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Aleksey Yastrebov

T6614KA

HVAC SYSTEMS AND INDOOR


CLIMATE IN SPORT FACILITIES

Bachelor’s Thesis
Building Services Engineering

January 2015
DESCRIPTION

Date of the bachelor's thesis

January 2015

Author Degree programme and option


Aleksey Yastrebov Building Services Engineering

Name of the bachelor's thesis


HVAC systems and indoor climate in sport facilities

Abstract
Sport facilities are buildings or complexes of buildings intended for health and training workouts as well as
competitions in many sports. Sometimes there are many occupants in sport facilities, that’s why they need
to have satisfactory indoor climate. But what kind of indoor climate can be considered as satisfactory?
What do we need to keep the indoor climate in a good condition?
The aim of this thesis was to research indoor climate in sport facilities in Russia and in Finland and to check
whether the obtained results meet the requirements of Russian and Finnish guidelines and rules. This work
also includes the description of HVAC systems that are used in Russia and Finland for sport premises, like
swimming pools, ice rinks, fitness centres (dance studios, gymnasiums), sport halls.
The methods were measuring air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and CO2 concentration.
Another method was the literature analysis about HVAC systems and visual inspection of sport facilities to
define the HVAC systems used there.
The first part of thesis is the introduction of the general HVAC systems in swimming pools, ice rinks, GYMs
and sport halls. The second part includes data and places where the measurements took place. Then there is
a comparison of the obtained results with the main guidelines and rules. All data are introduced in tables
and graphs.
The results of the survey show that Russian and Finnish sport complexes meet the requirements.
Subject headings, (keywords)
HVAC systems, indoor climate, sport facilities, thermal conditions, air temperature, air velocity, relative
humidity, CO2 concentration.
Pages Language URN
95 English

Remarks, notes on appendices

Tutor Employer of the bachelor's thesis


Marianna Luoma
CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………….……1
2 AIMS…………………………………………………………………………………….3
3 METHODS…………………………………………………………………………..…..3
4 HVAC SYSTEMS…………………………………………………………………….…4
4.1 Sport halls, fitness centers and GYMs………………………………………………4
4.1.1 Ventilation system…………………………………………………………...4
4.1.2 Air conditioning system……………………………………………………..5
4.1.3 Heating system…………………………………………………………..…..8
4.2 Swimming pools…………………………………………………………………....11
4.2.1 Ventilation system……………………………………………………….…11
4.2.2 Dehumidification system………………………………………………...…12
4.2.3 Air conditioning system……………………………………………………13
4.2.4 Heating system……………………………………………………………..16
4.3 Ice rinks……………………………………………………...……………………..17
4.3.1 Ventilation system……………………………………………………….....18
4.3.2 Air conditioning system……………………………………………………19
4.3.3 Heating system……………………………………………………………..22
5 THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT………………………………………………...…..23
6 GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS………………………………………….....24
6.1 Russian standards for sport facilities……………………………………………….24
6.1.1 Sport halls and gyms…………………………………………………….....24
6.1.2 Swimming pools…………………………………………………………....26
6.1.3 Ice rinks……………………………………………………………….........27
6.2 Finnish standards for sport facilities……………………………………..………....29
6.2.1 Sport halls and gyms………………………………………………........….29
6.2.2 Swimming pools…………………………………………………………...31
6.2.3 Ice rinks………………………………………………………………….....32
6.3 Comparison of standards……………………………………………...…………....32
6.3.1 Sport halls and gyms……………………………………………………….33
6.3.2 Swimming pools…………………………………………………………...34
6.3.3 Ice rinks………………………………………………………………….....34
7 MEASUREMENTS OF IAQ IN SPORTS FACILITIES.............................................36
7.1 Description of measurements in Russian sport facilities……………………..…….38
7.1.1 Sport complex……………..………………………………………………..38
7.1.2 Ice Arena…………………………………………………………………...44
7.2 Description of measurements in Finnish sport facilities…………………………...46
7.2.1 Sport hall in D-building……………………………………………….……46
7.2.2 Gym in U-building……………………………………………………..…..49
7.2.3 Swimming pool “Naisvuoren uimahalli”..................................................... 51
8 CALCULATIONS AND RESULTS…...……………………………………………...54
8.1 Russian sport facilities……………………………………………………………...55
8.1.1 Sport complex …………….…………………………………….………….56
8.1.1.1 Gym ……………………………………..……………………………..56
8.1.1.2 Sport hall……………………………………………………………….60
8.1.1.3 Swimming pool………………………………………..……………….63
8.1.2 Ice arena…………………………………….……………………………..66
8.2 Finnish sport facilities ………...………………………………………………..….69
8.2.1 Sport hall in D-building…………………………………………………….69
8.2.2 Gym in U-building………………………………………………………....73
8.2.3 Swimming pool “Naisvuoren uimahalli”......................................................76
8.3 Comparison of the results……………………………………………….………….79
9 DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………………….80
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………..81
APPENDIX 1………………………………………………………………………………83
APPENDIX 2………………………………………………………………………………85
APPENDIX 3……………………………………………………………………………....87
APPENDIX 4……………………………………………………………………………....89
APPENDIX 5…………………………………………………………………………..…..91
APPENDIX 6………………………………………………………………………..……..93
APPENDIX 7…………………………………………………………………………..…..95
1

1 INTRODUCTION
Sport contributes to the continuation of human life, improves health and affects on all
of us in a positive way. Sport facilities can be divided into two large groups: indoor and
outdoor sport facilities. The most popular are indoor sport facilities, because they have
a number of advantages in comparison with the outdoor ones. They are relatively
independent from weather conditions and it is easier to provide visitors with quality
thermal conditions, because of air-tightness of the buildings and the opportunity of using
different modern and complex technical equipment. This thesis considers only indoor
facilities.

