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Е.Е. Сухарева, О.В.

Шурлина

Практикум по письменному переводу


текстов производственной сферы
Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета
романо-германской филологии 20 ноября 2018 г., протокол
№3

Подготовлено на кафедре теории перевода и межкультурной


коммуникации факультета романо-германской филологии
Воронежского государственного университета.

Рекомендовано для студентов 4-го курса, обучающихся по


направлениям: 45.03.02 – Лингвистика; 45.05.01 – Перевод и
переводоведение.

Настоящее издание является учебным пособием по


практическому курсу «Перевод в производственной сфере».
Сборник содержит задания на анализ и перевод текстов
таких типов, как техническое описание, руководство для
специалиста и/пользователя, инструкция, научно-
популярный текст.
Целью настоящего пособия является формирование навыков
полного письменного перевода англоязычных текстов,
относящихся к сфере производства продукта и материалов.
SECTION I. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS. PRODUCT
INFORMATION AND TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Task 1. Study the following texts and diagrams. Write R (resistive) or C


(capacitive) next to the features below.

1 principle: electrical circuit/stored electrical charge


2 action: light contact pulls current to contact point on screen/pressure pushes
metallic layers together to close circuit at contact point
3 input by: finger only/any object
4 clarity: poor (more light filtered out)/good (less light filtered out)
5 surface: good scratch resistance/poor scratch resistance
6 durability: high (wears down less quickly)/low (wears down more quickly)

What is "resistive touchscreen"?


In the cell phone industry, there are two major categories of touchscreen
displays: capacitive touchscreens and resistive touchscreens. Resistive touchscreen
displays are composed of multiple layers that are separated by thin spaces. Pressure
applied to the surface of the display by a finger or stylus causes the layers to touch,
which completes electrical circuits and tells the device where the user is touching.
As such, resistive type touchscreens require much more pressure to activate than
capacitive touchscreens. Examples of devices with resistive touchscreens are the
HTC Touch Diamond and the Samsung SGH-i900 Omnia.
What is "capacitive touchscreen"?
Capacitive touchscreen displays rely on the electrical properties of the
human body to detect when and where on a display the user touches. Because of
this, capacitive displays can be controlled with very light touches of a finger and
generally cannot be used with a mechanical stylus or a gloved hand. Examples of
devices with capacitive touchscreens are the Apple iPhone and the T-Mobile G1.
However, some modern displays like the Nokia Lumia 1520 are designed to
support ultra sensitivity that can detect touches while gloves are worn.
Touch Screen Technologies: Capacitive vs Resistive

Task 2. Prepare a bilingual glossary for the texts and diagrams above. Translate
them into Russian.

Task 3. Complete the text and translate it into Russian.


Task 4. Study the following description of Infrared Touchscreen Technology and
translate the text into Russian. Comment on the translation techniques you applied.

Infrared (optical) touchscreen technology and how it works


The infrared touchscreen technology is one of the most reliable touchscreen
technologies. Unlike capacitive touchscreens, infrared touchscreens don’t require
any patterning on the glass which increases durability and optical clarity of the
overall screen and system.
Infrared touch technology works by using an array of X-Y infrared LED and
photodetector pairs around the screens edges, which essentially creates a vertical
and horizontal grid system and pattern. These are then used to detect any form of
disruptions of the LED beams, which indicates to the sensor the location of the
touch (also referred to as ‘beam break’). It correlates this and essentially provides
an X and Y co-ordinate, which is where the touch is located. This is similar to
SAW technology but infrared uses infrared light beams and not ultrasonic waves.
One reason for infrared being used particularly in outdoor and point of sale
systems, is that it can detect any input including fingers, gloved fingers, pens and
stylus, meaning that it doesn’t require just one element to induce the touch screen
location element. This offers more flexibility for the users of the screen and
application, but you also have to be careful with regards to the screen for keeping it
clean and making sure there is initially nothing on the screen which could disrupt
any potential beams too.
The advantages to using infrared touch screen technology:
 No need for multiple layers for the screen so it has a high clarity
for this reason
 Can be sealed and protected against weather and contaminants
 Can be used with gloved or wet hands which is a good advantage
for many sectors
 Lasts a long time and is durable as there’s no need to apply any
pressure
 Performs in just about any indoor lighting environment
 Is economical and can scale up to larger displays
 Responds to any input: finger, pen, stylus, bank card
 Accurate touch, short response time, up to 40 simultaneous touch
points
 Monitor and touch overlay are discrete, allowing for upgrades or
easy replacement
 Wide range of applications: outdoors, medical, industrial
Task 5. Translate the following product descriptions into Russian. Comment on
the translation techniques you applied.

