-ν)
K= Bulk Modulus,
– Relationship Between Modulus of Elasticity and Bulk
Modulus and Modulus Of Rigidity
Stress in Composite/Compound Bars
• Bars made up of two or more materials are called
composite/compound bars.
• They may have same length or different lengths as shown in Fig.
• The ends of different materials of the bar are held together
under loaded conditions.
Thermal Stresses

• Let us first consider a homogeneous rod


AB of uniform cross section, which rests
freely on a smooth horizontal surface. If
the temperature of the rod is raised by
∆T, we observe that the rod elongates by
an amount δT which is proportional to
both the temperature change ∆T and the
length L of the rod.
α= Co efficient of thermal expansion

• With the deformation δT must be


associated a strain,

If the free expansion is prevented fully or partially the stresses are induced
in the bar, by the support forces.
• Rod AB of length L is placed between two fixed
supports at a distance L from each other.
• If we raise the temperature by ∆T, the rod cannot
elongate because of the restraints imposed on its
ends; the elongation ∆ T of the rod is thus zero.
• Since the rod is homogeneous and of uniform cross
/
section, the strain εT at any point is εT = δT L and,
thus, also zero.
• The supports will exert equal and opposite forces P
and P’ on the rod after the temperature has been
raised, to keep it from elongating.
Examples
• Example: The bar shown in Fig. is tested in universal testing
machine. It is observed that at a load of 40 kN the total extension of
the bar is 0.280 mm. Determine the Young’s modulus of the material.
Thank You
Applied mechanics (CE 101T)

(truss)

By:
Poonam Savsani
Department of Mechanical Engineering
School of Technology
• A truss consists of straight members connected
at joints. No member is continuous
through a joint.

• Most structures are made of several trusses join


ed together to form a space framework. Each tr
uss carries those loads which act in its plane a
nd may be treated as a two-dimensional structur
e.

• Bolted or welded connections are assumed to b


e pinned together. Forces acting at the member
ends reduce to a single force and no couple. O
nly two-force members are considered.

• When forces tend to pull the member apart, it is


in tension. When the forces tend to compress t
he member, it is in compression.
Truss - Definition
• A framework composed of members joined at their ends
to form a rigid structure is called a truss.
• i.e bridges, roof supports
• When the members of truss lie in a single plane, the trus
s is called a plane truss.
The combined weights of roadway and vehicle is transferred to
the longitudinal stringers, then to the cross beams, and finally,
to the upper joints of two plane trusses which form the vertical
sides of structure.
• The weights of the members of the truss are also assumed to be
applied to the joints, half of the weight of each member being app
lied to each of the two joints the member connects.
• Members of a truss are slender and not capable of supporting
large lateral loads.
• Loads must be applied at the joints.
Uses of truss
• Roof of factory shade
• Ware house
• Railway platform
• Garage shed
• Transmission towers
• Crane truss
• Bridge Truss
• Sport Stadium Truss
Types of Truss
• Perfect/stable/sufficient Truss
• Imperfect/unstable/Deficient Truss

• The truss which does not collapse (i.e. whic


h does not change in shape) when loaded i
s called a perfect/stable/sufficient truss.

• The truss which collapse (i.e. which do cha


nge in shape) when loaded is called a impe
rfect/unstable/deficient truss.
Stability and Determinacy of Trusses

m=2j-r
j- number of joints.
m- number of members.
r- number of support re-
action
m=2j-r Statically determinate
(Perfect truss)
Truss unstable
m<2j-r (Deficient truss)

Statically indeterminate
m>2j-r (Redundant truss)
Loads on Truss
• Weight of the roof
• Wind load acting on the roof
• Travelling loads of cars, trucks, trains etc. On the bridge
structure
• Weight of the structure it self. ( Generally Neglected)
• Reactions at the supports.
Internal Stresses in the Members

• Members of the truss transmit the load acting on it to the


support. In transmitting the loads, members are subjecte
d to either compressive stresses or tensile stresses.

• Member subjected to compression is called a strut.


• Member subjected to tensile is called a Tie.
Assumptions for Analysis of Truss
• Truss joints are frictionless pin joints. They cannot resist
moments.
• Load are applied only at the joints.
• Truss members are straight and uniform in section.
• Each member of the truss is subjected to axial force onl
y.
• The truss is assumed perfect.(i.e. m= 2j-3)
• Members of truss has negligible weight as compare to th
e loads applied.
• Each member of the truss is two force member.
• The truss is rigid and does not change in shape.
Methods of analysis of Truss

1. Method of joints
2. Method of sections
Method of Joints

• If a truss is in equilibrium, then each of its joints must be


in equilibrium.
• The method of joints consists of satisfying the equilib
rium equations for forces acting on each joint.
Σ Fx = 0, Σ Fy = 0, Σ M = 0

• Methods of joint is most suited when forces in all the me


mbers are required to be obtained.
Method of Joints
Steps
• Decide whether a truss is perfect or not, using equation; m = 2j-3.