There are different types of indoor sport facilities: sport halls for basketball or
volleyball, swimming pools, squash and tennis courts, dance studios, GYMs and also
ice rinks. People spend their leisure time in such premises. And they need to enjoy
staying there. Good indoor climate plays an important and significant role, because it
helps to feel comfort with no health hazards for occupants.

What is good indoor climate? Good indoor climate means that people are satisfied with
it. There are different criteria of indoor climate, which positively or negatively affect
the human and his health: thermal conditions (air temperature, air velocity and air
humidity), air quality, radiation conditions, electric properties, lightning and noise.
When the indoor climate is good, approximately everyone feels comfort and their
productivity is at the highest level.

Good indoor climate is impossible without special equipment used to maintain


comfortable indoor conditions. This special equipment is related to different HVAC
systems.

In this bachelor's thesis I will discuss different types of HVAC systems in sport
premises. I study such systems as heating, ventilation and air conditioning. The main
target of heating is the compensation of heat losses in a building. Ventilation is used to
remove the excessive amount of humidity and unpleasant smells, smoke, heat, dust,
airborne bacteria and to prevent stagnation of the interior air. And the aim of air
conditioning is the supplying building with the fresh air, preliminary heating or cooling
it, and also the exhaustion of waste air.
2

In the first part of my work there is a review of the HVAC systems, used for air
maintenance. In the second part there is a theoretical background, which includes some
information about parameters of indoor climate and their effects on the human body. In
the third part I introduce some sport facilities in Russia, describe Russian standards and
guidelines concerning different kinds of sport facilities. Here are also the results of
measurements of thermal conditions. Next part includes the description of Finnish sport
halls, GYMs and swimming pools and the presentation of experimental data.
Furthermore, there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines
and rules and determination where indoor climate is better. The conclusion provides an
answer to the question: how do thermal conditions differ from standards and guidelines
of Finland and Russia.
3

2 AIMS
The main aim of the research work is to define whether the indoor climate in Russian and
Finnish sport premises meets the requirements of Russian and Finnish guidelines and rules.
If it doesn’t meet the requirements then there should be found ways how to solve this
problem, to define what kind of equipment should be changed in heating or ventilation
systems.

Another aim is the comparison of the results of measurements in Russian or Finnish sport
facilities. There is a need to measure the indoor air quality. The next aim is to highlight
HVAC systems used in Russian and Finnish sport complexes. In the results there is an
answer to question about the suitability of these HVAC systems for such kind of buildings.

And in the last chapter the results will be introduced and there will be answers to different
interesting and important questions about indoor climate in such buildings. It is necessary
to know if the indoor climate is suitable for sportsmen to feel comfort. The knowledge
about all aspects of indoor air quality is very helpful for designers of sports facilities.

3 METHODS
Firstly, there is an analysis of Russian normative literature, which includes different
National Building Regulations of Russia, such as SNIP /19/, SP /18,20,22/ and SanPin
/21,23/. Then the required reference values are found for some kinds of premises as
swimming pools, sport halls and GYMs and ice rinks. After that some measurements are
made in the mentioned facilities and a comparison of them with the regulations is made.

The same procedure is made with the Finnish sport facilities. But in Finland there are
completely different regulations. The guidelines that are used for indoor climate are D2
National building code of Finland /24/, Classification of Indoor Environment /25/ and LVI
06-10451 “Indoor swimming pools. HVAC design” /26/. After that there is a comparison
of the results with each other and checking out what kind of facilities are better for
sportsmen in a question of comfort and satisfaction and in which country the quality of
indoor climate is more satisfactory for sportsmen, because this issue is very important in a
question of sporting results and achievements. For the measurements the instrument Testo
435 was used. General characteristics of this device are in the chapter 7.

4 HVAC SYSTEMS
4

In this chapter the general review of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems is
presented.

4.1 Sport hall, GYM and fitness club


For the good being of sportsmen the sport hall or GYM need an optimal indoor climate
that will give an opportunity to go in for sports effectively. The ventilation of gym will
solve problems such as the lack of fresh air, plenty of exhaust air, the severity of
breathing. The optimal conditions of the indoor climate for the gym or fitness club: good
removal of exhaust air; necessary amount of supply air; absence of draught. /2./

4.1.1 Ventilation system

For the removal of excess heat, moisture and harmful gaseous air pollutants sports
facilities are equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation system. /3/ Natural
ventilation. In sports facilities, it is done at the expense of air infiltration that occurs as
a result of temperature differences between outdoor and indoor air. The intensity of air
infiltration increases when the temperature differences between outdoor and indoor air
increases.