Text 1.
Source: http://www.displaytech-us.com/4-3-inch-tft
Displaytech is a major supplier of color TFT modules, monochrome
graphic displays, segmented TN LCDs, and more. Our standard displays
are readily available and suitable for industrial, medical and consumer
products.
4.3" Color TFT LCD Display

Enhance your product with the addition of our 4.3” TFT LCD module. This
display module has 480 x 272 RGB resolution and uses the single-chip Himax
HX8257-A digital driver. The TFT driver IC is interfaced via 24-bit digital display
data and can support up to 16M colors to showcase crisp, detailed images and
graphics. The 4.3" LCD display is available with a touch screen panel in either
resistive (single-finger or stylus pressure) or capacitive (five-finger, multi-gesture)
touch technology.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
DIAGONAL SIZE 4.3 in

RESOLUTION 480(H) line x 272(V) line

MODULE SIZE 105.50 (H) x 67.20 (V) mm

ACTIVE AREA 95.04 (H) x 53.86 (V) mm

PIXEL SIZE 0.198 (H) x 0.198 (V) mm

VIEWING DIRECTION 6 o’clock

INTERFACE TYPE 24-bit digital (RGB)

Text 2.
SUGARCUBE LED ILLUMINATOR
 Direct replacement for 150W Halogen illuminators
 50% Power Savings Compared To Halogen Source
 More than 60,000 Hour LED Lifetime
 Ultra-High Brightness
We now offer a line of brightest LED fiber optic illuminators on the market.
Their output of up to 4,300 lumens makes them a true halogen replacement – that
lasts up to 60 times as long (without the need to constantly replace burned out
bulbs). They are controllable manually through controls on the front of the unit, via
RS-232 for easy integration into computer-controlled systems, or via the optional,
easy to operate software. Compatible with our existing fiber optic illumination
offerings, they are in ideal solution for your machine vision illumination needs.
Available in Red, Blue and Green colours, as well as two different
intensities of white, these units offer increased versatility and consistency over
standard halogen lamps.
Once you select a fiber optic light guide, simply match the ferrule and
shoulder diameters to our offering of adapters and you’ve got a complete unit.
Text 3.
ECONOMICAL ZOOM STEREO MICROSCOPE
 10X to 40X Zoom Magnification
 Large Stable Stand
 Built in Quartz Halogen Incident and Transmitted Illumination
 Dust Cover
Probably the best value for money zoom stereo currently available. This
Zoom microscope uses the same illuminated stand as the Dual Magnification
Microscopes, with incident and transmitted quartz halogen illumination, which can
be used separately or together. The frosted glass stage plate incorporates a blue
light filter. This microscope is available with a trinocular port, allowing
simultaneous visual and video viewing.
The stereo head has zoom controls with a continuous range of 10 to 40 with
the super widefield 10X eyepieces. The head is fully rotatable with rack and pinion
fine focus and pole stand coarse focus. The eyetubes have dioptric control, focus is
maintained throughout the zoom range.
Text 4.
Source: Edmund Optics. Optics and Optical Instruments Catalogue.
TECHSPEC ACHROMATIC LENSES
Achromatic lenses consist of two optical components cemented together to
form an achromatic doublet, which is computer optimized to correct for on-axis
spherical and chromatic aberrations. Our doublets are available with a single layer
MgF2 coating or two broad-band coating options for the visible or visible-NIR
spectra. For NIR doublets optimized for 700-1550 nm, see page 50. For more
information on the advantages of our edge-blackened lenses, visit our website.
TECHSPEC COMPOUND PARABOLIC CONCENTRATORS (CPC)
 250 and 400 Acceptance Angles
 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm Exit Diameters
 Ideal for Concentrating Solar energy
TECHSPEC CPCs are designed to efficiently collect and concentrate
distant light sources. With acceptable angle options of 25 0 and 400, our CPCs are
able to accommodate a variety of light sources and configurations. Compound
Parabolic Concentrators are critical components in solar energy collection, wireless
communication, biomedical and defense research, or for any applications requiring
condensing of a divergent light source. Please contact our sales department for
custom coatings on the entrance and exit faces, or for custom sizes and
configurations.
Task 5. a) Read the review of a new prototype. Identify the key issues focused on
in the text. b) Fill the table with the words or ideas from the text matching the
following items:
Aim of system
Components
User operation
Method
Outdated technology
Recent development
Currently in progress
Action still required
Future target
c) Prepare a bilingual glossary based on the list above. Translate the following text
into Russian. Comment on the translation techniques you applied.
New Developments in Smartphone Technology
Virtual reality (VR) was once called the big idea in ICT, but no commercial
applications were discovered during the years of research. VR now has been
replaced by a new concept: augmented reality (AR). AR stands in the real (not
virtual) world, adding digital value to what people see around them.
AR software has been created which can locate and recognise objects, instantly
labelling them with relevant information obtained from the web.
Combining data from a camera, GPS, tilt sensors, digital compass and
wireless broadband, it can determine exactly what is being looked at. Once the
object has been identified, the internet is searched for relevant information. Once
retrieved, the information is displayed as a label superimposed on the image.
When pointed at a mountain, for example, the device adds its name, height
and other information to its image. The equipment can also find a nearby friend in
the street, or guide you to a destination like a SatNav.
In the past, only static data (e.g. from Wikipedia) was used for the labels.
More recently, ways of retrieving live data (such as aircraft departure times) have
been developed.
Current research is being carried out into methods of building social
networks into the system, so that you can see live information about the people
when the camera is pointed at them (if their smartphone is also switched on).
The small size of the smartphone screen, however, is still a problem, and
more work needs to be done to solve it.
In the future, the main areas of research are likely to give smartphones the
ability to find people’s locations anywhere in the world and to provide relevant
information about everyone you point your camera at.
Task 6. a) Read the article. What words or ideas do the reference pronouns 1-6
refer to? b) Prepare a bilingual glossary based on the terms and special words in
the article. Translate the text into Russian. Comment on the translation techniques
and transformations you applied.
New Developments in Oil Mining Technology
Smart Oil Fields
If an oil company discovers a large single reservoir of oil and gas, the
solution is simple: drill a vertical well down to the reservoir and bring up the oil.
But what can be done when an oilfield consists of hundreds or even thousands of
small, isolated pockets of oil? It would be too expensive to drill hundreds of
vertical wells to reach all the small pockets.
The innovative solution to this problem is the ‘snake well’. Unlike the
conventional vertical well, this (1) is a horizontal well that weaves laterally back
and forth across a number of oil-containing zones. Guided by smart technology, a
single snake well can access multiple pockets of oil and achieve output equivalent
to several individual wells, which (2) has the dual advantage of reducing cost and
ensuring that no oil is overlooked.
A snake well uses steerable drills that (3) can be positioned with great
accuracy. Special imaging software generates detailed computer models of
underground geology and reservoirs. This (4) enables drills to hit a target far
underground that is less than two metres across.
Located 90 km off the coast of Brunei, the Champion West oilfield is Shell’s
flagship project using Smart Fields technology. For 30 years, Champion West lay
dormant, its rich oil reserves locked 2,000 to 4,000 m beneath the seabed in a
complex web of small reservoirs (see illustration above).
In the past, these small pockets of oil were too expensive to develop. But
now Champion West has been changed into one of the world’s most advanced oil
and gas fields by means of Smart Fields technology and new drilling techniques.
Buried deep beneath Champion West’s seabed, sensors relay digital information
about temperature, pressure and other factors to control centres on land by means
of a network of fibre-optic cables.
This (5) enables continuous monitoring of production, and engineers can
make speedy decisions on how best to extract the maximum amount of oil, monitor
its movement within the reservoir and instantly notice production problems, such
as blockages.
They (6) can take action to solve problems, for example by the remote
electronic activation of hydraulic well valves. If gas or water threatens to break
into the well, for example, the valve for that section can be closed down using a
remote control. Swellable seals are used to isolate the zones from one another, and
prevent fluid from one zone from flowing into another adjacent zone.
SECTION II. USER MANUALS.
Task 1. Prepare a bilingual glossary based on the terms and special. Translate the
following text into Russian. Comment on the translation techniques you applied.

