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Private cloud setup using eucalyptus and xen

Setup a private cloud using open source eucalyptus on Ubuntu 9.04 jaunty OS. I used 'xen 3.0' instead of
default package 'kvm' for Ubuntu 9.04.
This Private cloud setup uses 'STATIC' mode and list of IPs and machine address are provided to the
Eucalyptus installation to be used, because I was using the existing subnet and pick the available IPs from
the subnet.


 Cloud - setup private cloud

 Technical background
 Front end setup
 Back end setup
 Cloud integration
 ec2 or euca2ools setup
 Create guest machine
 Creating EMIs
 Run instance
 Troubleshoot

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Cloud - setup private cloud

My interest in cloud computing started when I worked on a project, to deploy application on Amazon cloud and
setup the clusters for MySql, Apache and other technologies to load balance. While working on Amazon cloud I
got some insights of the cloud computing and various underlying technologies.

Here I am going to illustrate all the steps that I have followed to setup cloud. I will be describing the cloud
packages, how to setup front end and back end setup, cloud implementation, ec2 or euca2ools setup, creating
xen-supported guest machine, creating EMIs for eucalyptus, run/stop instances and some xen/eucalyptus/ec2
useful command.

Technical background

When I start on cloud setup, I was sure I will go for XEN rather than KVM. Then came the Ubuntu jaunty as
this version was built for the virtualization and designed with built-in support. I used eucalyptus, an opensource
tool that provide Amazon like features and is EC2 tools compliance. So I starts researching the contents on all
these technologies. The more I study, the more I got confident to use these technologies for cloud setup.
Though, Ubuntu prefers KVM for the visualization support and has added to the default packages. But
limitation of KVM to run only virtualization extensions (Intel VT or AMD-V) processors
only(see http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/Main_Page), makes my decision to use XEN for virtualization.

Xen, is the underlaying technology used by eucalyptus. Xen hypervisor allows several guest operating systems
to be executed on the same computer hardware concurrently. Xen partitions a single physical machine into
multiple virtual machines, to provide server consolidation and utility computing. Existing applications and
binaries run unmodified. The hypervisor controls the MMU, CPU scheduling, and interrupt controller,
presenting a virtual machine to guests.

The first guest operating system, called in Xen terminology "domain 0" (dom0), is booted automatically when
the hypervisor boots and given special management privileges and direct access to all physical hardware by
default. The system administrator can log into dom0 in order to manage any further guest operating systems,
called "domain U" (domU) in Xen terminology.

Eucalyptus has 3 major packages.

Cluster Controller: provides support for the virtual network overlay
Cloud Controller: includes the front-end services and the Walrus storage system.
Node Controller: that interacts with XEN to manage individual VMs.

The basic architecture how client, cloud controller, cluster controller and node controllers communicate with
each other in a eucalyptus setup.

----> eucalyptus-nc
Client ---> eucalyptus-cloud ----> eucalyptus-cc ------> eucalyptus-nc
----> eucalyptus-nc

Packages provided by Ubuntu are: eucalyptus-cloud, eucalyptus-cc and eucalyptus-nc.

In my private cloud setup, the front end runs both eucalyptus-cloud and eucalyptus-cc and 3 machines act as
node controller and run eucalyptus-nc.

Front end setup

I have setup a Dell machine as front end. Front end runs both eucalyptus-cloud and eucalyptus-cc. So I install
both packages on this machine.

Follow the steps for installing the front end:

Step 1: Prepare a raw ubuntu OS system.

Install Ubuntu 9.04 on a machine. Select ssh server to be installed on the machine by default, so We can
connect to machine remotely.

Step 2: Install postfix.

Postfix is a mail server. Eucalyptus send mails to users that are added by admin on eucalyptus web
interface. So we install postfix that eucalyptus will use as mail server.
Steps to install postfix and to setup configurations and testing successful Postfix installation
command# apt-get install postfix

Set configurations
command# sudo dpkg-reconfigure postfix

Set following parameters with given values.

