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ÄäìëíàóÖëäàâ ÜìêçÄã, 2007, ÚÓÏ 53, ‹ 4, Ò.

601–608

ÄÍÛÒÚË͇ ÊË‚˚ı ÒËÒÚÂÏ.


ÅËÓÎӄ˘ÂÒ͇fl ‡ÍÛÒÚË͇
ìÑä 591.582.2

ëÇàëíõ ÅÖãìï Ç êÖèêéÑìäíàÇçéå ëäéèãÖçàà


ì éëíêéÇÄ ëéãéÇÖñäàâ Ç ÅÖãéå åéêÖ
© 2007 „. ê. Ä. ÅÂÎËÍÓ‚, Ç. å. ÅÂθÍӂ˘
àÌÒÚËÚÛÚ Ó͇ÌÓÎÓ„ËË ËÏ. è.è. òË¯Ó‚‡ êÄç
117997 åÓÒÍ‚‡, ç‡ıËÏÓ‚ÒÍËÈ Ô., 36
E-mail: rbelikov@ocean.ru, romanbelik@rambler.ru
èÓÒÚÛÔË· ‚ ‰‡ÍˆË˛ 25.05.06 „.

è‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌ˚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ˚ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ‡ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚, Á‡ÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ı ‚ ÂÔÓ‰ÛÍÚË‚ÌÓÏ ÒÍÓÔÎÂÌËË (êë) ·ÂÎÛı Û


Ó. ëÓÎӂˆÍËÈ ‚ ÅÂÎÓÏ ÏÓÂ. ç‡ ÓÒÌÓ‚Â ‡·ÒÓβÚÌ˚ı ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚËÍ Ë ÙÓÏ˚ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚÛ‡
Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌ˚ ̇ 16 ÚËÔÓ‚. ë‚ËÒÚ˚ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ÌËÁÍÓ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚Â, ËÏÂ˛Ú ‡Á‚ËÚÛ˛ „‡ÏÓÌ˘Â-
ÒÍÛ˛ ÒÚÛÍÚÛÛ Ë ÔÓÒÚÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡. ë‰Ìflfl ‰Îfl ÚËÔÓ‚ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ‚‡¸Ë-
ÛÂÚ ÓÚ 0.1 ‰Ó 1.7 Ò, Ò‰Ì Á̇˜ÂÌË χÍÒËχθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ˚ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÚÓ̇ ÍÓηÎÂÚÒfl ÓÚ 1.4 ‰Ó
4.5 ÍɈ, ‡ Ò‰Ì Á̇˜ÂÌË ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÚÓ˜ÂÍ ÔÂ„˷‡ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ÓÚ 0 ‰Ó 9 ̇ Ò˄̇Î. Ç ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ
·ÂÎÛı ‰Û„Ëı ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËÈ, Û ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ̇˷ÓΠ˜‡ÒÚ˚ ÔÎÓÒÍË ҂ËÒÚ˚, Û ·ÂÎÓÏÓÒÍËı ·ÂÎÛı ‚ êë ̇Ë-
·ÓΠÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÍÓÓÚÍË ҂ËÒÚ˚ Ò V-Ó·‡ÁÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚÛ‡.
PACS: 43.80.Ka

ÇÇÖÑÖçàÖ phinidae, Í‡Í ÔÓ·„‡˛Ú [9], ËÏÂ˛Ú “Ò‚ËÒÚ˚-‡‚ÚÓ-


„‡Ù˚” (Ӊ̇ÍÓ, ÒÏ. ÔÓÚË‚ÓÔÓÎÓÊÌÛ˛ ÚÓ˜ÍÛ
á‚ÛÍË ÁÛ·‡Ú˚ı ÍËÚÓ‚ (Odontoceti) Ú‡‰ËˆËÓÌÌÓ ÁÂÌËfl ‚ [10]). ë‚ËÒÚ˚-‡‚ÚÓ„‡Ù˚ – ÒÚÂÂÓÚËÔ-
‰ÂÎflÚ Ì‡ ‰‚ ·‡ÁÓ‚˚ ÙËÁ˘ÂÒÍË ͇Ú„ÓËË: Ì˚Â, Ë̉˂ˉۇθÌÓ-ÒÔˆËÙ˘Ì˚ ÓÔÓÁ̇‚‡ÚÂθ-
1) ËÏÔÛθÒÌ˚ Á‚ÛÍË (“˘ÂΘÍË”) Ë 2) ÌÂËÏÔÛθÒ- Ì˚ Ò˄̇Î˚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ˜ÎÂ̇ÏË
Ì˚Â, Ú.Â. ÌÂÔÂ˚‚Ì˚ ÛÁÍÓÔÓÎÓÒÌ˚ Ò˄̇Î˚ „ÛÔÔ˚ Í‡Í ‰‡Î¸ÌÂ-‰ËÒÚ‡ÌÚÌ˚ ÍÓÌÚ‡ÍÚÌ˚ ÒË„-
(“Ò‚ËÒÚ˚”) [1]. ë˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ Ë„‡˛Ú ËÒ- ̇Î˚ ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı, ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÒÓ·Ë Ì‡ıÓ‰flÚÒfl Á‡ Ô‰Â-
Íβ˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚‡ÊÌÛ˛ Óθ ‚ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË ÁÛ·‡- ·ÏË ‚ˉËÏÓÒÚË ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡ [9, 11]. ÇÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÚÂÏ,
Ú˚ı ÍËÚÓ‚, ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂÎÂÈ ÒÂÏÂÈÒÚ‚‡ Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ‰Û„Ó„Ó ‚ˉ‡ ËÁ ÒÂÏÂÈÒÚ‚‡ Delphinidae, ‡
Delphinidae (ÑÂθÙËÌÓ‚˚Â) [1]. ëӄ·ÒÌÓ Ó·˘ÂÈ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÍÓÒ‡ÚÓÍ, ÔÓʇÎÛÈ, ̇˷ÓΠÒÎÓÊÌ˚ Ë
ÍÓ̈ÂÔˆËË, ˜ÂÏ ÒӈˇθÌ ‚ˉ, ÚÂÏ Á̇˜ËÚÂθ- ‰ÎËÌÌ˚ ÒÂ‰Ë Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ Delphinidae, fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl, ÔÓ-
Ì Óθ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ [1] (ıÓÚfl ËÏÂÂÚÒfl fl‰ flÍËı ËÒ- ‚ˉËÏÓÏÛ, ·ÎËÊÌÂ-‰ËÒÚ‡ÌÚÌ˚ÏË ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌ˚-
Íβ˜ÂÌËÈ: ̇ÔËÏÂ, ͇¯‡ÎÓÚ˚, Physeter macro- ÏË Ò˄̇·ÏË, ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚ÏË ÔË ÚÂÒÌ˚ı ÒÓˆË-
cephalus [2] Ë ÍÓÒ‡ÚÍË, Orcinus orca [3]). ‡Î¸Ì˚ı ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëflı [12, 13].
èÓ·„‡˛Ú, ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂθÙËÌ˚ ËÁ‰‡˛Ú ·Óθ¯ÓÈ Ì‡-
ÅÂÎÛı‡ (Delphinapterus leucas Pall.) – ¯ËÓÍÓ
·Ó Ó·˘Ëı ‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı ÓÒÓ·ÂÈ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ Ò ‡Á΢Ì˚ÏË
‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚È Ë Ò‡Ï˚È ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚È ‚
˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚ÏË ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ÏË, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú Â-
ÄÍÚËÍ ‚ˉ ÁÛ·‡Ú˚ı ÍËÚÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ı. ÅÂÎÛı‡ ÔË-
ÔÂÚÛ‡ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ‚ˉ‡ Ë/ËÎË ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËË
̇‰ÎÂÊËÚ Í ÒÂÏÂÈÒÚ‚Û Monodontidae (ç‡‚‡ÎÓ-
[4]. ë˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ ÂÔÂÚÛ‡ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ÁÛ·‡Ú˚ı ÍË-
‚˚Â), ‚ıÓ‰fl˘ÂÏÛ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÒÂÏÂÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË Delphini-
ÚÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ı Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ÒÓ·ÓÈ Ì ‰ËÒÍÂÚÌÛ˛, ‡
dae Ë Phocoenidae (åÓÒÍË ҂Ë̸Ë) ‚ ̇‰ÒÂÏÂÈ-
„‡‰Û‡Î¸ÌÛ˛ ÒËÒÚÂÏÛ, ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ËϲÚÒfl Ô·‚-
ÒÚ‚Ó Delphinoidea [14]. Å·„Ó‰‡fl Ò‚ÓÂÈ ‚˚ÒÓÍÓÈ
Ì˚ ÔÂÂıÓ‰˚ ÏÂÊ‰Û ‡Á΢Ì˚ÏË ÚËÔ‡ÏË [1].
‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ‡ÍÚË‚ÌÓÒÚË Ë ·Ó„‡ÚÓÏÛ ‚Ó͇θÌÓÏÛ
ÑÂθÙËÌ˚ ӷ·‰‡˛Ú ‚˚ÒÓÍÓÈ ‰ËÙÙÂÂ̈ˇθ-
ÂÔÂÚÛ‡Û, ‚Íβ˜‡˛˘ÂÏÛ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ˘Â·Â˜Û-
ÌÓÈ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Í ‡·ÒÓβÚÌ˚Ï ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌÓ-
˘Ëı Á‚ÛÍÓ‚, Ó̇ Ò ‰‡‚ÌËı ÔÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚ̇ ÔÓ‰ ËÏÂÌÂÏ
‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚Ï Ô‡‡ÏÂÚ‡Ï Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ [5]. äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó,
“ÏÓÒ͇fl ͇̇ÂÈ͇”. èÓ·„‡˛Ú, ˜ÚÓ ·ËÓ‡ÍÛÒÚË-
ÓÌË ÒÔÓÒÓ·Ì˚ Í ‚ÓÒÔËflÚ˲ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ˜‡Ò-
˜ÂÒÍË ËÒÒΉӂ‡ÌËfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓÎËÚ¸ Ò‚ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÔÛ-
ÚÓÚÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ (Ú.Â. ÙÓÏ˚ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡) Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ [6],
ÎflˆËÓÌÌÛ˛ ÒÚÛÍÚÛÛ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‚ˉ‡. ä ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏÛ
‡ Ú‡ÍÊÂ, ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ, ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ËÌÙÓχ-
‚ÂÏÂÌË Ò ‡Á΢ÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂ̸˛ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÒÚË ÓÔË-
ˆË˛ Ó· ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓÏ ‡ÒÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËË ˝ÌÂ„ËË
Ò‡Ì˚ Ò˄̇Î˚ ·ÂÎÛı ä‡Ì‡‰ÒÍÓÈ ÄÍÚËÍË [15], ˝Ò-
ÏÂÊ‰Û „‡ÏÓÌË͇ÏË Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (Ú.Â. Ó ÚÂÏ· ҂Ë-
ÚÛ‡Ëfl . ë‚. ㇂ÂÌÚËfl [16], Á‡Î. ÅËÒÚÓθ ̇
ÒÚÓ‚) [7].
ÄÎflÒÍ [17] Ë Ó. òÔˈ·Â„ÂÌ [18]. á̇˜ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï
ë‚ËÒÚ˚ Ë„‡˛Ú ‚‡ÊÌÛ˛ Óθ ‚ „ÛÎflˆËË Ó- ÔÓ˚‚ÓÏ ‚ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËË ‚Ó͇θÌÓ„Ó Ôӂ‰ÂÌËfl ‰Ë-
„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË „ÛÔÔ ‰ÂθÙËÌÓ‚ Ë ÔÓ‰‰ÂʇÌËË Ëı ÍËı ·ÂÎÛı, ‚ ÚÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ÙÓÏ
ÒÔÎÓ˜ÂÌÌÓÒÚË [8]. è‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÂÎË fl‰‡ ‚ˉӂ Del- ÔÓËÒÍÓ‚Ó-ÓıÓÚÌ˘¸Â„Ó Ôӂ‰ÂÌËfl, ÒÚ‡ÎË ‰Ó΄Ó-