BUNKER HILL SAFES


Electronic Digital Safe
Installation and Operation Instructions

TO PREVENT SERIOUS INJURY, READ AND UNDERSTAND


ALL WARNINGS AND INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USE

Operation
To Open the Safe: Input the numbers “159” on the Electronic Key Pad, then press
either the “A” or “B” Key. Once the Green light is on, turn the Knob and pull the
Door open. Note: The knob must be turned within 5 seconds of the Green light
coming on. If the knob is not turned, the entry code will need to be re-entered.
To Close: Close the Door and turn the Knob in the opposite direction. The Safe is
now locked.
To Change the Code: The Safe comes preset with a default code of “159”. To
change the Code, first follow the instructions for opening the Safe. On the inside of
the Door toward the hinge, you will see a small Red Button. Press this Button until
the Yellow Light on the Front Control Panel lights up. Now you can input the new
Code (1 to 8 characters) into the Front Control Panel, followed by either the “A” or
“B” Key. The Safe will beep twice to confirm that the Code has been changed.
Important: If the Safe beeps three times, then the Code has not been accepted, and
you must repeat the steps above.
To Change the Batteries: If the Red Light and the Green Light are both lit at the
same time, it is time to change the Batteries. Follow the instructions for opening
the Safe. The Battery Compartment is located on the inside of the Door. Slide the
Battery Cover off of the Battery Compartment, remove used Batteries, and insert
four new “4, AA” Batteries. Once you have changed the Batteries, be sure to test
the Code before you close the Door again.
Using the Emergency Key:
a) The Safe comes with two Emergency Keys in case the code is forgotten or
the batteries are dead. To override the electronic locking device, detach the Front
Panel from the Safe. There is a sticker to the left of the keypad, with SKU # 45891
printed on it. Gently peel off that sticker. See Figure 1.
Figure 1.

b) Remove the screw under the sticker, as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

c) Gently remove the Panel to reveal the Secret Key-Operated Lock. Insert
Emergency Key into the Secret Key-Operated Lock and turn. Turn Knob and pull
Door open. Replace the keypad and the sticker when finished. See Figure 3.

Figure 3.

IMPORTANT: NEVER LOCK THE EMERGENCY KEYS IN THE SAFE!


Installation
The safe has four concrete fasteners that are inside of the safe when you open it.
There is also a mounting template included with the safe. Place the mounting
template against the area you will be mounting the safe and tape it into place.
WARNING! Before drilling or driving nails, make sure there are no wires, cables
or pipes in the path.
To attach the safe to a wood surface, hammer a nail (not included) to mark the hole
placement. Drill an 1/8” diameter pilot hole into each mounting hole location.
Place the safe over the mounting holes and secure the safe using four 1/4” diameter
self-tapping screws (not included).
To use the concrete fasteners, drill a small pilot hole through the template to mark
the hole placement. Next drill four holes in the correct location, using a concrete
drill bit. Drill the holes the same diameter as the fasteners and 2” deep. Hammer
the fastener in the hole with the flat side going into the hole first. Use a wood block
between the bolt and the hammer to protect the threads.
Place the safe over the bolts (with the nut removed from the bolts) and tighten a
nut onto each bolt. As you tighten the nuts onto the bolts, the fasteners will expand
inside the cement, securing the safe into place.
Note: There are no replacement parts available for this product.