General type of mail configuration: Internet Site
NONE doesn't appear to be requested in current config
System mail name: server1.example.com
Root and postmaster mail recipient: <admin_user_name> (Optional)
Other destinations for mail: server1.example.com, example.com, localhost.example.com, localhost

Force synchronous updates on mail queue?: No

Local networks:
Yes doesn't appear to be requested in current config
Mialbox size limit (bytes): 0
Local address extension character: +
Internet protocols to use: all

Test postfix installation

command# EHLO localhost
mail from: root@localhost
rcpt to: akashsharmaa@gmail.com
subject: your sub (press enter twice)
Type your message and finish with "." then Enter
Finish with "Quit"
Check your mail (if received your mail is working)

Step 3 Install Cloud and Cluster controller

Install the packages provided by Ubuntu, all the dependencies will be installed automatically by package

command# apt-get install eucalyptus-cloud eucalyptus-cc

Step 4 Install dhcp server

Install the DHCP server which is used by eucalyptus for assigning the IPs to instances. DHCP server
should not be in running state and set the DHCP server not to run when system is booted up again.

command# apt-get install dhcp3-server

command# /etc/init.d/dhcdbd stop
command# update-rc.d -f dhcdbd remove

Set the DHCP server path in the eucalyptus config file '/etc/eucalyptus/eucalyptus.conf'

Step 5 Eucalyptus configuration

Set the static mode for eucalyptus so that eucalyptus uses IP's from the pool of IP's provided in the config
file and use the machine addresses provided along with IPs.
Configuration file for eucalyptus is '/etc/eucalyptus/eucalyptus.conf'
open /etc/eucalyptus/eucalyptus.conf and set the following parameters


Locate 'kvm' and replace to 'xen'

locate VNET_MODE="SYSTEM" and disable it

locate VNET_MODE="STATIC" and enable it

Add machine and IPs for instances to be used and change the netowork setting to current network settings


Step 6 Other configurations

Edit : /usr/share/eucalyptus/gen_libvirt_xml
Locate all 'sda' to 'xvda'

Edit : /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
(xend-http-server yes)

gateway =
netmask =
broadcast =

Step 7 Rebbot the system to take effect

Step 8 Cloud configuarions

Once eucalyptus front end has been installed, we can use the eucalyptus web interface and setup cluster and
set other parameters.
Eucalyptus cloud web URL: https://<front end ip>:8443/

Under configuration tab add cluster name

Set host to 'localhost'

Create kernel and ramdisk images and set in eucalyptus site. (Procedure to create images will be described
later in the page)

Restart the eucalyptus daemon to take effects

Back end setup

On the systems where we want to run instances, we will install node controller and XEN 3.0. Since I used the
XEN as virtualization package, I install the node controller package eucalyptus-nc manually. I installed
required dependencies using the package manager apt-get, but the eucalyptus-nc was installed by
donwloading and manually installing bypassing dependencies list.

Step 1 Hardware compatibility

eucalyptus-nc requires 'libvirt-bin' package. Libvirt is a C toolkit to interact with the virtualization
capabilities of recent versions of Linux (and other OSes). More info can be found at: http://libvirt.org/
To install 'libvirt-bin' package, certain flags should be supported by CPU.

command# egrep '(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo

[if no print], libvirt-bin cant be installed

Stop the apparmor for Ubuntu System

command# /etc/init.d/apparmor stop

command# update-rc.d -f apparmor remove

Step 2 Install XEN package

I am using the XEN virtualization package instead of Ubuntu's default KVM, I install the eucalyptus-nc
dependencies manually.
command# apt-get install iproute iptables module-init-tools python2.5 python2.6
command# apt-get install xen-utils
command# apt-get install ubuntu-xen-server

