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Name __Johnny Kim______
The Shallow Ocean


1. What effect does the surface wind pattern have on the [surface] circulation of the oceans?
The winds cause gyres or circular circulation patterns

2. Why do the [surface] ocean currents not move in exactly the same direction as the wind?
Ekman spiral effect and coriolis effect

3. What is the Ekman spiral? Explain why the Ekman spiral occurs.
The ekman spiral is the spiraling effect of the water as its depth increases. It occurs because of the friction between
the wind and the water surface. As the water surface gets pulled by the wind, the friction brings the lower layers
with it, but the friction becomes less and less. As the layers are deeper and deeper, they are subject to the coriolis
effect causing the water to move farther to the right (in the north) causing a spiraling effect.

4. What is upwelling? Where does upwelling occur?

Upwelling is when the colder, deeper water gets pushed to the surface. Upwelling occurs on the coasts when the
water is moving along gyres. It generally occurs on the eastern side of gyres.

5. What is meant by geostrophic current?

It is the water moving around the gyre (CW in north and CCW in south) due to the pressure gradient force and
coriolis effect.

6. Explain the different characteristics of western and eastern boundary currents.

Eastern boundary currents are shallower, slower, bigger. Western boundary currents are warmer, narrower, and
much faster.

7. What is a gyre?
A circular circulation pattern in oceans due to ekman transport and the coriolis effect.

8. What is an eddy current or ³ring?´

An eddy current is a part of a gyre that has been pinched off and circulating by itself.

9. Consider an eddy current that is 150 km in diameter and 200 m deep. When it was cut loose from the Gulf
Stream it was 68°F (or 20°C). Ten months later the ring had cooled to the ambient temperature of the surrounding
sea, 50°F (or 10°C). How much heat, in joules, was dissipated? Suppose this energy were the output of a 1000
megawatt (109 J/s) power plant. How long could the plant provide this power   
that the specific heat of water is 4.2x103 J/°C/kg and that the ocean is only 96.5% H2O.)   


10. In only a few places does the ocean drop off to the abyss right next to the shore. What is the name of the
location where the ocean remains fairly shallow before it drops to the abyss?
Continental shelf

11. What is the Sargasso Sea? (There is a nice, short ³blurb´ about this on page 88 of our textbook, by the way.)
It is the region in the middle of the north atlantic ocean surrounded by ocean currents on all sides.

12. What causes the warmest parts of the oceans to oscillate in latitude during a year?
The sunlight is not hitting each place at a constant intensity throughout the year due to the earth¶s tilt. This causes
the sea temperature to oscillate with the sun¶s position in the sky.

13. The place on earth that has the most consistently high winds not surprisingly has the most consistently high
waves. Where is that place?
South Indian Ocean

14. Sea surface temperatures can be measured by instruments aboard satellites. Why then, do we not use these
direct images when measuring temperature trends?
Trends need much more data to be determined and the data from satellites is too short.

15. People knew very little about the deep oceans before 70 years ago. Think of Jules Verne¶s 20,000 Leagues
Under the Sea, written in 1870, as capturing nearly everything humanity knew about the deep oceans. We had
only one way to determine depth back then. Two additional, and far more accurate, methods were developed in the
20th century. What are these three methods of determining ocean depth?
Using a rope with a weight

16. In terms of waves, what defines the difference between deep water and shallow water?
The wavelength between waves divided by 2 gives the depth of the water that is constantly moving.

17. Why can one not "surf" a wave in the open ocean, while it is possible near the shore?
The wave does not break until the wave base is below the bottom of the sea floor when the shore is near.
18. Describe the difference between an undertow and a rip current. Use labeled sketches in your answer.

19. What is a tsunami?

A series of waves caused by a huge displacement of water from seismic disturbances

20. Explain the difference between a neap tide and a spring tide.
Spring tide is when the moon, sun, and earth are on one line and the gravity from the moon and sun work together.
Neap tide is when the moon and sun are at right angles relative to the earth and their forces cross.

21. Why is the light limit of the ocean a different depth than the photosynthesis limit?
Although light can penetrate deeper, it is not enough for autotrophs to live so there is no photosynthesis. Thus, the
light limit is lower than the photosynthesis limit.