Task 2. Prepare a bilingual glossary based on the terms and special words.
Translate the following text into Russian. Comment on the translation techniques
you applied.

PELTIER COOLER/HEATER
PCH-1/PCH-2
Operating instructions

Сontents
1 Safety......................................................................................................................3
2 General Information...............................................................................................4
3 Getting started........................................................................................................5
4 Operation of PCH-1/2............................................................................................6
5 Maintenance...........................................................................................................8
6 Specifications.........................................................................................................9
7 Guarantee and service..........................................................................................10

1. Safety
The following symbols mean:

Caution: Read these operating instructions fully before use and pay
particular attention to sections containing this symbol.
Caution: Surfaces can become hot during use.

Use only as specified by the operating instructions, or the intrinsic protection


may be impaired.

After transport or storage in humid conditions, dry out the unit before
connecting it to the supply voltage.

During drying out the intrinsic protection may be impaired.

Connect only to a power supply with a voltage corresponding to that on the


serial number label.

Ensure that the mains switch and isolating device (power supply connector)
are easily accessible during use.

Connect only to a power supply which provides a safety earth (ground)


terminal.

Use only with the power supply provided or a replacement supplied by Grant.

Before moving, disconnect at the power supply socket.

If liquid is spilt inside the unit, disconnect it from the power supply and have
it checked by a competent person.

It is the user's responsibility to carry out appropriate decontamination if


hazardous material is spilt on or inside the equipment.

Use only standard and good quality tubes. Remember that thin-walls tubes
have a higher thermoconducting factor;

Don't heat the tubes over the melting point of the material they are made of.

Use thermoresisting polypropylene tubes.

Don't fill tubes more than 3-5 mm over the level they are immersed in the
thermoblock;
Before using any cleaning or decontamination method except those
recommended by the manufacturer, user should check with the manufacturer that
the proposed method will not damage the equipment.

The unit has an air intake for cooling and ventilation. Do not block or
impede the ventilation grille.

Clean the unit only with a damp cloth, do not use chemical cleaning agents.
2. General Information
2.1 Introduction
Peltier cooler/heater PCH-1/2 is designed for maintaining the set temperature, in
the temperature range from -10°C to +100°C on the aluminum block with special
sockets for tubes. The device can also be used for maintaining stable temperature
in the room where the temperature is fluctuating, e.g. +20 ±0.1°C at room
temperature (RT) changing from +18°C to +22°C.
PCH-1/2 has obvious advantages when, for example working with micro quantities
of reagents used in the Eppendorf tubes.
The device can be used in:
• molecular and cell biology for sample cooling,
• biochemistry for enzyme processes analysis.
2.2 Construction of the Device
Cooling-heating thermostat consists of:
Control panel.
Thermostat attached to the device block.
On the control panel of the unit are:
Control keys and LCD display. (see Fig 1)
On the rear panel of the unit are:
Plug-in cable.
Power switch.
3. Getting Started
3.1 Unpacking
Remove packing materials carefully and retain for future shipment or storage of
the unit.
3.2 The PCH-1 set includes:
Peltier heater/cooler PCH-1..................................1 piece
12 x 1.5ml + 20 x 0.5ml capacity block................1 piece
External power supply unit ..................................1 piece
Mains lead ............................................................1 piece
Operating Manual; CE Certificate.........................1 copy
3.3 The PCH-2 set includes:
Peltier heater/cooler PCH-2 ................................1 piece
20 x 1.5ml capacity block ...................................1 piece
External power supply unit .................................1 piece
Mains lead ...........................................................1 piece
Operating Manual; CE Certificate........................1 copy
3.4 Plug the external power supply unit into the 12 V socket at the rear side of
the PCH-1/2.
4. Operation

