Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

STRING INSTRUMENTS

1.The double bass, also called the string bass, upright bass, bass
violin or contrabass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string
instrument in the modern symphony orchestra. The double bass is a
standard member of the string section of the symphony
orchestra[1] and smaller string ensembles[2] in Western classical music.
In addition, it is used in other genres such as jazz, 1950s-
style blues and rock and roll, rockabilly/psychobilly, traditional country
music, bluegrass, tango and many types of folk music.The double bass
is typically constructed from several types of wood, including maple for
the back, spruce for the top, and ebony for the fingerboard. It is
uncertain whether the instrument is a descendant of the viola da
gamba or of the violin, but it is traditionally aligned with the violin
family. While the double bass is nearly identical in construction to
other violin family instruments, it also embodies features found in the
older viol family.

The double bass is a transposing instrument and sounds


one octave lower than notated.It is generally regarded as a modern
descendant of the string family of instruments that originated in
Europe in the 15th century, and as such it has been described as a
"bass violin."

2.The cello is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in


perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of music instruments,
which also includes the violin, viola and the contrabass.

The word derives from the Italian 'violoncello'. The word derives
ultimately from vitula, meaning a stringed instrument. A person who
plays a cello is called a cellist. The cello is used as a solo instrument,
in chamber music, in a string orchestra and as a member of the string
section of an orchestra. It is the second largest bowed string
instrument in the modern symphony orchestra, the double bass being
the largest.

Cellos were derived from other mid-to-large sized bowed instruments


in the 16th century, such as the viola da gamba, and the generally
smaller and squarer viola da braccio, and such instruments were made
by members of the Amati family of luthiers. The invention of wire-
wrapped strings in Bologna gave the cello greater versatility.

3.The viola is a bowed string instrument. It is the middle voice of


the violin family, between the violin and the cello.

The viola is similar in material and construction to the violin but is


larger in size and more variable in its proportions. A "full-size" viola's
body is between one and four inches longer than the body of a full-size
violin (i.e., between 15 and 18 inches, with an average length of about
16 inches. Small violas made for children typically start at 12 inches,
which is equivalent to a half-size violin. Often, a fractional-sized violin
will be strung with the strings of a viola (C, G, D and A) for those
children who need even smaller sizes. Unlike the violin, the viola does
not have a standard full size. The body of a viola would need to
measure about 21 inches long to match the acoustics of a violin,
making it impractical to play in the same manner as the violin.For
centuries, viola makers have experimented with the size and shape of
the viola, often tweaking the proportions or shape of the instrument to
make an instrument with a shorter scale length and lighter weight, but
that still has a large enough sound box to create an unmistakable
"viola sound."

WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS

1.The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike


woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless
wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an
opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel-
Sachs, flutes are categorized as Edge-blown aerophones.

A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player,


a flautist, aflutist, or less commonly a fluter.

Aside from the voice, flutes are the earliest known musical
instruments. A number of flutes dating to about 40,000 to 35,000 years
ago have been found in the Swabian Alb region of Germany. These
flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the
earliest period of modern human presence in Europe.
2. The clarinet is a musical instrument of woodwind type. The name
derives from adding the suffix-et (meaning little) to the Italian
word clarino , as the first clarinets had a strident tone similar to that of
a trumpet. The instrument has an approximately cylindricalbore, and
uses a single reed. In jazz contexts, it has sometimes been informally
referred to as the "licorice stick."[1]

Clarinets comprise a family of instruments of differing sizes and


pitches. The clarinet family is the largest such woodwind family, with
more than a dozen types, ranging from the BB♭ contrabass to the A♭
soprano. Of these, many are rare or obsolete, and music written for
them is usually played on the common types. The unmodified
word clarinet usually refers to the B♭soprano clarinet, by far the most
commonly played clarinet.

A person who plays the clarinet is called a clarinetist or


clarinettist. Johann Christoph Dennerinvented the clarinet
in Germany around the turn of the 18th century by adding a register
key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and
airtight pads were added to improve tone and playability. Today, the
clarinet is used in jazz and classical ensembles, in chambergroups, and
as a solo instrument.

3. The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of


the woodwind family. In English, prior to 1770, the instrument was
called "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy".[1] The spelling "oboe"
was adopted into English ca. 1770 from the Italian oboè, a
transliteration in that language's orthography of the 17th-century
pronunciation of the French word hautbois, a compound word made
of haut ("high, loud") and bois.A musician who plays the oboe is called
an oboist. Subtle manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows
the player to express timbre and dynamics.

BRASS INSTRUMENTS

1.The trumpet is the musical instrument with the highest register in


the brass family. Trumpets are among the oldest musical instruments,
[1]
dating back to at least 1500 BCE. They are constructed
of brass tubing bent twice into an oblong shape, and are played by
blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound which
starts a standing wavevibration in the air column inside the trumpet.

There are several types of trumpet; the most common is a transposing


instrument pitched in B♭ with a tubing length of about 134 cm. The
predecessors to trumpets did not have valves, but modern trumpets
generally have either three piston valves or three rotary valves. Each
valve increases the length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering
the pitch.

A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet


player or trumpeter.
2. The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched brass instrument. Sound
is produced by vibrating or "buzzing" the lips into a large
cupped mouthpiece. It is one of the most recent additions to the
modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century,
when it largely replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for trumpet or
horn. The horn referred to would most likely resemble what is known
as a baroque trumpet.

3. The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. Like all


brass instruments, sound is produced when the player’s vibrating lips
(embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate.
The trombone is usually characterised by a telescopic slide with which
the player varies the length of the tube to change pitches, although
the valve trombone uses three valves like those on a trumpet.

The word trombone derives from Italian tromba (trumpet) and -one (a
suffix meaning "large"), so the name literally means "large trumpet".
Trombones and trumpets share the important characteristic of having
predominantly cylindrical bores. Therefore, the most frequently
encountered trombones—the tenor and bass trombone—are the tenor
and bass counterparts of the trumpet. Trombone music, along with
music for euphonium and tuba, is typically written in concert
pitch while trumpet music is transposed to B♭, although exceptions do
occur, the most notably being in brass band music. A person who plays
the trombone is called a trombonist or trombone player.

PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS
1. The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in
the percussion family. It is a bar of metal, usually steel but sometimes
other metals such as beryllium copper, bent into atriangle shape. The
instrument is usually held by a loop of some form of thread or wire at
the top curve. It was first made around the 16th century

2. A gong is an East and South East Asian musical instrument that


takes the form of a flat metal disc which is hit with a malleta.

Gongs are broadly of three types. Suspended gongs are more or less
flat, circular discs of metal suspended vertically by means of a cord
passed through holes near to the top rim. Bossed or nipple
gongs have a raised center boss and are often suspended and played
horizontally. Bowl gongs are bowl-shaped, and rest on cushions and
belong more to bells than gongs. Gongs are made mainly from bronze
or brass but there are many other alloys in use.

3. A bell is a simple sound-making device. The bell is a percussion


instrument and anidiophone. Its form is usually a hollow, cup-shaped
object, which resonates upon being struck. The striking implement can
be a tongue suspended within the bell, known as aclapper, a small,
free sphere enclosed within the body of the bell or a separate mallet or
hammer.

Bells are usually made of cast metal, but small bells can also be made
from ceramic orglass. Bells can be of all sizes: from tiny dress accessories to church
bells weighing many tons. Historically, many bells were made to commemorate
important events or people and have been associated with the concepts of peace and
freedom. The study of bells is calledcampanology.
Jenelyn A. Quebec

IV-Einstein

Mrs. Marmeto