Step 3 Install libvirt-bin package

eucalyptus-nc requires 'libvirt-bin' package. Libvirt is a C toolkit to interact with the virtualization
capabilities of recent versions of Linux (and other OSes). More info can be found at: http://libvirt.org/

command# apt-get install adduser bridge-utils dnsmasq-base iptables libsasl2-2 libxen3 logrotate
command# apt-get install netcat-openbsd libavahi-client3 libavahi-common3 libc6 libdbus-1-3
command# apt-get install libgcrypt11 libgnutls26 libhal1 libpolkit-dbus2 libpolkit2 libreadline5
command# apt-get install libtasn1-3 libvirt0 libxml2 zlib1g policykit

Download the libvirt-bin package from URL: http://packages.ubuntu.com/jaunty/libvirt-bin

I used i386 package, http://mirrors.kernel.org/ubuntu/pool/main/libv/libvirt/libvirt-bin_0.6.1-

Install lib-virt
command# dpkg -i libvirt-bin_0.6.1-0ubuntu5_i386.deb
command# sudo adduser $USER libvirtd

Step 4 Install eucalyptus node package

command# apt-get install apache2 eucalyptus-common eucalyptus-gl libapache2-mod-axis2c

command# apt-get install libaxis2c0 librampart0 dhcp3-server vlan aoetools
command# apt-get install libc6 libcurl3-gnutls libvirt0 zlib1g

Download eucalyptus-nc package from Ubuntu package repository.

eucalyptus-nc package URL: http://packages.ubuntu.com/jaunty/eucalyptus-nc

Download the i386 package from URL:


command# dpkg -i eucalyptus<version>

Step 5 Grub loader for Xen Kernel

Setup grub menus and load xen images to boot into XEN kernel.
Download the modules and image from URLs:

wget http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/l/linux-2.6/linux-modules-2.6.26-2-xen-686_2.6.26-
wget http://ftp.debian.org/debian/pool/main/l/linux-2.6/linux-image-2.6.26-2-xen-686_2.6.26-15_i386.deb

command# sudo dpkg -i linux-modules-2.6.26-2-xen-686_2.6.26-15_i386.deb

command# sudo dpkg -i linux-image-2.6.26-2-xen-686_2.6.26-15_i386.deb

Step 6 Eucalyptus Configuerations

Stop the eucalyptus daemon and set the configuration depending upon your installation.

command# /etc/init.d/eucalytpus-nc stop

Edit : /etc/sysctl.conf
(uncomment net.ipv4.ip_forward=1)

Edit : /etc/eucalyptus/eucalyptus.conf

Edit : /usr/share/eucalyptus/gen_libvirt_xml
locate 'sda' s and replace to 'xvda' s

for static ips

Edit : /etc/xen-tools/xen-tools.conf

(xend-http-server yes)
(xend-unix-server yes)

command# /etc/init.d/eucalyptus-nc start

Cloud integration
Now, we have front controller and node controllers ready. We have to setup now the communication
between cluster controller and node controllers. We will add the nodes list to the cloud, so cloud know about the
available node.

command# sudo euca_conf -addnode <node ip> <node ip> <node ip>

This will add nodes to cloud config file and replicates the permission and certificate files to the nodes to be
able to have password-less communication between nodes and cloud.

To check the cloud installation, and node communication, you can run 'euca-describe-availability-zones
verbose' command and check if all the nodes are listed in output.

ec2 or euca2ools setup

Euca2ools setup

Install dependencies
command# apt-get install curl libopenssl-ruby ruby

Download the appropriate tarball from http://open.eucalyptus.com/downloads


command# tar zxvf euca2ools-1.0-*.tar.gz

command# cd euca2ools-1.0-* (Replace this with the actual directory name)
command# sudo -s
command# echo deb file://${PWD} ./ >> /etc/apt/sources.list
command# apt-get update

command# apt-get install euca2ools

WARNING: The following packages cannot be authenticated!

Install these packages without verification [y/N]? y

ec2 tools Setup

Eucalyptus supports ec2-ami-tools-1.3-26357 and ec2-api-tools-1.3-30349 versions of ec2 tools.

Install dependencies
Install jdk1.6.0_12 java version.

