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Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467

11th Transportation Planning and Implementation Methodologies for Developing Countries,


TPMDC 2014, 10-12 December 2014, Mumbai, India

Use of RAP Stabilized by Hot Mix Recycling Agents in Bituminous


Road Construction
T.Anil Pradyumna 1*, Dr.P.K.Jain2
1
AcSIR- Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110025,India
2
Chief Scientist,co-ordinator,AcSIR, CSIR- Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110025,India

Abstract

The composition of bitumen plays a vital role in deciding durability of bituminous roads. During the aging process, its composition
changes with passage of time. Napthene aromatics are converted to polar aromatics and these in turn to asphaltenes those are
responsible for brittleness of bitumen in Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Therefore, restoration of physico-chemical
deficiencies of oxidized bitumen by incorporation of appropriate dose of recycling agent is essential for desired performance of
pavement. In the present study, RAP samples have been collected and laboratory studies have been carried out to optimize the
percentage of usable RAP. Recycling agent has also been used in this study and the dosage of the recycling agent has been found
as 10% by the weight of the bitumen present in RAP. The paper describes the comparison of properties of mixture with
recycling agents, which has been prepared in laboratory and commercially available on the RAP material, and their performance
has been compared with virgin mixes. Various performance tests such as Retained Stability, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) and
Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR), Resilient Modulus test has been carried out to compare the performance of RAP modified mixes and
virgin mixes. This paper presents the results of performance tests carried out on bituminous mixes with RAP and virgin mixes and
their result. The laboratory results indicate that the bituminous mixes with RAP and recycling agent provide better performance
compared to virgin mixes.

©
© 2016
2015TheTheAuthors. Published
Authors. by Elsevier
Published B.V. B.
by Elsevier This
V.is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Keywords: Bituminous Mix; Recycling Agent; Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement; Modulus

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-8585994652.


E-mail address: pradyumna1989@gmail.com

2352-1465 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2016.11.090
T. Anil Pradyumna and P.K. Jain / Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467 461

1. Introduction

Rejuvenating agents are used to correct deficiency in chemical composition and rhelogy of oxidized bitumen in
RAP and improve dispersion of bitumen. Recycling agents are used to restore the durability of oxidized binders to a
condition which resembles to virgin bitumen. Recycling agents are divided into three broad categories: “super-soft”
asphalt cements, napthenic (aromatic) oils, and paraffin oils. ASTM D4552 “Standard Practice for Classifying Hot-
Mix Recycling Agents” provides the classification and specification of recycling agents, while ASTM D4887
“Standard Practice for Preparation of Viscosity Blends for Hot Recycled Bituminous Materials” provides the
procedure for selecting quality of recycling agent. Using ASTM D4887, one can determine the dose of a recycling
agent to be added to the oxidized binder to achieve a specified value of absolute viscosity and performance properties
of RAP containing mixes. Recycling agent must be such that the treated RAP binder will have the same properties as
the virgin binder. Hot mix recycling is the process in which Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement materials are mixed with
new materials, sometimes along with a recycling agent (or rejuvenator), to produce hot bituminous mixtures. A well-
designed recycled mixture can have better or identical performance to that of conventional hot bituminous mixtures.
Recycling agents are defined as hydrocarbon materials having chemical and physical characteristics selected to restore
properties of aged bitumen to desired specifications and restore durability. In selecting the recycling agent, the physic-
chemical properties of the combined aged bitumen binder and the recycling agent are the controlling factors.
The use of recycling agents in RAP modified bituminous mixes led to decrease in mixing and compaction
temperatures (Romera et.al,2006) .Studies by other researchers state that use of recycling agent contribute towards
decreases in the stiffness of oxidized binder by reducing the complex modulus of the blend(Chen et.al,2007).
investigated the effects of recycling agents on SUPERPAVE mixtures containing RAP has been investigated (Shen et
al. 2007). A total of 12 SUPERPAVE mixtures, ten containing RAP and two virgin binders, were designed. The results
indicated that the properties of the asphalt mixtures using a recycling agent were better than those containing a softer
binder based on Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) and Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) tests. They concluded that
more than 10% RAP can be incorporated in the Superpave mixtures by using a recycling agent instead of a soft binder.
The dose of recycling agent for recycling can be estimated from the blending charts established under the
SUPERPAVE binder specification. The choice of Recycling Agent (RA) grade depends on the degree of oxidation of
the bitumen in the distressed pavement. In general, the lower viscosity RA can be used to restore deficiencies of
bitumen of high viscosity and vice versa. Some researchers found that recycled mixes have good resistance to moisture
damage at low RAP percentages whereas there is no significant increase in resistance to moisture damage with RAP
percentage in mix (Huang, 2010).Some studies reported that resistance to moisture damage significantly decreases
due to presence of RAP (Huang,2010).Some researchers found that presence of RAP increases the stiffness of the
mix(Aravind.K et.al,2006) and decreases of modulus is reported in other studies(Huang,2010).Similarly fatigue life
increases (Aravind.K et.al,2006) and some researchers reported decrease of fatigue life (Mohammed et.al,2003
McDanel and shah,2003).It may also vary with change of test temperature(Puttaguanta et.al,1997).Tensile strength
increases (Puttaguanta et.al,1997)or similar to virgin mixes (Huang,2010).Many studies reported that rutting
resistance increases due to presence of RAP(Mohammed et.al,2003 McDanel and shah,2003 ) while few others
reported that ruttingresistance decreases due to the presence of RAP(Huang,2010).Resilient modulus increases in the
presence of RAP as reported (Puttaguanta et.al,1997).By utilization of recycling agents results in significant decrease
in mixing and compaction temperatures(Romera et.al,2006)
Nomenclature

