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sustainability

Article
The Development of the Athens Water Supply System
and Inferences for Optimizing the Scale of
Water Infrastructures
G.-Fivos Sargentis * , Romanos Ioannidis, Georgios Karakatsanis, Stavroula Sigourou,
Nikos D. Lagaros and Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Resources Development, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical
University of Athens, Heroon Polytechneiou 9, 157 80 Zographou, Greece; romanos.ioannidis@gmail.com (R.I.);
georgios@itia.ntua.gr (G.K.); s.sigourou@gmail.com (S.S.); nlagaros@central.ntua.gr (N.D.L.);
dk@itia.ntua.gr (D.K.)
* Correspondence: fivos@itia.ntua.gr

Received: 27 February 2019; Accepted: 1 May 2019; Published: 9 May 2019 

Abstract: Modern organized societies require robust infrastructures, among which hydraulic projects,
such as water supply and drainage systems, are most important, particularly in water-scarce areas.
Athens is a unique example because it is a big city (population 3.7 million) located in a very dry
area. In order to support the development of the city, large hydraulic projects had to be constructed
during its history and, as a result, Athens currently has one of the largest water supply systems in the
world. Could Athenians choose smaller scale infrastructures instead? Analyzing social, technical
and economical historical data, we can see that large capital investments were required. In order to
evaluate these investments this paper presents a technical summary of the development. An economic
analysis displays historical values of these investments in present monetary values. The cost of
existing infrastructure is compared to the cost of constructing smaller reservoirs and a model is created
to correlate the price of water and the cost of water storage with the size of reservoirs. In particular,
if more and smaller reservoirs were built instead of the large existing ones, the cost of the water
would significantly increase, as illustrated by modelling the cost using local data.

Keywords: water development; large scale water infrastructures; optimization of water


infrastructures; Athens water supply system

1. Introduction
Organized societies require robust infrastructures, among which hydraulic projects, such as water
supply and drainage systems, are most important. Because of its long history, Athens offers a useful
study case in this respect. Due to its dry climate, it has suffered from water insufficiency and had
to develop technology to deal with this problem since ancient times. During its history, the periods
of social and cultural progress have been associated with successful management of water-related
problems. The current water supply system is highly sophisticated and reliable and is a result of
decision making based on social, technical and economic criteria, over time. Here we study the
development of the Athens water supply system from the beginning of the previous century and we
present historical information for the capital intensity of the implementation of various phases of
the modern water supply system, as well as the price of water and the cost of large infrastructure of
hydraulic works. To this aim, a systematic investigation had to be carried out to convert past prices
and costs to their equivalents today, along with an assessment of the exploitation of natural resources
with the specific hydraulic projects.

Sustainability 2019, 11, 2657; doi:10.3390/su11092657 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability


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To evaluate the water supply system, the cost of constructing smaller reservoirs in Greece was
correlated to the cost of the existing reservoirs, which feed the water supply system. To this aim,
an economic model was developed to simulate the price of water and the cost of water storage with
the size of reservoirs.
The findings of this study explain that if the people of Athens had chosen the construction of
smaller reservoirs instead of the existing large-ones, the price of water and therefore the cost of living in
Athens, would be significantly larger. We also observe that changing the scale of water infrastructures
does not deviate from the so-called “0.6 rule” [1], which quantifies the relationship of project scale
and its cost (see details below). This result supports the utility of the so-called economies of scale in
the development of large cities and aims to contribute to the debate on the necessity of large scale
water infrastructures.
Our analysis does not consider risk analysis methods. For the latest issues and particularly the
risk analysis methods of critical infrastructure as well as their effectiveness for assessing services in
utilities, the interested reader may consult references [2,3].

2. Methodology
It is obvious that the natural water resources of Attica are not sufficient for the water needs of
an ever-growing population and therefore resources that are far from the city had to be conveyed
to Athens.
A short summary of the history of the water supply system of Athens may be useful in order to
introduce the reader to the context of the study. The ancient system was in use in the 20th century,
after maintenance in the 19th century, while the history of the modern system dates from the 1920s
with the construction of large-scale infrastructure. However, we were able to find data for the water
costs from some years before, namely from 1913.
For the first step of the methodology we follow, we investigated:

• The social conditions of the 20th century, which explain the growth of population and the
development of the city.
• The water supply system and the related costs.

For the second step we analyze:

• Historical financial data, converting them to today’s equivalents.


• Other data related to water supply such as the average consumption per person per year, total
(cumulative) supply capacity of the system per person per year and supply to demand ratio.

As an indicator of the development of the water supply system this analysis presents the
development of the area of the adjacent basins and their distance from the city.
In the third step, we compare large-scale works of water infrastructure with smaller-scale
alternatives, using data for small reservoirs in Greece. Figure 1 illustrates the overall methodology in a
flow chart form.
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Figure
Figure 1. Illustration of
1. Illustration of the
the main
main points
points of
of the
the methodology.
methodology.

