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EXAM 1

Organs are composed of tissues, which are composed of cells. This is an example of which characteristic
of life?

The correct answer is: Living things have levels of hierarchical organization.

Nutrient molecules are used to build cellular structures or for energy. This best represents which
characteristic of life?

The correct answer is: Living things acquire materials and energy from the environment.

The smallest unit that has all of the characteristics of life is the

The correct answer is: cell.

Which statement concerning reproduction is false?

The correct answer is: The offspring of multicellular organisms tend to be identical to the parent.

If a new anti-cancer drug is found to be effective in initial tests with mice, what might researchers
conclude?

The correct answer is: The drug is effective in the mouse model; it must still be tested in humans.

Which of the following is a potential consequence if people stop using technology in the agriculture
industry?

The correct answer is: There could be a significant decrease in the amount of food produced.

Which statement regarding science technology is false?

The correct answer is: Science technology is a basis for all ethical or moral decisions.

Technology is the __________________________.

The correct answer is: application of scientific knowledge for a practical purpose.

Which classification category includes the most species?


The correct answer is: kingdom

Which domains contain organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus?

The correct answer is: Archaea and Bacteria

Which sequence of classification categories is in the proper order from least to most inclusive?

The correct answer is: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain

Which of the following is one of the domains of life?

The correct answer is: Eukarya

A multicellular, photosynthetic organism with complex, specialized cells and tissues would most likely be
assigned to

The correct answer is: kingdom Plantae.

Suggested evidence of natural selection at work in humans is the observation of

The correct answer is: low hemoglobin levels despite high elevation in Tibetan populations over
generations

Which sequence correctly lists the different levels of biological organization, from the smallest and
simplest to the largest and most complex?

The correct answer is: cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organism

A physician specializes in surgery involving the following group of organs: mouth, esophagus, stomach,
and intestines. Overall, what is the highest level of organization that this physician is specialized in?

The correct answer is: organ system

All the organisms of various species living within a given area constitute a(n)

The correct answer is: community.


When comparing energy and chemicals in an ecosystem,

The correct answer is: chemicals cycle over and over again but energy flows through once.

Which statement about an ecosystem is incorrect?

The correct answer is: There is a community of organisms, but no non-living components.

Which of the following is of least importance when concerning the preservation of ecosystems?

The correct answer is: Preservation of ecosystems allows humans to exploit as many resources as
possible.

An ecosystem generally requires solar energy, nutrients, decomposers, consumers and ____.

The correct answer is: producers

The term "biodiversity" refers to

The correct answer is: the total number of species, variation of species, and the ecosystems in which
they live.

A community of organisms along with their physical environment constitutes a(n)

The correct answer is: ecosystem.

All the banded sunfish (Enneacanthus obesus) in a pond would comprise a(n)

The correct answer is: population.

Ever since the antibiotic drug penicillin was discovered in 1928, the incidence of resistant bacteria has
steadily increased as a direct result of

The correct answer is: natural selection.

EXAM 2

If an element has an atomic number of 12, how many electrons are in its outermost shell?

The correct answer is: 2


The moon lacks life and varies dramatically in temperature. If we could keep a layer of water spread on
the surface of the moon, what effect would it have?

The correct answer is: Water would absorb and hold heat and moderate the temperature extremes.

Which of the following is not a function of ATP within the cell?

The correct answer is: All of the answer choices are functions of ATP within the cell.

The water strider is an insect that skates across the water without sinking. The tips of its feet must be
coated with molecules that are

The correct answer is: hydrophobic.

Which statement about the cellular nucleic acids DNA and RNA is incorrect?

The correct answer is: RNA and DNA have the same four nitrogen-containing bases.

The backbone of a nucleic acid strand is composed of

The correct answer is: alternating pentose sugars and phosphate groups.

Lactic acid can be taken to the liver via the bloodstream, and the liver can convert it to 

The correct answer is: glucose

In the search to discover the agents that cause mad cow disease, scrapie in sheep, and CJD and kuru in
humans, diseased brain tissues were passed through a fine filter to remove bacteria. The filtrate was still
infectious, indicating that something smaller than bacteria, either viruses or organic molecules, must be
the causative agent. If a virus was responsible for these brain diseases, then the infectious agent would
contain either RNA or DNA. Other possibilities were that the agent was a carbohydrate, fat, or protein.
Tissue filtrates were treated with agents that destroyed just one of these chemicals and then injected
into a healthy animal, with the results as follows. What is the infectious agent?

