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‫بسم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم‬

The Islamic University of Gaza, Instructor: Dr. Khalil M. Al Astal

Civil Engineering Department, T.A: Eng. Mohammed H El Nazli

Fluid mechanics-Discussion, Eng. Sarah R Rostom

First semester, 2016.

Homework of chapter (1) (Solution)

1. A certain gasoline weights 46.5 Ib/ft3 . What are its mass density ,Specific volume, and
specific gravity ?
Solution

2. A tank with dimensions of 3m length, 2m width, and 2.5m height is filled with a liquid
which have a specific gravity of 2.5.Calculate the mass and weight of this fluid.
Solution
Vtank = Vliquid = 3 × 2 × 2.5 = 15m3 , ρliquid = 2.5 × 1000 = 2500Kg/m3 .
Mliquid = Vliquid × ρliquid = 15 × 2500 = 37,500 Kg
Wliquid = 37,500 × 9.81 = 367875 N = 367.875 KN✓.

3. Calculate density , specific weight , and weight of one litere of petrol of (s.g. 0.7) ?
Solution
ρpetrol = 0.7 × 1000 = 700 Kg/m3 , Vpetrol = 1 liter = 0.001m3
→ γpetrol = ρpetrol × g = 700 × 9.81 = 6867 N/m3 .
Wpetrol = 6867 × 0.001 = 6.867 N✓.

1
4. A 40- Ib, 0.8 ft diameter cylindrical tank slides slowly down a ramp with a constant speed
of 0.1ft/s as shown in figure below. The uniform thickness oil layer on the ramp has a
viscosity of 0.2 Ib.s/ft2. Determine the angle ,θ, of the ramp.
Solution
The free body diagram of the tank is shown below:

40sin(θ)
∑ Fx = 0.0 → 40sin(θ) = τA → τ =
A
π
A = × (0.8) 2 = 0.5026 ft 2
4
40 × sin(θ)
→τ= = 79.57sin(θ).
0.5026
v 0.2 × 0.1
τ = μ → 79.57 sin(θ) = → θ = 7.22° ✓.
y 0.002

5. The viscosity of a fluid is to be measured by a viscometer constructed of two 75-cm-long


concentric cylinders. The outer diameter of the inner cylinder is 15 cm, and the gap between
the two cylinders is 0.12 cm. The inner cylinder is rotated at 200 rpm, and the torque is
measured to be (0.8 N.m) . Determine the viscosity of the fluid ?

Solution
0.8
Torque = Fshear × R → Fshear = = 5.34 N.
15 ∗ 10−2
du 𝐹
τ=μ =
dy 𝐴𝑠

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜋 ∗ 15 ∗ 10−2 ∗ 75 ∗ 10−2 = 0.3534 𝑚2

2
2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑
ω = 200 ∗ = 20.944
60 𝑠
v = ω × R = 20.944 ∗ 15 ∗ 10−2 = 3.142 𝑚/𝑠

du 𝐹 5.34∗0.12∗10−2
μ = ====> μ = = 5.77 ∗ 10−3 𝑝𝑎. 𝑠
dy 𝐴𝑠 3.142∗0.3534

6.A 25-mm-diameter shaft is pulled through a cylindrical bearing as shown in the figure. The
lubricant that fills the 0.3mm gap between the shaft and bearing is oil having a kinematic
viscosity of 8×10-4 m2/s and a specific gravity of 0.91.
Determine the force P required to pull the shaft at a velocity of 3m/s. Assume the velocity
distribution in the gap is linear.
Solution
du
P = Fshear = τ × As τ=μ
dy
μ
ν= → μ = ρ × ν = 0.91 × 1000 × 8 × 10−4 = 0.728 Pa. s.
ρ

du = velocity = 3m/s , dy = gap = 0.3mm = 0.0003m.

3
→ τ = 0.728 × = 7280 Pa.
0.0003
As = π × d × L = π × 0.025 × 0.5 = 0.03926 m2

P = Shear force (F) = 7280 × 0.03926 = 285.88 N✓.

7. Two square flat parallel plates with dimensions of is 60cm x 60cm. The oil film with
thickness of 12.5mm exists between the two plates, the upper plate which moves at 2.5m/s
requires a force of 9.81N to maintain the speed and the lower plate is stationary. Determine
the dynamic viscosity of oil in poise and the Kinematic viscosity of oil in stokes if the
specific gravity of oil is 0.95.
Solution
F v
A) τ = A = μ (y)
F y 9.81 0.0125
μ= × = ×
A v 0.6 × 0.6 2.5
s 10Poise
→ μ = 0.136N. 2 × s = 1.36Poise✓.
m 1N. 2
m
Where: 10Poise = 1N. s/m2

B) Gs = 0.95, ρw = 1000Kg/m3 → ρ = Gs × ρw = 950Kg/m3


3
μ 0.136
v= = = 1.434 × 10−4 m2 /s
ρ 950
v = 1.434 St ✓. Where: 104 St = 1m2 /s ✓.

8. For the flow condition shown in figure below if the top & bottom plates are fixed,
determine the velocity at which the central plate of area 3 m2 will move if a force of 150N
is applied to it. The dynamic viscosities of the two oils are in the ratio of 1:3 and viscosity
of the top oil =0.1N.s/m2.