4.1 Connect power supply unit to the mains power.


4.2 Switch ON the power switch located on the rear panel of the PCH-1.
4.3 The backlit display on the PCH-1 shows the following:
Previously set time and temperature.
Operation mode indicator, current time and temperature.
4.4 Temperature setting. Use the T (°C) up/down keys (6) to set the necessary
temperature. When the key is pressed down for 1 second or more, the temperature
display changes quickly. Temperature increment is 0.1 °C.
Note that it is possible to change the set temperature in the real time, i.e. it is not
necessary to stop heating/cooling process to make these changes.
Connect power supply unit to the mains power.
4.5 To start heating/cooling to the set temperature press T (°C) on the RUN/STOP
key (8) once.
4.6 The PCH-1/2 starts heating/cooling and the corresponding operation mode is
indicated on the display (H - heating, C - cooling) (3). Current temperature is
displayed in the second line of the display (1).
4.7 To stop the heating/cooling process press T (°C) RUN/STOP key once again.
It may take a few moments before the process stops and the operation mode
indicator shows S - stopped.
4.8 When the necessary temperature is reached, open the PCH-1/2 block lid, place
tubes into the sockets and close the lid. Use standard tubes, since the block sockets
are made precisely in compliance with their size and shape.
4.9 The PCH-1/2 is equipped with an independent reaction timer. This alerts time-
up with an audible alert; it does not control the heating/cooling process.
4.10 Use the TIME up/down keys (6) to set the necessary time, shown in the first
line of the display (4). (When the key is pressed down for 1 second or more, the
time display changes quickly). Time increment is 1 minute.
Note that it is possible to change the set time in the real time, i.e. it is not
necessary to stop the timer to make these changes.
4.11 Press TIME RUN/STOP key (9) once, to start the timer. When the set time is
reached the timer will stop and a buzzer will sound.
ATTENTION!
The timer does not switch off the heating/cooling.
4.12 If necessary, the timer can be stopped before the set time is reached by
pressing TIME RUN/STOP key.
4.13 When TIME RUN/STOP key is pressed again, the timer starts counting up
the time from zero.
4.14 Once the heating/cooling process has finished, turn OFF the PCH-1/2 with
power switch located on the rear panel and disconnect the external power supply
unit from the mains.
5. Maintenance
Where applicable all Grant laboratory products are designed to comply with
IEC61010-1 and can be flash tested. Some are fitted with radio frequency
interference suppressers. Therefore it is recommended that only a D.C. test be
performed. No other routine service is required.
5.1 Cleaning
The cases can be cleaned with a damp cloth after disconnection. Do not use
solvents.
Before using any decontamination or cleaning method except that recommended,
check with our Service Department, or in other countries with our distributor, that
the proposed method will not damage the equipment.
6. Specifications
Temperature regulation range .......................................................- 10°C to + 100°C
Range of possible temperature from 30 C below Room Temperature to + 100 C
Setting resolution ............................................................................................±0.1°C
Working room temperature range .......................................................15°C to +27°C
Independent timer with sound signal .....................................................0 to 96 hours
Time setting unit ............................................................................................minutes
Current time display unit................................................................................seconds
Display.......................................................................................................16x2 LCD
Capacity
PCH-1 .................................................0,5 ml tubes x 20 psc + 1,5 ml tubes x 12 pcs
PCH-2 ........................................................................................1.5ml tubes x 20 pcs
Thermoblock cover ...................................................................................transparent
External power supply:
input .....................................................................AC 100-240 V, ~ 50-60 Hz, 1.5 A
output.................................................................................................DC 12 V, 5.0 A
Maximum power consumption ..........................................................................60 W
Dimensions.....................................................................................240x260x165 mm
Weight...............................................................................................................3.6 kg
To improve the design manufacturer reserves the right to make changes in
specification without prior notice.
7. Guarantee and Service
7.1 Guarantee
When used in laboratory conditions and according to these working instructions,
this product is guaranteed for TWO YEARS against faulty materials or
workmanship.
7.2 Service
For service, return for repair to our Service Department in the UK or, in other
countries, to our distributor.
SECTION III
TRANSLATION PRACTICE
Work algorithm
Step 1. Read the text.
Step 2. Define the possible source of the text and its target audience.
Step 3. Define the purpose of the text.
Step 4. Define the thesis statement.
Step 5. Define the main ideas that support the thesis statement.
Step 6. Define the typological features of the text.
Step 7. Define the translation domains determined by the typological features of
the text.
Step 8. Translate the text.