•Amylase digests carbohydrates; tissue filtrate still infects healthy test animal.
•Lipase digests fats; tissue filtrate still infects healthy test animal.
•Formaldehyde and/or heat denatures DNA and RNA; tissue filtrate still infects healthy test animal.
•Trypsin digests protein; tissue filtrate does not infect healthy test animal.

protein

If A has a free energy of 38 units, and C has a free energy of 45 units, and the reaction is exergonic,
based on the calculation of free energy, which is the substrate and which is the product?

The correct answer is: C is the substrate and A is the product.

The removal of electrons and/or hydrogen atoms from a substrate is called what?

The correct answer is: oxidation

The various uses of ATP include all of the following except

The correct answer is: being a structural component of the cell membrane.

In feedback inhibition of a metabolic pathway, where does the inhibitor bind?

The correct answer is: to the enzyme of the first reaction

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

The correct answer is: energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

Which of the following reactions is NOT part of the cellular respiration pathway?

The correct answer is: Calvin cycle

The carriers of the electron transport chain are located

The correct answer is: on the cristae of the mitochondria.

Why does FADH2 result in fewer ATP than NADH + H +?

The correct answer is: FADH2 drops its electrons off lower on the electron transport chain.
Muscles undergo fermentation when

The correct answer is: no oxygen is available.

Which of the following is not an example of fermentation used by organisms to produce ATP?

The correct answer is: human cells producing lactate

Why is fermentation essential to humans?

The correct answer is: It is essential when we need a rapid burst of energy.

Which statement is not true about C3 and C4 plants?

The correct answer is: CO2 is fixed at night to decrease water loss.

One of the products of the Calvin cycle is

The correct answer is: G3P.

What will cycle the energized electrons from the reaction center of PS I back to the reaction center in PS
I?

The correct answer is: cyclic electron pathway

The main function of stomata is to

The correct answer is: allow passage of CO2 and O2 into the leaf.

What is the function of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) during photosynthesis?

The correct answer is: It combines with CO 2 to produce a 6-carbon compound.

Most tree leaves appear green because

The correct answer is: photosynthetic pigments do not absorb green light

EXAM 3
Which of the following would be considered evidence that chloroplasts are involved in photosynthesis?

The correct answer is: Isolated chloroplasts give off oxygen when exposed to sunlight.

In plants, chloroplasts are necessary for

The correct answer is: photosynthesis.

The electron transport chain is named for

The correct answer is: the passage of electrons from one energy-generating carrier to another

Which of the following events would increase the cell's ability to exchange materials across the
membrane?

The correct answer is: All of the answer choices would increase the cell's ability to exchange materials
across the membrane.

If cells were moved to a low-gravity environment, such as in space exploration, a change would most
likely be expected in the

The correct answer is: cytoskeleton.

Microtubules

The correct answer is: form a spindle that distributes chromosomes in an orderly manner.

Which of the following cells were most likely the first type of cells on Earth?

The correct answer is: bacteria

All of the following are possible origins of cell organelles in eukaryotes EXCEPT

The correct answer is: groups of prokaryotic cells begin to live in a small group, sharing products of
metabolism.

According to endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain a limited amount of genetic
material and divide by_______________. Their DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a circular loop like that of
prokaryotes.
The correct answer is: splitting

If the mitochondrion is the result of endosymbiosis, what membrane of the mitochondrion represents
the engulfing vesicle?

The correct answer is: the outer mitochondrial membrane

A __________________ allows hydrogen ions to flow across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

The correct answer is: Channel proteins

If the proteins forming the cell junctions within the stomach were denatured, what is a likely
consequence?

The correct answer is: The desmosome junctions would not hold together, causing the cells in the
stomach to pull apart.

Which function does the lipid bilayer component of the plasma membrane NOT provide for the cell?

The correct answer is: provides an impermeable, self-sealing membrane that keeps all internal living
processes sealed inside

The pressure that is generated when water flows through a differentially permeable membrane is
termed

The correct answer is: osmotic pressure.

Which components of a cell membrane are used for cell-to-cell recognition?

The correct answer is: glycoproteins

Which of the following statements is true regarding the inside and outside of the plasma membrane?

The correct answer is: Both the inside and outside layers make up the phospholipid bilayer but
cytoskeletal filaments are present on the inside layer and carbohydrate chains of glycolipids and
proteins are present on the outside layer.
In the Malpighian tubules of an insect (blind, threadlike excretory tubule attached to the gut of an
insect), salt molecules are actively transferred from body fluids to the inside of the tubule. Which of the
following is NOT true?

The correct answer is: The tubules have the same tonicity as the body fluids.

During crossing-over,

The correct answer is: chromatids exchange segments of genetic material.

Meiosis results in a change in chromosome number indicated by

The correct answer is: 2n to n.

Without considering the variation provided by crossing-over, how much will two siblings from one set of
parents vary from each other?