Overall, the questions studied are: Was the water supply system of Athens, in its current form
Overall, the questions studied are: Was the water supply system of Athens, in its current form
(one of the world’s greatest [4,5]), necessary? In view of the increase of the population of Athens in the
(one of the world’s greatest [4,5]), necessary? In view of the increase of the population of Athens in
20th century and its relationship to the water supply system, was the internal migration of citizens
the 20th century and its relationship to the water supply system, was the internal migration of citizens
justified? What was the necessary capital intensity for the infrastructures of the water supply system
justified? What was the necessary capital intensity for the infrastructures of the water supply system
to support this migration? Are these infrastructures justified by economic parameters? Are there any
to support this migration? Are these infrastructures justified by economic parameters? Are there any
other changes with respect to economical, technical and social issues?
other changes with respect to economical, technical and social issues?
3. Social Conditions
3. Social Conditions
It is estimated that Athens in 4th century BC had 160,000 inhabitants [6]. At the time of Handrian,
It is estimated that Athens in 4th century BC had 160,000 inhabitants [6]. At the time of Handrian,
in the 1st century AD, the population was estimated at 30,000 [7]. Ancient Athenians had developed
in the 1st century AD, the population was estimated at 30,000 [7]. Ancient Athenians had developed
particularly long aqueducts, for their era, which are admirable both for their extent and durability, as
particularly long aqueducts, for their era, which are admirable both for their extent and durability,
some are still in operation. Like their ancestors, modern Athenians are able to combine the convenient
as some are still in operation. Like their ancestors, modern Athenians are able to combine the
and healthy way of living in a dry climate by using advanced technology to transfer water from less
convenient and healthy way of living in a dry climate by using advanced technology to transfer water
dry areas. The difference however is in scale, as now they can transfer water in larger quantities and
from less dry areas. The difference however is in scale, as now they can transfer water in larger
across longer distances, from the wetter western part of Greece. The aqueduct’s longest path from
quantities and across longer distances, from the wetter western part of Greece. The aqueduct’s longest
Evinos to Athens (Acharnae Water Treatment Plant) is about 217 km (without counting the passage
path from Evinos to Athens (Acharnae Water Treatment Plant) is about 217 km (without counting
across the Mornos reservoir).
the passage across the Mornos reservoir).
The great change in the scale of the city of Athens took place as soon as it was chosen to
The great change in the scale of the city of Athens took place as soon as it was chosen to become
become the capital of the new Greek state (Figure 2). The establishment of the capital city caused
the capital of the new Greek state (Figure 2). The establishment of the capital city caused a large influx
a large influx of new residents. From around 12,000 in 1834, their number doubled over the next
of new residents. From around 12,000 in 1834, their number doubled over the next decade [8-10].
decade [8–10]. However, the prediction of 40,000 inhabitants by the architects who designed of the new
However, the prediction of 40,000 inhabitants by the architects who designed of the new city
city (Kleanthis-Schaubert) did not happen before the 1860s and the “milestone” of 100,000 inhabitants
(Kleanthis-Schaubert) did not happen before the 1860s and the “milestone” of 100,000 inhabitants
was not overtaken before the late 1880s.
was not overtaken before the late 1880s.
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(a) (b)
Figure
Figure 2. 2. View
View of of
thethe city
city of of Athens
Athens (a)(a) painting
painting byby Richard
Richard Temple
Temple (1809–1810)
(1809–1810) [11]
[11] (b)(b) view
view of of
thethe
city
city of of Athens
Athens (2018)
(2018) [12].
[12].

The
The causes
causes of of this
this growth
growth areare related
related to to
thethe function
function of of
thethe city
city asas a primarily
a primarily administrative
administrative andand
secondarily
secondarily anan industrial-productive
industrial-productive center.
center. TheThe evolution
evolution of of Athens
Athens in in
thethe 20th
20th century
century is is connected
connected
to to
thethe history
history of of modern
modern Greece
Greece with
with itsits characteristic
characteristic phases
phases of of mutation:
mutation: thethe Asia
Asia Minor
Minor Disaster
Disaster
(1922), the Second World War (1939–1945) and the internal immigration of the population after
(1922), the Second World War (1939–1945) and the internal immigration of the population after the civilthe
warcivil war (1946–1949),
(1946–1949), since the since the anonymity
anonymity of the bigof city
the big city conceal
helped helped conceal the political
the political friction
friction and and the
the tragic
tragic incidents of the civil war.
incidents of the civil war.
During
During thethe 20th
20th century
century Athens
Athens developed
developed asasthethe center
center ofof Greece
Greece (Figure
(Figure 3),3), generating
generating 47.3%
47.3%
of of
thethe Gross
Gross Domestic
Domestic Product
Product GDPGDP of of Greece
Greece [13].
[13]. BigBig capital
capital investmentswere
investments were needed
needed forfor
thethe
construction of modern infrastructure (e.g., Athens is the only city in Greece with a metro).
construction of modern infrastructure (e.g., Athens is the only city in Greece with a metro).
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Figure 3. The
Figure 3. The urban
urban development
development of
of Athens
Athens over
over the
the past
past 100
100 years.
years.

4. The
4. The Development
Development of
of the
the Water Supply of
Water Supply of Athens
Athens
Athenians
Athenians of of the
the classical
classical eraera were
were drinking
drinking water
water from
from wells,
wells, aa few
few springs
springs and
and from
from aqueducts,
aqueducts,
of which the Peisistratian [14] aqueduct was built around 530 BC and is in operation until present
of which the Peisistratian [14] aqueduct was built around 530 BC and is in operation until present date.
date.longer
The The longer Hadrianic
Hadrianic aqueductaqueduct
was builtwas in
built
134in 134 AD.
AD.
Until
Until the
the beginning
beginningofofthethe 20th
20thcentury,
century,the the
water supply
water of theofcity
supply thewas
citybased
was on the ancient
based on the
hydraulic works [15], mostly the Hadrianic aqueduct, wells and other small-scale hydraulic
ancient hydraulic works [15], mostly the Hadrianic aqueduct, wells and other small-scale hydraulic
infrastructures. The
infrastructures. Thewater
waterprice
pricewas was determined
determined on on a subjective
a subjective basisbasis andmanagement
and the the management of the of the
water
water was made with the criteria and traditions of the Ottoman Empire [16] (e.g., increased
was made with the criteria and traditions of the Ottoman Empire [16] (e.g., increased corruption meant
corruption
that in many meant
casesthat
the in many cases
manager would thealter
manager
priceswould altertoprices
according relationaccording
with thetocustomers,
relation with the
bribes
customers,
etc.). bribes
It is also etc.). Itthat,
estimated is also estimated
at the that,than
time, more at thehalf
time, more
of the than half
income fromofwater
the income fromlost.
sales were water
salesAswerethelost.
city started to grow, the old system became inadequate and large hydraulic projects had to
As the city Figure
be constructed. started4toandgrow,
Table the1 old
show system became inadequate
the development of large and large hydraulic
hydraulic works duringprojects had
the 20th
to be constructed.
century Figure 4 and Table 1 show the development of large hydraulic works during the
in Athens [4,17–20].
20th century in Athens [4,17–20].
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Figure 4. The development of the water supply system of Athens.