• Find support reactions for simply supported truss, using three conditions of equilibrium.
– Considering entire truss as a single unit.

• Force acting at all the joints are coplanar concurrent and assumed to be in static equilibriu
m and hence
– (i) apply (a) Σ H= 0 and (b) Σ V= 0 for the purpose of analysis.

• Each members of the truss is assumed to be in equilibrium hence apply equal, opposite a
nd collinear forces at the two ends along the centre line of the member.

• Start the analysis only with a joint where there are only two unknowns. Do not start t
he analysis with a joint where unknowns are more than two.
– Since, Σ H= 0 and (b) Σ V= 0 provide only two equations to solve the unknowns.
Method of Joints

• Dismember the truss and create


a free body diagram for each m
ember and pin.

• The two forces exerted on each


member are equal, have the
same line of action, and
opposite sense.
Method of Joints
Tensile(T) axial member force is indicated on the joint by an arrow
pulling away from the joint.

Compressive(C) axial member force is indicated by an arrow pushing


toward the joint.
The Method of Joints
Method of Joints
• Example - Consider the following truss
B
500 N

2m

45o
A C

2m
The Method of Joints

B
500 N

2m

A 45o
Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint B + ΣFx = 0:
y
500 - FBCsin45o = 0
B 500 N x FBC = 707.11 N (C)
45o FBC
+ ΣFy = 0:
FBA
- FBA + FBCcos45o = 0
FBA = 500 N (T)
The Method of Joints

B
500 N

2m

A 45o
Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint A
+ ΣFx = 0:
500 N
500 - FAC = 0
FAC = 500 N (T)
500 N FAC

500 N
Zero-force members
• Frequently the analysis can be simplified by identifying mem
bers that carry no load
– two typical cases are found
• When only two members form a non-collinear joint and there
is no external force or reaction at that joint, then both memb
ers must be zero-force.
P If either FCB or FCD
A B ≠ 0, then C cannot be
C
in equilibrium, since
there is no restoring
FCB force towards the
C
D right.
Hence both BC and
FCD CD are zero-load
members here.
E
When three members form a truss joint for which two members are
collinear and the third is at an angle to these, then this third membe
r must be zero-force
in the absence of an external force or reaction from a support

P
A Here, joint B has only
B one force in the verti-
C
cal direction.
Hence, this force
must be zero or B
D B would move (provided
there are no external
FAB FBC loads/reactions)
Also FAB = FBC
E FBD
While zero-force members can be removed in this configurati
on, care should be taken
any change in the loading can lead to the member carrying a load
the stability of the truss can be degraded by removing the zero-force
member P
You may think that we can
A B remove AD and BD to make a
C triangle …
This satisfies the statics requi-
rements
D However, this leaves a long
CE member to carry a com-
pressive load. This long mem-
ber is highly susceptible to fai-
lure by buckling.
E
Zero Force Member

B C
P

E D
A Dx

C Ey Dy
FCB
+ ΣFx = 0: FCB = 0

FCD + ΣFy = 0: FCD = 0

FAB + ΣFy = 0: FABsinθ = 0, FAB = 0


θ
A FAE + ΣFx = 0: FAE + 0 = 0, FAE = 0
Methods of Sections
• The method of joints is most effective when the forces in
all the members of a truss are to be determined.
• If however, the force is only one or a few members are n
eeded, then the method of sections is more efficient.
Methods of Sections

• In this method section is taken to di


vide the truss into two parts, cutting
the truss along the members in whi
ch the forces are required to be fou
nd out.
• After cutting the truss into two parts
external forces are drawn on each
part of the truss and forces are als
o drawn acting in the cut members.
• Apply the equilibrium condition:
• Fx = 0, Σ Fy = 0, Σ M = 0
Methods of Sections
• Cutting a truss care should be taken, not to cut more tha
n three members of the truss at one time in which the
forces are not known.
The Method of Sections
Find the forces in the member
BC, GC and GF.
a Dy
B C D Dx

2m

A
G F E Ex
a
100 N
2m 2m 2m
+ ΣMG = 0:
100(2) - FBC(2) = 0
B FBC FBC = 100 N (T)
C
+ ΣFy = 0:
FGC -100 + FGCsin45o = 0
45o FGC = 141.42 N (T)
A FGF
G
+ ΣMC = 0:
100 N
2m 100(4) - FGF(2) = 0
FGF = 200 N (C)

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