The correct answer is: Siblings inherit essentially 50% of their genes from each parent, but two sibling
offspring may share with each other from zero to 23 chromosomes in common from each parent and
therefore vary widely from each other.

In humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is

The correct answer is: 46.

Which type of genes, when abnormally activated so that protein is always present and active, can result
in cancer?

The correct answer is: proto-oncogenes

Which of the following descriptions does not occur during apoptosis?

The correct answer is: DNA is duplicated

What is the difference between the chromosomes in a secondary spermatocyte and those in a
spermatid?

The correct answer is: the chromosomes in secondary spermatocytes consist of two chromatids, the
ones in the spermatid consist of only one chromatid
The formation of sperm gametes is termed

The correct answer is: spermatogenesis.

EXAM 4

A cross that involves two traits is called a ______ cross.

The correct answer is: dihybrid

Since each child of two heterozygous parents has a 1/4 chance of receiving a recessive trait from each
parent,

The correct answer is: no matter what the first child's phenotype, the next child will have a 1/4 chance
of being phenotypically recessive.

In which kind of cross would you expect to find a ratio of 9:3:3:1 among the F 2 offspring?

The correct answer is: dihybrid cross

You have two true-breeding rose bushes, one with red flowers and one with white flowers. A cross
between these two roses yields a bush with pink flowers. What condition does this demonstrate?

The correct answer is: incomplete dominance

What genetic disorder is associated with the lack of an enzyme necessary for the normal metabolism of
the amino acid phenylalanine?

The correct answer is: phenylketonuria (PKU)

Which genetic disorder is associated with an irregular shape of the red blood cells?

The correct answer is: sickle cell disease

All the genes on one chromosome tend to be inherited together and are therefore called a 

The correct answer is: linkage group


In fruit flies, bar eye is inherited by an X-linked allele (B for bar). If a heterozygous bar-eyed female is
mated to a non-bar-eyed male, what will be the expected ratio of phenotype given four offspring?

The correct answer is: one bar-eyed and one non-bar-eyed female, one bar-eyed and one non-bar-eyed
male

A color-blind (recessive trait) woman will pass the allele to

The correct answer is: all her children.

Hemophilia (h) is a sex-linked recessive trait. If a hemophiliac male marries a carrier female,

The correct answer is: 50% of their daughters will be hemophiliac.

Down syndrome

The correct answer is: can occur if the sperm has an extra number 21 chromosome.

A person with an XO genotype is classified as having

The correct answer is: Turner syndrome.

The most common autosomal abnormality present in people is

The correct answer is: an extra chromosome 21.

The individual(s) credited with the discovery of the structure of DNA is (are)

The correct answer is: James Watson and Francis Crick.

Which of the following statements about DNA replication is NOT correct?

The correct answer is: Replication occurs as each base is paired with another exactly like it.

Chargaff's rules of DNA structure states that

The correct answer is: A, G = T, C.


Apoptosis refers to cell death and

The correct answer is: can be programmed and is essential to normal development.

A cluster of prokaryotic genes under the control of one regulatory sequence is called a(n)

The correct answer is: operon.

Which of the following is NOT associated with a higher cancer risk?

The correct answer is: safe sex

Bacteria, plants, and animals have all been used to create transgenic forms that are useful in

The correct answer is: generating pharmaceuticals.

In STR, short tandem repeat, profiling, both _______________ and _____________________ are used
to identify an individual.

The correct answer is: length or the repeated sequence; number of fragments

Why are genetically modified crop plants (GMOs) are able to express new traits?

The correct answer is: They now contain genes from another organism.

Which species has an estimated 6,300 genes in its genome?

The correct answer is: yeast

In DNA fingerprinting the products of PCR are cut by restriction enzymes into unique lengths; these
fragments are then

The correct answer is: separated according to the lengths of the fragments.

Which of the following terms applies to the study of all of the proteins produced by an organism?

The correct answer is: proteomics


EXAM 5

Plant vascular tissue contains

The correct answer is: xylem and phloem.

Which of these is paired incorrectly?

The correct answer is: protoderm-primary xylem

The meristematic tissue used for secondary growth that is found between the xylem and phloem of each
vascular bundle in eudicot stems is termed the

The correct answer is: vascular cambium.

Which of the following statements is not correct about the arrangement of tissues in the eudicot root?

The correct answer is: The star-shaped phloem is located in the center of the vascular cylinder, with
xylem arranged between the arms of the phloem.

Which statement about leaves is NOT correct?

The correct answer is: The photosynthetic mesophyll is made up of an upper spongy layer and a lower
palisade layer.

Which statement is NOT true regarding phloem transport during the summer in plants?

The correct answer is: Sugar is transported by passive diffusion into sieve-tube members.

While transplanting flowers you accidentally damaged the roots.  What is the most likely scenario that
will occur as a result of damage to the roots?