Figure 4. The development of the water supply system of Athens.
Table 1. The big infrastructures of the water supply system of Athens [4,21,22].
Table 1. The big infrastructures of the water supply system of Athens [4,21,22].
Total
Basin Area Inflows Storage
Time Infrastructures
Km 2 Hm 3 Capacity Hm 3 Total
(Cumulative)System
Storage Capacity, Hm3 /Year
(Cumulative)
Basin Area
Time Infrastructures Inflows
Water supply Hm3
system Capacity System
Km2
Wells and Hadrianic Hm3 Capacity,
1900 381 ≈10 - ≈10
aqueduct Hm3/Year
1932 Marathon Water
118 supply system
14 32 24
Wells and Hadrianic
19001953 Hylike 2467
381 295≈10 585 - 244
≈10
1980
aqueduct
Mornos 588 235 630 300
1932 Marathon 118 14 32 24
1990 Boreholes - 55 - 326
1953 Hylike 2,467 295 585 244
2000 Evinos 352 278 112 513
1980 Mornos 588 235 630 300
1990 Boreholes - Sewer system55 - 326
20001958 Evinos
Main 352 in
sewer of Athens (outflow 278 112
Capacity 1,296,000 m3 /d
513
Keratsini) Sewer system
Main sewer
Twinned of Athens
Main sewer(outflow
of Athens in /d
m33/d
19581980 (outflow in Keratsini) Capacity
Capacity1,296,000
1,296,000m
Keratsini)
Twinned Main sewer
Parakephisios sewerofofAthens
Athens
/d
m33/d
19801990 (outflow in Akrokeramo) Capacity
Capacity1,296,000
1,728,000m
(outflow in Keratsini)
1994 Parakephisios sewer of Athens
Operation of phase A of wastewater
1990 treatment in Psyttalia Capacity 1,728,000 m3 3/d
(outflow in Akrokeramo) 700,000–800,000 m /d
Operation of phase B of wastewater
2004 Operation of phase A of wastewater
1994 treatment in Psyttalia
treatment in Psyttalia
700,000–800,000 m3/d
Operation of phase B of wastewater
2004Attica is a dry area, with an average yearly rainfall of around 400 mm, so the city has to be
treatment in Psyttalia
supplied with water from basins whose distance from Athens continuously increased, ranging from 25
toAttica
180 kmis(straight line distance). Today, the people of Athens live in400
an mm,
area of 2
a dry area, with an average yearly rainfall of around so462
thekm cityand
hasconsume
to be
supplied with water from basins whose distance from Athens continuously increased, ranging from
Sustainability 2019, 11, 2657 7 of 18

water resources from an area of 3906 km2 . The development of the city was accompanied by extensive
urbanization of local streams [23].
The inflows to the system, shown in Table 1, depend on the annual hydrological balance of the
basins. In surface works, inputs represent the mean inflow, while in groundwater projects the pumping
capacities. The system capacity is estimated by historical data in view of the depletion conditions of
each historical system configuration. The total capacity after the construction of Evinos is estimated by
system simulations.

5. Data and Examination Periods


In the analysis that follows we examine the socio-economic conditions before construction and
after the construction of large scale projects. Social, urban and technical data were compiled from
relevant studies and were further processed. Older demographic, urban and technical data were easily
accessed and compared to contemporary data, but the same could not be said for the economic data.
Since the value of money is changing, in order to be able to assess economic data, a correlation of the
value of currencies in which the costs and prices were measured at the time to the present currency
had to be obtained.
The calculations were more and more difficult as we went back in time. Indeed, both finding data
on the price of water and hydraulic infrastructures and converting them to current € becomes more
difficult. From 1959 onwards, official data for the price of water have been published, including the
conversion of drachmas in current €. From 1922 to 1959, some satisfactory data can still be found but
not always from official sources. Finally, from 1910 to 1922 data were based on limited literature and
the conversion of drachmas to € was made using ad hoc approaches, as there was no relevant literature
to resolve this issue formally.
It should be noted that the value of currencies, and money in general, depends on highly complex
parameters including social conditions, wars, financial changes, devaluations and revaluations.
The further we go back in time, the drachma conversion in current € becomes more of a rough estimate
than an accurate calculation. Appendix A provides a description of the bibliographic data and financial
methods used in each time period based on data availability.

6. Data Processing and Analysis


The analysis is focused on the operation of the water supply system and on defining its
operational-economical technical and social indicators. As boundary conditions change over time,
with the construction of the new components of infrastructure, we identify the changes in several
parameters of the water supply system, utilizing historical data [24].
Figure 5 shows the capital investments for the water supply system of Athens. It is observed
that if the same infrastructure were constructed today, the cost would be, as an order of magnitude,
1000 €/person (3,263,000,000 €/3,700,000 inhabitants). If we consider that a typical house for a family
of four persons in Athens in 2018 costs about 100,000 € and that ≈5% of the cost is the plumbing
infrastructure inside the house, the investment of the public hydraulic infrastructure represents a
roughly equal amount of private hydraulic investment and, with their sum representing about 10%
of cost.
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Sustainability3500
2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW € 3 263 8 of 18

3000
3500 € 3 263
of 2018of€2018 € 2500 € 2 221
3000
2000 € 1 881
2500 € 2 221
1500
ΜillionΜillion

2000 € 1 881
€ 1 042
1000
1500
€ 340 € 1 042
500
1000
€ 63 € 142 € 205 € 205 € 135
0 € 340
500
1910 € 142 € 205
1930 € 205
1950 1970
€ 135 1990 2010
€ 63
Investments of the past 20-year period Cumulative investments up to indicated year
0
1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010
Figure 5. CapitalInvestments
investments of large
of the water infrastructure
past 20-year period (supply,
Cumulative management
investments and treatment)
up to indicated year [25–
36].
Figure 5. Capital investments of large water infrastructure (supply, management and treatment) [25–36].
Figure 5. Capital investments of large water infrastructure (supply, management and treatment) [25–
Figure
36]. 6 shows the evolution of the population of Athens over the last 100 years alongside with
Figure 6 shows the evolution of the population of Athens over the last 100 years alongside with
the cost and the price of water. The population of Athens comes from census data. The water price
the cost and the price of water. The population of Athens comes from census data. The water price3 and
and cost
Figurewere converted
6 shows to 2018 € of
the2018
evolution asthe
already described.
population To determine
of determine
Athens over the cost of water per m with
the
cost were converted to € as already described. To thethe last
cost of100 years
water peralongside
m3 the capital
capital recovery
the cost and factor
thewas
price was
of water. based on an assumed interest rate of 6%, which is the most typical
recovery factor based on an The population
assumed interestofrate
Athens
of 6%,comes
whichfrom census
is the data. The
most typical water price
assumption in
assumption
and cost in similar
were convertedcasesto (for
2018example,
€ as the Department
already described. of Water
To Resources
determine the of California
cost of water [37]
per muses
3 the
similar cases (for example, the Department of Water Resources of California [37] uses this value to
this value
capital to analyze
recovery the benefits
factor andon costs
an of water projects).
analyze the benefits and was
costsbased
of water assumed
projects). interest rate of 6%, which is the most typical
assumption in similar cases (for example, the Department of Water Resources of California [37] uses
this value to analyze the benefits
Population and costs of water projects).
of Athens Price of water
Cost of water Cost of pumping energy
4.0 1000
Population
408.00 € of Athens Price of water
Cost of water Cost of pumping energy
and energy
(millions)