Text 1
The Test Plan
Engineers at the Seismo-Build research project would not be worried or even
surprised next month if their new building collapsed under the force of a powerful
simulated earthquake.
They have constructed a 167-square-metre, 36,288-kilo, wood-frame, mid-
rise experimental building, which they plan to attach to the top of the massive
piston-powered E-Defense shake table in Japan, the largest in the world. Before the
shake begins, the building will be fitted with 240 displacement, strain and
acceleration sensors and 50 LED light markers to allow optical monitoring via
motion-recording video cameras.
Once secured to the shake table, the building will be subjected to a series of
three incrementally-increasing seismic simulations, starting with magnitude 6.7,
then 7.1 and finally 7.5. between tests, no repairs will be carried out to any damage
to the building.
The building is fitted with seismic dampers, each one about 44 centimetres
long and 7.6 centimetres thick, attached to the base of triangular steel frames
embedded within the walls of the house. Each fluid-filled damper is capable of
absorbing kinetic energy, converting it into heat up to 93°C and dissipating up to
6,800 kilos of force, or the equivalent of 20 car shock absorbers.
The engineers expect the dampers to absorb much of the energy from the
movement of the house, but they don’t know yet whether this would be enough to
protect it from damage, as they hope.
The team fully accepts that it could suffer significant damage and could even
collapse completely. It is, after all, a destructive test. However, even a total
collapse would provide useful data.
The project team have a clear purpose in running this three-test experiment.
They hope that the tests will yield significant data about how well the seismic
dampers cushion the effects of the three simulated earthquakes on the building.
If successful, the experiment could change the way wood-frame buildings
are designed and built in earthquake zones. The experiment is part of a long-
running engineering project to design economical easy-to-build wood-frame
houses that can withstand powerful earthquakes.
Text 2
HOW THE DAMAGE TO THE LHC WAS REPAIRED
First, before any repair work could begin, the magnets had to be heated up
from their low temperatures at absolute zero to room temperature. The warm-up
process took about a month.
The next step was to isolate the magnets from one other. This was done by
opening up the interconnections between each faulty magnet and its neighbours.
Next, each damaged magnet was lifted up to the surface. The magnets are 15
metres long and weigh 20-30 tonnes. They had to be raised approximately 100
metres up a shaft to ground level, while being kept perfectly parallel to the floor.
The damaged magnets were then inspected at a nearby above-ground site.
Following this check-up, essentials repairs were carried out on a total of 205
electrical interconnections.
At the same time, over 4 kilometres of beam tube – the pipe which carries
the beam of sub-atomic particles through the magnets – had to undergo a complete
clean-out following the incident. This was done by pulling a large pad dipped in
alcohol along the inside of the tube.
A restraint system was fitted to the magnets to tie them down and prevent
them from being thrown off their supports in future.
Hundreds of helium pressure release valves were also installed around each
magnet to prevent any build-up of pressure in the future.
After repairs, the magnets were taken back to their original locations, and
then lowered carefully into position between their neighbours.
Once the magnets were in place, the electrical cables between them were
connected up. The connections were coated in copper, which was then heated
under pressure to solder the parts together.
Finally, all the magnets were connected up and tested, and then the
temperature was brought down again to absolute zero.
As for the future, to prevent such accidents from happening again, the whole
meltdown warning system was given a major upgrade.
Hundreds of new detectors were installed around the magnets to constantly
monitor the status of the interconnections and initiate an automatic shutdown of
power to the magnets in case of any problem.
Text 3
Draft Product Design Specification
1. Recommended product name: the name should reflect the fact that it is
a space spin-off, and suggest weightlessness: for example, MoonWalker or
SpaceRunner.
2. Recommended product description: “an enclosed treadmill that
utilizes air pressure in an inflatable bag to support body weight, without a winch or
harness”.
3. Performance requirements for new product:
 reduce user’s weight by up to 80%
 give precise measured support
 allow incremental (1%) adjustment of air pressure
 provide unrestricted motion for legs and upper body
 run at a variable speed adjustable up to 16 kph
 present a variable incline (or slope) up to 15°
4. Recommended ergonomic features:
 touch button on screen to increase/reduce support for body weight
 adjust speed, incline and air pressure using simple controls
 change settings while running, without needing to stop
 attach body safely to machine using special shorts that zip into airbag
5. operating environments: machine must be able to function within
 an ambient temperature range of 10-29°C
 a relative humidity range of 20-95%
6. Dimension and weight requirements:
 maximum 4X2,5 m footprint to allow for adequate space around
machine
 similar weight to a normal running treadmill
7. safety requirements:
Since the product is intended for export throughout Europe including the
UK, compliance with all applicable BS and EU safety standards is essential.
Text №4
Cloud Computing
Source: learnthenet.com
Cloud computing refers to the next evolution of the Internet. Instead of
buying software, installing it on your computer, upgrading it periodically and
storing all your data on your hard drive, with cloud computing you use software
applications online, as a service. All you need is your computing device and an
Internet connection.
Another way to think of it is like the electricity that runs into your home or
office. To use it, you just plug into an outlet, whether you want to run a copy
machine, a TV set or an espresso maker. Like electricity, which is metered, with
cloud computing you just pay for the services you use. But many services are free.
You may already be using cloud computing without even knowing it. Do
you have a Web-based e-mail service like Yahoo!Mail or gMail? The software to
compose, send, receive and store all your messages is in the cloud. As a customer,
you have reliable access to your e-mail 24/7 and never have to update the software.
It's all done behind the scenes. Do you really care where everything is physically
located?
Here's another example: Millions of people use Microsoft Word to create
documents. An alternative is Google Docs, which gives you some, but not all, of
the same features as Word. Google Docs is hosted in the cloud. You access the
word processing program through your web browser, just like a website. Once
you've created your document, you can print it, save it, revise it at a later date or e-
mail a link to the document so others can read it or even edit it online. Instead of
the document residing on your hard drive or your company's network, it's stored in
the cloud.
Many businesses are moving to cloud computing because it frees the IT
department from having to install, maintain and upgrade software on all the
company computers. It can also save money, because access to software
applications is priced similar to that of a utility – just pay for what you use each
month.
Text №5
What are the characteristics of a good design?
Source: design-lib.com
Graphic design is the process and art of combining text and graphics and
communicating an effective message in the design of logos, graphics, brochures,
