Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

 The death of GOMBURZA sparked the

movement of Filipino revolutionists and


A. SPANISH AMERICAN reformists.
TRANSITORY PERIOD
I. THE SECULARIZATION OF A. THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
FILIPINO PRIESTS
 They were led by the illustrados.
 Secular priests are not treated fairly.
 They aim to have a peaceful
 Filipino priests were ousted by
campaign for reforms through
Spanish priests in chapels because
speeches and other forms of oral and
they lack education and have
written expressions.
inadequate experience.
Objectives of the Propaganda Movement
 Spaniards were favoring their own
regular priests over Filipino priests. 1) To make the Philippines a regular
province of Spain.
II. THE CAVITE MUTINY
2) To gain equal treatment for Filipinos.
 January 20, 1872
3) To seek representation in the Spanish
Cortes.
 Filipino workers revolted together
with Filipino soldiers. 4) To get Filipino priests appointed to local
parishes.
 Spanish officers were killed and they 5) To achieve freedom of speech, freedom
barricaded themselves in Fort San of the press and freedom of assembly.
Filipe in Cavite.
B. THE REVOLUTIONARY
 Mutineers captured the Fort on MOVEMENT
January 21 but Spanish forces were
 Led by revolutionists that are
able to regain the fort and captured
composed of the lower class.
the mutineers.
 Aims to gain independence from
III. DEATH OF GOMBURZA Spain.
 The Spanish government implicated
the leaders of the secular movement
in the Cavite Mutiny.

 The governor-general ordered the THE TWO OBJECTIVES OF THE


arrests of Fathers Mariano Gomez, KATIPUNAN
Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora 1) To unite all Filipinos under one, strong
force.
 The three were accused of leading
the mutiny in the arsenal. 2) To fight for freedom through a revolution.
V. THE EXILATION OF AGUINALDO
 They were also accused of inciting or
urging Filipinos to fight the  Emilio Aguinaldo and other 25
Spaniards. revolutionary leaders sailed to Hong
Kong to be exile.
 The three priests were executed at
Bagumbayan on February 17,1872  Revolutionary movement was a
through the means of garrote. collaboration of Emilio Aguinaldo
(together with revolutionary leaders)
IV. THE PROPAGANDA AND THE with Americans.
REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT
 The Hongkong Junta was formed by D. The United States will decide on the
Emilio Aguinaldo to reassess and civil and political rights of the
reorganize what historians call a decisive territories won from Spain.
phase of the revolution against Spain
which became an extension of Spanish- VIII. FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR
American war.  February 4, 1899

 Aguinaldo declared war on the


VI. SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Americans.
 Involved both the Philippines and
Cuba.  Broke out when a Filipino soldier
was shot by William Grayson, an
 The Maine was destroyed by an American sentry.
explosion killing 250 men.
 Provinces slowly fell into American
hands.
 The United States declared war
against Spain on April 21, 1898.  Americans won almost all aspects of
the war.
 Orders were given to Commodore  Philippines’ only significant victory
George Dewey to attack the Spanish was in Balangiga, Samar where 57
fleet in the Manila Bay. American soldiers were killed.
The Battle of Manila Bay  Gregorio del Pilar and Antonio Luna
 Took place on May 1, 1898 at were among the main Filipino
Manila Bay. generals who bravely fought against
the Americans.
 A squadron of 6 American ships was
commanded by Commodore George IX. AGUINALDO’S ARREST
Dewey.  Arrested by General Frederick
Funston in Palanan on March 3,
 A total of 10 vessels of the Spanish 1901.
fleet was destroyed.  The Americans was assisted by four
Filipinos incuding Cecilio
 The Spaniards finally surrendered on Seguismundo, Aguinaldo’s
August 13, 1898. messenger.

VII. THE TREATY OF PARIS  Aguinaldo was brought to Manila


and was made to take his oath of
 Signed on December 10, 1898 allegiance to the United States.
between Spain and the United States.
 Marked the end of the Filipino-
American war.
PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY
A. Spain will cede the Philippines, X. GOVERNMENT UNDER THE
Puerto Rico and Guam to the United AMERICAN PERIOD
States.
A. Military Government
B. Spain will cease its governance of
the Philippines and Cuba.  August 14, 1898

C. The United States will pay Spain a  Aims to restore peace and order in
sum of $20,000,000. the Philippines.

 The military governor was appointed


by the United States President
Cayetano Arellano – Chief Justice of the
 The military-governor is given the Supreme Court
executive, legislative and judicial
powers. Gregorio Araneta- Secretary of Finance and
Justice
 General Wesley Merritt was the first Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, and Jose
American military governor in the Luzzuriaga as members of the Philippine
Philippines. Commission.

B. Schurman Commission E. Philippine Bill of 1902

 May 4, 1899  July 1, 1902

 Commissions were sent to the  Also known as the Cooper Act


Philippines to help in the
establishment of a sovereign  Written by Representative Henry
government. Allan Cooper.

