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MAT 771 FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

HOMEWORK 2

(1) If x 0 is an accumulation point of a set A ⊂ (X , d), show that


any neighbourhood of x 0 contains infinitely many points of
A.
Solution: Since x 0 is an accumulation point of A ⊂ X , for
each n = 1, 2, · · · ,
   
1
B x0, \ {x 0 } ∩ A 6= ;.
n
” € Š —
For each n = 1, 2, · · · , choose x n ∈ B x 0 , 1n \ {x 0 } ∩ A.
Given ε > 0, by Archimedean property there exists a posi-
tive integer N such that N > 1ε . For all n ≥ N ,
1 1
d(x n , x 0 ) < ≤ < ε,
n N
that is, for all n ≥ N ,
x n ∈ B(x 0 , ε) ∩ A ⊂ A.
In fact, we just proved that if x 0 is an acculumation point
of A ⊂ X , then there exists a sequence (x n ) ⊂ A such that
x n → x0.
(2) Let (X , d) be a metric space and A ⊂ X . Show that Ā is the
smallest closed set containing A.
Solution: By the definition Ā = A ∪ A0 , clearly A ⊂ Ā.
First we show that Ā is closed. Let x ∈ X \ Ā. Since x 6∈ Ā
(x 6∈ A and x 6∈ A0 ), there exist an open set U(x) in X such
that U(x) ∩ A = ; and so U(x) ∩ A0 = ; (If U(x) contains
an accumulationpoint of A, U(x) ∩ A must be nonempty).
Thus, U(x) ∩ Ā = ;. This means that U(x) ⊂ X \ Ā i.e. X \ Ā
is open. Hence, Ā is closed.
Next we show that Ā is the smallest closed set containing
A. Let F be a closed set containing A and let x 6∈ F . Then
1
2 MAT 771 FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS HOMEWORK 2

x ∈ X \ F . Since X \ F is open, there exists an open neigh-


bourhood of x, U(x) (for instance U(x) = B(x, ε) for some
ε > 0) such that U(x) ⊂ X \ F ⊂ X \ A. This implies that
U(x) ∩ A = ;. Hence, x 6∈ A0 . Therefore, Ā ⊂ F .
Since Ā is the smallest closed set containing A, Ā can be
written as
\
Ā = {F ⊂ X : F is closed, A ⊂ F }.

(3) Let (X , d) be a metric space and A ⊂ X . Show that x ∈ Ā if


and only if ∀ open set U(x) in X , U(x) ∩ A 6= ;.
Solution: (⇒) Let x ∈ Ā. Then x ∈ A or x ∈ A0 . Let
U(x) be any open set containing x. If x ∈ A then we are
done. Suppose that x 6∈ A. Then x ∈ A0 and so U(x) ∩ A =
(U(x) \ {x}) ∩ A 6= ;.
(⇐) Suppose that ∀ open set U(x) in X , U(x) ∩ A 6= ;.
If x ∈ A. Then we are done. If not, by the assumption
(U(x) \ {x}) ∩ A = U(x) ∩ A 6= ;. So, x ∈ A0 .
(4) Show that A ∪ B = Ā∪B̄ and A ∩ B ⊂ Ā∩B̄. Given an example
that shows A ∩ B 6= Ā ∩ B̄.
solution: First we show that if F1 and F2 be two closed
subsets of a metric space X , then F1 ∪ F2 is also closed in X .
Let x ∈ X \(F1 ∪ F2 ) = (X \ F1 )∩(X \ F2 ). Then x ∈ X \ F1 and
x ∈ X \ F2 . Since both X \ F1 and X \ F2 are open in X , there
exist ε1 , ε2 > 0 such that B(x, ε1 ) ⊂ X \ F1 and B(x, ε2 ) ⊂
X \ F2 . Let ε = min{ε1 , ε2 }. Then B(x, ε) ⊂ X \ (F1 ∪ F2 ) and
so X \ (F1 ∪ F2 ) is an open set.

A ⊂ Ā, B ⊂ B̄ =⇒ A ∪ B ⊂ Ā ∪ B̄
=⇒ A ∪ B ⊂ Ā ∪ B̄ (since Ā ∪ B̄ is closed).

On the other hand,

A, B ⊂ A ∪ B =⇒ A, B ⊂ A ∪ B
=⇒ Ā, B̄ ⊂ A ∪ B
=⇒ Ā ∪ B̄ ⊂ A ∪ B.
MAT 771 FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS HOMEWORK 2 3

Therefore, A ∪ B = Ā ∪ B̄.

A ∩ B ⊂ A, B =⇒ A ∩ B ⊂ Ā, B̄
=⇒ A ∩ B ⊂ Ā, B̄
=⇒ A ∩ B ⊂ Ā ∩ B̄.
” Š
Let X be R with the usual Euclidean metric. Let A = 0, 12
€ — ” —
and B = 12 , 0 . Then A ∩ B = ; while Ā ∩ B̄ = 0, 21 ∩
”1 — ¦1©
2
, 0 = 2 . This example shows that it is not necessarily
true that Ā ∩ B̄ ⊂ A ∩ B.
(5) Let x = (ξ j ) ∈ ` p with 1 ≤ p < ∞. Show that given ε > 0
X

there exists a positive integer N > 0 such that |ξ j | p <
j=N +1
ε.
Solution: Let us assume contrary. That is, let us assume
X

that there exists ε > 0 such that ∀N = 1, 2, · · · , |ξ j | p >
j=N +1
X
∞ X
n
ε. Let s = |ξ| p < ∞. Then lim |ξ j | p = s. So,
n→∞
j=1
j=1
X n
0
there exists a positive integer N such that |ξ| − s < ε,
p
j=1
Xn
∀n ≥ N 0 . That is, s − ε < |ξ j | p < s + ε, ∀n ≥ N . In par-
j=1
X
N0
ticular, s−ε < |ξ j | p < s+ε. Adding to the last inequality
j=1
X

|ξ j | p , we obtain
j=N 0 +1

X
∞ X

s−ε+ |ξ j | < s < s + ε +
p
|ξ j | p .
j=N 0 +1 j=N 0 +1
4 MAT 771 FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS HOMEWORK 2

X

This is a contradiction since |ξ j | p > ε.
j=N 0 +1
(6) Show that a mapping T : X −→ Y is continuous if and only
if the inverse image of any closed set F ⊂ Y is closed in X .
Solution: (⇒) Suppose that T : X −→ Y is continuous.
Let F be a close set in Y . Then Y \ F is open in Y . Since
T is continuous, T −1 (Y \ F ) = X \ T −1 (F ) is open in X i.e.
T −1 (F ) is closed in X .
(⇐) Suppose that the inverse image of any closed set
F ⊂ Y is closed in X . Let U be an open set in Y . Then Y \U is
closed in Y . So by the assumption, T −1 (Y \ U) = X \ T −1 (U)
is closed in X i.e T −1 (U) is open in X . Since the choice of
U was arbitrary, T is continuous.
(7) Show that the image of an open set under a continous map-
ping need not be open.
Solution: Let X be R with the usual Euclidean metric.
The function f : X −→ X defined by f (x) = x 2 is continu-
ous. (−1, 1) is open in X but f (−1, 1) = [0, 1) is not open
in X .