The correct answer is: The slimy sheath on the root cap has been wiped off and the parenchyma cells
were damaged, resulting in damage to the zone of cell division.

Which of the following is the pathway for water transport in a plant?

The correct answer is: root hairs → cortex → vascular cylinder → leaves
Which of the following is NOT true about the cohesion-tension model of water transport?

The correct answer is: Water is transported in the phloem.

For water transport to occur there must be

The correct answer is: a continuous column of water in xylem and transpiration of water at the leaves.

Peas and beans are considered legumes.  Why?

The correct answer is: A legume is a fruit that splits along two sides when mature.

Compound fruits

The correct answer is: develop from several individual ovaries.

Which of the following parts of a plant embryo grows downward?

The correct answer is: radicle

Which of these associations is NOT correct?

The correct answer is: seed coat—ovary wall

Which of the following is NOT a fruit?

The correct answer is: onion

Which structure of the developing eudicot embryo within a seed is NOT correctly identified?

The correct answer is: The endosperm is the only nutrient source for the embryo.

Which of the following is not an advantage of genetically engineered plants?

The correct answer is: decreased yield

Which action would cause a long-day plant to flower?

The correct answer is: Interrupt a long night with a flash of light.
Phototropism and gravitropism occur from the action(s) of

The correct answer is: auxin in both cases.

Clover is an example of a what type of flowering plant?

The correct answer is: long-day

Which of the following is the correct sequence for the germination of the eudicot seed?

The correct answer is: The two cotyledons have absorbed the endosperm and supply the nutrients to
the embryo.  As the embryo emerges, from the soil it consumes the nutrients and develops the shoot.
The hypocotyl becomes part of the stem and the radicle develops into the roots.

The function of endosperm is to

The correct answer is: provide nutrients to the embryo.

The megaspore divides mitotically, resulting in a female gametophyte or embryo sac that differentiates
into an egg and a central cell with two nuclei called the

The correct answer is: polar nuclei.

When you pick a bouquet of anther-less flowers, you have picked

The correct answer is: female gametophytes retained within the body of sporophytes.

What accounts for the attractiveness of many flowers that helps enhance their reproductive
opportunities?

The correct answer is: petals

EXAM 6

According to the proposed three-domain system,

The correct answer is: archaea and eukarya are more closely related than either is to the bacteria.
Phylogeny refers to the

The correct answer is: evolutionary history of a species.

Almost all living organisms use DNA, ATP, and the same DNA triplet code. This is an example of evolution
based on

The correct answer is: biochemistry.

The equation, p2 + 2 pq + q2 = 1.0, describes

The correct answer is: genotype frequencies of a nonevolving population.

Anatomical features that are fully developed and functional in one group of organisms but reduced and
functionless in a similar group are termed

The correct answer is: vestigial.

Homologous structures such as the bones in wings, flippers, and arms are most closely concerned with

The correct answer is: comparative anatomy.

The response of bacteria that allows them to be identified as Gram-positive or Gram-negative is due to

The correct answer is: whether their cell walls have a thin or thick layer of peptidoglycan.

Bacteria can be beneficial in all but which of the following ways?

The correct answer is: They are the primary producers of most ecosystems.

Metabolically, the archaea are

The correct answer is: heterotrophic and some are autotrophic as well.

Which genus of bacteria causes more diseases in humans than any other?

The correct answer is: Streptococcus


In a liquid environment, ____ molecules will automatically form droplets called liposomes.

The correct answer is: phospholipid

Which type of nutrition is believed to have come first?

The correct answer is: heterotrophic

Inflammation in the context of infectious disease is generally caused by

The correct answer is: the immune response to a pathogen

Diatoms have elaborate shells made of

The correct answer is: silica.

At one time, biologists thought that fungi were merely forms of plants that had lost their chlorophyll and
had returned to saprotrophy to gain food. Why is this no longer considered a solid theory?

The correct answer is: Fungal cell walls contain chitin rather than cellulose.

A simplified list of characteristics of "algae" includes the following:


Green Algae - mostly freshwater, cell wall, chlorophylls a and b
Euglenoids - mostly freshwater, no cell wall, chlorophylls a and b
Brown Algae - mostly marine, cell wall, chlorophylls a and c
Diatoms - marine and freshwater, cell wall, chlorophylls a and c
Dinoflagellates - mostly marine, cell wall, chlorophylls a and c
Red Algae - mostly marine, chlorophyll a and phycobilin From examination of this restricted set of data,
and referring back to discussions of systematics and taxonomy, it is most likely that the most primitive
algae
 

The correct answer is: contained chlorophyll a.

The above-ground portion of a mushroom is termed basidiocarp, which specializes in

The correct answer is: reproduction.