3.5
4.0 100
1000
408.00 €
3.0
and energy
(millions)

3.5
10
100
)

2.5
of Athens

3
of water
(€-2018/m

3.0 1.09 €
2.0 1.53 € 0.73 € 0.61 € 110
0.39 €
)

2.5
of Athens

0.402 0.460
3

0.57 €
water
(€-2018/m

1.09 € 0.274
1.5 0.29€ 0.61
0.73 € €
1.53 €
0.063 0.146
Population

0.1
price

2.0 0.09 1
0.402 0.460 0.39 €
1.0 0.57 € 0.03
price&of

0.274
1.5
0.063 0.1460.29
0.01€ 0.01
Population

0.09 0.1
0.5
Cost &Cost

1.0 0.03
0.0 0.01 0.001
0.01
0.51910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010
Figure 6.0.0
The evolution of the population of Athens over the last 100 years, cost and 0.001
price of water of
Figure 6. The evolution of1930
1910 the population of Athens over
1950 1970the last 100 years, cost and
1990 2010price of water of
Athens and cost of pumping [4,16,35,37–39].
Athens and cost of pumping. [4,16,35,37–39].
Figure
The 6. The
first evolution
dramatic of the
drop in population
price fromof1910
Athens
to over
1935the last 1006)years,
(Figure cost andbe
can mostly price of water of
attributed to the
The first
Athens dramatic
and cost of drop in [4,16,35,37–39].
pumping. price from 1910 to 1935 (Figure 6) can mostly be attributed to the
construction of the first dam (Marathon) and the construction of the water distribution network (started
construction of the first dam (Marathon) and the construction of the water distribution network
1926). Price is also reduced in the period from 1930 onwards, at a much slower rate. In the period
(started
The1926). dramatic
Price is also reduced in from
the period tofrom 1930 onwards, at mostly
a much slower rate. In the
before thefirst
construction of drop
the in price
Mornos dam, 1910
roughly1935
from(Figure
1970 to6) can
1980, the pricebe wasattributed
increased toas
the
a
period before of
construction thethe
construction
first dam of the Mornosand
(Marathon) dam, roughly
the from 1970
construction of to 1980,
the water thedistribution
price was increased
network
result of the unexpected high cost of that dam. An increase of the water price also happened during
as a result
(started of the
1926). unexpected
Price is of
also high cost
reduced of that
indiscourage
the dam.
period An1930
from increase of theatwater
onwards, price also happened
the prolonged drought 1988–1995 to water consumption, in a aperiod
much ofslower
water rate. In the
scarcity for
during
period the
beforeprolonged
the drought
construction of
of 1988–1995
the Mornos to discourage
dam, roughly water
from consumption,
1970 to 1980, in
the a
priceperiod
was of water
increased
Athens [40].
scarcity for Athens
as a result [40].
of the unexpected high cost of that dam. An increase of the water price also happened
during the prolonged drought of 1988–1995 to discourage water consumption, in a period of water
scarcity for Athens [40].
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Figure 7 shows the average water consumption per person and the total (cumulative) capacity
Figure
per person and7 shows the as
is used average water consumption
an indicator per person
of the availability andand
of water thethe
total (cumulative)
correlation capacity
between the
per person and is used as an indicator of the availability of water and the correlation
abundance of the resource and its consumption. The supply-demand ratio, also plotted in the graph, between the
abundance
is useful to of the resource
evaluate and its consumption.
these curves. The supply-demand
As the total capacity ratio,the
increases, so does also plotted in the
consumption of graph,
water.
is useful to evaluate these curves. As the total capacity increases, so does the consumption
It is possible that the abundance of the resource contributes to overconsumption alongside GDP of water. It is
possible that the abundance of the resource contributes to overconsumption alongside
increase and technological development. Figure 7 also demonstrates why Mornos dam was necessary GDP increase
and
due technological development.
to the spectacular decreaseFigure 7 also
of the demonstrates why
supply-demand ratioMornos
between dam was necessary
1960–1980 duethe
(before to
the spectacular decrease
construction of Mornos dam). of the supply-demand ratio between 1960–1980 (before the construction of
Mornos dam).

160 10

140 Consuption
Total (cumulative) system capacity and

120 Capacity

Supply-demand ratio
per person (m3/year)

100
consumption

80 1

60

40

20

0 0.1
1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010

(a) (b)
Figure 7.
Figure 7. (a)
(a) Average consumption per
Average consumption per person
person per
per year
year and
and total
total (cumulative)
(cumulative) supply
supply capacity
capacity of
of the
the
system per person per year (data from [4]). (b) Supply to demand ratio.
system per person per year (data from [4]). (b) Supply to demand ratio.

3 /year
ObservingFigure
Observing Figure7,7,it it
can can
be be noted
noted thatthat before
before 19551955
peoplepeople in Athens
in Athens lived
lived with with
less thanless than
20 m 20
m3/year
(55 L/d);(55
theL/d); the life
life style style to
leading leading to that
that low low consumption
consumption is described
is described in historical
in historical documentsdocuments
[20,25].
[20,25]. Thereafter,
Thereafter, water consumption
water consumption increased
increased substantially
substantially but again
but once once again
during during the period
the period of
of the
the seven-year drought (1988–1995), it dropped as a result of the demand management measures,
seven-year drought (1988–1995), it dropped as a result of the demand management measures, including
including engagement
engagement of people, of people, increasing-block
increasing-block tariffs and tariffs and penalization
penalization of some waterof some
uses water usesentire
[40]. The [40].
The entire campaign was very successful and despite the long duration and the severity of was
campaign was very successful and despite the long duration and the severity of the drought there the
drought
no systemthere was no system failure.
failure.
Figure 88 shows
Figure shows thethecoevolution
coevolutioninintime timeof of
thethe
distance of the
distance reservoirs
of the withwith
reservoirs theirtheir
supply. The
supply.
increased distance arguably limited the effect of economies of scale, which if distances were shorter
The increased distance arguably limited the effect of economies of scale, which if distances were shorter
would have
would have been
been expected
expected to to be
be even
even more
more noticeable.
noticeable.
Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 10 of 18
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18