601
602 ÅÂÎËÍÓ‚, ÅÂθÍӂ˘

ÒÓ˜Ì˚ ËÒÒΉӂ‡ÌËfl ·ÂÎÛı ÅÂÎÓ„Ó ÏÓfl Ë ˜‡ÂÏ˚ı ‚ êë ·ÂÎÛı‡ÏË ëÓÎӂˆÍÓ„Ó ÎÓ͇θÌÓ„Ó


ÄÏÛÒÍÓ„Ó ÎËχ̇ [19]. èË Ëı Ôӂ‰ÂÌËË ·˚ÎË ÒÚ‡‰‡.
ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌ˚ ÔÂ‚˚ ҂ˉÂÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÈ „ÂÓ-
„‡Ù˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ËÁÏÂ̘˂ÓÒÚË ‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ÔÓ‚Â-
‰ÂÌËfl ·ÂÎÛı [19]. íÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌÂÂ, ‰Ó ÒËı ÔÓ ÓÚÒÛÚ- åÄíÖêàÄã à åÖíéÑõ
ÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‰ÂڇθÌ˚ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ‚Ó-
͇θÌ˚ı ÂÔÂÚÛ‡Ó‚ ·ÂÎÛı ËÁ ˝ÚËı ‰‚Ûı Û˜‡ÒÚÍÓ‚ èÓ‰ Ò‚ËÒÚ‡ÏË ÔÓÌËχÎË ÌÂÔÂ˚‚Ì˚ ÛÁÍÓÔÓ-
‡‡·, ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚË‚ÌÓÈ Ï‡ÌÂÂ. ÎÓÒÌ˚ Ò˄̇Î˚ Ò ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÓÈ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÚÓ̇ (óéí)
‰Ó 5 ÍɈ. ÅÓΠ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚ Ò˄̇Î˚ ÓÚÌÓ-
ï‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓÈ ˜ÂÚÓÈ ·Ó„‡ÚÓ„Ó ‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ÒËÎËÒ¸ Í ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓÈ Í‡Ú„ÓËË, Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÏÓÈ Í‡Í
ÂÔÂÚÛ‡‡ ·ÂÎÛı fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁË ËÏ- ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚ (Çó) Ò‚ËÒÚ˚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ·˚ÎË
ÔÛθÒÌ˚ı Ë ¯ÛÏÓ‚˚ı Á‚ÛÍÓ‚ [15–19]. íÂÏ Ì ÏÂ- ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡Ì˚ ̇ÏË ‡Ì [30]. ç‡ÔÓÏÌËÏ,
ÌÂÂ, Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌÛ˛, ‡ Á‡˜‡ÒÚÛ˛ Ë ·Óθ¯Û˛, ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌË Çó Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÛ˛ ͇-
‚Ó͇θÌÓÈ ÔÓ‰Û͈ËË ·ÂÎÛı ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú ÚÓ̇θ- Ú„Ó˲ ·˚ÎÓ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌÓ, ÔÂʉ ‚Ò„Ó, ̇ ÓÒ-
Ì˚ Ò˄̇Î˚ [15, 17, 18, 20]. àı ÙÛÌ͈ËË, ÔÓ ÒÛ- ÌÓ‚‡ÌËË ·ËÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓÒÚË (ÔÓ‚‡Î ‚ ӷ·ÒÚË ÓÍÓÎÓ
˘ÂÒÚ‚Û, ÓÒÚ‡˛ÚÒfl ÌÂËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ÏË [20, 21]. èÓ·„‡ÎË, 5 ÍɈ) ‡ÒÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÚÓ̇θÌ˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı
˜ÚÓ Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ·ÂÎÛı ËÏÂ˛Ú ‚ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÏ ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θ- ÔÓ ¯Í‡Î ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ [30].
ÌÛ˛ ÔËÓ‰Û [19]. ÑÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ, ·˚ÎÓ ÛÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÎÂ- å‡ÚÂˇΠ·˚Î ÒÓ·‡Ì ‚ ˲Ì–‡‚„ÛÒÚ 1997,
ÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ Ì‡Ë·ÓΠ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ËÁÎÛ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ·ÂÎÛı‡- 1999–2003 „„. ‚ êë ·ÂÎÛı Û Ï. ÅÂÎÛÊËÈ (65°43′ N;
ÏË ‚ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ ÒӈˇθÌ˚ı ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ [16]. 35°31′ E) Ó. ëÓÎӂˆÍËÈ ‚ ÅÂÎÓÏ ÏÓÂ. чÌÌÓÂ
àÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Ò‚ËÒÚ˚, ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ, Ú‡ÍÊ ÒÍÓÔÎÂÌË ̇ҘËÚ˚‚‡ÂÚ ‰Ó 120 ÓÒÓ·ÂÈ. éÌÓ ÙÛÌÍ-
ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ë ‚ ÏÂÊ„ÛÔÔÓ‚ÓÈ (‰‡Î¸ÌÂ-‰ËÒÚ‡ÌÚ- ˆËÓÌËÛÂÚ ÂÊ„ӉÌÓ Ò ÒÂ‰ËÌ˚ χfl ‰Ó ̇˜‡Î‡
ÌÓÈ) ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË, Ì ÔËÏÂÌflflÒ¸, Ӊ̇ÍÓ, ‰Îfl ÍÓ- ÒÂÌÚfl·fl. éÒÌÓ‚Û ÒÍÓÔÎÂÌËfl ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú Ò‡ÏÍË Ò
Ó‰Ë̇ˆËË „ÛÔÔÓ‚˚ı ÔÂÂÏ¢ÂÌËÈ [16]. ‰ÂÚÂÌ˚¯‡ÏË ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ‚ÓÁ‡ÒÚÓ‚; ÍÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, ‚
ó‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚Â Ë ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ ԇ‡ÏÂÚ˚ ÚÓ̇θ- ÒÍÓÔÎÂÌËË ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÏÂÂÚÒfl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚ÁÓÒÎ˚ı
Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÒÚÛÍÚÛÌ˚ ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒ- ҇ψӂ. Ç ÁÓÌ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl „ˉÓÙÓ̇ ·ÂÎÛıË ÏÓ„ÎË
ÚËÍË Ëı ÍÓÌÚÛÓ‚ ÌÂÓ‰ÌÓÍ‡ÚÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎËÒ¸ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚˚‚‡Ú¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÓÏÔ‡ÍÚÌ˚ı „ÛÔÔ, Ó·-
ÔË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËË ÂÔÂÚÛ‡Ó‚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ‚ˉӂ Ë ˘ÂÈ ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ‰Ó 60 ÓÒÓ·ÂÈ.
ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËÈ ÍËÚÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ı [22–26]. ì ÏÌÓ„Ëı ‚ˉӂ å˚ Á‡ÔËÒ˚‚‡ÎË Á‚ÛÍÓ‚˚ Ò˄̇Î˚ ·ÂÎÛı, ËÒ-
Odontoceti ÚÓ̇θÌ˚ Ò˄̇Î˚, ÔÓ-‚ˉËÏÓÏÛ, fl‚- ÔÓθÁÛfl ÒËÒÚÂÏÛ ËÁ ÒÚ‡ˆËÓ̇ÌÓ„Ó ÒÙÂ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó
Îfl˛ÚÒfl ̇˷ÓΠÔÓ‰ıÓ‰fl˘ÂÈ ÙËÁ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ Í‡ÚÂ- „ˉÓÙÓ̇, ÛÒËÎËÚÂÎfl Ë åÑ-ÂÍÓ‰Â‡ Sony MZ-35
„ÓËÂÈ ‰Îfl ‚˚fl‚ÎÂÌËfl „ÂÓ„‡Ù˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ËÁÏÂ̘Ë- (ËÎË Ï‡„ÌËÚÓÙÓ̇ ÇÂÒ̇ 212/êËÚÏ 320), Ëϲ-
‚ÓÒÚË ‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ÂÔÂÚÛ‡Ó‚. ˘Û˛ ÔÎÓÒÍËÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚È ÓÚ‚ÂÚ (±3–4.5 ‰Å) ÔË-