Molds (except slime and water molds) and mushrooms belong to the kingdom

The correct answer is: Fungi.

A mushroom will produce a sexual spore at the tip of a club-shaped

The correct answer is: basidia.

Psilotum are most closely related to

The correct answer is: ferns.

The gametophyte of mosses has two stages.  During the first stage, there is a branching of filament cells
called the

The correct answer is: protonema.

The structure found in nonvascular plants that anchors them to the soil and may serve in asexual
reproduction is called the

The correct answer is: rhizoid

Fertilization in the mosses is dependent upon

The correct answer is: water.

Which of the following is from a division within the gymnosperm group?

The correct answer is: cycad

Both charophytes and land plants share which of these characteristics?

The correct answer is: Both have chlorophyll a and store carbohydrates as starch.
EXAM 7

If a sponge is pressed through a coarse cloth bag and whole cells are extruded through the holes.  The
cells will then

The correct answer is: reassemble into a new organized sponge with each cell resuming its original job.

Which description best fits the lophotrochozoa?

The correct answer is: As embryos, they have three germ layers that will develop into the organ level of
organization as adults.

Larval Trichinella worms live in the

The correct answer is: skeletal muscle of pork.

The cephalopods resemble other molluscs because they have

The correct answer is: most of the internal organs located in a visceral mass.

What system do the cnidaria have that sponges lack?

The correct answer is: nervous

Which of the following are NOT cnidaria?

The correct answer is: planaria

Which of the following organisms exhibit radial symmetry as adults?

The correct answer is: cnidarians

Which of the following statements about hydra morphology is correct?

The correct answer is: The hydra is a tube-shaped polyp that has two layers of tissue.
"Derm" means "skin," so the name Echinodermata literally means

The correct answer is: spiny skin.

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of earthworms?

The correct answer is: dorsal solid nerve cord

Which of these is NOT associated with a roundworm infection?

The correct answer is: tapeworm

Which of the following is correct in matching the common name with a phylum name?

The correct answer is: fluke—Platyhelminthes

Tapeworms are specialized for parasitism by an excessive development of which system?

The correct answer is: reproductive

The molluscs look so different, and yet we can tell they are related because they all

The correct answer is: have a mantle, visceral mass, and a foot.

The insect organ most equivalent to the human lung in function is the

The correct answer is: tracheae.

Which of the following characteristics is NOT true about deuterostomes?

The correct answer is: They include the simplest of invertebrates.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of echinoderms?

The correct answer is: locomotion by muscles

Animals that have no particular symmetry exhibit

The correct answer is: asymmetry.


Which of the following is generally NOT a characteristic of all animals?

The correct answer is: Animals range from unspecialized single-celled to specialized multicellular forms.

Which of the following organisms are considered advanced invertebrates with a true coelom?

The correct answer is: earthworms

Which of the following organisms show the typical method of acquiring food that is found in animals?

The correct answer is: earthworms, annelids, who feed on any available organic matter that they can
take into their mouths

Which statement is NOT true about invertebrate animals?

The correct answer is: Invertebrates lack a nervous system.

Which statement is NOT true about echinoderms?

The correct answer is: The exoskeleton is made up of bony tissue.

Which of the following is NOT true about protostomes?

The correct answer is: The first opening during embryonic development becomes the anus.

Which of the following is NOT an echinoderm?

The correct answer is: crayfish

EXAM 8

EXAM 9

Which membrane is composed of loose connective tissue and lines moveable joint cavities?
The correct answer is: synovial

Simple squamous epithelium has

The correct answer is: a single layer of flat cells.

Name the tissue in which the cells are separated by a liquid.

The correct answer is: blood

What tissue is found in pads between the vertebrae?

The correct answer is: fibrocartilage

If a burn victim loses most of his skin, what symptom would NOT be present?

The correct answer is: a decrease in thirst and water intake due to dry surface tissues

A person enters a heat chamber carrying a raw egg on a plate. As the temperature is gradually
increased, the exposed egg is cooked while the subject continues to have a normal internal temperature
by mouth thermometer. What mechanism is lacking in the egg but is present in the human subject that
maintains homeostasis?

The correct answer is: Increased sweating causes evaporation that carries away heat.

Which of the following body systems is NOT involved in the control of fluid balance in the body?

The correct answer is: muscular

To which system do the kidneys and bladder belong?

The correct answer is: urinary

Neutrophils and lymphocytes are types of

The correct answer is: white blood cells.

The long insoluble threads of a blood clot originate from


The correct answer is: fibrinogen.

Which blood pressure is considered abnormally high for individuals who are under the age of 45?