Download ec2-ami-tools-1.3-26357 and ec2-api-tools-1.3-30349.
unzip these archives
Copy the 'lib' and 'bin' folders under ~/.euca folder.

Export parameters
export EC2_HOME=~/.euca
export JAVA_HOME=<directory>/jdk1.6.0_12
export PATH=$PATH:<directory>/jdk1.6.0_12/bin

export PATH=$PATH:~/.euca/bin

Set URL and credentials

Download 'euca2-admin-x509.zip' file from cloud site at https://<front end ip>:8443/.

Unzip this archive under ~/.euca folder and export the eucarc file.

command# source ~/.eucarc

Create guest machine

I create my image using vmbuilder.

More info on vmbuilder can be found on: https://help.ubuntu.com/8.04/serverguide/C/ubuntu-vm-


Select a directory where all files will be stored. I used '/usr/akash/cloud'

Create a 'part' file under directory.

The content of 'part' is following:
root 400
/mnt/ephemeral 0 /dev/sda2
swap 1 /dev/sda3

Create 'firstboot' file, which is run first time, instance boots up.
apt-get -y install openssh-server

Create the image.

command# vmbuilder xen ubuntu --firstboot ./firstboot --mirror= --
addpkg ssh --rootsize=4096 --arch i386 --verbose --debug

It creates the image file that i used for creating emi. You can found the image under 'ubuntu-xen' folder.

This image can be tested, if its compatible to xen. Use xm create command.
command# xm create /usr/akash/cloud/ubuntu-xen/xen.cfg

Check the status of emi using xm list command.

command# xm list

If you see your emi ID in the output, your image can be run with XEN.

Creating EMIs

Now, cloud is setup, we should create images that can be run using eucalyptus. We will create emis for
kernel, ramdisk and instance.
kernel emi

command# mkdir kernel
command# ec2-bundle-image -i vmlinuz-2.6.28-13-server -d ./kernel --kernel true
command# ec2-upload-bundle -b eucaKernel -m ./kernel/vmlinuz-2.6.28-13-server.manifest.xml
command# EKI=`ec2-register eucaKernel/vmlinuz-2.6.28-13-server.manifest.xml | awk '{print $2}'`
command# echo $EKI

ramdisk emi

command# mkdir ramdisk
command# ec2-bundle-image -i initrd.img-2.6.28-13-server -d ./ramdisk --ramdisk true
command# ec2-upload-bundle -b eucaRamdisk -m ./ramdisk/initrd.img-2.6.28-13-server.manifest.xml
command# ERI=`ec2-register eucaRamdisk/initrd.img-2.6.28-13-server.manifest.xml | awk '{print $2}'`
command# echo $ERI

instance emi

command# mkdir image
command# ec2-bundle-image -i root.img -d ./image
command# ec2-upload-bundle -b plabImage -m ./image/root.img.manifest.xml
command# EMI=`ec2-register plabImage/root.img.manifest.xml | awk '{print $2}'`
command# echo $EMI

Run instance

Add key pair

command# ec2-add-keypair mykey > ~/.euca/mykey.priv
command# chmod 0600 ~/.euca/mykey.priv

command# ec2-run-instances emi-73FD0EAD -k mykey --kernel eki-8D701398 --ramdisk eri-E47F14E8

--instance-type m1.xlarge


Once I started installing eucalyptus, I encounter many issues and face problems because of no/less help
available. To resolve the issues I have to google or search http://open.eucalyptus.com forums or post my issues
in forums to get the solution. I will try to list some of the issues thats I face, it might be of some help if you got
similar issues.