200 600
200 600

(km)
180 Distance of newest reservoir

(km)
180 500
160 Distance of newest reservoir

reservoir
500

)
160

3) 3
140 System supply
reservoir

(hm(hm
400
140 System supply
120 400

supply
of newest

120
100 300

supply
of newest

100
80 300

System
80 200

System
60
200
Distance

60
40
Distance

100
40
20 100
200 0
0 1910 20100 1930 1950 1970 1990
1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010
Figure 8. The coevolution of the distance of reservoirs from Athens with the water system supply [41].
Figure 8. The coevolution of the distance of reservoirs from Athens with the water system supply [41].
Figure 8. The coevolution of the distance of reservoirs from Athens with the water system supply [41].
Figure 9 shows that the area of the city has grown about 10 times in 100 years and the area of the
Figure 9 shows that the area of the city has grown about 10 times in 100 years and the area of
catchments
Figure 9utilized
shows for the
that water
areasupply
of has has
the city increased
grown accordingly.
about It in
10 times is interesting that this trend is
the catchments utilized for water supply has increased accordingly. It is100 years and
interesting thethis
that areatrend
of the
is
almost linear
catchments even though
utilized for the supply
water conditions
has (i.e., consumption
increased per person)
accordingly. It is are changing.
interesting that this trend is
almost linear even though the conditions (i.e., consumption per person) are changing.
almost linear even though the conditions (i.e., consumption per person) are changing.
500 5000
500
450 5000
4500

catchments
Urban area of Athens
)
2) 2
(km(km

450 4500

catchments
400 Urban area of Athens 4000
Area of supplying catchments
400
350 4000
3500
of Athens

Area of supplying catchments


350
300 3500
3000
of Athens

) 2)
of supplying
300
250 3000
2500
(km(km
of supplying
2

250
200 2500
2000
area

200 2000
area

150 1500
Urban

150
100 1500
1000
Area
Urban

100
50 1000
500
Area

500 500
0
0 1910 1930
20100 1950 1970 1990
1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010
Figure 9. The coevolution of the area of the city of Athens with the surface of the catchments that
Figure 9. The coevolution of the area of the city of Athens with the surface of the catchments that
supply water to the city [4,42].
supply9.water
Figure to the city [4,42].
The coevolution of the area of the city of Athens with the surface of the catchments that
supply
7. The water to theofcity
Management the[4,42].
Water Resources
7. The Management of the Water Resources
The construction of the system of reservoirs and aqueducts of Athens has been combined with
7. TheTheManagement
construction of of
thethe
Water
systemResources
of reservoirsforand
the development of a sophisticated methodology itsaqueducts
management of Athens hasThe
[4,43–45]. beenhighlights
combinedofwith
the
the development
The of
construction
methodology are: a sophisticated
of the system methodology
of reservoirs for
and its management
aqueducts of [4,43–45].
Athens has The
been highlights
combined of the
with
methodology
the development are:
(a) Stochasticof a sophisticated
modeling of naturalmethodology forthan
processes rather its management [4,43–45].
invoking fictitious outputsThe highlights
of climatic of the
models for
(a)
methodologyStochastic
are: modeling of natural processes rather than invoking fictitious outputs
future scenarios. In particular, a prominent characteristic that had to be modelled was the drought of climatic models for
future
(a)scenarios.
StochasticIn particular,
modeling of a
naturalprominent
processescharacteristic
rather than that
invoking had to be
fictitious modelled
outputs of
persistence, which stochastically can be captured by the Hurst-Kolmogorov dynamics [44]. The software was
climaticthe drought
models for
persistence,
future
system which
scenarios.
developed stochastically
In particular,
for this purpose can
is be
a prominent captured by [46]
characteristic
named Castalia the
thatHurst-Kolmogorov
hadcan
and to be modelled
perform dynamics
eitherwasinthe [44].
drought
continuousThe
software
persistence, system
which developed
stochastically for this
can purpose
be is
captured named
by the Castalia [46]
Hurst-Kolmogorovand can
simulation mode or in forecast mode. The theoretical background of the methodology can be found in perform
dynamics either
[44]. The in
continuous
software simulation mode or in forecast mode. The theoretical background
system developed for this purpose is named Castalia [46] and can perform either in
Refs. [47,48]. of the methodology
can be found
continuous in Refs. [47,48].
simulation mode or in forecast mode. The theoretical background of the methodology
can be found in Refs. [47,48].
Sustainability 2019, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 18

(b) Real
Sustainability optimization
2019, 11, 2657of the hydrosystem’s performance. In contrast to the traditional techniques 11 of 18
based on deterministic optimization (e.g., linear programing) or simplified stochastic methods (e.g.,
stochastic dynamic programming), for the management of the Athens water supply system a
(b) Real optimization
sophisticated stochasticof the hydrosystem’smethodology
optimization performance. Inwascontrast to the traditional
developed. techniquessystem
This combines based
on deterministic optimization (e.g., linear programing) or simplified stochastic methods
parameterization through parameterizing the system’s operation rules, stochastic simulation and (e.g., stochastic
dynamic programming),
optimization for the management
of the parametric of the Athens iswater
rules. This methodology thussupply
knownsystem a sophisticated
as parameterization-
stochastic optimization methodology
simulation-optimization [45]. was developed. This combines system parameterization through
parameterizing the system’s operation rules, stochastic simulation and optimization of
(c) Water demand management, as already described in section 6. Applying this methodology, the the parametric
rules.
systemThis
wasmethodology
able to cope,iseffectively
thus known as parameterization-simulation-optimization
and without failure, with the extreme seven-year [45].drought of
(c) Water demand management, as already described in Section
1988–1995, while other cities with similar or milder problems may have used 6. Applying this methodology,
inefficient
the system was
methodologies. able to cope, effectively and without failure, with the extreme seven-year drought of
1988–1995, while other cities with similar or milder problems may have used inefficient methodologies.
8. Models of Cost and Size of Water Reservoirs
8. Models of Cost and Size of Water Reservoirs
It is interesting to compare the large-scale works of Athens with alternative small-scale works,
It is interesting to compare the large-scale works of Athens with alternative small-scale works, to
to investigate the differences in economic indexes, had the Athenians chosen smaller projects. To this
investigate the differences in economic indexes, had the Athenians chosen smaller projects. To this aim
aim we used data from the “Geographical database of small reservoirs in Greece” [49] and
we used data from the “Geographical database of small reservoirs in Greece” [49] and constructed
constructed the plots shown in Figure 10 in terms of cost versus reservoir size (measured by the
the plots shown in Figure 10 in terms of cost versus reservoir size (measured by the reservoir storage
reservoir storage capacity). In Figure 10a the cost is the total budget for the reservoir construction per
capacity). In Figure 10a the cost is the total budget for the reservoir construction per m3 of reservoir
m3 of reservoir storage while in Figure 10b the cost is the annual capital recovery (assuming an
storage while in Figure3 10b the cost is the annual capital recovery (assuming an interest of 6%) per m3
interest of 6%) per m of water withdrawn from the reservoir. Hylike, which is part of the water
of water withdrawn from the reservoir. Hylike, which is part of the water supply system of Athens,
supply system of Athens, was not included because it is a natural lake from which water is pumped.
was not included because it is a natural lake from which water is pumped.