Mechanical ventilation. The air is moved in and out of building with various fans. It is
divided into central and local mechanical ventilation. Local is used for one premise in
the building. Central mechanical ventilation provides all building with fresh air. It can
be supply, exhaust and combined (supply-exhaust). In supply-exhaust ventilation the
outdoor air is moved to the chamber by fan, where it is treated, heated or cooled and
then supplied to the sport facility. The exhaust fan with ducts is used for exhaust air.
The mechanical ventilation of sport halls should be carried out by the air flow from top
downwards, which is achieved by the location of supply diffusers near the ceiling and
the exhaust diffusers near the floor. Below there is figure 1 of supply-exhaust
ventilation.
5

FIGURE 1. Types of ventilation. A-supply air; b-exhaust air /3/


The combined ventilation system with supply and exhaust airflow. In the design of the
ventilation system is considered the number of visitors and the kind of physical activity
because they influence the amount of carbon dioxide.

4.1.2 Air conditioning system

Air conditioning is the type of ventilation, in which the air is cooled or heated,
humidified or dehumidified, purified from harmful substances and supplied to the
premise with certain velocity, air temperature and humidity. Heat recovery is also used
for energy savings. /4./ Figures 2,3,4,5, show different types of operation of air
conditioning system.
6

FIGURE 2. Cooling / heating of supply air through heat recovery by heat exchange
of exhaust air in winter (heating) and summer (cooling) periods /5/

FIGURE 3. Operation of the system during the transition period with partial heat
recovery bypassing a certain volume of air from the heat exchanger /5/

FIGURE 4. Operation of the system during the night through the full bypass /5/
7

FIGURE 5. Ventilation with adiabatic cooling of air during the summer period /5/

For small gyms and fitness halls a duct air conditioning system is used. It consists of
duct fans, heater and filter and is mounted inside the suspended ceiling or in a technical
room. Cooling and maintaining the desired temperature is achieved by a wall, cluster or
channel conditioners that allow cooling the room and creating a favorable weather
conditions for sports.

The air handling unit (AHU) system can be installed on the roof of its big sizes. This
system consists of supply and exhaust air ducts. The incoming air can be cleaned from
impurities, heated or cooled depending on the season. These systems also use heat
recovery to heat the supply air, utilizing energy from exhaust air, the mixing of airflows
don’t occur. For cooling they use compressor-condenser units, running on different
refrigerants or liquid chiller that runs on water. Such systems also use cooling and
heating coils for achieving better indoor climate. /6./

Recently a new AHU system was taken into use for sport premises. VAV systems are
designed for ventilation and air conditioning with variable air volume flow and
indication of air pollution by carbon dioxide concentrations in indoor air. The system
includes an air handling unit, ductwork, regulating valve, carbon dioxide sensors. They
are used in buildings with variable amount of visitors. /7./ Such system can be seen in
figure 6.
8

FIGURE 6. The VAV system of AHU /7/


1 - supply fan; 2 - exhaust fan; 3 - Rotary heat exchanger; 4 - the water heating coil; 5 -
water cooling coil; 6 - filters; 7 - dampers; 8 - silencers; D - CO2 sensor; K - the
controller; FC- frequency converter

If there are tribunes for spectators, the next features of ventilation and conditioning can
be used.

In Russia air exchange “up-to-down” remains predominant for sport facilities. In the
first type of air exchange the supply air is distributed from the ceiling to the holes in the
tribunes. In the second type the supply air is coming from spectators’ seats and exhaust
air is going through ducts on the ceiling. In the second type clean supply air is coming
into the breathing one of spectators and provides the safety of health and wellness. In
the first type the supply air can be mixed with warm dirty air from visitors. This air also
will blow harmful gases, which will influence the people. /9./

4.1.3 Heating system

The following systems are often seen as the most appropriate for sports halls: infrared
emitters (gas or electric); radiant panels; convectors; water radiators; underfloor
heating: electric and water; warm air heating (AHU system). The heating system should
maintain desired uniform temperature of air at any temperature fluctuations of outdoor
air and maintain the required air quality.
9

The heating of sports facilities with infrared emitters

The comfortable temperature and fresh air are the basis for the health preservation. The
heating is not just the process of maintaining a certain temperature. It is always a serious
problem for several reasons. Firstly, sports facilities have a large area and height,
therefore, this volume of space is more difficult to heat with convective heating systems
and, consequently, high energy costs. Secondly, using convective heating systems, it is
impossible to create a local heating when needed. For example, during workouts in the
gym we have to heat unoccupied seats and another empty space.