äÓÏ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl „ÂÓ„‡Ù˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ËÁÏÂ̘˂ÓÒ- ÏÂÌÓ ‰Ó 14–20 ÍɈ (‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÚËÔ‡ ÂÍÓ-
ÚË ‰ÂڇθÌÓ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ‰Â‡). ÇÒÂ„Ó ·˚ÎÓ Ò‰Â·ÌÓ Ò‚˚¯Â 230 ˜ Á‡ÔËÒË.
·ÂÎÓÏÓÒÍËı ·ÂÎÛı ÔËÓ·ÂÚ‡ÂÚ ÌÓ‚Û˛ ‡ÍÚۇθ- èÂ‚˘̇fl Ó·‡·ÓÚ͇ χÚÂˇ· ÓÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Îfl-
ÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ Ò‚flÁË Ò ÛÒËÎË‚‡˛˘ËÏÒfl ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌ ‚ÂÏfl ·Ҹ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÔÓ„‡ÏÏ˚ Cool Edit Pro 1.2. ëËÌ-
‡ÌÚÓÔÓ„ÂÌÌ˚Ï ‚ÓÁ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ Ì‡ ˝ÚËı ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚ı ıÓÌÌÓ ÔÓÒÎۯ˂‡ÎË Á‡ÔËÒ¸ Ë ÔÓÒχÚË‚‡ÎË
[27, 28]. í‡Í, êë ·ÂÎÛı ëÓÎӂˆÍÓ„Ó ÎÓ͇θÌÓ„Ó ˆ‚ÂÚÌ˚ ·Â„Û˘Ë ÒÔÂÍÚÓ„‡ÏÏ˚ (‡ÁÏÂ ·ÎÓ͇
ÒÚ‡‰‡ ÒÚ‡ÎÓ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÓÏ ‰Îfl Ôӂ‰ÂÌËfl ÍÓÏÏÂ˜Â- ·˚ÒÚÓ„Ó ÔÂÓ·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl îÛ¸Â (Åèî) ‡‚ÂÌ
ÒÍËı ÚÛÓ‚. äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, Û Ó. ëÓÎӂˆÍËÈ ÏÌÓ„Ó- 256 ÚӘ͇Ï, ‚ÂÒÓ‚‡fl ÙÛÌ͈Ëfl ïÂÏÏËÌ„‡) ËÎË ÓÒ-
Í‡ÚÌÓ ‚ÓÁÓÒ· ËÌÚÂÌÒË‚ÌÓÒÚ¸ ‰‚ËÊÂÌËfl ÏÓ- ˆËÎÎÓ„‡ÏÏ˚. ÑÎfl ‰‡Î¸ÌÂÈ¯Â„Ó ‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó
ÒÍÓ„Ó Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚ‡. Ç ÂÁÛθڇÚ Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ÛÒË- ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ‡ ·˚ÎÓ ÓÚÓ·‡ÌÓ 1046 Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ Ò ‚˚ÒÓÍËÏ
ÎËÎÓÒ¸ ¯ÛÏÓ‚Ó Á‡„flÁÌÂÌË ÏÂÒÚ‡ êë ·ÂÎÛı. ÒÓÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂÏ Ò˄̇Î/¯ÛÏ.
ç‡ÔÓÏÌËÏ, ˜ÚÓ êë fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÂÁÓÌÌ˚ÏË ÍËÚ˘Â-
ÒÍËÏË ÏÂÒÚ‡ÏË Ó·ËÚ‡ÌËfl, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÔÓÚÂ͇˛Ú ÄÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍË ËÁÏÂÂÌËfl Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı ÔÓËÁ-
ÔÓˆÂÒÒ˚ ÂÔÓ‰Û͈ËË Ë ÔÓ‰‰ÂʇÌËfl Òӈˇθ- ‚‰ÂÌ˚ ÔË ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë ÔÓ‰‚ËÊÌ˚ı ÍÛÒÓÓ‚ ‚ ÔÓ-
ÌÓÈ ÒÚÛÍÚÛ˚ ÒÛ·ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËÈ [29]. é˜Â‚ˉÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ „‡ÏÏ Syrinx 2.1 (‡Á‡·ÓÚ˜ËÍ John Burt, äÓ-
‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒ͇fl ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËfl Ë„‡ÂÚ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ËÒ- ÌÂθÒÍËÈ ÛÌË‚ÂÒËÚÂÚ). ì Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ËÁÏÂflÎËÒ¸
Íβ˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚‡ÊÌÛ˛ Óθ. í‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, ‚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ë ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚËÍË: ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ Ò˄̇-
Ò‚flÁË Ò ÛÒËÎÂÌËÂÏ ‡ÌÚÓÔÓ„ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ¯Ûχ Á̇ÌË ·, ̇˜‡Î¸Ì‡fl, ÍÓ̘̇fl, ÏËÌËχθ̇fl Ë Ï‡ÍÒË-
ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚËÍ Á‚ÛÍÓ‚˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı χθ̇fl óéí, ‰ÓÏË̇ÌÚ̇fl ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ‡, ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó
ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ˚Ï Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl ÔÓÌËχ- „‡ÏÓÌËÍ, ÌÓÏÂ ‰ÓÏË̇ÌÚÌÓÈ „‡ÏÓÌËÍË, ‡ Ú‡Í-
ÌËfl Ëı ·ËÓÎÓ„ËË, ÌÓ Ë ‰Îfl ÓˆÂÌÍË ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ËÒ͇ Ê ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÚÓ˜ÂÍ ÔÂ„˷‡ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚÛ-
‚ÓÁ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚË ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ ̇ ˝ÚËı ÊË- ‡. éÔËÒ‡ÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚ‡ÚËÒÚË͇ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı ÔÓ-
‚ÓÚÌ˚ı. ‚Ӊ˷Ҹ ‚ Ô‡ÍÂÚ Statistica 5.0 (StatSoft, Inc.). ç‡-
ıÓ‰ËÎË Ò‰Ì ‡ËÙÏÂÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÂ, Òڇ̉‡ÚÌÓÂ
ñÂθ˛ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÒÚ‡ÎË ‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ÓÚÍÎÓÌÂÌËÂ, ÏËÌËχθÌÓÂ Ë Ï‡ÍÒËχθÌÓ Á̇˜Â-
‡Ì‡ÎËÁ Ë ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ҂ËÒÚÓ‚, ËÁÎÛ- ÌË ԇ‡ÏÂÚÓ‚ ÚËÔÓ‚ Ò‚ËÒÚ‡.

ÄäìëíàóÖëäàâ ÜìêçÄã      ÚÓÏ 53      ‹ 4      2007


ëÇàëíõ ÅÖãìï 603

C1 C2 C3 C4
12
8
4

C5 C6 C7 C8
12
8
ó‡ÒÚÓÚ‡, ÍɈ

C9 C10 C11 C12


12
8
4

C13 C14 C15 C16


12
8
4

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
ÇÂÏfl, c

ëÓÌÓ„‡ÏÏ˚ ÂÔÂÁÂÌÚ‡ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (C) ·ÂÎÛı. íËÔ˚ ë1–ë16. è‡‡ÏÂÚ˚ ÒÓÌÓ„‡ÏÏ: ‡ÁÏÂ ·ÎÓ͇ Åèî = 256 ÚÓ-
˜ÂÍ, ‚ÂÒÓ‚‡fl ÙÛÌ͈Ëfl ïÂÏÏËÌ„‡. ëÔÂÍÚÓ„‡ÏÏ˚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˚ ‚ ÔÓ„‡ÏÏ Syrinx 2.1. íËÔ˚ ë2, ë3 Ë ë16 Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌ˚
ÏÌÓ„ÓÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚÌ˚ÏË Ò˄̇·ÏË. ëÓÌÓ„‡ÏÏ˚ ë1, ë3–ë5, ë8–ë13 Ë ë15 ÒÓ‰ÂÊ‡Ú ·ÓΠӉÌÓ„Ó Ò˄̇· ËÎβÒÚË-
ÛÂÏÓ„Ó ÚËÔ‡. ëÓÌÓ„‡ÏÏ˚ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ÚËÔÓ‚ ë3 Ë ë12 ÒÓ‰ÂÊ‡Ú Ú‡ÍÊ ËÏÔÛθÒÌ˚È ÚÓÌ Ò ÌËÁÍÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÓÈ ÒΉӂ‡ÌËfl
ËÏÔÛθÒÓ‚ Ë Ù‡„ÏÂÌÚ Á‡¯ÛÏÎÂÌÌÓ„Ó Çó Ò‚ËÒÚ‡ (óéí ~ 8 ÍɈ), ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ.