1000 10
Reservoirs Reservoirs
Cost of water €/m3 estimated by storage

Cost of water estimated with capital recovery


capacity and budjet of infrastructures

Reservoirs of Athens Reservoirs of Athens


Model Model
100
factor 6% €/m3

10 1

0.1 0.1
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
Capacity hm3 Capacity hm3

(a) (b)
Figure 10.
Figure 10. The
The cost
cost of
of water
water of of small
small reservoirs,
reservoirs, related
related with
with the
the cost
cost of
of water
water of
of reservoirs
reservoirs of
of Athens,
Athens,
(a) based
(a) based on
on the
the cost
cost of
of infrastructures
infrastructures per per cubic
cubic meter
meter of
of reservoir
reservoir storage
storage capacity
capacity and
and (b)
(b) based
based on
on
water yield
water yield per
per cubic
cubic meter
meter of of water
water assuming
assuming capital
capital recovery
recovery factor
factor 6%
6% (data
(data from
from [49]).
[49]). The
The models,
models,
fitted by
fitted by least
least squares,
squares, are
are yy == 13.95
13.95 xx−0.5
−0.5 for (a) and y = 8.9 x−0.5
for (a) and y = 8.9 x−0.5forfor
(b).(b).

We additionally
We additionally observe
observe (see caption of Figure 10) that in both cases the cost is inversely
inversely
proportional to
proportional to the
the square
square root
root of
of storage.
storage. Therefore,
Therefore, if the water
if the water supply
supply system
system of
of Athens
Athens was
was
designed with
designed with smaller
smaller reservoirs
reservoirs byby one
one order
order of
of magnitude,
magnitude, the
the cost
cost would
would be more
more than three times
larger, both
larger, both in
in terms
terms of
of total
total budget
budget and
and per
per m
m33 of
of water.
water. In
In case
case it
it was
was designed
designed with
with even
even smaller
smaller
Sustainability 2019, 11, 2657 12 of 18

reservoirs, say 1 hm3 , the cost of infrastructure would be 22.5 €/m3 of storage, instead of 1.29 €/m3 and
the cost of the water would be about 1.41 €/m3 , instead of 0.19 €/m3 .
Changing the scale of water infrastructures does not deviate substantially from the so-called
“0.6 rule” [1,50]. The “0.6 rule” states that the increase in cost and the increase in capacity, raised to
the power 0.6, are inversely proportional. The definition of the rule [51], was based on a wide range
of equipment types and 87% of estimated exponents were found to fall in the range 0.3 to 0.9. It is
interesting that the rule is verified also in water infrastructures of Athens.
Figure 10 demonstrates that the development of the water supply system of Athens was successful
in taking advantage of the economies of scale to achieve a stable price of water as well as a consistent
supply to meet the water demand. Arguably, if Athenians had chosen a smaller scale of reservoirs
the cost of living in Athens would be significantly increased. At the moment and given the existing
hydraulic infrastructure, with adequate future planning, the water supply system of Athens can even
expand to provide water to other smaller cities close to Athens, such as Korinthos. Thus, water
management is necessary to implement economies of scale for the development of the city. In this
respect, from economic viewpoint, it is preferable for other cities close to Athens to use the Athens
water supply system than to develop independent water supply systems.
It is interesting to note that the system development had also considered several alternatives
in different period. For example, in the beginning of the development the alternative scenario of
conveying water from the Stymphalian lake, Peloponnesus, was studied [36]. The cost of the related
infrastructures would be almost the same as the cost of the Marathon project. However, it this
alternative was chosen, with an aqueduct in a Peloponnesus the system expansion would be difficult
or even infeasible.

9. Discussion and Conclusions


Cities grow larger as a result of the concentration of labor and the scale economies that this
generates [52]. Despite agglomeration effects that relate to size, there is a strong suspicion that the
best places to locate new growth are in smaller rather than larger cities, reflecting the tradeoff between
economies of scale and congestion, which both increase as cities get bigger. The implications are
controversial. The age-old question of what the “optimal” size for a city is as it has ever been and
remains open to debate [53]. Athens is an example of a very large city; indicatively, it hosts the 30% of
the population of Greece and generates 47.3% of the GDP of Greece. However, the catchment area
contributing to the water supply system (Figure 9) is about 3% of Greece.
In view of the increase of population in the 20th century and its relationship to water supply,
relevant questions are: Was this migration of citizens justified? Could the people have chosen an
area of Greece with more abundant water resources instead of living in the relatively arid area of
Athens? The cost to construct the water infrastructure for Athens to host such a large population was
certainly higher than in other cities which were closer to water sources, but obviously that was not
a concern of people. Most probably, they did not ever worry about it and claimed “the right to the
city” without anxiety about water availability and technical difficulties of the water supply system but
only pushed by their contemporary social conditions, particularly after periods of crisis (Minor Asia
Disaster, Civil War after WWII).
Furthermore, in a scenario that the Athenians would like to stay in Athens with the current life
style but without these particular hydraulic infrastructures, they would probably choose to build
them again. Given that before the large works of infrastructure they were paying about 400 €/m3 for
water (almost the same price of bottled water today), with that high price they would have reached
amortization of the capital for infrastructure or water supply system in less than a month. So overall,
even though large concentration of population in Athens is obviously capital intensive for water
management, it subsequently leads to more affordable access to water. Also, as seen in Figure 6,
(water-related financial data) and in Figure 7 (supply to demand ratio), with large infrastructures the
Sustainability 2019, 11, 2657 13 of 18