newsletters, posters, signs, and any other type of visual communication. Today's
graphic designers often use desktop publishing software and techniques to
achieve their goals.
Consistency is the most important element of a successful good design.
Consistency covers all of the content down to the smallest elements, such as the
amount of letters pacing in your body copy. How information is presented should
reflect the tone and personality of the publication.
A consistent publication has a solid structure, or grid, that determines where
all of the pieces of a story reside on the page. If the personality of a publication is
clean and sophisticated, or energetic, the amount of space that is used around
elements should reflect that personality. The negative space creates a clean
professional mood that is reflective of the content.
Keep it simple. No more than three typefaces. Creativity and storytelling are
not born out of scrolling through the entire Adobe, Bitstream, or Font Bureau type
libraries looking for a pretty typeface. It's a waste of time. Time is better spent
examining the story for the visual nuances it contains, then use your one standard
headline face in an expressive way.
Create a color palette that reflects the voice of your publication. If you look
back at the project mission statement you'll find clues to color choices. Words like
intimate and energetic bring to mind blues and fiery oranges. The key is to develop
a palette that gives you enough variety, while limiting the number of hues used.
For instance, grass green is different than sage green in personality.
Text №6
Computer Viruses
Source: learnthenet.com
Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, botnets, malware and spyware are human-
made software programs created specifically to wreak mischief on personal
computers and networks. The chance of contracting one of these malicious
programs over the Internet has increased dramatically. Unless you exercise great
caution or routinely run anti-virus software, your computer will almost certainly
become infected. Typically, you get a virus by opening infected e-mail attachments
or downloading and installing infected software.
Some viruses are relatively harmless to individuals. They just attach
themselves to outgoing messages and e-mail themselves to all the contacts listed in
your address book. The sudden flood of e-mail overwhelms mail servers, causing
the system to crash.
Other viruses are more destructive and may lie dormant until a certain date.
Then they spring to life to do their dirty deeds. Sometimes a strange message
appears on your screen, or data and programs may be modified. In the worst case,
all the files on your hard drive may be wiped out. These pernicious programs start
on one computer, then replicate quickly, infecting other computers around the
world.
In 1988 a student at Cornell University sent out a virus out by accident,
infecting more than 6,000 computers in minutes, nearly bringing the Internet to its
knees. The "I Love You" virus caused over $1 billion USD in lost productivity as it
crippled e-mail systems worldwide in 2000. And a worm called Conficker hobbled
15 million computers in 2008 and continues to do damage.
If you download and run software from the Internet or receive e-mail
attachments, protect yourself by using anti-virus programs to scan attachments and
downloaded programs to alert you of infection. The software also scans your hard
drive periodically, searching for rogue viruses and deleting them. The two most
popular programs are from McAfee.com and Symantec.
Text №7
NEURAL NET
NEURAL NET Characterization
In general a biological neural network is composed of a group or groups of
chemically connected or functionally associated neurons. A single neuron may be
connected to many other neurons and the total number of neurons and connections
in a network may be extensive. Connections, called synapses, are usually formed
from axons to dendrites, though dendrodendritic microcircuits and other
connections are possible. Apart from the electrical signaling, there are other forms
of signaling that arise from neurotransmitter diffusion, which have an effect on
electrical signaling. As such, neural networks are extremely complex. Whilst a
detailed description of neural systems is nebulous, progress is being charted
towards a better understanding of basic mechanisms.
Simplified view of an artificial neural network
Artificial intelligence and cognitive modeling try to simulate some
properties of neural networks. While similar in their techniques, the former has the
aim of solving particular tasks, while the latter aims to build mathematical models
of biological neural systems.
In the artificial intelligence field, artificial neural networks have been
applied successfully to speech recognition, image analysis and adaptive control, in
order to construct software agents (in computer and video games) or autonomous
robots. Most of the currently employed artificial neural networks for artificial
intelligence are based on statistical estimation, optimization and control theory.
The cognitive modeling field is the physical or mathematical modeling of
the behavior of neural systems; ranging from the individual neural level (e.g.
modeling the spike response curves of neurons to a stimulus), through the neural
cluster level (e.g. modeling the release and effects of dopamine in the basal
ganglia0 to the complete organism (e.g. behavioral modeling of the organism’s
response to stimuli).
The brain, neural networks and computers
Neural networks, as used in artificial intelligence, have traditionally been
viewed as simplified models of neural processing in the brain, even though the
relation between this model and brain biological architecture is debated. To answer
this question, David Marr has proposed various levels of analysis which provide us
with a plausible answer for the role of neural networks in the understanding of
human cognitive functioning.
A subject of current research in theoretical neuroscience is the question
surrounding the degree of complexity and the properties that individual neural
elements should have to reproduce something resembling animal intelligence.
Historically, computers evolved from the von Neumann architecture, which
is based on sequential processing and execution of explicit instructions. On the
other hand, the origins of neural networks are based on efforts to model
information processing in biological systems, which may rely largely on parallel
processing as well as implicit instructions based on recognition of patterns of
“sensory” input from external sources. In other words, rather than sequential
processing and execution, at their very heart, neural networks are complex
statistical processors.
TEXT №8
APPLICATIONS FOR NEURAL NETWORKS
Neural networks are applicable in virtually every situation in which a
relationship between the predictor variables (independents, inputs) and predicted
variables (dependents, outputs) exists, even when that relationship is very complex
and not easy to articulate in the usual terms of “correlations” or “differences
between groups”. A few representative examples of problems to which neural
network analysis has been applied successfully are:
Detection of medical phenomena. A variety of health-related indices (e.g.,
a combination of heart rate, levels of various substances in the blood, respiration
rate) can be monitored. The onset of a particular medical condition could be
associated with a very complex (e.g., nonlinear and interactive) combination of
changes on a subset of the variables being monitored. Neural networks have been
used to recognize this predictive pattern so that the appropriate treatment can be
prescribed.
Stock market prediction. Fluctuations of stock prices and stock indices are
another example of a complex, multidimensional, but in some circumstances at