But the infrared emitters have some advantages compared to other heaters. The infrared
rays without losing its heat energy pass through the air without heating it, and only
reached the surface of a solid body give off their heat. The infrared heating is the direct
heating of surfaces. The efficiency of infrared emitters is about 90%. The premises,
which are warmed with infrared heaters, cools down very slowly, because the surfaces
give the warm slowly than the air. The infrared heating is more cost-efficient than the
convective one. /10./

The next advantage is that the location of sportsman is only heated, but not the whole
air space. It gives more energy savings in contrast to convective heating systems. When
it is a convective heating the heat is almost under the ceiling. Then the infrared emitters
are installed on the ceiling and do not occupy useful space. They can also be installed
on the special stand. They also have other advantages: fire safety, ecological
compatibility, high reliability (lifetime warranty - 25 years), uniform surface heating
and the ability to work in an environment with high humidity. /10./

The problem of using convective heating system is the height of sport halls. The warm
air goes upwards and cold goes downwards, so infrared emitters heats only surfaces and
sportsmen but not the indoor air. There is no need to warm up the entire room space to
obtain a comfortable temperature. The components of the infrared heater don’t occupy
the useful space, because they are mounted on the ceiling. /11./
10

Heating systems with ceiling suspended radiant panels

The panels are mounted on the ceiling of the room. Heating panels are one of the most
comfortable types of heating. The panel is the construction of the heating element,
which moves the heating medium. There are two types: combined with the building
envelope and suspended or attached. In the panels which are combined with the building
envelope the heating elements are mounted in exterior walls, floors. The suspended or
attached panels are the constructions attached to the building envelope.

The heating elements are closely adjacent to the heated surface. On the back side the
panel is covered with thermal insulation. The panels are used for gyms and sport halls.
The panels transfer the heat into the room by radiation and by convection. The heating
medium in this system is water. The advantage of the system is the transfer of heat to
surfaces in the room (including the surface of the human body) without heating the room
air.

The heating of sports facilities with underfloor heating.


“The advantages of underfloor heating are: freeing up of roof; the air temperature can
be lower to achieve the equivalent comfort level of a warm air system; lower air
temperatures produce less stratification than in a warm air convection system, and
maintain the highest comfort temperatures in the occupied zone of a space; low air
movement which leads to the absence of draught; underfloor heating does not radically
disrupt the internal airflow in the building, unlike forced air systems.

There are two types of underfloor heating: water and electric underfloor heating. In a
water-based underfloor heating system, water (max temp 50°C) is circulated through a
network of pipes that lie either in screed or concrete as part of a preparatory floor system.
Electric underfloor heating systems operate on the same principles as the water-based
systems except that electrical resistance cables deliver the heat.” /12/ Figure 7 shows
the comparison of the vertical temperature gradient with air heating and underfloor
heating.
11

FIGURE 7. Air temperature gradient /12/

4.2 Swimming pool

The indoor pools are considered in the thesis. They allow not paying attention to the
weather outside and enjoying the comfortable bathing all year round. However, the
comfortable bathing is not just pure and safe water, but also the climate inside the
premises. This climate should be pleasant like in summer with fresh air and without
excessive humidity. When designing the HVAC systems for swimming pools, some
requirements should be fulfilled: indoor air should not be stuffy and too wet; moisture
cannot enter into the rest spaces and condense on the walls and corners; the system must
be extremely economical. /13./

4.2.1 Ventilation system

The first feature of indoor climate in swimming pools is that there is uneven distribution
of air humidity in height. The humid air is lighter that the dry one and it moves upper to
the ceiling. In the premises with the height less than 4m the distribution of humid air is
more uniform, but there is a danger of the increased air mobility in a workplace and
contact of air with cold enclosures.

The air also contains chemically active substances, such as chlorine and chloramines,
and this air is chemically aggressive to metal and concrete. Therefore, the ventilation
equipment should have corrosion resistance.
12

Usually the height of the ceiling is more than 4m in public swimming pools. If the
diffusers are near the ceiling, there will be problems with air distribution near the floor.
That’s why the air supply is realized at the floor level so that the coldest surfaces are
blown with it. This solution is recommended when combining ventilation and air
heating in cold climates. It is not recommended to place the exhaust grilles at the level
of supply air diffusers, because the dry outside air will go directly to the exhaust grilles,
not mixing with the air of conditioned space. If there is Jacuzzi the exhaust grilles should
be placed near these humidity sources. /14/

4.2.2 Dehumidification system

The second feature of pools is related to the humidity: in average the surface of the pool
evaporates 80-120 g of water per hour per square meter. The evaporation is from the
surface of the water, from a wet floor around the pool, from wet bodies of occupants.
The volumes of evaporation depend on the water temperature and the temperature of
ambient air, the total moisture content and area of the evaporation surface. The excess
water needs to be dehumidified, because it will fall as condensation on the relatively
cool surfaces. The overabundance of moisture and condensation negatively impact on
human health and the state of the structures, they help mold to develop, which penetrates
to the materials and causes rot and corrosion. /13./

If the temperatures of surfaces in pools are less than the dew point temperature, there
is a possibility of water condensation. /14/ To prevent the evaporation of water there are
used dehumidifiers. Dehumidifiers can be used with the air conditioning system or
separately. The dehumidifier needs less energy to remove a liter of moisture from the
air than the supply and exhaust ventilation.