price of water is significantly reduced. Therefore, it seems that economies of scale in hydraulic works
were necessary for the development of the city of Athens (Figure 10).
If the water supply system of Athens was designed with smaller reservoirs these would have
also smaller supplying catchments. Thus, large areas of the current system’s supplying catchments
(Figure 4) would be unexploited and in order to serve the demand, the distance of the water resources
would be elevated (Figure 8). Additionally, the numerous small reservoirs of this alternative would
require a much more extended system of aqueducts to convey the water to Athens. In this case, the
cost of the water would also be increased (Figure 10).
According to the data analyzed, a change of social behavior was noted: infrastructures constructed
led to increased water consumption, alongside with a much healthier way of living in the city as it
is widely recognized that modern sanitation (with proper sewer systems and wastewater treatment
plants) has greatly contributed to the improvement of public health and increased life expectancy.
Recognizing the poor economic situation and the lack of technological infrastructure as the real reasons
for water scarcity and health problems in developing countries, we can expect that economic progress,
wherever and whenever is made possible, will lead to improved water availability and sanitation [54].
Athens can serve as an encouraging example. Due to its dry climate, the water supply in Athens
depends on a large-scale engineered system. Investments for the construction of this system have
always been given the highest priority and have solved technical and social problems reducing the
financial costs as a result of the large-scale infrastructures. All in all, the water supply infrastructure
developed for Athens offers a didactic example of the sustainable management of natural resources in
order to serve the population and the city.

Author Contributions: Concept of the paper, writing, data entry, data analysis, modeling and research G.-F.S.,
writing, data analysis and research R.I., financial consultancy G.K., GIS-maps S.S., editing and supervision N.D.L.,
modeling, data analysis, research and supervision D.K.
Funding: OptArch project: “Optimization Driven Architectural Design of Structures” (No: 689983) belonging to the
Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA) Research and Innovation Staff Exchange (RISE) H2020-MSCA-RISE-2015.
Acknowledgments: This research has been supported by the OptArch project: “Optimization Driven Architectural
Design of Structures” (No: 689983) belonging to the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA) Research and
Innovation Staff Exchange (RISE) H2020-MSCA-RISE-2015.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix A. The Conversion of Past Century Drachma to Current €

Appendix A.1. Data and Examination Periods


The periods under consideration are related to the phases of the development of hydraulic
infrastructure and the development and expansion of the city. Thus, socio-economic conditions are
examined before and after the construction of large scale projects.
Social, urban and technical data were extracted and used from relevant studies and were further
processed into charts from which useful conclusions are postulated/depicted.
The social, urban and technical data can be reliably measured, but the same could not be said
for economic data. As we know, the value of money is temporal and in order to assess reliably the
available monetary data, there should be a calculation of the temporal equivalence between the past
value of drachma (as the national currency of Greece until 1999. From 1999 until the end of 2001 the
drachma was still in circulation, however with a locked exchange ratio to the euro) and the current
value of the euro as the country’s official adopted currency in circulation since 2002. In addition, we
should also take the effect of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) into account as it is also a major factor in
determining prices.
The difficulty of calculations increased as we went back in time because it was more difficult to
find data on the price of water and hydraulic infrastructures as well as to convert them to current €.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 2657 14 of 18

From 1959 until now, there are official data for both the price of water and the conversion of
drachmas in €. From 1922 to 1959, there are still satisfactory data but less official sources that had to be
combined. Finally, from 1910 to 1922 the data are based on bibliographic sources of which the validity
cannot be easily cross-referenced or verified and the conversion of drachma to € has been made using
a synthesis of different approaches, as no relevant literature or relevant sources have been found to
make a direct calculation.
It should be noted that the value of money depends on highly complex parameters including
social conditions, gross capital formation, unemployment, wars, financial changes, devaluations,
revaluations, etc. and the more we go back in time, the drachma conversion in € becomes more of an
estimate than an accurate conversion.
The next paragraphs comprise a description of the bibliographic data and economic methods
used at each time period based on data availability.

Appendix A.2. Conversion for the Period after 1955


From 1955 until today, finding data on the price of water and the cost of works and their conversion
to current € was easy as official data are available [55]. Prices were based on the Greek monetary unit
evolution value (annual), based on the general CPI [56].

Appendix A.3. Conversion for 1930–1940


In 1923 Ulen & Co. from New York City was selected to construct the Marathon dam. This included
the dam, reservoir, a conveyance pipe and a water treatment plant. After this project Ulen & Co,
took over the management of the water in Athens.
Ulen’s invoices, can be considered a reliable indicator of the price of water for the period 1930–1940
(1940), which was converted into 2018 € with data from the Bank of Greece [57]. Correspondingly,
the infrastructure cost of the period (1932, Marathon Dam) was converted to current €.

Appendix A.4. Conversion for 1913


In 1913 the price of water was 80 drachmas/m3 [36]. Converting this price to current € was
particularly important so that conclusions could be drawn on the fluctuation of the water price, after
the inclusion of large water infrastructures in the water supply network.
Since no method was found to have already been developed for this conversion in the literature,
the following four alternative approaches were adopted using available data to estimate the price
of water.