ÑÎfl ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÏÓÒÚË Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ‚ ÔӇ̇ÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı Ù‡„ÏÂÌÚ‡ı Á‡ÔËÒË


(ÒË„Ì./ÏËÌ) Ë ‰ÓÎÂÈ (%) Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ÚËÔ‡ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ‚ Ò‰ÌÂÏ 22.5 ± 13.1 ÒË„Ì./ÏËÌ (ÔË
Ó·˘ÂÈ ‚Ó͇θÌÓÈ ÔÓ‰Û͈ËË ·ÂÎÛı, ËÁ ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓ„Ó Ò‰ÌÂÈ Ó·˘ÂÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÏÓÒÚË ‚ÒÂı ÍÓÏÏÛ-
χÒÒË‚‡ ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı Á‡ÔËÒÂÈ ÒÎÛ˜‡È- ÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚, ‡‚ÌÓÈ 48.7 ± 23.9 ÒË„Ì./ÏËÌ).
Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ·˚ÎÓ ÓÚÓ·‡ÌÓ 152 Ù‡„ÏÂÌÚ‡, ÇÒ ‚ÏÂÒÚ ҂ËÒÚ˚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú ÓÍÓÎÓ 49% (n =
‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸˛ 2 ÏËÌ Í‡Ê‰˚È. Ç Í‡Ê‰ÓÏ ËÁ ÌËı = 7683; „‰Â n – ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó Á‡ÔÓÚÓÍÓÎËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı
·˚ÎË ÔÓ‰Ò˜ËÚ‡Ì˚ ‚Ò Ò˄̇Î˚ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚) ÓÚ ‚ÒÂı ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ (N =
ˆ‚ÂÚÌ˚ı ·Â„Û˘Ëı ÒÔÂÍÚÓ„‡ÏÏ (‡ÁÏÂ ÓÍ̇ = 15653; „‰Â N – Ó·˘Â ˜ËÒÎÓ Á‡„ËÒÚËÓ‚‡Ì-
ÔÓÒÏÓÚ‡ – 5 Ò) ‚ Cool Edit Pro 1.2. ÇÒÂ„Ó Á‡ÔÓ- Ì˚ı ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚) ·ÂÎÛı, Ô˘ÂÏ
ÚÓÍÓÎËÓ‚‡ÌÓ 15 653 Ò˄̇·. ·Óθ¯‡fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ Ëı ÒÛÏχÌÓÈ ‰ÓÎË ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl
Ç ‡ÈÓÌ ̇·Î˛‰ÂÌËÈ Ó·ËÚ‡ÎË ÍÓθ˜‡Ú˚ ÌÂ- ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ì‡ ‰‚‡ ÚËÔ‡ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚: “ÔËÒÍ” (ë1) – 23% Ë
Ô˚, Phoca hispida, Ë ÏÓÒÍË Á‡Èˆ˚, Erignathus “˘Â·ÂÚ” (ë2) – 14%. á̇˜ËÚÂθÌÛ˛ ˜‡ÒÚ¸, 7.5%,
barbatus. á‡ÔËÒË, ҉·ÌÌ˚ ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ëfl Ú‡ÍÊ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ „ÛÔÔ‡, ‚Íβ˜‡˛˘‡fl ÚË ÚËÔ‡
Ú˛ÎÂÌÂÈ Ì‡ ËÒÒΉÛÂÏÓÈ ‡Í‚‡ÚÓËË, Ì ·˚ÎË ÛÔÎÓ˘ÂÌÌ˚ı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (ë5–ë7). é·˘‡fl ‰ÓÎfl
‚Íβ˜ÂÌ˚ ‚ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ. ÇÒ ÔӇ̇ÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÓÒڇθÌ˚ı 11 ÚËÔÓ‚ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÓÍÓ-
Ò˄̇Î˚, Í‡Í Ï˚ ÔÓ·„‡ÂÏ, ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊ‡Ú ËÒÍβ- ÎÓ 4.5% ÓÚ ‚ÒÂı ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚. èË
˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ·ÂÎÛı‡Ï. ˝ÚÓÏ Ì‡ ‰Óβ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ÚËÔÓ‚ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÓÚ
0.01% ‰Ó 3.0%.

êÖáìãúíÄíõ èË ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë ÁËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ë ÒÎÛıÓ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÓÒÔË-


flÚËfl Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ·˚ÎË Í·ÒÒËÙˈËÓ‚‡Ì˚ ̇ 16 ÚË-
ë‚ËÒÚ˚ (ë) – ̇˷ÓΠÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚Â Ë ı‡- ÔÓ‚. å˚ Í·ÒÒËÙˈËÓ‚‡ÎË Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ̇ ÓÒÌӂ ͇Í
‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ Á‚ÛÍË ·ÂÎÛı ‚ êë. å˚ ‡Á‰ÂÎËÎË Ëı ̇ ÙÓÏ˚ Ëı ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚ı ÍÓÌÚÛÓ‚ (ÛÔÎÓ˘ÂÌ̇fl, ‚ÓÒ-
16 ÚËÔÓ‚ (ËÒÛÌÓÍ). é·˘‡fl ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ‡ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÏÓÒÚË ıÓ‰fl˘‡fl, ÌËÒıÓ‰fl˘‡fl, V-Ó·‡Á̇fl Ë Ú.Ô.), Ú‡Í Ë Ëı

ÄäìëíàóÖëäàâ ÜìêçÄã      ÚÓÏ 53      ‹ 4      2007


604 ÅÂÎËÍÓ‚, ÅÂθÍӂ˘

ï‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚËÍË Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚˚ı (C) Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı. èÓÎÌ˚È Ì‡·Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ Ò‰ÌÂ„Ó ‡ËÙÏÂÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ±
± Òڇ̉‡ÚÌÓ ÓÚÍÎÓÌÂÌËÂ; ÏËÌËχθÌÓ„Ó Ë Ï‡ÍÒËχθÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ; n – ‡ÁÏÂ ‚˚·ÓÍË ÔӇ̇ÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı
Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚. ÑÓÎfl – % ÓÚ ‚ÒÂı ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ (Ú.Â. 15653)

íËÔ ó‡ÒÚÓÚ‡ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÚÓ̇, ÍɈ äÓÎ-‚Ó çÓÏÂ èËÍÓ‚‡fl


ÑÓÎfl, ÑÎËÚÂθ- äÓÎ-‚Ó
Ò‚ËÒÚ‡ n ̇˜‡Î¸- ÏËÌË- χÍÒË- ÚÓ˜ÂÍ ‰ÓÏËÌ. ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ‡,
% ÌÓÒÚ¸, Ò ÍÓ̘̇fl „‡ÏÓÌËÍ
(C) ̇fl χθ̇fl χθ̇fl ÔÂ„˷‡ „‡ÏÓÌËÍË ÍɈ