RAP Recycled Asphalt Pavement


ITS Indirect Tensile Strength
RA Recycling Agent
462 T. Anil Pradyumna and P.K. Jain / Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467

2. Materials

2.1. Analysis of RAP

Testing on the materials to check their suitability is an important parameter. The RAP samples were collected from
a site near Delhi and its bitumen content was found to be 3.65 % by Auto-Ignition Method (ASTM D6307).The
bitumen of RAP was recovered by centrifuge method. The solution containing binder was subjected to distillation for
the recovery of binder by Abson method (ASTM D1856). The recovered bitumen was tested. The penetration was
found to be 39(0.1 mm units) and softening point as 62 °C.

2.2. Analysis of Aggregates and Bitumen

The aggregates used in the present study were obtained from a local quarry. The results of the various tests
conducted on the aggregates are reported in Table 1. The VG-30 bitumen was used for preparing the control
mix specimen. The properties of the bitumen are reported in Table 2.

Table 1: Properties of mineral aggregates


Properties Test Method Value Requirements as per MoRTH ,
2001 Specifications
Aggregate Impact IS 2386 (Part IV) 21.6 30 max
Water Absorption Value, % IS 2386 (Part III) 0.7 2 max

Specific Gravity IS 2386 (Part II) 2.66 2.5-3.0


Combined (EI + FI) Index, % IS 2386 (Part I) 25.2 30 max

Stripping, % IS 6241 98 Min retained coating 95


Note: El: Elongation Index, FI: Flakiness Index

Table2. Properties of bitumen (VG-30)


Properties Test Method Value Requirements as per
IS 73: 2006

Penetration, (25°C, 100 g, 5s), 0.1 mm IS 1203-1978 64 50 – 70


Softening point (Ring and Ball), °C IS 1205-1978 48 47
Ductility at 27°C (5 cm/min) IS 1208-1978 78 -
Specific gravity IS 1202-1978 1.01 -
Viscosity at 60°C, Poise IS 1206-1978 2570 2400
Viscosity at 135°C, cSt IS 1206-1978 725 350

2.3. Determination of Dosage of Recycling Agent

The recycling agent prepared in the laboratory is designated as RA-1 and commercially available recycling
agent RA-2.The fail temperature of the rejuvenated bitumen was determined using Dynamic Shear Rheometer
(DSR) (AASHTO T 315). The results of DSR on rejuvenated bitumen are given in Table 3.
T. Anil Pradyumna and P.K. Jain / Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467 463

Table 3. Results of DSR Testing

Property Temperature (in qC) Viscosity at 60qC,


corresponding to G*/SinG> Poise
1.1 KPa

VG-30 Bitumen 65.4 2400


Recovered Bitumen 71.4 2820
10 % RA-1 67.3 2420
8% RA -2 66.5 2480
(RA – Recycling Agent)

The dosage of recycling agent was fixed as 10% by weight of recovered bitumen when RA-1 was used and the
dosage was 8% when RA-2 was used. The chemical properties of the recycling agent, rejuvenated bitumen and
recovered bitumen are presented in Table 4

Table 4 Results of Chemical Analysis and Physical Properties

Sample Type Saturates (%) Aromatics (%) Resins (%) Asphaltenes Viscosity at 60qC,
(%)
Poise

Recovered Bitumen <1 30 42 27 2820

RA-1 <4 68 27 1 41

RA-2 5 59 33 <3 58

3. Design of Mixtures

The mix design for virgin and mixes containing RAP was carried by Marshall Method. Grading of aggregate was
adopted as per MoRTH, 2001 specifications for 50 mm thick bituminous concrete (BC) which is given in Table
5.The grading of the aggregates containing 40 % RAP and 60% virgin aggregates is given in Table 5.Gradings
with and without RAP and specified limits are plotted in Fig.1.