1. The first approach is based on the correlation of the data of the French franc in 1913 with the
Greek drachma which, at that date, fully followed the rules of parity of the Latin Monetary Union.
Available French franc conversion data for that period were used from the equivalence to 2007
€ [58] and then in current €.
2. Greece’s currency table for the period 1959–2001 is based on the general consumer price index.
For the years before 1959 with no corresponding data on the evolution of the value of the currency,
a separate methodology was used to find the equivalent value of the drachma of 1913 to the
drachma of 1959. This method was based on the use of historical CPI data and inflation rates for
the same period. The CPI figures found are CPIs without the effect of inflation, while using the
inflation data a new gross CPI was created, including inflation changes [4]. Figure A1 shows the
CPI time series used.
Sustainability
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80 1200
80
70 1200

and
70
60 1000

1939-1948
and
60 1000
50

1915-1937

1939-1948
50 (b) 800
1915-1937
40
(b)
1950-1959
800
40
30
1950-1959 30 (a) 600

forfor
20
(a) 600
forfor

20

(%)
10
400
(%)

(%)
10
0 400

CPI
(%)

-100
CPI

CPI
200
-10
CPI

-20 200
-20
-30 0
-301915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 0
1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960
Year
Year
Figure A1. CPI of Greece (a) 1914–1938 [59], 1949–2000 [60], (b) 1939–1948 [59].
Figure
Figure A1.
A1. CPI
CPI of
of Greece
Greece (a)
(a) 1914–1938
1914–1938 [59],
[59], 1949–2000
1949–2000 [60],
[60], (b)
(b) 1939–1948 [59].
1939–1948 [59].
3. The closest calculation of the equivalence of drachma value to euro 2013, was a calculation
3.
3. The
The closest
made closest calculation
by thecalculation
Bank of Greece ofthe
of theonequivalence
equivalence
the drachma ofof ofdrachma
drachma
1923, valuevalue
which to euro
towas
euro 2013,2013,
found was awas
equivalent atocalculation
calculation0.29made
€ of
madeFrom
by
2018. theby the
Bank 1913 Bank
of of Greece
Greece
to 1923, on the
a period on the
not drachma
drachma of of this
1923,
covered by 1923,
which which waswe
was
calculation,found found
used equivalent
the methodtoalso
equivalent to 0.29 € 0.29 € of
ofused
2018.
2018.
From From
1913 1913
to to
1923, 1923,
a a
period period
not not covered
covered by by
this this calculation,
calculation, we
in approach 2 i.e., the evolution of the value of drachma for the period 1913 to 1959 combining we
used used
the the method
method also also used
used in
in approach
approach
net 2 2 i.e., the evolution of the value of drachma for the period 1913 to 1959 combining
i.e.,
CPI and inflation. the evolution of the value of drachma for the period 1913 to 1959 combining net
4. In net
CPI CPI
theand and inflation. of the Athens Trade Union”, which was submitted to the Parliament of
inflation.
“Memorandum
4. In
In the
4. Greece the“Memorandum
in 1911 [61], it isof
“Memorandum ofthe theAthens
mentioned Athens thatTrade
“TheUnion”,
Trade wage
Union”,ofwhich
the was
press
which was submitted
workers to to
in Athens
submitted thethe
Parliament
ranges from
Parliament of
Greece
drachmas
of Greecein 3.50
1911
in 1911[61],
to it is
5.25,
[61], itmentioned
reaching up to
is mentioned that “The“The
6 that
drachmaswagewageof the
only ofpress
for night
the workers
workers”.
press in Athens
workers ranges
Therefore,
in Athens we from
can
ranges
drachmas 3.50 to 5.25, reaching up to 6 drachmas only for
assume that an indicative average wage was approximately 4.25 drachmas. Today, Greek Laws
from drachmas 3.50 to 5.25, reaching up to 6 drachmas only night
for workers”.
night workers”.Therefore,
Therefore, we can
we
assume that
4046/2012,
can assume an indicative
6/28-2-2012
that an andaverage
indicative wage was approximately
the interpretative
average wage was approximately 4.25 drachmas. [62]
circular 4601/304/12-3-2012 4.25 Today,
drachmas. Greek Laws
determine
Today, the
Greek
4046/2012,
worker’s
Laws 4046/2012,6/28-2-2012
daily wage and the
between
6/28-2-2012 interpretative
22.83
and and 26.18circular
the€ interpretative €, so 4601/304/12-3-2012
an
circular indicative average[62]
4601/304/12-3-2012 wagedetermine
[62] 24.50 the
isdetermine €.
Corresponding to the wages with any political-social errors that can be included, the€.
worker’s
the daily
worker’s wage
daily between
wage 22.83
between € and
22.83 €26.18
and €, so
26.18 an€, indicative
so an average
indicative wage
average is 24.50
wage is
Corresponding oftothe
24.50 €.
correspondenceCorresponding the wages ofwith
drachma to the 1911 any
wages withpolitical-social
to € 2012 is approached.
any errors that can be included, the
political-social errors that can be included,
correspondence
the correspondence of theof drachma
the drachma of 1911 to € to
of 1911 2012 is approached.
€ 2012 is approached.
The results of these different approaches for the price of m3 of3water are shown in Figure A2 and
The results of these different approaches for the price of 3m of water are shown in Figure A2
their The results
average of these
value, different
which is anapproaches
indicator for the theprice
water of m of water
price are shown
in 1913, is equal in Figure
to 408A2 €/mand
3.
and their average value, which is an indicator for the water price in 1913, is equal to 408 €/m33 .
their averageif value,
Interestingly, someone which
wanted is an indicator
to buy 1 m3 of forbottled
the water
waterprice in 1913,
in Athens at theis year
equal2018to assuming
408 €/m .
Interestingly, if someone wanted to buy 1 m3 of bottled water in Athens at the year 2018 assuming that
Interestingly, if someone wanted to buy 1 m 3 of bottled water in Athens at the year 2018 assuming
that no infrastructure was built since 1913, the price would be circa 300 €, which is close to the price
no infrastructure was built since 1913, the price would be circa 300 €, which is close to the price of
that
of no infrastructure
water was built since
before large infrastructure 1913, the
projects were price would be circa 300 €, which is close to the price
implemented.
water before large infrastructure projects were implemented.
of water before large infrastructure projects were implemented.
800
13 13

800
700 726 €
in current € (€/m ) )
3

726 €
in 19
(€/m

700
600
3
in 19

600
500 461 €
average value= 408 €
of water

500
400 461 €
current

average value= 408 €


of water

400
300 280 €
300
200 280 € 166 €
Price

200
in

100 166 €
Price

100
0
0 1 2 3 4
1 2
Approach 3
number 4
Approach number
Figure A2. Cost of water in 1913 in Athens, based on different financial methodologies for estimating
Figure A2. Cost of
the equivalence ofwater in 1913
drachma in Athens,
of 1913 to eurobased on different financial methodologies for estimating
of 2018.
the equivalence of drachma of 1913 to euro of 2018.on different financial methodologies for estimating
Figure A2. Cost of water in 1913 in Athens, based
the equivalence of drachma of 1913 to euro of 2018.
Sustainability 2019, 11, 2657 16 of 18

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