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ALFANAR TRANNING CENTER

DC / UPS Training Course

O
October
b 2010

10/14/2010 1
ALFANAR TRANNING CENTER

SHAROURAH POWER PLANT EXTENSION PROJECT

NAME: Mohamed Ibrahim

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Presentation of DC System

Introduction

• A guaranteed and reliable power supply is absolutely essential for


electronic equipments, automation systems and telecommunication and
data systems existing in modern power plants.
• Equipment involved in data and communication technology requires
supply voltages that have to be generated from the mains as well as
from a battery-assisted d.c voltage. Battery/Rectifier
• These Equipments
q p could be supplied
pp from AC or DC sources.
Accordingly, means should be developed to generate AC voltages from
battery backed d.c. voltages to ensure continues supply to these loads
in case of AC power failure from the mains. Inverter
• To ensure quality of AC voltage supplied to the loads, automatic voltage
regulator is used. Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT)

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Presentation of DC System

Principle of Operation
• The main target is to provide an uninterruptible power supply to critical
AC and
d DC lloads.
d
• AC voltage from unit auxiliary supply is rectified to DC voltage. This
rectified AC is provided with a back-up battery system to supply the DC
loads.
loads
• DC voltage from the main DC bus bar is converted to AC voltage
through Inverter to provide AC loads.

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Main AC Supply

CVT Rectifiers

Battery

Main
DC
Panel

Inverter
DC
AC UPS Dist.
Panel Panel

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Modes of Operation

Normal Mode of Operation


• The AC main supply is healthy.
• The two rectifiers are sharing the total DC load.
• Battery is in floating status (rectifiers are supplying the battery internal
resistance losses) .
• AC loads are supplied from DC main bus bar through inverter .

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Modes of Operation

Failure/Maintenance of The Inverter


• The AC main supply is healthy.
• The two rectifiers are sharing the total DC load.
• Battery is in floating status (the healthy rectifier is supplying the battery
internal resistance losses)
losses).
• AC loads are supplied from AC main supply through CVT.

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Modes of Operation

Failure/Maintenance of One Rectifier


• The AC main supply is healthy.
• Only one rectifier is supplying the whole DC loads.
• Battery is in floating status (the healthy rectifier is supplying the battery
internal resistance losses) .
• AC loads are supplied from DC main busbar through inverter .

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Modes of Operation

Failure of Both Rectifiers


• The AC main supply is healthy.
• Both rectifiers are out of service.
• The battery is supplying the whole DC loads.
• AC loads are supplied from AC main supply through CVT.

OFF

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Modes of Operation

Failure of AC Main Supply


• The AC main supply is out of service.
• Both rectifiers are out of service.
• The battery is supplying the whole DC load.
• AC loads are supplied from DC main bus bar through inverter.

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Modes of Operation

Restoration of AC Main Supply


• The AC main supply is Healthy.
• Both rectifiers are sharing the DC loads and charging the battery.
• The battery is in the charging status.
• AC loads are supplied from DC bus bar through inverter.

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Presentation of DC/AC Inverter

Inverter Principle of Operation

• In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to a load through a


circuit
i it with
ith ttransistor
i t switches
it h and d anti-parallel
ti ll l di
diodes.
d Th
The ttransistor
i t
switches is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back
to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the
load and then the other. The square
q wave form obtained can be filtered
to obtain pure sine wave form.

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Inverter Operation Modes

Continuous Mode
• The AC loads are supplied from the DC source through the inverter.

• Change over to AC mains without interruption within 2.5 ms if the


inverter output voltage deviates from the nominal by more than 10%.

• The loads will be switched back from the AC mains to the inverter
output after 30 sec when the inverter output voltage is again within limits

AC Mains

AC Output

DC Source

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Inverter Operation Modes

Standby Mode

• The AC loads are supplied from the AC mains during normal operation.
• The inverter remains switched on and kept synchronized to the AC
mains and operates with no load.
• When the AC mains voltage goes out of limits the load is transferred to
the inverter output within 12 ms.
• The loads are switched back to the AC mains automatically when the
voltage is within limits again.