The correct answer is: 130/90 mm Hg

In the fetal heart, the lungs are deflated and the fetus receives oxygen from its mother across the
placenta through the umbilical cord. There is an opening in the wall between the left and right side of
the fetal heart. Normally, this closes before birth. What symptoms would be expected if this heart wall
opening remained open?

The correct answer is: Deoxygenated blood would mix with oxygenated blood and systemic circulation
would have too little oxygen to sustain healthy growth.

All of the following are normally found in the blood, except

The correct answer is: glycogen.

A heart murmur that sounded "lub-dup-shush" would indicate which of the following?

The correct answer is: semilunar valve is not closing properly

The two enzymes in the clotting process are

The correct answer is: prothrombin activator and thrombin.

Platelets

The correct answer is: initiate clotting.

Why is it advantageous to have blood move slowly in the capillaries?

The correct answer is: It provides time for substances to be exchanged between blood and tissue fluids.

Which blood cells are usually the first to arrive at the site of an infection?

The correct answer is: neutrophils

Which is NOT part of a description of an antibody molecule?


The correct answer is: forms an X-shaped protein molecule

In the movie Bubble Boy, Jimmy lives inside a plastic bubble where he is protected from all outside
agents. Which type of disease would require a child to live inside a plastic bubble?

The correct answer is: a total immune deficiency

What is the major drawback to cytokine therapies?

The correct answer is: Side effects can be life-threatening.

Which antibody class is most responsible for the allergic reaction?

The correct answer is: IgE

Disease-causing agents like viruses or bacteria are considered a(n)

The correct answer is: pathogen.

The AIDS virus attacks

The correct answer is: helper T cells.

Which type of T cell has a TCR that can recognize an antigen fragment presented by antigen-presenting
cells with MHC class II proteins?

The correct answer is: helper T cells

EXAM 10

Which of the following associations is not true?

The correct answer is: Vitamin E is necessary for blood clotting.

Which of the following types of lipids do not promote cardiovascular disease?


The correct answer is: unsaturated fatty acids

Considering the U.S.D.A. recommended diet, which of the following statements is NOT true?

The correct answer is: The daily diet should contain large amounts of saturated fats.

Public health workers look for ways to prevent diseases. Which of the following jaundice-causing
diseases has the potential to be reduced by public health measures?

The correct answer is: hepatitis A by sewage control

At body temperature, which of these combinations is most likely to result in the digestion of proteins?

The correct answer is: HCl, pepsin

At body temperature, which of these combinations is most likely to result in the digestion of fat?

The correct answer is: bile salts, sodium bicarbonate, lipase

Figure 14.1
In Figure 14.1, which structure is the primary site for digestion and absorption of food?

The correct answer is: 5


Which of these organs has contact with food for the least amount of time and does not participate in
digestion?

The correct answer is: esophagus

Which of the following is not true of the tongue?

The correct answer is: The tongue secretes salivary amylase.

Which of the following features is associated with pica?

The correct answer is: person is a greater risk for various poisoning

Which eating disorder is characterized by an irrational fear of getting fat, often associated with a
perceived body defect?

The correct answer is: anorexia nervosa

Which of the following will NOT increase the risk of obesity?

The correct answer is: exercise and sensible diet

Which eating disorder is most likely due to a person being depressed?

The correct answer is: binge-eating disorder

Albumin is the large protein molecule found in egg white and blood plasma. Table salt dissociates into
sodium and chloride ions. Urea is assembled in the liver. In a healthy person, what is the fate of the
majority of these molecules as they pass through a nephron?

The correct answer is: Albumin remains in the blood, salt ions pass across but are reabsorbed, and the
urea is passed across and excreted.

Which of the following statements about the glomerulus is INCORRECT?

The correct answer is: Small molecules move from the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule into the
glomerulus.
"Artificial kidneys" do not function in all respects like a natural kidney. What is one inherent problem
and what is its practical solution?

The correct answer is: Dialysis uses passive diffusion and some kidney functions require selective active
transport; restrict diet to limit the variety of waste molecules.

Which mechanism used to form urine requires a high blood pressure?

The correct answer is: glomerular filtration

Which is NOT a correct step in the hormone regulation of blood pressure and reabsorption?

The correct answer is: High blood pressure causes the kidneys to secrete aldosterone.

The prostate gland in older men may block the flow of fluid in the

The correct answer is: urethra.

Which of the following statements about the role of the respiratory system in maintenance of blood pH
is not true?

The correct answer is: The lungs are able to rid the body of a wide variety of acidic and basic substances,
thereby directly adjusting the pH of the blood.

The tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the

The correct answer is: ureter.

An antibiotic such as penicillin that is taken orally is soon excreted in the urine. Since infections last for a
short period of time, what is the best strategy for overcoming this continual loss?