Another advantage of the dehumidifier is its ability to purify the indoor air from dust.
The principle of work: it recirculates the indoor air, the fan sucks the air through the
evaporator, where the vapor is condensed and moved to the sewerage. The dehumidifier
heats the air up again to 2-3 C temperature higher than the sucked air. The disadvantage
is the absence of fresh air.

4.2.3 Air conditioning system


13

The third feature is the energy conservation. We need to preserve heat while ventilation
of space, by making dehumidification we must return the energy of evaporated water,
while conditioning we must also recover the energy of exhaust warm air. /13./

The exhaust air, due to its high humidity and temperature, can carry outdoors too much
heat energy, which we have to return back with the supply air. To avoid such losses we
need to use the recuperation of energy (heat recovery). The usage of plate heat
exchangers allows returning half of energy. The volume of exhaust air can’t be reduced,
because with the removable air we delete unpleasant odors from swimming pool. So,
we can safe on the recuperation in conditioning and return of heat in dehumidification.
With the prolonged absence of people, the air handling unit can be turned off, by leaving
only dehumidifiers turned on. It will reduce the heat loss. /13./

The supply air should be directed in parallel with the ceiling, not downwards to the
water. And the velocity of air should be minimal near the water surface. The high
velocity causes the increase of evaporation from water surface and there will be a
draught in the pool space, which also cause a discomfort to people in swimming suits.
The system works automatically according to the given values of temperature and
humidity. Due to the intensity of use of the pool and outside weather conditions, the
AHU system uses the most economic mode of operation (degree of dehumidification,
the degree of heat recovery, air flow rate). Figures 8 and 9 shows the AHU system and
it’s principle of operation.
14

FIGURE 8. AHU for swimming pool /14/

FIGURE 9. The principal of air conditioning operation /14/

The components of the AHU system are air handling unit, cross-flow plate heat
exchanger, the heat pump as a dehumidifier and heat recovery unit; the automation
system. Such system has some advantages: it is a compact unit for a wide range of air
flow; different modes of air treatment (heating, cooling and dehumidification), while
ensuring the necessary requirements of the parameters of the indoor air and supply air
standards; heat recovery gives the energy savings up to 80%; it is a combination of air
conditioning, ventilation and dehumidification of indoor air swimming pool with air
heating.
15

There are three basic operational modes. The first is daytime operation in the warm
season. The maximum air exchange rate is used, which should meet the requirements
of in terms of quantity of the supply air. /14./

The second is daytime operation in the cold season. In this mode, the dry outdoor air is
mixed with return air. The mixing ratio of outdoor and return air is controlled by the
humidity sensor placed in the pool area or in the exhaust air duct. After the mixing
chamber the supply air is heated in plate heat exchanger and heat pump. If the outdoor
temperature is lower than -15 °C the heating coil is needed after heat pump. /14./

The third is night mode. The evaporation of moisture exists but in smaller amounts. The
AHU switches to drying with full recirculation, it means that no outdoor air comes in.
The return air flows back to the pool with the temperature of 2-3 ° C higher than the
temperature of exhaust air. This is enough to compensate the heat loss in the premises
of the swimming pool in a non-working period. In night mode there are significant
savings of heat, which is consumed for heating the supply air. /14./ Below it is
introduced the operation of the AHU system in a swimming pool.

FIGURE 10. The air handling unit system for swimming pools /15/
16

The air ducts (8) connects the supply air unit (1) with the supply air diffusers (9), from
which the supply air comes to the zone of human’s staying with low velocity. The humid
air under the ceiling comes through the exhaust air ducts (10) to the exhaust air unit
(11). The supply air unit (1) includes the air-valve (2), filter (3), plate heat exchanger
(4), heating coil (5), mixing chamber (6), the supply air fan (7). The exhaust air unit
(11) includes filter (3), exhaust air fan (12), air chamber (13) with the air valve which
is connected to the mixing chamber (6) with the air duct (14); heat exchanger (15) and
the exhaust air duct (16). In the swimming pool the thermostat (17) controls the
temperature in the zone of human’s staying and gives the signal to the thermostatic valve
(18). The sensor (19) controls the air humidity in the zone of human’s staying and acts
on the air valve of air chamber (13). When the relative humidity is under 50% the air
valves of the air chamber (13) are open to pass up to 50% of the exhaust air through the
air duct (14) for recirculation, which is mixed with the heated supply air in the mixing
chamber (6). When the relative humidity is more than 60%, the sensor (19) gives a
command to close the air valve in the air chamber (13). /15./

Also to exclude the condensation on the surfaces, it is needed to increase the temperature
of their surfaces. The simplest solution is to heat the air in the zone of windows, for
example, by radiators, which are effective only when there is a small window area (less
than 20%). The alternative is to organize the distribution of preheated supply air. The
air can be delivered at floor level upper to the ceiling along the windows’ surfaces and
also at 2 m height. It is necessary to organize the collection of condense near windows
and other enclosures. /14./

If the swimming pool is equipped with the tribunes for spectators, it is preferred to
organize the distribution of air from under the seat through the diffusers. The exhaust
ducts should be placed behind the tribunes. Such solution provides the spectators with
fresh air and isolation it from the pool’s area.