Table 5. Gradation of mixture without RAP and with 40% RAP

Sieve Size mm Cumulative % passing Cumulative % passing Specified Grading as


for virgin mixes for mixes containing per MoRTH, 2001
40% RAP

26.5 100 100 100


19.0 100 96 79-100
13.2 85 77 59-79
9.5 74 61 52-72
4.75 58 42 35-55
2.36 51 35 28-44
1.18 36 24 20-34
0.60 26 17 15-27
0.30 16 11 10-20
0.15 12 8 5-13
0.075 8 5 2-8
464 T. Anil Pradyumna and P.K. Jain / Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467

100
90
80

% Cumulative Passing
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
26.5 19 13.2 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 0.075
Sieve Size (mm)

Upper Limit Lower Limit Combined Grading

Figure 1: Grading of Aggregate in Different Mixtures

The Optimum Binder Content (OBC) of mixture without RAP is 5.7% and 40 % RAP mixes was found to be 5.8
%. In case of 40 % RAP mix, the fresh binder to be added was found to be 4.37 %. The volumetric parameters are
given in Table 6.

Table 6. Marshall Parameters for virgin and 40 % RAP mixes


Mix Type VG-30 Bulk Marshall Stability(kN) Flow(mm) Air VFB
Binder Density Voids (%)
Content (g/cc) (%)
(%)

Virgin 5.70 2.358 13.50 2.30 3.57 75.0


40%RAP 4.37 2.369 18.75 3.30 4.00 75.0

4. Performance Studies

4.1. MoistureSusceptibilty
A key durability issue associated with moisture damage in bituminous mixes is referred to as loss of adhesion.
Presence of water or water vapour between the bitumen film and aggregates, break the adhesive bond between
the aggregate and bitumen binder film. To assess this performance parameter in laboratory, strength ratio
of the conditioned specimen and unconditioned specimen is an acceptable procedure. Methods such as
measurement of retained stability or indirect tensile strength have been used to access moisture damage of mixes
with 40% RAP and without RAP.

4.1.1. Retained Marshall Stability


This test is conducted as per ASTM D 1075 method. The standard Marshall specimens of 100 mm diameter and
63.5 mm height were prepared. For conditioning purpose, the specimens were kept in water bath maintained at
60°C for 24 hours, and thereafter tested for Marshall Stability value. The Retained Marshall stability was
calculated as given in Equation (1). The results are presented Table.7.

ܵ௖
ܴ‫ ܵܯ‬ൌ ൬ ൰ ‫ כ‬100ሺͳሻ
ܵ௨௖

Where, RMS is Retained Marshall Stability, average stability of conditioned specimens and is stability of
unconditioned specimen. The results are shown in Table 8.
T. Anil Pradyumna and P.K. Jain / Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467 465

4.1.2. Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR)

This test is conducted as per ASTM D 4867method.The unconditioned subset of specimen was placed in a
0
water bath for 20 min at 25°C. For the conditioning of wet subset, the samples are placed in water bath at 60 C
for 24 hrs and placed in water bath at 25°C for 1 hour. The tensile strength of each subset is determined by the
tensile splitting test. Indirect tensile strength of set of unconditioned specimen and conditioned specimen
was determined to calculate TSR. The tensile strength was calculated as given in Equation (2)
ʹܲ
‫ݏ‬௧ ൌ ሺʹሻ
ߨ‫݀ݐ‬
Where:
St = tensile strength, P = maximum load, t = specimen height immediately before test
D = specimen diameter
The Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) of specimen is computed by Equation (3).

ܵ௧௖
ܴܶܵ ൌ ൬ ൰ ‫ͲͲͳ כ‬ሺ͵ሻ
ܵ௧௨௖
Where, average indirect tensile strength of conditioned specimens and is indirect tensile strength of
unconditioned specimen. The results are shown in Table7.