least partially-deterministic phenomenon. Neural networks are being used by many
technical analysts to make predictions about stock prices based upon a large
number of factors such as past performance of other stocks and various economic
indicators.
Credit assignment. A variety of pieces of information are usually known
about an applicant for a loan. For instance, the applicant’s age, education,
occupation, and many other facts may be available. After training a neural network
on historical data, neural network analysis can identify the most relevant
characteristics and use those to classify applicants as good or bad credit risks.
Engine management. Neural networks have been used to analyze the input
of sensors from an engine. The neural network controls the various parameters
within which the engine functions, in order to achieve a particular goal, such as
minimizing fuel consumption.
Text 9
The Recycling Guide
How to Recycle Different Materials
Computers
Electronic rubbish, and computer equipment in particular, is a rapidly
expanding stream of UK waste. Low prices allow consumers to replace “gadgets”
often, and rapid technological change means there are always newer, better, more
powerful products on the market. The result is a burgeoning computer waste
mountain. Up to 20 million “obsolete” PCs are discarded annually in the USA
alone.
Why is it important to recycle computer equipment?
Also known as e-waste, discarded computer equipment comprises monitors,
printers, hard drives and circuit boards. Such items should on no account be thrown
out with your household rubbish because they contain toxic substances, and are
effectively hazardous waste. E-waste often ends up in the developing world, and
the UN’s Environment Programme is alarmed by the amount of electronic goods
which is improperly disposed of overseas. There is increasing concern about the
pollution caused hazardous chemicals and heavy metals in Africa, Asia and South
America.
Manufacturer disposal
Increasingly, manufacturers of electronic goods incorporate e-waste
management into their environmental policies and operate consumer recycling
schemes. Dell, for example, covers the cost of home pick-up, shipping to the
recycling centre, and recycling of any obsolete equipment. The goods are “de-
manufactured” and sorted according to type or material. Materials like steel and
aluminum are then re-cycled to make new products, from car parts to plastic toys.
Meanwhile non-reusable substances are disposed of in an environmentally sound
manner. Another big brand, Hewlett Packard, recycled over 74 million kilograms
of electronics in 2005. Since beginning the program 20 years ago, HP has
expanded recycling operations to more than 40 world regions. These schemes help
to:
 reduce of the volume of waste which ends up in landfill sites
 cut down on the amount of raw materials needed for the manufacture
of new products
 make recycling convenient for the consumer
Text 10
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
Materials science and Technology is the study of materials and how they can
be fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. Using the laboratory
techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are
finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.
Engineers must know how materials respond to external forces, such as
tension, compression, torsion, bending, and shear. All materials respond to these
forces by elastic deformation. That is, the materials return their original size and
form when the external force disappears. The materials may also have permanent
deformation or they may fracture. The results of external forces are creep and
fatigue.
Compression is a pressure causing a decrease in volume. When a material is
subjected to a bending, shearing, or torsion (twisting) force, both tensile and
compressive forces are simultaneously at work. When a metal bar is bent, one side
of it is stretched and subjected to a tensional force, and the other side is
compressed.
Tension is a pulling force; for example, the force in a cable holding weight.
Under tension, a material usually stretches, returning to its original length if the
force does not exceed the material’s elastic limit. Under larger tensions, the
material does not return completely to its original condition, and under greater
forces the material ruptures.
Density (specific weight is the amount of mass in a unit volume. It is
measured in kilograms per cubic metre. The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 but
most materials have a higher density and sink in water. Aluminum alloys, with
typical densities around 2800 kg/m3 are considered less dense than steels, which
have typical densities around 7800 kg/m3. Density is important in any application
where the material must not be heavy.
Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that a material can support
without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness. MN/m2, but in this
case the deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which a
material first deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than
the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a
higher strength in compression than a tension.
Toughness is the resistance of a material to breaking when there is a crack
in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely
proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect present. Toughness
is different from the strength: the toughness steels, for example, are different from
ones with highest tensile strength. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can
be broken along a chosen line by first scratching it with a diamond. Composites
can be designed to have considerably greater toughness than their constituent
materials. The example of a very tough composite is fiberglass that is very flexible
and strong.
Text 11
NANOMATERIALS AND NANOCHEMISTRY
What is meant by the term ‘nanomaterial’? From an etymological
standpoint, it would not appear to be very explicit. Indeed, the prefix ‘nano’ used
in scales of physical units means one billionth, or 10 -9, of the relevant unit. In the
present case, it refers to the nanometer, or one billionth of a meter. When we use
the term nanomaterial, we are thus specifying an order of magnitude of a geometric
dimension. But then what is it in nanomaterials that is of nanometric dimensions?
To answer this question, we must now consider the second part of the term, viz.,
‘material’. A material is matter that has been transformed or adapted to be able to
fulfill some particular function. One can say that this matter has been
functionalised. Many materials we use and which appear to the naked eye to be of
a perfectly continuous constitution are in fact made up of grains of crystallised
matter with dimensions often of the order of the micron (one millionth of a meter,
or 10-6 m). This is true in particular for most metals and ceramics in common use,
but it is not the case for glasses and so-called plastics, which are amorphous, or can
be considered as such for the purposes of the present discussion. These
micrometric grains are, of course, very small compared with the dimensions of the
objects generally made with such materials. However, they are very large
compared with the dimensions of the atoms that make them up. Indeed, atoms have
diameters ten thousand times smaller than these grains. Consequently, there are
some (104)3 = 1012 or a thousand billion iron atoms in a grain of steel of diameter 1
micron.
Forty years ago, it was realised that the properties of certain materials could
be modified, improved or adapted in specific ways if, during the fabrication
process, the grains making them up could be made much smaller. The first
‘nanomaterials’ were born. They can be found today in many and varied fields of
application, from cosmetics, through magnetic and electronic recording devices to
precision cutting tools.