ë1 300 23 0.10 ± 0.10 2.9 ± 0.4 3.1 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.3 3.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.5 2.2 ± 0.6 6.1 ± 1.7 4.8 ± 1.3
0.02–0.42 1.8–4.5 2.0–4.2 1.3–3.3 2.1–4.5 1–3 1–4 2.1–11.9 2–11
ë2 130 14 1.09 ± 0.73 3.1 ± 0.6 3.3 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.8 9.0 ± 6.8 2.0 ± 0.6 6.3 ± 2.1 4.6 ± 1.0
0.20–4.46 1.8–5.0 2.2–6.5 1.8–5.0 2.0–6.5 0–38 1–4 2.2–13.4 2–7
C3 14 0.01 0.90 ± 0.27 2.4 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 0.2 2.4 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.0 2.2 ± 0.1 5.4 ± 1.2
0.49–0.90 1.9–2.4 1.9–2.2 1.9–2.1 2.2–2.4 0–0.4 1–1 2.0–2.2 3–7
ë4 85 0.20 0.32 ± 0.19 2.4 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.3 2.4 ± 0.8 5.7 ± 1.4
0.05–1.18 1.1–4.9 1.0–5.1 1.0–4.9 1.4–5.1 0–2 1–2 1.5–5.3 3–8
ë5 130 4.30 1.06 ± 0.50 1.8 ± 0.4 2.0 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 2.2 4 ± 1.5 6.9 ± 2.8 6.5 ± 1.7
0.27–2.78 0.9–3.3 0.6–3.7 0.6–2.3 1.5–3.7 0–16 1–7 1.6–12.5 4–9
ë6 135 2.50 1.30 ± 0.87 2.7 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 3.3 1.0 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 1.4 4.5 ± 1.0
0.09–4.82 1.5–3.8 1.7–4.0 1.3–3.6 2.0–4.5 0–25 1–4 2.5–9.5 3–7
ë7 52 0.70 0.90 ± 0.49 2.0 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 1.8 1.5 ± 0.5 6.2 ± 2.2 3.2 ± 0.8
0.24–2.08 2.5–6.0 2.1–5.7 2.1–5.1 3.7–6.0 0–8 1–2 3.4–9.3 1–4
ë8 16 0.04 1.40 ± 0.40 3.0 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 0.4 3.1 ± 1.3 1.0 ± 0.0 3.0 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.8
0.90–2.10 2.1–4.2 2.4–4.3 2.1–3.5 3.2–4.5 2–6 1–1 2.3–4.1 2–4
ë9 8 0.23 0.63 ± 0.19 1.4 ± 0.3 2.9 ± 1.5 1.2 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 1.5 0.5 ± 0.8 2.3 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.8 7.8 ± 2.1
0.43–0.94 0.8–1.7 1.4–6.2 0.8–1.7 1.4–6.2 0–2 1–5 1.6–6.0 5–12
ë10 36 0.67 0.80 ± 0.30 1.4 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.2 3.8 ± 4.1 3.0 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 1.5 6.7 ± 0.8
0.34–1.61 0.9–1.7 1.6–2.7 0.9–1.7 1.7–2.7 0–12 1–4 1.3–7.9 5–8
ë11 8 0.01 0.97 ± 0.15 1.0 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.0 2.9 ± 0.6 3.0 ± 0.7 8.0 ± 0.8
0.80–1.27 0.9–1.3 1.7–2.1 0.9–1.3 1.9–2.3 1–1 2–4 1.8–4.1 7–9
ë12 23 0.10 0.57 ± 0.12 0.7 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 3.4 ± 2.4
0.30–0.73 0.6–1.0 0.4–0.9 0.4–0.9 1.0–1.8 1–1 1–2 0.6–1.2 1–12
ë13 44 0.30 0.45 ± 0.14 2.3 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2 2.4 ± 0.5 0.0 ± 0.0 1.1 ± 0.5 2.2 ± 1.3 5.8 ± 2.8
0.16–0.79 1.5–4.0 0.3–1.4 0.3–1.4 1.6–4.0 0–0 1–4 1.2–9.3 1–10
ë14 41 0.01 0.85 ± 0.30 4.0 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.3 4.0 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 0.5 4.4 ± 1.0
0.07–1.89 3.2–4.7 1.5–2.8 1.5–2.8 3.3–4.7 0–0 1–2 2.4–6.1 3–6
ë15 17 3 0.10 ± 0.03 1.9 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.0 0.9 ± 0.3 2.4 ± 1.2
0.06–0.15 1.3–2.6 0.5–1.4 0.4–1.3 1.3–2.6 0–1 1–1 0.5–1.3 1–5
ë16 9 0.01 1.73 ± 0.84 2.3 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.9 0.0–0.0 1.4 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.9 3.7 ± 1.3
0.57–2.87 1.3–3.6 0.4–1.0 0.4–1.0 1.5–3.6 0–0 1–3 0.8–3.0 2–5

‡·ÒÓβÚÌ˚ı ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌÓ-‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ı ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚËÍ (0.1–0.2 Ò) Ë Ò‰ÌË (0.7–1.2 c) Ò‚ËÒÚ˚. ë‰ÌÂÂ


(Ú‡ÍËı Í‡Í ˆÂÌÚ‡Î¸Ì‡fl ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ‡, ‰Ë‡Ô‡ÁÓÌ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË χÍÒËχθÌÓÈ óéí Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ‚‡¸ËÛÂÚ
Ë ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ Ò˄̇·). ë˄̇Î˚ Ò Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚ÓÈ ÓÚ 1.4 ‰Ó 4.5 ÍɈ, Ô˘ÂÏ Ì‡Ë·ÓΠËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚Ï
ÙÓÏÓÈ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡, ÌÓ Ò ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ‡·ÒÓβÚÌ˚ÏË ı‡- fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‰Ë‡Ô‡ÁÓÌ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ ÓÚ 2 ‰Ó 3.5 ÍɈ. ÇÏÂÒÚÂ
‡ÍÚÂËÒÚË͇ÏË ÓÚÌÓÒËÎËÒ¸ Í ‡ÁÌ˚Ï ÚËÔ‡Ï ‚ Ò ÚÂÏ, χÍÒËÏÛÏ ˝ÌÂ„ËË ‚ ÒÔÂÍÚ ҂ËÒÚÓ‚ ·Óθ-
ÒÎÛ˜‡Â, ÂÒÎË ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓ˜Ì˚ ÙÓÏ˚ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ÓÚ- ¯ËÌÒÚ‚‡ ÚËÔÓ‚ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ̇ Ó‰ÌÛ ËÁ
ÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÎË ËÎË ·˚ÎË ‰ÍË. ‚˚Ò¯Ëı „‡ÏÓÌËÍ (˜‡ÒÚÓ 2-Û˛ – 4-Û˛), ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ
‰ÓÏË̇ÌÚÌÓÈ, Í‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ, fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ‡ ‚ ÔÓ-
è‡‡ÏÂÚ˚ ÚËÔÓ‚ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ Ô˂‰ÂÌ˚ ‚ Ú‡·ÎË- ÎÓÒ ÓÚ 4 ‰Ó 8 ÍɈ.
ˆÂ, ‡ ÒÔÂÍÚÓ„‡ÏÏ˚ ÂÔÂÁÂÌÚ‡ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚
Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌ˚ ̇ ËÒÛÌÍÂ. Ä̇ÎËÁ ÔÓ͇Á‡Î, ˜ÚÓ ÅÓθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı ‚ êë ËÏÂÂÚ ÔÓÒ-
Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÌÂÔÂ˚‚Ì˚ÏË, Ò‰Ì˜‡ÒÚÓÚ- ÚÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚÛ‡. éÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÈ Ì‡·Ó
Ì˚ÏË, ÛÁÍÓÔÓÎÓÒÌ˚ÏË Á‚Û͇ÏË Ò Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ıÓÓ¯Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚ı ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚ÏË ÍÓÌÚÛÓ‚ ‚ÂҸχ Ó„‡-
‡Á‚ËÚÓÈ „‡ÏÓÌ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÒÚÛÍÚÛÓÈ. ë‰Ìflfl Ì˘ÂÌ. éÌ ‚Íβ˜‡ÂÚ ÛÔÎÓ˘ÂÌÌÛ˛, ‚ÓÒıÓ‰fl˘Û˛,
‰Îfl ÚËÔÓ‚ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ‚‡¸ËÛÂÚ ÓÚ 0.1 ÌËÒıÓ‰fl˘Û˛, ÌËÒıÓ‰fl˘Â-‚ÓÒıÓ‰fl˘Û˛, ‚ÓÒıÓ‰fl-
‰Ó 1.7 Ò, ÌÓ ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÍÓÓÚÍË ˘Â-ÌËÒıÓ‰fl˘Û˛ Ë, ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ, ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌÛ˛