Table 7. . Properties of BC Mixes Prepared with Varying Percentage of RAP


Binder content type Marshall Stability of Marshall Stability of Retained Indirect Tensile Tensile Strength
controlled sample at conditioned sample Marshall Strength (dry), Ratio (TSR), %
60°C (kN) at 60°C (kN) Stability % kg/cm2

Virgin 12.05 10.32 85.6 6.8 81.8

40%RAP (RA-1) 14.82 12.91 87.1 8.3 85.5

40%RAP (RA-2) 13.85 15.78 87.7 10.2 87.7

4.2. Resilient modulus (MR) test


A material's resilient modulus is actually an estimate of its modulus of elasticity. The repeated loading indirect tensile test
on compacted bituminous mixtures was performed as per ASTM D 7329. The test was conducted by applying the
compressive load in the form of haversine wave at 25°, 35°, and 45°C for two BC mixtures. The specimens were
conditioned for 5 hr in the environmental chamber at the given temperature and then subjected to repeated loading pulse
of 0.1 s duration and 0.9 s rest period. The results which are average of three samples are shown in Figure.2.

7000
Resilient Modulus,Mpa

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 % RAP 40% RAP(Laboratory RA) 40% RAP(Commercial RA)

MR@25°C MR@35°C MR@45°C Figure 2: Variation o f


Resilient Modulus at different temperatures with varying
466 T. Anil Pradyumna and P.K. Jain / Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467

RAP percentages

5. Discussion of test results

5.1. Moisture Susceptibility

5.1.1Retained Stability

The incorporation of the RAP in the bituminous mix has also improved the retained stability compared to the mix without
RAP. It is believed that this is attributed to the fact that RAP contains hardened asphalt, which will lead to increased
stability due to higher bitumen viscosity. Oxidized bitumen is more viscous than VG-30 bitumen. Also, RAP absorbs less
water compared to the virgin aggregates. Recycling agent contains surfactant, which enhances the resistance to moisture
damage. Values obtained for 40 % RAP mixes are higher as compared to the virgin mixes which clearly indicates that
mix made with RAP is less susceptible to moisture damage as compared to the virgin mixes.

5.1.2. Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR)

Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) values obtained for RAP containing mixes are higher as compared to the mix without
RAP which clearly indicates that mix made with RAP is less susceptible to moisture damage as compared to the
mix without RAP. Higher viscosity of rejuvenated binder ensures greater affinity of binder with aggregates and
renders it less prone to stripping. This result further confirms the increased resistance of RAP mixes towards
moisture damage. The samples prepared with RA-2 had shown better results when compared with RA-1. The
results further confirm the increased resistance of RAP mixes towards moisture damage.

5.2. Resilient modulus Test, MR

Effect of temperature on resilient modulus values of traditional hot mix and warm mix is shown in Fig 2. Resilient
modulus values for RAP containing mixes are higher than mixes without RAP at 25°C, 35°C and 45°C
temperatures, which indicate mixes with RAP has better load spreading properties than mixes without RAP.
The samples prepared with RA-2 showed better result compared to RA-1 samples where as both the rejuvenators
showed better results than samples prepared without RAP. Binder may lose its ability to bind the aggregates at
high temperature. Therefore, as the temperature increases, the recoverable strain increases resulting in lower
modulus values, leading to faster permanent deformation. Resilient modulus is good indicate or of load-spreading
ability of bituminous mixture. This parameter controls the quantum of tensile strain in underlying layers of
pavement. Therefore, materials with higher values of resilient modulus have potential for better load spreading
ability, which reduces deflections in pavement due to traffic loads.

6. Conclusions
ƒ Laboratory investigation was carried out on virgin mixes and mixes with 40 % RAP modifies with recycling
agents.
ƒ Incorporation of 40% RAP improves volumetric and performance properties of the bituminous mixes.
ƒ Bituminous mixtures containing two different recycling agents showed better performance properties to
mixtures compared to mixture without RAP. The mixture with RA-2 has shown slightly better performance
as compared to RA-1.
ƒ Resistance to moisture susceptibility of mixtures containing RA-1and RA-2 is comparable but better than the
mixture without RAP.
ƒ Resilient modulus values for RAP containing mixes are higher than mixes without RAP at 25°C, 35°C and
45°C temperatures, which indicate mixes with RAP has better load spreading properties than mixes without
RAP.
ƒ Use of recycling agent is essential for better performance of bituminous mixture containing higher
RAP Percentages.
T. Anil Pradyumna and P.K. Jain / Transportation Research Procedia 17 (2016) 460 – 467 467

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. S. Gangopadhyaya Director CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, New
Delhi for permission to publish this paper

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