 Headed by Jacob Schurman  It laid the foundation for the


establishment of a democratic form
 They were sent to study the peace of government in the Philippines.
and order situation in the Philippines.
July 30, 1907
 A year after, the commissions  Election for the 80 seats of
returned in the United States with a Philippine Assembly was held.
report that Philippines was not yet
ready for independence.
 Sergio Osmena was elected as
speaker
C. Taft Commission
 Manuel Quezon was elected as
 March 16, 1900 majority floor leader.

 Headed by Judge William Howard F. American Peace Policies


Taft. Sedition Law
 Paved the way for the establishment  November 4, 1901
of a civil government in the
Philippines.
 Prohibits all activities that incite the
people to revolt against the
 President McKinley issued the Americans.
Magna Carta of the Philippines
 Banned activities that may harbor
D. Civil Government seditious themes.

 July 4, 1901  It became the basis in banning the


establishment of political parties,
 The civil government was especially those with nationalistic
inaugurated with William Taft as its agenda.
first civil governor.
Brigandage Law
 Gave Filipinos the opportunity for  November 12, 1902
greater participation in the
government.
 All Filipino guerillas and groups that
worked for independence were
Filipinos who were appointed to
branded as bandit and thieves.
government positions
 There were three branches of
 Punishment for those giving any government under the
form of aid to these men was commonwealth government.
imprisonment for not less than 10
years while members of an armed Executive Branch
band were subjected to not less than
20 years imprisonment.  Headed by the President

Reconcentration Act  There were only nine departments


that composed the executive branch:
 Aims to corner all guerillas hiding in interior, finance, justice, agriculture
the outlying areas. and commerce, public works and
communications, public education,
national defense, labor health and
Flag Law public welfare.
 The Americans prohibited the raising
and flying of the Philippine flag
anytime and anywhere. Legislative Branch
 Represented by the Philippine
G. Jones Law Assembly.

 August 29, 1916


 It is composed of 98 representatives
 Also known as the Philippine with a term of three years.
Autonomy Act.
Judiciary Branch
 A law that promised the granting of
Philippine independence as soon as a  Composed of the supreme court and
stable government is established. other lower courts

H. Tydings-McDuffie Law  Courts have the power to try, hear


and decide the cases referred to
 Authored by Senator Millard
them.
Tydings and Representative John
McDuffie
 The Court of Appeals and the Court
of Industrial relations was created.
 The Philippines would gain its
independence after a ten-year period
 Only seven justices composed the
of Commonwealth government.
supreme court.
 Filipinos should form a constitution
PROVISIONS OF THE
that would serve as the basic law of COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT
the country that would contain the
bill of rights for all Filipinos. A. Ten years of preparation and training of
self-government before the granting of
XI. THE COMMONWEALTH independence to the country.
GOVERNMENT
B. Gradual imposition of taxes on products
 The 1935 Constitution was drafted exported by the Philippines on the seventh
and ratified. year of the Commonwealth.
C. The United States’ control of trade,
 Manuel L. Quezon became the finance and diplomatic relations of the
President and Sergio Osmenia as the Philippines with other countries.
Vice President
D. Holding of a convention that would draft
the Philippine Constitution
E. Declaration of Philippine independence  Japanese bombed a base in Pearl
on July 4, 1946. Harbor, Hawaii

 Destroyed 20 American Naval


THE FIRST NATIONAL ELECTION vessels and over 300 planes.
OF THE COMMONWEALTH
GOVERNMENT  Killed more than 2,400 Americans.

 September 17, 1935  Japanese strategic plan to capture


American held territory in the Asian
 It was contested by three parties. region.

The Coalition Party II. JAPANESE BOMBINGS IN THE


PHILIPPINES
 Led by Manuel Quezon and Sergio
Osmenia for the presidency and vice  In December 8, 1941 Japanese
presidency respectively. attackers bombed Davao, Baguio,
Tuguegarao, Iba, Pampanga and
Nationalist Socialist Party Tarlac.

 Led by the tandem of Emilio  DECEMBER 10, 1941- Legazpi,


Aguinaldo and Raymundo Melliza Albay.
for the aim to take the office of the
president and vice-president.  DECEMBER 12, 1941 - Davao and
Jolo.
Republican Party  DECEMBER 20, 1941- Lingayen,
 Led by Gregorio Aglipay and Pangasinan
Norberto Nabong.
 DECEMBER 22, 1941- Quezon
Province
 Quezon and Osmenia won the
election and were inaugurated on
November 15, 1935.