ÄäìëíàóÖëäàâ ÜìêçÄã      ÚÓÏ 53      ‹ 4      2007


ëÇàëíõ ÅÖãìï 605

ÙÓÏÛ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡. ë‡ÏÓÈ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌÓÈ fl‚ÎflÂÚ- ‚‡ÌÌ˚ (Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚, ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ, ÔÛÚÂÏ Ò„ÏÂÌÚ‡ˆËË
Òfl V-Ó·‡Á̇fl ÙÓχ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡, ı‡‡ÍÚÂ̇fl ‰Îfl (‰ÂÎÂÌËfl) ÔÂ‚Ó̇˜‡Î¸ÌÓ Â‰ËÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ ̇ ÌÂ-
Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ÚËÔÓ‚ ë1 Ë ë2. Å·„Ó‰‡fl Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ‰ÎË- ÒÍÓθÍÓ ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ, ÌÂ‰ÍÓ Ëϲ˘Ëı ‡ÁÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ).
ÚÂθÌÓÒÚË, ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ÛÁÍÓÏÛ ‰Ë‡Ô‡ÁÓÌÛ óéí, éÚ΢ËÚÂθÌÓÈ ˜ÂÚÓÈ ÏÂÊ‰Û ˝ÚËÏË ‰‚ÛÏfl ͇Ú„Ó-
χÎÓÏÛ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Û ËÁ„Ë·Ó‚ Ë ÔÂ„˷ӂ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ- ËflÏË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ Ò„ÏÂÌÚËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ҂ËÒÚ˚
ÌÓ„Ó ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ·ÂÎÛı ËÏÂ˛Ú ÔÓÒÚÓÈ ‚̯- ËÏÂ˛Ú ÔÓÚÓÚËÔ˚ Ò ˆÂθÌ˚Ï ÍÓÌÚÛÓÏ. ëÓÎӂˆ-
ÌËÈ ‚ˉ. ÇÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÚÂÏ, ÙÓχ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚, Í‡Í Ë Ëı ÍË ·ÂÎÛıË ‚ êë ËÁ‰‡˛Ú 3 ÚËÔ‡ ÏÛθÚËÔÎˈËÓ‚‡Ì-
‡·ÒÓβÚÌ˚ ԇ‡ÏÂÚ˚, Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔÓ‰‚ÂÊÂ̇ Ì˚ı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (ë2, ë3 Ë ë16), ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Ëı ËÁ ÍÓÓÚ-
ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ËÁÏÂ̘˂ÓÒÚË ‚ÌÛÚË ÚËÔÓ‚. ÍËı, ÔÓ‚ÚÓfl˛˘ËıÒfl, ËÁÓÏÓÙÌ˚ı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚.
ë‚ËÒÚ˚ Ò ÔflÏÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, ·ÂÎÛıË ËÏÂ˛Ú 2 ÔÓ‰ÚËÔ‡ Ò„ÏÂÌÚËÓ-
Û ·ÂÎÛı ‚ êë ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÍÓ (~2% ÓÚ ‚ÒÂı ÍÓÏ- ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚: Û ÚËÔ‡ ë7 (‚ÓÒıÓ‰fl˘Â-ÔflÏÓÈ ÔÓ‰-
ÏÛÌË͇ÚË‚Ì˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚). èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ï˚ ‡ÒÒχÚË- ÚËÔ) Ë Û ÚËÔ‡ ë8 (Ò„ÏÂÌÚËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚È ÔÓ‰ÚËÔ). ëÚÓ-
‚‡ÎË Ëı ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ˜‡ÒÚË ·ÓΠ¯ËÓÍÓÈ Í‡Ú„Ó- ËÚ ÓÚÏÂÚËÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ ËÌÚÂÔÂÚ‡ˆËfl ÒÚÛÍÚÛ˚ Ò˄̇-
ËË, Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÏÓÈ Í‡Í “ÛÔÎÓ˘ÂÌÌ˚” Ò‚ËÒÚ˚. ÎÓ‚ ë8 fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÂҸχ ÌÂÓ‰ÌÓÁ̇˜ÌÓÈ, Ú‡Í Í‡Í
ìÔÎÓ˘ÂÌÌ˚ ҂ËÒÚ˚ ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Á̇˜ËÚÂθ- ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ Ò„ÏÂÌÚ˚ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ ÌÂ‰ÍÓ ˜‡ÒÚ˘ÌÓ
ÌÓÈ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸˛, ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl Ò Ì‡Î˘ËÂÏ ‰Ó- ̇Í·‰˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ‰Û„ ̇ ‰Û„‡.
ÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó (Á̇˜ËÚÂθ̇fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ë˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ ÒËÒÚÂχ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı fl‚ÎflÂÚ-
Ò˄̇·) ÛÔÎÓ˘ÂÌÌÓ„Ó Û˜‡ÒÚ͇, ̇ ÔÓÚflÊÂÌËË ÍÓ- Òfl ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ „‡‰Û‡Î¸ÌÓÈ [15–18]. 燯 ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ ÔÓ‰-
ÚÓÓ„Ó ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ‡ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌ- Ú‚Âʉ‡ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌËÂ. ëÂ‰Ë ÏÌÓ„ÓÓ·‡-
ÌÓÈ. ç‡Ë·ÓΠ‚‡ˇ·ÂθÌ˚ÏË Û ˝ÚËı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚, Í‡Í ÁËfl Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı, ÔÂʉ ‚Ò„Ó, ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ÓÚ-
Ô‡‚ËÎÓ, fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ̇˜‡Î¸Ì‡fl Ë ÍÓ̘̇fl ˜‡ÒÚË ÏÂÚËÚ¸ Ô·‚Ì˚È ÔÂÂıÓ‰ ÏÂÊ‰Û Ò‚ËÒÚ‡ÏË ë1, ë2 Ë
ÍÓÌÚÛ‡, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ Á‡„ÌÛÚ˚ ‚‚Âı ËÎË ë6. Ç ‡Ï͇ı ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÔÂÂıÓ‰‡ Ò˄̇Î˚ ë1 ÏÓ„ÛÚ
‚ÌËÁ. ÔÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ Û‰ÎËÌflÚ¸Òfl Á‡ Ò˜ÂÚ ÔÓfl‚ÎÂÌËfl ÓÚÌÓ-
ìÔÎÓ˘ÂÌÌ˚ ҂ËÒÚ˚, ÔÓ-‚ˉËÏÓÏÛ, Á‡ÌËχ˛Ú ÒËÚÂθÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓÈ ÔÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ ÚÂÏË̇θÌÓÈ
‚‡ÊÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË ·ÂÎÛı. èËϘ‡- ˜‡ÒÚË (“ı‚ÓÒÚ‡”). èÓ ÏÂ ۉÎËÌÂÌËfl ÚÂÏË̇θ-
ÚÂθÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ ËÁÏÂ̘˂ÓÒÚ¸ ÙÓÏ˚ Ëı ÍÓÌÚÛÓ‚ ÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ë Â Ù‡„ÏÂÌÚ‡ˆËË Ò˄̇Î˚ ËÁ ë1 ÏÓ„ÛÚ
ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÓ ÒÚ‡·ËθÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Ò‰ÌÂÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ˚ Ú‡ÌÒÙÓÏËÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ë2. чΠ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚÂ
ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÚÓ̇. ëÍ·‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚Ô˜‡ÚÎÂÌËÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÛÏÂ̸¯ÂÌËfl óå Ë ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌËfl ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍÓ‚
Ò‰Ìflfl ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ‡ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ·ÓΠÁ̇˜Ë- ÏÂÊ‰Û ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡ÏË, Ò˄̇Î˚ ë2 ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÂÓ·‡ÁÓ-
ÏÓÈ ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚËÍÓÈ, ˜ÂÏ ËÁ„Ë·˚ Â„Ó Ì‡˜‡Î¸ÌÓÈ ‚˚‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ Ò˄̇Î˚ ë6.
Ë/ËÎË ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÛÔÎÓ˘ÂÌÌ˚ ëΉÛÂÚ ÓÚÏÂÚËÚ¸, ˜ÚÓ Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÁÎÛ˜‡-
Ò‚ËÒÚ˚ ·˚ÎË ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌ˚ ̇ÏË Ì‡ ÚË ÚËÔ‡: ÒÓ ÎËÒ¸ ‚ Ô‡‡ÎÎÂθÌÓÈ ÍÓÏ·Ë̇ˆËË Ò Ò˄̇ÎÓÏ ËÏ-
Ò‰ÌÂÈ óéí ÓÍÓÎÓ 2, 3 Ë 4 ÍɈ (ë5–ë7, ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚ- ÔÛθÒÌÓÈ ÔËÓ‰˚ – Í‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ, ËÏÔÛθÒÌ˚Ï ÚÓ-
ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ). ÇÌÛÚË Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ËÁ ˝ÚËı ÚËÔÓ‚ ̇ ÓÒÌÓ- ÌÓÏ Ò ÌËÁÍÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÓÈ ÒΉӂ‡ÌËfl ËÏÔÛθÒÓ‚.
‚‡ÌËË ‰ÂÚ‡ÎÂÈ ÙÓÏ˚ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ ‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl ÌÂ-
ÒÍÓθÍÓ ÔÓ‰ÚËÔÓ‚, Ò‡Ï˚Ï ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚Ï ËÁ
ÍÓÚÓ˚ı fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÓÒıÓ‰fl˘Â-ÔflÏÓÈ. éÅëìÜÑÖçàÖ
ëÂ‰Ë ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ Û ·ÂÎÛı ‚ êë Ì‡Ï Ì ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚË‚ÌÓÒÚ¸ ÓÔÂ‡ÚÓÓ‚ Ë ‡Á΢Ëfl ‚ ÏÂ-
Û‰‡ÎÓÒ¸ ӷ̇ÛÊËÚ¸ ÚËÔ‡, ‰Îfl ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Ì‡Ë·ÓΠÚÓ‰Ë͇ı Í·ÒÒËÙË͇ˆËË Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‰ÂÙË-
ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ÓÚ΢ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÔËÁ̇ÍÓÏ fl‚Îfl- ˆËÚ Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı ÒÓÌÓ„‡ÏÏ Ë ÂÔÂÁÂÌÚ‡ÚË‚-
·Ҹ ·˚ ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡Á̇fl ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ̇fl ÏÓ‰ÛÎflˆËfl (óå). Ì˚ı Á‡ÔËÒÂÈ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ‰Â·˛Ú Ò‡‚ÌÂÌË ÂÔÂÚÛ-
ÑÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ, Ò˄̇Î˚ ë8 ÚÛ‰ÌÓ Ì‡Á‚‡Ú¸ ‚ÓÎÌÓ- ‡Ó‚ ·ÂÎÛı ÒÎÓÊÌÓÈ Á‡‰‡˜ÂÈ. íÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌÂÂ,
Ó·‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ‚ ÔÓÎÌÓÏ ÒÏ˚ÒΠ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡, Ú‡Í Í‡Í ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌË ҂ËÒÚÓ‚˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı ÔÓ͇Á‡-
Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ì‡ Ò˄̇ΠÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Ì ·ÓΠ‰‚Ûı ÚÓ˜ÂÍ ÎÓ, ˜ÚÓ 6 ËÁ 7 ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ı ÍÓÌÚÛÌ˚ı ÚËÔÓ‚ (contour
ÔÂ„˷‡ Ë, ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ, Ì ·ÓΠ1.5 ÔÂËÓ‰Ó‚ types – CT), ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ı ‡Ì ‚ [15], Ë, ÒÛ‰fl ÔÓ ‚ÒÂ-
ÏÓ‰ÛÎflˆËË. ë ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚, ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡Á̇fl óå ÏÛ, ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ı ‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı ËÁÛ˜ÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËÈ
ÌÂ‰ÍÓ Ì‡·Î˛‰‡ÂÚÒfl Û Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÚËÔÓ‚ [16–18], ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ë Û ·ÂÎÓÏÓÒÍËı ·ÂÎÛı ‚
(ÒÏ., ̇ÔËÏÂ, ̇ ÒÓÌÓ„‡ÏÏÛ ‚ÚÓÓ„Ó Ò˄̇· êë. éÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú, ÔÓ-‚ˉËÏÓÏÛ, ÚÓθÍÓ Ò˄̇Î˚,
ë10). çÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â, ÂÂ, ÔÓ ‚ÒÂÈ ‚ˉËÏÓÒÚË, ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë ëí7 – “ÚÂθ”. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ Ì ËÒ-
ÍÓÂÍÚÌ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸ ÌÂ Í‡Í ÚËÔÓÓ·‡ÁÛ˛- Íβ˜ÂÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ Ò˄̇Î˚, ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚Â Í‡Í ëí7, ‚ÒÂ
˘Û˛ ˜ÂÚÛ, ‡ Í‡Í Ó·˘Â ‰Îfl Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÚË- Ê ËÁÎÛ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ·ÂÎÛı‡ÏË ÅÂÎÓ„Ó ÏÓfl. í‡Í, ÓÔÂ-
ÔÓ‚ Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚Ó, ÔÓfl‚Îfl˛˘ÂÂÒfl ÔË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ ÒıÓ‰ÒÚ‚Ó ÔÓÒÎÂÊË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÏÂÊ‰Û ÌËÏË Ë
ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëflı: ̇ÔËÏÂ, ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ÒËθÌÓ„Ó ˝ÏÓˆËÓ- Ò˄̇·ÏË ë2 ·ÂÎÛı ÅÂÎÓ„Ó ÏÓfl. çÓ, Í ÒÓʇÎÂ-
̇θÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÁ·ÛʉÂÌËfl ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚ı. Ì˲, ËÁ-Á‡ ̉ÓÒÚ‡ÚÍÓ‚ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ëí7 ‚ [15]
åÌÓ„ÓÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚÌ˚ ҂ËÒÚ˚ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ÔÓ͇ ˝ÚÓÚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚÍ˚Ú˚Ï.
‡Á‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ̇ ‰‚ ͇Ú„ÓËË: ÏÛθÚËÔÎˈËÓ‚‡Ì- ë˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ ·ÂÎÛıË Á‡Î. ÅËÒÚÓθ Ë Ó. òÔˈ-
Ì˚ (Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ Á‡ Ò˜ÂÚ ÏÌÓ„ÓÍ‡ÚÌÓ„Ó ÔÓ‚ÚÓÂ- ·Â„ÂÌ [17, 18] ËÏÂ˛Ú ÚËÔ˚ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÌÂ
ÌËfl Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚) Ë Ò„ÏÂÌÚËÓ- ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl Û ·ÂÎÛı ä‡Ì‡‰ÒÍÓÈ ÄÍÚËÍË [15].