AC Mains

AC Output

DC Source

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Inverter Panels

Manual Bypass

• The Inverter is provided with manual


bypass switch so that the inverter and the
electronic AC mains changeover switch can
be isolated for maintenance purposes.
• The manual changeover without
interruption can take place only when
the AC mains and the inverter outputs
are synchronized
h i d and d within
ithi limits.
li it
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Inverter Panels

Measuring Devices

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Inverter Panels

Indication Leds
H8

H1 H6

H9

H2 H5 H7

H1 Umains>Unom-10%
H2 DC voltage within limits
H5 Uinv > Unom-10%
H6 « AC mains
i » switch
it h
H7 « Inverter » switch
H8 « Bypass » switch
H9 « Automatic » switch
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Inverter Maintenance

• The inverter equipment requires very little maintenance.

• Prevent dust from accumulating in the inverter equipment.

• Clean the inverter equipment with nothing more than an insulated brush
and a vacuum cleaner if that should become necessary.
• If fuses blow, replace them only with fuses of the same type and value.

• Check
Ch k th
the nominal
i l values
l off voltage
lt and
d ffrequency very occasionally.
i ll

• The fan in the power semiconductor cooling system should be replaced


every 4 years.

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Presentation of Charger

Rectifier Principle of Operation


• The Three phases input voltage 400Vac supply the “Full Bridge” constituted
of 6 thyristors
y ((V1 to V6)) through
g the input
p transformer T1.
• The AC incoming lines can be interrupted with the internal CB Q001.
• The DC voltage coming from the bridge is filtered by the cells L1-C10 to
obtain a ripple less than 3% RMS on the DC output
output.
• The pulses to order the thyristor blocks are provided by electronic card A1
(Thyristor Regulator Card).

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Charger Operation Modes

Floating Charging

• The Charger is keeping the battery in the floating status with a defined set
voltage per cell.

• The three phase 400Vac from the mains is rectified to 125Vdc supplying
the DC loads connected to the DC panels.

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Charger Operation Modes

Boost Charging

• The boost mode starts automatically after a battery discharge (in case of ac
power failure).
• The boost voltage value is adjusted to 138 v.
• The charger will switch over automatically to the floating mode (normal
operation) after the set delay time.
• The boost mode can be started also manually through the menu present in
the front LCD display.

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Charger Operation Modes

Equalizing Charging

• U
Usedd only
l ffor th
the commissioning
i i i charge
h off th
the vented
t d sealed
l d llead
d acid
id or
NiCd battery types to form the battery cells.
• Equalizing charge level consists of high DC voltage 144V with limited
current to around 240 A.A
• Equalizing charge must be used without load, only the battery bank is
connected to the DC charger.
q g charge
• Equalizing g starts manually
y from the menu p
present in the LCD display.
p y

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Charger Panels

LCD Operating Panel

DC Output
Voltage
Navigation
Indication Buttons
Leds

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Rectifier Maintenance

• The unit does not need to be maintained, however, check the following:

¾ The screws, if all the mechanical parts are rightly fixed.

¾ Check the floating voltage and adjust, if necessary, through the menus
presents on the LCD display. Disconnect the battery before setting.
¾ Check the boost voltage and adjust, if necessary, through the menus
presents on the LCD display. Disconnect the battery before setting.
¾ Dust the unit every year.
¾ Replace the thyristor bridge fan every 5 years.
¾ Replace the chemical capacitors C10 on the rectifier output every 10
years.

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Presentation of Battery

Battery Concept

• A battery is a device in which chemical energy is directly converted to


electrical energy .
p
• It consists of one or more voltaic cells, each of which is composed of two
half cells (electrode) connected in series by the conductive electrolyte.
• The electrolyte is a conductor which connects the electrodes together and
also contains ions which can react with chemicals of the electrodes.

Half Cell

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Presentation of Battery

Battery Concept

• Chemical energy is converted into electrical energy by chemical reactions that


transfer charge between the electrode and the electrolyte at their interface.