4.2.4 Heating system

Underfloor heating is used together with other types of heating systems, such as water
radiators, convectors, warm air and infrared emitters, because sportsmen could feel cold
floor surface after swimming in the pool. The optimum floor temperature range should
be 21-28°C. The underfloor heating can be electric and water. In Russia the designers
17

more prefer water underfloor heating, because it is cheaper than the electric one.
Another reason to choose water underfloor heating is that in pools it can be used in
combination with water radiators.

There is a high humidity and possibility of moisture ingestion on the heating elements
in swimming pools. But the moisture isn’t dangerous for infrared emitters. They are also
not harmful, because they don’t burn the oxygen and don’t cause the circulation of air
flow. And another advantage is that the infrared emitters heat the surfaces, especially
floor and it will be comfortable for sportsmen. They don’t require additional
maintenance.

FIGURE 11. Electric infrared emitters.

4.3 Ice arena


In ice arenas can be at least two zones. The first zone is an ice arena with the ice surface
and the tribunes, the second zone – premises under tribunes, which consists of changing
rooms for athletes, referees rooms, dressing rooms for visitors, offices, public catering
establishments, and so on. The second zone can be considered as ordinary public
premises. In the first zone during the designing there is a problem to save a high quality
of ice and provide comfortable conditions for spectators, to prevent them from cooling.
Different values of air temperature near the surface of the ice and in the tribunes need
to be maintained.

The basic requirement for the velocity and the supply air temperature and its uniform
distribution throughout the ice area is to ensure uniform quality of ice on the ice rink,
because the overheating of ice in some areas will cause friability and overcooling will
cause the excessive rigidity, leading to a fall and injuries of sportsmen. /16/ The air
quality also influences the physical conditions of sportsmen and spectators. Important
task in the design of these facilities is to provide them with a modern ventilation and air
conditioning system, which allows to maintain the air quality./17/
18

4.3.1 Ventilation system

There are some examples of supply and exhaust air diffusers in the ice arena space.
The first example is when along the perimeter in the upper part a duct system is placed
with air diffusers for the distribution of supply air in the direction of the spectators’
tribunes. The exhaust air is coming upwards above the tribunes. The air exchange is
“up-to-up”. This solution doesn’t require the placement of duct system under tribunes
and provision the access to them for maintenance and operation. But it is impossible to
eliminate the influence of warm air to the surface of the ice, which leads to a
deterioration of its quality. The second problem is the moisture generation from people
and supply air. To prevent this, it is necessary to dehumidify the supply air, which may
cause discomfort of viewers. Another problem is the heat from supply air and people,
which cause the melting of ice. /16./
Below in figures 12 two types of air exchange rates are presented.

FIGURE 12. a) Air exchange “up-to-up”; b) Air exchange “up-to-down” in the ice
arena zone and “down-to- up” in the spectators’ zone /16./

Along the entire perimeter of ice cover exhaust air ventilation system (E1) is installed.
The space under tribunes is used for maintenance. At the top of the ice arena the supply
air ventilation system (S1) is mounted. The air exchange is “up-to-down”. Above the
spectators’ zone exhaust air ventilation system (E2) is mounted. The supply air
ventilation system (S2) is installed under the seats of spectators; in this case the air
exchange is “down-to- up”. The space is divided into two zones: warm (above the
spectators’ seats) and cold (above the ice rink). Opposite air flows of different
19

temperatures are not mixed. The cold air (S1-E1) goes downwards, the warm air goes
upwards (S2-E2). /16/

The best conditions to ensure the required supply air distribution are achieved with
supply air above the ice rink, which is introduced in figure 13.

FIGURE 13. The scheme of supply air /3/


The supply air ducts (1) are connected with nozzles (2). The supply air jets (3) are
coming from nozzles (2) at an angle of 20 ° and provide the ice rink (4) with a fresh air.
The heated air after contact of air jets above the ice surface is coming in the upper zone
to the openings (5) in the exhaust air ducts (6). To reduce the radiant heat to the ice rink
there is an insulation with the foil (8) on the ceiling (7). /3/

4.3.2 Air conditioning system

The premises with the artificial ice rinks need AHU systems to ensure the absence of
fog at the surface of an ice arena; the absence of condensation on enclosing structures;
the provision of sanitary parameters of ambient air in the zones of people staying.
According to these three main objectives there are three main air handling units in the
ice rink premises: serving the ice arena area; providing the temperature of inner surfaces
higher than the dew point temperature for preventing the condensation of water vapor
formation; providing the required hygienic air conditions in the zones of people staying.

The air conditioning system for ice arena is introduced in figure 14. (1)- the air valve
for supply air; (2)-mixing chamber; (3)-pocket filter; (4)- cooling coil with separator;
20

(5)-heating coil; (6)- the supply air fan; (7)- the exhaust air fan; (8)- air chamber for
separation of return and extract air. /15/

FIGURE 14. The AHU for ice rink zone /15/

The supply air is advisable to heat in the heat exchanger with the circulation of heating
medium. The extract heat from the exhaust air is used for heating of heating medium,
which through the connecting pipes comes to heat exchanger of the supply air unit. The
usage of heat exchanger saves more than 40% of heat consumption in a heating coil for
heating the supply air. Figure 15 shows the supply air from the spectators’ tribunes.