Solution
F 150
τ= = = 50N/m2
A 3
v v
τ = μ1 (y ) + μ2 (y ) where: y1 = y2 = 5 × 10−3 m
1 2

v
τ= (μ + μ2 ) μ1 = 0.1N. s/m2
5 × 10−3 1
v
50 = (0.1 + 0.3) μ2 = 3(0.1) = 0.3N. s/m2
5 × 10−3

v = 0.625 m/s ✓.

9. Two layers of fluid be dragged along by the motion of an upper plate as shown in figure
below. The bottom plate is stationary. The top fluid puts a shear stress on the upper plate, and
the lower fluid puts shear stress on the bottom plate. Determine the ratio of these two shear
stresses.
Solution

Assume that the thickness of fluid 1 = fluid 2 = 2cm


For Fluid 1:
dv
τ1 = μ1 ( )
dy top surface
1m
dv = 3 − 2 = , dy = 0.02m , μ1 = 0.4Pa. s
s
0.4 × 1
→ τ1 = = 20 Pa.
0.02
For Fluid 2:
dv
τ2 = μ 2 ( )
dy bottom surface
1m
dv = 2 − 0 = , dy = 0.02m , μ1 = 0.2Pa. s
s
0.2 × 2
→ τ2 = = 20 Pa.
0.02
4
τ1 20
→ = = 1✓.
τ2 20

10.A Newtonian fluid having a specific gravity of 0.92 and a kinematic viscosity of 4x10-4
m2/s flows past a fixed surface . Due to the non-slip condition, the velocity of fluid at the
fixed surface is zero. The fluid velocity profile near the surface is shown in below figure.
Determine the magnitude and the direction of the shearing stress develop on the plate.
Express your answer in term of U and §, with U and § expressed in unit of (m/s) and (m)
respectively.

Solution
du
τ=μ
dy
μ
ν= → μ = ρ × ν = 0.92 ∗ 1000 ∗ 4 ∗ 10−4 = 0.368 𝑝𝑎. 𝑠
ρ

3𝑦 𝑦 3
u = 𝑈 ∗ ( − 3)
2𝛿 2𝛿
du 3 3𝑦 2
= U ∗ ( − 3)
dy 2𝛿 2𝛿

3 3𝑦 2
τ = 0.368 ∗ U ∗ ( − )
2𝛿 2𝛿 3

11.An open 2-mm-diameter tube is inserted into a pan of ethyl alcohol (ρ = 785 Kg/m3 )
and a similar 4-mm diameter tube is inserted into a pan of water. In which tube will the
height of the rise of the fluid column due to capillary action be the greatest? Assume the
angle of contact is the same for both tubes.

Solution
4σ cos(θ)
h=
ρgd
For ethyl alcohol:
4σ cos(θ)
h= = 0.2597σ cos(θ).
785 × 9.81 × 0.002
For water:
4σ cos(θ)
h= = 0.1019σ cos(θ).
1000 × 9.81 × 0.004
Similar tube → σ1 = σ2 = σ → σ cos(θ) is the same for each fluid → 0.2597 > 0.1019
→ the height in thefirst dube of 2 mm diameter is the greatest✓.

5
12.At 60°C the surface tension of mercury and water is 0.47 and 0.0662 N/m, respectively.
What capillary height changes will occur in these two fluids when they are in contact with
air in a clean glass tube of diameter 0.4 mm?

Solution
4σ cos(θ)
h=
ρgd

𝐅𝐨𝐫 𝐖𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐫 → σ = 0.0662N/m, θ = 0.0 , and ρ = 1000Kg/m3


4(0.0662) cos(0)
h= = 0.0675m (Rise)✓.
(1000)(9.81)(0.0004)

𝐅𝐨𝐫 𝐦𝐞𝐫𝐜𝐮𝐫𝐲 → σ = 0.47N/m, θ = 130, ρ = 13546Kg/m3

4(0.47) cos(130)
h= = 0.023m (Fall)✓.
(13546)(9.81)(0.0004)

13. Determine the bulk modulus of elasticity of a fluid that has a density increase of 0.002
percent for a pressure increase of 44.54 KN/m2.

Solution
∆p ∆ρ 0.002 ρ
K=ρ , = → = 50,000 , ∆p = 44.54 × 103 N
∆ρ ρ 100 ∆ρ

→ K = 50,000 × 44.54 = 2.227 × 106 KN/m2 ✓.

14. (a) The water strider bug shown in Fig. is supported on the surface of a pond by surface
tension acting along the interface between the water and the bug’s legs . Deternine the
minimum length of this interface needed to support the bug. Assume the bug weights 10-4 N
and the surface tension force acts vertically upwards.(b) Repeat part (a) if surface tention
were to support a person weighing 750 N. (σ for water = 7.34×10-2 N/m )

Solution

For equilibrium

𝑊 =𝜎∗𝐿
𝑊
𝐿=
𝜎

6
𝑊 10−4
a- 𝐿= = = 1.36 ∗ 10−3 𝑚
𝜎 7.34∗10−2

𝑊 750 𝑁
b- 𝐿 = = = 1.02 ∗ 104 𝑚
𝜎 7.34∗10−2

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