ÄäìëíàóÖëäàâ ÜìêçÄã      ÚÓÏ 53      ‹ 4      2007


606 ÅÂÎËÍÓ‚, ÅÂθÍӂ˘

ë‡‚ÌÂÌË ҂ËÒÚÓ‚˚ı ÚËÔÓ‚ (S1, S2), ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ı ÏË Û ·ÂÎÛı ËÁ ‰Û„Ëı ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËÈ, Ӊ̇ÍÓ ËϲÚÒfl
ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl ·ÂÎÛı òÔˈ·Â„Â̇ [18], Ò Ì‡¯ËÏË Ë ÓÚ΢Ëfl. ÅÓθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı ‚ ‰Û„Ëı
‰‡ÌÌ˚ÏË ÔÓ͇Á‡ÎÓ, ˜ÚÓ ÒÓÎӂˆÍË ·ÂÎÛıË, ÔÓ ÚӘ͇ı ‡‡· ËÏÂÂÚ ÒÂ‰Ì˛˛ óéí ‚ ‰Ë‡Ô‡ÁÓÌÂ
‚ÒÂÈ ‚ˉËÏÓÒÚË, Ì ËÁÎÛ˜‡˛Ú Ú‡ÍËı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚. ÓÚ 3 ‰Ó 7 ÍɈ [15–18], ‡ Û ·ÂÎÛı ÅÂÎÓ„Ó ÏÓfl ÓÚ 2
Ç ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ÚËÔÓ‚ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (7, 9, 10, 13), ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Ó 4 ÍɈ. èË ˝ÚÓÏ Û ÒÓÎӂˆÍËı ·ÂÎÛı Ô‡ÍÚ˘Â-
‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ [17] Í‡Í ÛÌË͇θÌ˚ ‰Îfl ·ÂÎÛı ÒÍË ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÎË ÚÓ̇θÌ˚ Ò˄̇Î˚ ÒÓ Ò‰ÌÂÈ
Á‡Î. ÅËÒÚÓθ, ÚÛ‰ÌÓ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ÛÚ‚Âʉ‡Ú¸, Ú‡Í óéí ÓÍÓÎÓ 5 ÍɈ. ç‡ ˝ÚÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ Ï˚ ÔÓ‚ÂÎË
Í‡Í ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ‰‡ÌÌ˚ı ÚËÔÓ‚, ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ̇ ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÛ˛ „‡ÌËˆÛ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ Ò‚ËÒÚ‡ÏË
‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË Ë ÚÓÌÍËı ‰ÂÚ‡Îflı ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ [17], ‰Â- (óéí ‰Ó 5 ÍɈ) Ë Çó Ò‚ËÒÚ‡ÏË (óéí ‚˚¯Â 5 ÍɈ).
·˛Ú Ò‡‚ÌÂÌË ‚ÂҸχ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚Ï. Ç Ò‚Ó˛ Ó˜Â- ï‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓ, ˜ÚÓ Ú‡Í Í‡Í Ï‡ÍÒËÏÛÏ ˝ÌÂ„ËË Û ·Óθ-
‰¸, ÛÌË͇θÌ˚ÏË ‰Îfl ·ÂÎÛı ÅÂÎÓ„Ó ÏÓfl fl‚Îfl- ¯ËÌÒÚ‚‡ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·˚Î ÒÏ¢ÂÌ Ò óéí ̇ Ó‰ÌÛ ËÁ ‚˚Ò-
˛ÚÒfl ÏÌÓ„ÓÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚÌ˚ ҂ËÒÚ˚ ë3, ë16, ‡ Ú‡Í- ¯Ëı „‡ÏÓÌËÍ, ÚÓ ÓÒÌӂ̇fl ˝ÌÂ„Ëfl Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ˜‡ÒÚÓ
Ê Ò˄̇Î˚ ë8 Ë Çóëí4, Çóëí10 [30]. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ, ÔËıӉ˷Ҹ ̇ ÔÓÎÓÒÛ ˜‡ÒÚÓÚ ÓÚ 4 ‰Ó 8 ÍɈ.
Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡fl Í‡ÈÌ ‰ÍÛ˛ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÏÓÒÚ¸ ˝ÚËı ÒË„-
̇ÎÓ‚, ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ, Û ·ÂÎÛı ‰Û„Ëı ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËÈ Ëı ÇÓÎÌÓÓ·‡Á̇fl ÙÓχ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl Û
ÔÓÒÚÓ Ì ۉ‡ÎÓÒ¸ ӷ̇ÛÊËÚ¸ ËÁ-Á‡ ÏÂ̸¯Â„Ó Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı ËÁ ‚ÒÂı ËÒÒΉӂ‡ÌÌ˚ı ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËÈ
Ó·˙Âχ Á‡ÔËÒÂÈ. [15–18]. Ç ÔËÓÌÂÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ [15] Ë ‚ ÔÓÒÎÂ‰Û˛-
˘Ëı, ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘Ëı ÚÓÚ Ê ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ Í Í·ÒÒËÙË͇-
ëÓÎӂˆÍË ·ÂÎÛıË, Í‡Í Ë ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚Â Û Ó. òÔˈ- ˆËË Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ [16, 18], ‚˚‰ÂÎfl˛Ú ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚È ÍÓÌ-
·Â„ÂÌ [18] Ë ‚ Á‡Î. ÅËÒÚÓθ [17], ËÏÂ˛Ú „Ó‡Á‰Ó ÚÛÌ˚È ÚËÔ – CT6, ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÈ ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÚËÔÛ
ÏÂ̸¯Â (ÔÓ‰)ÚËÔÓ‚ ÏÌÓ„ÓÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚÌ˚ı Ò‚Ë- ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌÓÈ ÔÓÔÛÎflˆËË óå. Ç ËÒÒΉӂ‡ÌËË ·ÂÎÛı
ÒÚÓ‚, ˜ÂÏ ·ÂÎÛıË Á‡Î. ä‡ÌÌËÌıÂÏ [15] Ë ˝ÒÚÛ‡Ëfl ÄÎflÒÍË [17], ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ÂÏ ÓË„Ë̇θÌÛ˛ ÒıÂÏÛ
. ë‚. ㇂ÂÌÚËfl [16]. å˚ ӷ̇ÛÊËÎË Î˯¸ ͇Ú„ÓËÁ‡ˆËË Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚, Ú‡ÍÊ ·˚Î ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌ ÚËÔ
2 ÔÓ‰ÚËÔ‡ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ Ò„ÏÂÌÚËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (CT8), ‰Îfl ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡Á̇fl óå
(Û ÚËÔÓ‚ ë7 Ë ë8). íÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌÂÂ, ÏÌÓ„ÓÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ- fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl „·‚Ì˚Ï ÚËÔÓÓ·‡ÁÛ˛˘ËÏ ÔËÁ̇ÍÓÏ.
Ì˚ ҂ËÒÚ˚, ‡ ËÏÂÌÌÓ, ÏÛθÚËÔÎˈËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, ·˚Î ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌ fl‰ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌ˚ı
Ò‚ËÒÚ˚, Ú.Â. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÔÛÚÂÏ ÔÓ‚ÚÓÂÌËfl ÚËÔÓ‚, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡Á̇fl óå ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡ÂÚ ‚
Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ËÁÓÏÓÙÌ˚ı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚, ·˚ÎË ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜- ÓÎË Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ËÁ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚; ̇ÔË-
ÌÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ‚ ‡ÍÛÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÔÓ‰Û͈ËË ÒÓ- ÏÂ, ‚ÓÒıÓ‰fl˘ËÈ Ò‚ËÒÚ Ò ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌÓÈ óå
ÎӂˆÍËı ·ÂÎÛı. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ ÔÓ‰‡‚Îfl˛˘Â ·Óθ¯ËÌ- (CT3), Ò‚ËÒÚ ÒÓ Ò··ÓÈ ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌÓÈ óå (CT13).
ÒÚ‚Ó ˝ÚËı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ·˚ÎÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌÓ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó‰- ç‡¯Ë ‰‡ÌÌ˚ ‰‡˛Ú ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÌË ÛÒÓÏÌËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÚÓÏ,
ÌËÏ ÚËÔÓÏ – ë2 (“˘Â·ÂÚ”). ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÎË ÒÓÎӂˆÍË ·ÂÎÛıË ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡-
ë˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl, ˜ÚÓ Ò„ÏÂÌÚ‡ˆËfl ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ Ò‚ËÒÚ‡ ˛Ú ÚÓ̇θÌ˚ÏË Ò˄̇·ÏË, ‰Îfl ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ̇˷Ó-