Eucalyptus Logs

When I got any issue, my first area of interest was the logs generated by eucalyptus and its
dependencies. Eucalyptus maintain all the logs under pre-defined directory '/var/log/eucalyptus'.
On node controllers, if there is any issue with starting eucalytus-nc command, check euca_test_nc.log
file for any errors. euca_test_nc.log file contains all the errors eucalytus-nc encounter while starting.
nc.log file contains all the logs generated in cluster-node communication.
While starting a instance, initially I wasnt aware of buggy log handling of eucalyptus and it takes a lot
time to understand this. While starting instance, and keep on adding the logs for non-existing network while
instance is currently in booting up. Because of this issue, I got following in the nc.log file
[EUCAINFO ] doDescribeResource() invoked
[EUCAINFO ] doDescribeResource() invoked
[EUCAERROR ] libvirt: Domain not found (code=42)
which indicates, domain can not be started, but after some time this error is resolved automatically
when network is started for the instance. So we can omit this error message in nc.log file.

Cloud resources

Some times when you install the eucalyptus and cluster, cloud and nodes are running successfully on
systems. Still you can not run instances, this may be issue with the node resource registration with the cluster.
Or all the resources has been consumed by the instances. You can check the resource status for cluster using
'ec2-describe-availability-zones verbose' command.
command# ec2-describe-availability-zones verbose

Output of above command could be like this.


AVAILABILITYZONE |- vm types free / max cpu ram disk
AVAILABILITYZONE |- m1.small 0002 / 0002 1 128 15
AVAILABILITYZONE |- c1.medium 0002 / 0002 1 256 15
AVAILABILITYZONE |- m1.large 0001 / 0001 2 512 17
AVAILABILITYZONE |- m1.xlarge 0001 / 0001 2 1024 20
AVAILABILITYZONE |- c1.xlarge 0000 / 0000 4 2048 20
AVAILABILITYZONE |- certs[cc=true,nc=true] @ Wed Sep 30 02:12:15
EDT 2009

From the output, we can clearly visualize the resource management, free/used resources and
number of instance we can run. Output also lists the nodes registered/available currently to cluster.

Instance issues

Some times, I got stuck with instance related issues. When I start instance using ec2 tools, instance will
die and nc.log or any other log file doesnt provide useful info. So, best way to investigate issue and save time to
run the instance using xm command provided by xen.
Common steps are,
- copy the image file used to create emi to any of the node.
- create xen conf file, check following xen config file content
kernel = '/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.28-13-server'
ramdisk = '/boot/initrd.img-2.6.28-13-server'
memory = 128

root = '/dev/xvda1 ro'

disk = [

name = 'Ubuntu'

dhcp = 'dhcp'
vif = ['']

on_poweroff = 'destroy'
on_reboot = 'restart'
on_crash = 'restart'

extra = 'xencons=tty console=tty1 console=hvc0'

- run the instance using xm command.

command# xm create xen.cfg

- while xm create is starting instance, use console command to check the console output.
command# xm console Ubuntu
Ubuntu - is the name option provided in xen.cfg file

Useful commands

Xen commands

command# xm list
list all the available Xen instances you're allowed to control

command# xm create xen.cfg

run the instance using xen.cfg file options

command# xm status
current status of your Xen guest

command# xm console <domain id>

allow you to access your Xen guest's console

command# xm restore <domain file>

Restore a domain from a saved state

command# xm save <domain id>

Save a domain state to restore later

command# xm pause <domain id>

Pause execution of a domain

command## xm shutdown <domain id>

Shutdown a domain

command# xm destroy <domain id>

Terminate a domain immediately

command# xm mem-max <domain id>

Set the maximum amount reservation for a domain

command# xm mem-set <domain id>

Set the current memory usage for a domain

EC2 command

Delete image
command# ec2-deregister emi-55150E20
command# euca-delete-bundle -a $EC2_ACCESS_KEY -s $EC2_SECRET_KEY --url $S3_URL -b
eucaubuntu -p image --clear

Check cloud status, returns all the available nodes and resource available
command# euca-describe-availability-zones verbose


Add new node

command# euca_conf -addnode

Delete node
command# euca_conf -delnode

Sync keys between nodes and cluster controller

command# $EUCALYPTUS/usr/sbin/euca_sync_key -c


1. Ubuntu eucalyptus setup

2. lib-virt
3. Eucalyptus
4. Xen
5. KVM