FIGURE 15. The supply air in the tribunes /15/

The most popular is displacement ventilation which is used for the supply air in the
tribunes. In the figure there is a supply air coming under the seats (1) of spectators to
their feet.
21

In figure 16 there are supply and exhaust air units of AHU, which services tribunes with
spectators. In operating mode this AHU operates on a direct flow scheme. During night
or in the absence of spectators the AHU operates in recirculation mode for heating and
cooling the indoor air.

FIGURE 16. Supply and exhaust units of AHU for spectators’ tribunes /15/

(1)- supply air valve; (2)- pocket filter EU5; (3)- heat exchanger unit; (4)- mixing
chamber for return air; (5)- cooling coil with pallet; (6)- heating coil; (7)- supply air fan;
(8)-filter EU3; (9)- heat exchanger unit; (10)- exhaust air fan; (11)- exhaust air valve;
(12)- air valve for recirculation in the mode of air heating. /15/

Ice rinks also experience different problems related to humidity: fog, condensation,
drips and low quality of ice. These problems mostly occur due to the low dew point
temperature of enclosures. For overcoming these problems desiccant dehumidifier can
be utilized in AHU system, which is introduced in figure 17.
22

FIGURE 17. The desiccant wheel in the AHU system.


4.3.3 Heating system

An ice arena is located very close to spectators’ seat, but the heating of these places
should be different. Before ventilation and air conditioning system were considered,
where the air is used for heating of space. But people in a sedentary position will feel a
bit cold, because the supply air temperature is not enough. So the heating system is
needed. In such premises the infrared and radiant heaters can be used. Sometimes it is
also inexpedient to use central heating, because there are seldom a lot of people in such
premises, only during competitions. That’s why the infrared and radiant heaters can be
suitable, which are in figure 18.

FIGURE 18. The radiant heaters mounted on the ceiling.


23

5 THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT


The indoor environment consists of several factors. There are four groups: building
design, indoor air quality and climate, acoustics and lighting. All these parameters affect
the human comfort indoors. But this bachelor’s thesis is based on the indoor air quality
and climate. This part is the most important for human sensibility. The concepts indoor
air and indoor climate are different. Indoor air quality is good in cases when the users
are satisfied with it and there are no health hazards for occupants. The quality of indoor
air can be expressed as the content of various pollutants, such as volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), particles, microbes and odors.

But the indoor climate consists of different parameters and it also includes the indoor
air quality as the first factor. Another factors of indoor climate are thermal conditions.
The most significant terms here are air temperature, air movement, surface temperature,
distribution and moisture content. The last one group of factors are related to cleanliness.
There are three main factors which influence on total cleanliness of indoor spaces:
ventilation, air handling equipment and space cleaning. Some values of thermal
conditions, like air temperature, air movement and moisture content and carbon dioxide
concentration are described and considered later in this work for sport facilities. /1, p.9./
24

6 GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONS


This chapter will include the description of Russian and Finnish standards concerning
sport facilities. It is very important to maintain thermal conditions in a certain range of
values. But which standards should be used to find out this range of values? To answer
this question I will describe and survey the Russian and Finnish guidelines and
regulations to define which standards gives better values for humans perception of
indoor thermal conditions.

6.1 Russian standards for sport facilities

The basic Russian standards for sport facilities are SP, SNIP and SanPin. SNIP is the
main Russian standard, which abbreviation from Russian language means National
Building Code. In comparison with SP and SanPin, SNIP is a compulsory document,
which contains certain requirements about indoor climate. SP is the abbreviation of Set
of Rules. It is also an obligatory document, but it is applied on a voluntary basis in order
to comply with the requirements of technical regulations, designers use it as
recommendations. Sometimes SP can replace SNIP due to the fact that National
Building Codes were written in USSR and include insufficient or false information for
the modern construction and design. And finally SanPin, it is a regulatory act
establishing sanitary and epidemiological requirements, failure of which poses a threat
to the health or life of employees. It is also an obligatory document; it gives
requirements for thermal conditions of indoor air.

