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Good Morning Class. This morning I will discuss Apartheid.

Apartheid if directly translated

means separation and is exactly what it was. Apartheid was the separation of races in South
Africa. I will begin with the history and what happened basically chronically. This should
explain some of the ideas to why it began, the significance to the world and locally.

Apartheid began in 1948 in South Africa. The starter to the full process was the National
Party winning the election and coming into governmental power. The national party was a
power hungry political party and they knew that they would not be powerful being the
minority. The National party was Afrikaner led and the Afrikaans population was minority.
To counter act being the minority, the government began implementing new policy

We begin with the population registration act. This act stated that all people were divided
at birth into 4 groups: White, Bantu (African coloured), coloured (a mixture of groups) and
other. Next we follow up with the group areas act. This act created areas for each group to
live. What this did if you looked closer is create a white inner center and it would get darker
as you went out. This forced many people of colour to leave their homes and communities.
Next, we have one of the most notable and despised laws of apartheid, the pass laws. These
laws required all non-white people to carry a pass book, otherwise known as a Dompas,
with them at all time. This book was like a passport but had much more extensive detail
about the person’s life. This book said what the details of their employment was, where
they could be due to their job, the employment performance and endorsement by the
government. What this book did was lock the people of colour to their employers. The
employer could prevent the person from ever being allowed back in that area or even
getting back home by not signing the pass book. Over 250 000 people were arrested each
year during apartheid for not following pass laws. One more notable act to note is the
Transkei Constitution act and its spin offs. These acts allow the areas where non whites
lived to become self-sufficient and their own country. They weren’t completely their own
country; however the government had now found a way to strip the non-whites of their
South African citizenship. Non-whites were no longer South African.
Now we look at the revolt and discontentment of the South Africans and international
powers. To do this we look at some of the massive revolts. The first would be Sharpeville
massacre. This was a protest that was against the pass book. What is infamous about it is
that it was supposedly a peaceful protest however the police ended up killing 69 people and
many more were heavily injured. Next we have the Soweto Youth Uprising. This was due to
the state of education that people of color were receiving. During this time, children of color
were given a massively sub par education to ensure they could never succeed in life as
professionals. The students then went about destroying property with the intention of
never going back to school. Now we get to 1984, where we get to state of emergency.
South Africa was covered in township riots and nothing was safe within the country. This
period continues until FW de Klerk becomes president and frees nelson Mandela.

Other than the riots we must look at the sanctions, like I previous stated in my south African
history talk, trade embargos were placed on. International powers were very unhappy with
south Africa however the a big effect on the world was the world was no longer getting
there supply of gold and platinum as south Africa was one of the biggest suppliers of
minerals. This caused a fluctuation in south africas currency to be stronger than most first
world powers.

Apartheid then ended in 1991 due to both Nelson Mandela and FW de Klerk. Most people
forget about him but he was the man who freed Mandela and put the laws in place to end

Finally some quick consequences from a South African point of view, both good and bad,
Firstly, there is still and will be for a long time a racial divide in South Africa on a level of
resources. The economics from the issue are still heavily felt.
Next, we have one of the newest constitutions in the world which is positive because we are
living to standards which reflect a modern world and not 1776’s.
Finally, we are now a country that is willing to talk about race and culture. We are not
scared about saying we are different and there should be nothing that we can say that will
truly offend us for just being said. Just for a quick example, we are able to talk about the N
word and our version the K word. These are not words that will cause a murder in our
I hope you learnt some more about Apartheid and thank you for listening.