• The chemical reaction occurs because potentials exist between two dissimilar
materials (lead plate and lead-dioxide plate) placed in an electrolyte (sulfuric
acid).
• Si
Since th
the voltage
lt off a b
battery
tt iis relatively
l ti l constant,
t t the
th capacity
it off a battery
b tt to
t
store energy is often expressed in terms of the total amount of charge able to
pass through the device Ampere Hours

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Presentation of Battery

Lead Acid Battery

• Th
The llead-acid
d id cellll consists
i t off a metallic
t lli llead
d anode
d and
d a llead
d di
dioxide
id (Pb02)
cathode, which are immersed in a dilute sulfuric acid solution (H2SO4).
• During discharge, the lead dioxide (positive plate) and lead (negative plate)
react with the electrolyte of sulfuric acid to create lead sulfate, water and
energy.

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Presentation of Battery

Lead Acid Battery

• During charging, the cycle is reversed. The lead sulfate and water are electro-
chemically converted to lead, lead oxide and sulfuric acid by an external
electrical charging source
source.

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Presentation of Battery

Lead Acid Cell Construction Vent Plug

Pole Post Release g gas in case of


excess pressure and
Screw connection for easy protect the cell from
and safe connection. atmosphere

Separators
Special micro porous Positive Electrode
material for electrical Tubular
T b lar plates made
separation of the positive from special low
and negative plates antimony selenium alloy

Negative Electrode
Grid flat plate made from
selenium alloy

Container
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Presentation of Battery

Battery Data

Electrode Lead Selenium Alloy


Electrolyte Sulphuric acid
Ampere Hour 3000
No. of Cells 60
Internal Resistance 0.1 mΩ/cell
Short Circuit Current 19200 A
Total Weight 13700 KG
Fl ti Voltage
Floating V lt 2 25 V/cell
2.25 V/ ll

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Presentation of CVT

Principle of Operation
• CVT stands for Constant Voltage Transformer.
• CVT is a voltage regulator. The main purpose of using a CVT is to
provide stabilized output voltage within certain limits.
• The voltage regulator consists of a fully electronic control circuit
circuit, a
motor driven variable autotransformer and a series transformer
(booster).

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Presentation of CVT

Principle of Operation
• The control circuit is connected on the output of the regulator.
• When the output voltage varies from a preset value, an unbalance is
detected by the control circuit.
• This unbalance signal is amplified and used to operate the servo driven
motor of the autotransformer.
• This movement gives to the series transformer the additive or subtractive
voltage necessary to have the correct output value.

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Presentation of CVT

CVT Data

Nominal Input Voltage 400 V


Rated Power (kVA) 50
Input Voltage Variation +/- 10%
Rated Current 150 A
Nominal Output Voltage 230 V

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Presentation of CVT

CVT Data

Output Accuracy +/- 2%


+/
Output Frequency 50/60 Hz +/- 2%
Load Power Factor Any
Harmonic Distortion Less Than 0.2

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Presentation of CVT

CVT Data

Cooling Free Convection


Operating Temperature 0 to 40 oC
Degree of Protection IP20
g
Weight 430 kgg
Dimension 1800*800*800 (H*W*D)

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

Si l Li
Single Line Diagram
Di (SLD)

Main DC
Panel
8EDED01

DC Dist
Dist.
AC UPS Panel
Panel
8EUEU01 8EDED02

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

Main DC Panel (8EDED01)

Incoming Feeders

Rectifier # 1 Rectifier # 2 Battery

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

Main DC Panel (8EDED01)

Outgoing Feeders
Measuring and
Inverter signaling

Spare

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Panel
Presentation of AC/DC Panels

DC Distribution Panel Outgoing Feeders

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

DC Distribution Panel Outgoing Feeders

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

DC Distribution Panel Outgoing Feeders

Incoming Feeder
From Main DC Panel

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

DC Distribution Panel Outgoing Feeders

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

DC Distribution Panel Outgoing Feeders

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

AC UPS Panel Outgoing Feeders

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

AC UPS Panel Outgoing Feeders

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

AC UPS Panel Outgoing Feeders

Incoming Feeder
From Inverter/CVT

Continue..

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Presentation of AC/DC Panels

AC UPS Panel Outgoing Feeders

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