ÔÓ‚˚¯‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÚÂÍÚËÛÂÏÓÒÚ¸ Ò˄̇·. èÓ·„‡˛Ú, ΠÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ÔËÁ̇ÍÓÏ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·-
Ò„ÏÂÌÚ‡ˆËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚ÏË ‰Îfl ÔÓ‚˚- ‡Á̇fl óå. Ç Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ, ÒÂ‰Ë ‰ÓÏËÌËÛ˛˘ÂÈ
¯ÂÌËfl ̇‰ÂÊÌÓÒÚË ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËfl Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ÔË ‰‡Î¸- ͇Ú„ÓËË Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚, Ú.Â. ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (ë)
ÌÂ-‰ËÒÚ‡ÌÚÌÓÈ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÔË ‚˚ÒÓ- Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ÚËÔ‡ Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ̇ÏË Ì ӷ̇ÛÊÂÌÓ. Ç ÚÓ
ÍÓÏ ÛÓ‚Ì ÓÍÛʇ˛˘Â„Ó ¯Ûχ [15, 16, 20]. ÑÂÈ- Ê ‚ÂÏfl, ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡Á̇fl óå ÒÂ‰Ë ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ
ÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ, Ï˚ ӷ̇ÛÊËÎË, ˜ÚÓ Ò„ÏÂÌÚ‡ˆËfl Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ Ë ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚ı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ [30] ‚ÒÚ˜‡-
ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ ‚ÂҸχ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ̇ ‰Îfl Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·ÂÎÛı ‚Ó ÂÚÒfl ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ. é‰Ì‡ÍÓ Á‡˜‡ÒÚÛ˛ (ÍÓÏÂ
‚ÂÏfl ‰‡Î¸ÌÂ-‰ËÒÚ‡ÌÚÌÓÈ ÍÓÏÏÛÌË͇ˆËË ‚ ÓÚÍ˚- Çóëí2 [30]) ÂÂ, ‚ˉËÏÓ, ÒΉÛÂÚ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸
ÚÓÏ ÏÓ [31]. äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, Ï˚ Ó·‡ÚËÎË ‚ÌËχ- Í‡Í ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚È ÔËÁ̇Í, ÔÓfl‚Îfl˛˘ËÈÒfl Û
ÌË ̇ ÚÓ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌ ‚ÂÏfl (2004–2005 „„.) Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÚËÔÓ‚ ÔË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ë-
Û‚Â΢ËÎÓÒ¸ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó Ò„ÏÂÌÚËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı Ò‚ËÒ- flı (̇ÔËÏÂ, ÔË ÒËθÌÓÏ ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌÓÏ ‚ÓÁ-
ÚÓ‚ Ë ‚ êë ·ÂÎÛı Û Ï. ÅÂÎÛʸ„Ó, ˜ÚÓ, ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ, ·ÛʉÂÌËË ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚ı). èÓfl‚ÎÂÌË ÔË ˝ÏÓˆËÓ-
Ó·ÛÒÎÓ‚ÎÂÌÓ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËÂÏ ÛÓ‚Ìfl ÓÍÛʇ˛˘Â„Ó Ì‡Î¸ÌÓÏ ‚ÓÁ·ÛʉÂÌËË ‚ÓÎÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌÓÈ óå, ‚ÂÓ-
¯Ûχ ËÁ-Á‡ ÛÒËÎÂÌËfl ÒÛ‰ÓıÓ‰ÒÚ‚‡. flÚÌÓ, fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ó·˘ÂÈ ÚẨÂ̈ËÂÈ, ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓÈ
‰Îfl Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ‚ˉӂ ÁÛ·‡Ú˚ı ÍËÚÓ‚ (ÒÏ.,
ÑÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚˚ı Ò˄̇ÎÓ‚ Û ·ÂÎÛı ‚ ̇Ô., [3, 32]).
‡ÁÌ˚ı ÚӘ͇ı ‡‡· ‚ÔÓÎÌ ÒÓÔÓÒÚ‡‚Ëχ [15–
18]. ë˄̇Î˚ Ò‰ÌÂÈ ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË (0.7– ì ·ÂÎÛı ë‚ÂÌÓÈ ÄÏÂËÍË [15–17, 20] Ë
1.2 Ò) fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl Ó·˚˜Ì˚ÏË, ‡ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ҂ËÒÚ˚ òÔˈ·Â„Â̇ [18] Ò‡Ï˚ÏË ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ÏË
(·ÓΠ1.5 Ò) ‚ÂÁ‰Â ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÍË. éÚ΢ËÂÏ Ò˄̇·ÏË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÔÎÓÒÍË ҂ËÒÚ˚. Ç ÓÚ΢ËÂ
·ÂÎÓÏÓÒÍËı ·ÂÎÛı fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ·ÓΠ‚˚ÒÓ͇fl, ˜ÂÏ ‚ ÓÚ ÌËı Û ·ÂÎÛı ÅÂÎÓ„Ó ÏÓfl Ò‡Ï˚ÏË ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌ-
‰Û„Ëı ÏÂÒÚ‡ı, ‰ÓÎfl ÍÓÓÚÍËı ÔËÒÍÓÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı Ì˚ÏË Ò˄̇·ÏË ‚ êë fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÍÓÓÚÍË ҂ËÒÚ˚
Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ (0.1–0.3 Ò). äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, ÔÓ ‚ÒÂÈ ‚ˉËÏÓ- ë1 – “ÔËÒÍ”, Ëϲ˘Ë ÔÂËÏÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ V-Ó·-
ÒÚË, ‡Á΢Ëfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ë ÏÂÊ‰Û ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚ÏË ‡ÁÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡. äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, Á̇˜ËÚÂθ-
ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚË͇ÏË Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚. í‡Í, ÌÂÒÏÓÚfl ̇ ÚÓ, ̇fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÏÌÓ„ÓÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚÌ˚ı Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ë2 – “˘Â-
˜ÚÓ Ó·Ó·˘ÂÌÌ˚È ˜‡ÒÚÓÚÌ˚È ‰Ë‡Ô‡ÁÓÌ Ò‚ËÒÚÓ‚ ·Â- ·ÂÚ” Ú‡ÍÊ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ V-Ó·‡ÁÌ˚ı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚.
ÎÛı ëÓÎӂˆÍÓ„Ó ÒÚ‡‰‡ ‚ ÔË̈ËÔ ÒıÓÊ Ò Ú‡ÍÓ‚˚- í‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, V-Ó·‡Á̇fl ÙÓχ ÍÓÌÚÛ‡ ̇Ë-

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Whistles of Beluga Whales in the Reproductive Gathering


off Solovetskii Island in the White Sea
R. A. Belikov and V. M. Bel’kovich
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovskii pr. 36, Moscow, 117997 Russia
e-mail: rbelikov@ocean.ru, romanbelik@rambler.ru

Abstract—Whistles recorded in a reproductive gathering of beluga whales near Solovetskii Island in the White
Sea are analyzed. On the basis of the absolute characteristics and shape of the frequency contour, whistles are
classed into 16 types. Whistles belong to a relatively low frequency band, contain many harmonics, and have
a simple shape of frequency contour. The average whistle duration varies from 0.1 to 1.7 s for different types,
the average value of the maximum fundamental frequency varies from 1.4 to 4.5 kHz, and the average number
of inflection points is from 0 to 9 per signal. In contrast to other populations, where flat whistles are the most
frequent vocalizations, beluga whales observed in the reproductive gathering of the White Sea most often pro-
duce short whistles with a V-shaped frequency contour.

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éÚÔ˜‡Ú‡ÌÓ ‚ èèè “íËÔÓ„‡ÙËfl “ç‡Û͇”, 121099, åÓÒÍ‚‡, òÛ·ËÌÒÍËÈ
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