January 2, 1942 III. THE JAPANESE INVASION
The Japanese Occupation Interrupted the  Japan invaded the Philippines ten
Government hours after the attack on Pearl
Harbor
April 23, 1946  About 40,000 Japanese troops landed
Roxas became the last President of the in the country
Commonwealth Government  MacArthur and Quezon escaped to
Australia

July 4, 1946  Aerial bombardment continued to


surge areas in the Philippines.
The United States recognized the
independence of the Philippines.  Aerial bombardment continued to
surge areas in the Philippines.
 Japanese troops launched an all-out
B. THE JAPANESE-AMERICAN offensive on the island of Corregidor
TRANSITORY PERIOD
 Filipino and American soldiers
I. THE ATTACK OF PEARL HARBOR
surrendered on April 9 1942 and
 December 8, 1941
were forced to March to Capas,
Tarlac.
Cabinets under the Commission
 Filipino and American soldiers
surrendered on April 9 1942 and Benigno S. Aquino Sr- Secretary of Interior
were forced to March to Capas, Antonio de la Alas- Secretary of Finance
Tarlac
Jose P. Laurel- Secretary of Justice
 Corregidor falls on May 6, 1942
Rafael R. Alunan- Secretary of agriculture
 Japanese military occupation begins and commerce

IV. THE BATAAN DEATH MARCH Claro M. Recto- Secretary of Education

 April 9,1942 Quintin Paredes- Public works and


communications.
 Captured Americans and  Each department had a Japanese
Filiipino soldiers were forced by adviser and several Japanese
the Japanese to march from assistants.
Mariveles, Bataan to San
Fernando, Pampanga.
 Advising the Executive Commission
 Those who survived the march was the council of state that are
were ordered to ride a train that composed of 32 Filipinos appointed.
would bring them to camp O’
Donnel in Capas, Tarlac where
they were imprisoned.
KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod
ng Bagong Pilipinas)

V. GOVERNMENT UNDER THE  December 30, 1942


JAPANESE REGIME
 Established to be the main
A. JAPANESE SYSTEM OF propaganda of the Japanese
GOVERNMENT (JMA)
 Established a day after the  Served as labor recruitment service
occupation of Manila in its initial stages before taking on
an expanded role in mid 1943.
 Headed by the director-general
 A Japanese-Sponsored constitution
was signed by PCPI and ratified by
DIRECTIVES OF THE JMA 117 KALIBAPI delegates on
September 7.
1) Declaration of Martial Law in Manila
2) Imposition of curfew and black-out  Dr. Jose P. Laurel was elected as the
new president of the Republic of the
3) Confiscation of all ammunition and fire Philippines.
arms among Filipinos and Americans
4) Filipinos are disallowed to use radios and C. JAPANESE-AMERICAN
other forms of communication that would TRANSITORY PERIOD
keep them informed of American activities
I. THE GUERILLA MOVEMENT
JAPANESE EXECUTIVE
COMMISSION  Composed of Filipino and American
soldiers who escaped from Bataan
 January 23, 1942
and Corregidor
 Headed by Jose B. Vargas as
 Japanese maltreatment of Filipinos
chairman and six others who
and Americans was the biggest
composed his government.
reason why the guerrilla was
established.
 Arrested and detained in Fort
 Most guerrillas established Santiago and was granted amnesty
headquarters in the mountains. after seven months.

 They staged ambushes on Japanese 4. Jose Abad Santos


garrisons and installations.
 Establishment of the  Was the chief justice when the war
HUKBALAHAP broke out .

SOME NOTED FILIPINOS DURING THE  He refused to dialogue with the


JAPANESE PERIOD. Japanese because he doubted their
intentions
1. Jose P Laurel

 Was the president of the Japanese-  He was put into prison in Malabang,
sponsored Philippine Republic. Lanao and executed on May 2, 1942.

 Many Filipinos regarded him as a 5. Roque Ablan


traitor to the country.  He refused to help the Japanese
when the latter arrived in Ilocos
 After the war, he was tried in court Norte in January 1942.
for collaborating with the Japanese.

 He was granted amnesty by the court  Became a guerilla member in


by his explanation that he did Solsona where he and other Filipinos
everything to serve his country and killed 50 Japanese soldiers.
his countrymen.
 He was arrested and executed in
2. Vicente Lim Cagayan.
 Finished his military education at
West Point Academy in the United
States. II. THE RETURN OF THE
AMERICANS

 He is known for his bravery in  October 20, 1944- American forces


fighting the Japanese forces in landed on Leyte together with Gen.
Bataan and Samar MacArthur and Sergio Osmena.

 Also regarded as a messenger of the  January 9, 1945- American forces


guerrillas. landed on Lingayen, Pangasinan.

 Captured and executed in Mindoro.  Towns from Central Luzon to


Manila were easily recaptured by
3. Josefa Llanes Escoda
Americans.
 Japanese forces of Gen. Yamashita
 Was a teacher and a social worker.
retreated to Sierra Madre but
surrendered on August 3, 1945.
 Joined the Volunteer Social Aid  Japanese forces totally surrendered
Committee which helped Filipino in the Philippines after full
prisoners by giving them food, intervention of American forces.
medicine and clothing.
REFERENCES:
Agoncillo, T. (1990). History of Filipino
People. 8th edition. Garo Books Inc: Quezon
City.
Capina C. (2002). One Country One People.
3rd edition, Vibal Publishing House Inc:
Quezon City.
Malit, T. (n.d.) The Japanese occupation of
the Philippines. Retrieved from
https://www.slideshare.net/tmalit/the-
japanese-occupation-of-the-philippines-
68407515

MEMBERS:
Babtoog Rubiree
Cadiogan, Joshua
Herry, Jomar
Malicdem, Jean Camille
Manao, Jim
Oriondo, Christian
Palityan Mhar