The correct answer is: Take continual doses of penicillin sufficient to maintain it in the bloodstream.

The buildup of the products of nucleic acid metabolism can lead to

The correct answer is: gout.


It is advantageous to have a bladder because it

The correct answer is: stores urine to prevent constant urination.

What is the main reason for hemolytic uremic syndrome?

The correct answer is: the bacteria Escherichia coli

EXAM 11

Which type of memory is associated with specific facts, persons, and events?

The correct answer is: episodic

In dissection, most nerve fibers appear gray to white because

The correct answer is: they are mostly myelin sheath made of lipid or fat molecules.

Which brain structure serves as a bridge between the sensory association areas and the prefrontal area?

The correct answer is: hippocampus

Generally, nerve impulses do not move "backward" along a series of neurons. What is the reason for
this?

The correct answer is: There is a short refractory period during which sodium gates cannot open and an
action potential cannot move backwards.

A postsynaptic membrane

The correct answer is: can be all of the answer choices, except being a myelin sheath.

Which limbic structure allows us to respond to and display anger and also prompts the release of
adrenaline into the bloodstream?

The correct answer is: amygdala


Which description best fits the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

The correct answer is: nerves that carry sensory messages to the CNS and motor commands to the
muscles and glands

Which part of a simple reflex takes the message away from the CNS?

The correct answer is: motor neuron

When individuals experience fear and pleasure, what part of the brain has been stimulated?

The correct answer is: limbic system

Which is NOT a correct association of memory type?

The correct answer is: semantic memory—non-language memory

Dendrites

The correct answer is: carry impulses toward a cell body.

The primary functions of the spinal cord involve

The correct answer is: reflex actions and communication between the brain and peripheral nerves.

What change in shape will happen to the lens when an individual tries to focus on an image that is
close?

The correct answer is: The lens will round up in order to bring the image to focus on the retina.

The two major types of sensory receptors, based on the origin of stimuli, are

The correct answer is: exteroceptors and interoceptors.

Jennifer's doctor tells her that she is experiencing a problem with her proprioceptors.  What symptoms
must Jennifer be experiencing?

The correct answer is: falling down


The order in which light reaches the lens of a human eye is

The correct answer is: cornea → aqueous humor → pupil → lens.

Taste buds and olfactory cells are considered

The correct answer is: chemoreceptors.

From your understanding of the anatomy of the ear, what is the most likely explanation for a dog's
ability to hear higher frequencies (pitch)?

The correct answer is: a wider range to the tectorial membrane and hair cells

The structure that regulates the size of the opening for light in the eye is the

The correct answer is: iris.

When a baseball player is hit in the back by a ball, what is detected by the pain receptors?

The correct answer is: Chemicals that are released by the damaged cells.

It is very hot in the room but Jamie does not seem to notice. Her exteroreceptors have detected the
heat and sent the message to her brain, but her brain has not correctly determined the message. What
does Jamie have a problem with?

The correct answer is: perception

Color vision depends on three types of cones that contain pigments sensitive to either

The correct answer is: red, green, or blue light.

Which correctly traces the path of a sound vibration until the signal is sent to the brain?

The correct answer is: auditory canal → tympanic membrane → malleus → incus → stapes → oval
window → cochlea → cochlear nerve

Which of the following is a FALSE statement?

The correct answer is: The anterior chamber is filled with vitreous humor.
In nearsightedness, light rays are brought into focus

The correct answer is: in front of the retina.

EXAM 12

Sarah comes home from school with a horrible pressure behind her eyes. Her nose is running and she
has a headache. She recently had a cold.  What is Sarah most likely suffering from?

The correct answer is: sinusitis

The vocal cords are found in the

The correct answer is: larynx.

What happens to the pH of the bloodstream if a person hypoventilates?

The correct answer is: The pH of the blood will become more acidic.

The breathing rate is controlled by chemoreceptors that detect

The correct answer is: levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

Which is NOT a correct association of lower respiratory problems and causes or symptoms?

The correct answer is: emphysema—reduced lung and chest volume due to collapsed alveoli and
overventilation

Imagine you are trying to fit down an aisle at the local store that is filled with boxes.  In order to squeeze
between two stacks of boxes you need to "suck it in."  Which of the following descriptions best explains
why "sucking it in" isn't the best way to fit through a tight space?

The correct answer is: While sucking it in, your diaphragm contracts and moves down, causing the lung
volume to increase. This causes the rib cage to move up and out, making your chest expand.
Scientific studies have shown that which of the following is NOT associated with smoking?

The correct answer is: increased risk of diabetes

How does expired air compare with inspired air?

The correct answer is: Expired air contains less oxygen but more carbon dioxide.

When we are relaxed, only a small amount of air moves in and out with each breath. This is called

The correct answer is: tidal volume.

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the normal mechanism of ventilation?

The correct answer is: The intrapleural pressure must be greater than the atmospheric pressure.

A voice changes from high to low pitch in speaking by

The correct answer is: changing the tension on the vocal cords.

Which is NOT a major function of the respiratory tract?

The correct answer is: transferring and extracting nutrients


Figure 15.1
 
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs at which location in Figure 15.1?

The correct answer is: 5

Which is NOT a correct association of respiratory problems and symptoms?

The correct answer is: tonsillitis—inflammation of the uvula often cured by removal of the useless tissue

Which of the following diseases make up chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

The correct answer is: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma

What happens to the blood pH if a person hyperventilates?

The correct answer is: The pH will increase.

Which disease has an allergic cause?

The correct answer is: asthma


Which of the following statements does not correctly describe air movement along the respiratory
tract?

The correct answer is: The bronchi serve as passageways into the trachea.

The Adam's apple is actually a part of the

The correct answer is: larynx.

Which part of the respiratory system is composed of C-shaped cartilaginous rings and cilia?

The correct answer is: trachea

Aortic and carotid bodies are

The correct answer is: sensitive to oxygen changes.

Most of the carbon dioxide transported in the plasma is in the form of

The correct answer is: bicarbonate ions.

Which of the following diseases is caused by exposure to particles inhaled primarily in the workplace
(silica, coal dust, etc.)?

The correct answer is: pulmonary fibrosis

What happens if you hyperventilate?

The correct answer is: The pH of the blood becomes more basic.

Many lung ailments are "not curable but treatable." Which of the following conditions is most curable?

The correct answer is: standard tuberculosis


EXAM 13

Which of the following supports a genetic basis of behavior?

The correct answer is: identical twins that are raised in two separate families and grow up to smoke the
same brand of cigarettes

In gibbon society. which parent invests more energy into the success of the young?

The correct answer is: Both parents are equally involved in the success of the young.

Pheromones are

The correct answer is: chemical attractants.

Why do different species of animals have territories that are different sizes?

The correct answer is: Different species need different-sized territories depending on their food source.

A parrot fluffs out her feathers and screeches when another female bird approaches. She is

The correct answer is: communicating using visual signals and auditory signals.

Altruistic behaviors between closely related animals are selected for because they

The correct answer is: increase the frequency of the altruistic individual's genes in the next generation.

All the members of the same species that inhabit a particular area are termed a(n)

The correct answer is: population.

An ecosystem contains

The correct answer is: both the living organisms and the abiotic components of the environment.

A number of populations of different species interacting with one another in a natural environment,
such as a rotten log, is called

The correct answer is: a community.


The idea that plants cannot grow on a particular area until the soil has been developed enough by an
earlier community is the

The correct answer is: facilitation model.

Primary succession takes much longer than secondary succession because it involves

The correct answer is: time for weathering of rock and development of the soil horizons.

Which of the following human populations would be expected to have the greatest increase in growth
rate?

The correct answer is: A population with most of its population under the age of 18 years of age.

The one nutrient that cannot be categorized as either a sedimentary or a gaseous cycle is

The correct answer is:  water, because it can exist as a solid, a liquid, or a gas.

Someone asks if some of the carbon atoms in their body may have once made up the living tissues of
another person or animal in earlier times. This is

The correct answer is: possible since carbon cycles through the ecosystem.

In a certain ecosystem, caterpillars eat grass. Field mice eat the caterpillars and seeds from the grass.
Snakes eat the mice. Hawks eat both the snakes and mice. Such an arrangement would be considered
a(n)

The only heterotrophs required for an ecosystem to function are

The correct answer is: decomposers.

Which of the following is NOT required in robust chemical cycling of inorganic nutrients in a natural
ecosystem?

The correct answer is: plants and animals

In the biosphere, which of the following is NOT constantly recycled?

The correct answer is: energy


Which would be characterized by rainfall under 25 cm/year, hot days, cold nights, and spiny-leafed
plants?

The correct answer is: desert

The coral reef community would be best described as

The correct answer is: a densely populated community that only occurs in shallow water near the
shoreline.

The ocean

The correct answer is: covers three-fourths of the planet.

The following number of ant species were counted in these biomes.


Tundra (5)
Taiga (18)
Conifer Mixed Forest (41)
Temperature Mixed Forest (103)

The most likely reason(s) for the different number of ant species in this list is (are)

The correct answer is: the amount of photosynthetic production, length of the warm season, and
diversity of plants.

The largest communities on land are called

The correct answer is: biomes.

Zones of low rainfall and, therefore, most deserts are at

The correct answer is: about 30° north and south latitude.

The largest biome on Earth is the

The correct answer is: ocean.