6.1.1 Sport halls and gyms


For design of sport halls and gyms SNIP 31-06-2009 “Public buildings and works” /19/
is used. These regulations were published in 2009. But SP 118.13330.2012 /18/ also was
added to this standard with some revision. These regulations include the chapter about
sport premises for professional sports and for premises in educational establishments.
The values for air temperature are given according to the existence of tribunes for
spectators or not. Sport halls with tribunes for more than 800 spectators should have the
air temperature 18 oC during cold period of year at relative humidity 30-45%. During
warm period not more than 26 oC at relative humidity 60%. When the seats for spectators
are less than 800, the air temperature is 18 oC. Sport halls without tribunes have the
temperature 15 oC at relative humidity 30-60%. The air velocity for sport halls shouldn’t
exceed 0,3 m/s for table tennis halls and 0,5 m/s for other sport halls. The supply air
25

volume shouldn’t be less than 80m3/h (22,2 dm3/s) for a sportsman and 20 m3/h (5,55
dm3/s) for a spectator in the presence of seats for them. In the air heating systems of
sport halls and gyms, combined with ventilation and air conditioning, it is allowed to
use recirculation with providing the purification of air. /18, p. 52-54./ and /19, p. 53-55./

The next regulatory document is SP 31-112-2004 “Physical training and sport halls”
/20/. The design value for air temperature is 15 oC with the relative humidity 35-60%.
In gyms for fitness classes the air temperature is 18 oC during cold period of year at
relative humidity 30-60%. There is also given the description of HVAC systems. The
heating systems can be air, water or other. The recommended air parameters can be
provided by air heating system, combined with forced ventilation. In this case forced
ventilation is necessary to provide with the return air. Another method is to use water
heating system with the supply and exhaust ventilation. There is an independent supply
and exhaust ventilation in sport halls and other premises in a building. The supply air
volume is the same, 80m3/h for a sportsman. The air should be supplied and exhausted
from the upper zone. The supply and exhaust air diffusers should be placed on the
opposite walls. The premises for AHU systems should be located in the basement floors;
the length of ducts should be minimal. Heating devices should be installed mainly near
exterior walls. /20, p.51-52./

And the last Russian guideline is SanPin 1567-76 “Sanitary Regulations of setting up
and maintaining of places for physical culture and sport”. This document gives the same
values of air temperature and supply air volume. Other values are not available. /21/ The
requirements for thermal conditions are summarized in the table 1 below. The table
shows that the values for CO2 concentration are not available in Russian guidelines and
standards.
26

TABLE 1. The requirements for indoor environment in sport halls and gyms /18,
19, 21/

Sport halls and gyms


Standards Category Design values for indoor climate
Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
SP 31-112- - 15/18 35-60 - ≤0,5
2004
SP - 15/18 30-60 - ≤0,5
Russian

118.13330.201
2/ SNIP 31-06-
2009
SanPin 1567- - 15/18 - - -
76

6.1.2 Swimming pools

For design of swimming pools SNIP 31-06-2009 “Public buildings and works” /19/ and
SP 118.13330.2012 “Public buildings and works” /18/ are also used. The air temperature
of pools should be 1-2 oC higher than the temperature of water, the relative humidity
should be 50-60%. For calculations the air temperature is 27 oC and relative humidity
is 67%. When the wooden glued structures are utilized in swimming pools, the
temperature can’t exceed 35 oC and the relative humidity is not less than 45%. The air
velocity is not more than 0,2 m/s. The supply air rate is the same as for sport halls and
gyms. /18, p. 52-54/, /19, p. 53-55/

The next standard is SNIP 31-112-2004 “Swimming pools” /20/. In this guideline pools
are divided into several groups according to the activity of visitors and the water
temperature is different for these groups. For this thesis it is necessary to use water
temperature for sport swimming pools, which is 24-28 oC. The air temperature is 1-2 oC
higher than the water temperature; therefore the air temperature range is 25-30 oC. The
relative humidity should be 50-60%, The air velocity is not more than 0,2 m/s.
The walkways along the pool’s perimeter should be heated with underfloor heating
system. The hall of a pool should have an independent supply and exhaust ventilation
system. The mechanical ventilation system should be used for exhaust air. As a heating
system the most suitable will be air heating system. The return air is used in such
systems. In pools the combination of central water and air heating system can be used.
27

The heating devices should be located under the windows. The supply and exhaust air
diffusers should be placed on the opposite walls. The premises for AHU systems should
be located in the basement floors. /22, p.33-35/

The last guideline is SanPin 2.1.2.1188-03 “Swimming pool. Hygienic requirements for
arrangement, operation and water quality. Quality control”. This standard gives
approximately the same values for indoor climate. /23./ As a survey, the overview of
Russian recommendations ABOK 7.5-2012 “Energy and HVAC environmental
guidelines for the design of indoor swimming pools” was made. The basic values remain
the same. But there is given the value for absolute humidity, it should be not more than
14g/kg. /14./

Below the values are summarized in table 2. The values for CO2 concentration are also
absent.

TABLE 2. The requirements for indoor environment in swimming pools /18, 19, /22/
Swimming pools
Standards Category Design values for indoor climate
Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
SP 31-112- - 25-30 50-65 - ≤0,2
2004
SP - 25-30 50-60 - ≤0,2
Russian

118.13330.201
2/ SNIP 31-06-
2009
SanPin - 25-30 ≤65 - ≤0,2
2.1.2.1188-03

6.1.3 Ice rinks


For design of ice arenas and rinks SNIP 31-06-2009 “Public buildings and works” and
SP 118.13330.2012 “Public buildings and works” /18/ are also used. The values for air
temperature are also given according to the existence of tribunes for spectators or not.
Ice rinks with tribunes should have the air temperature 18 oC during cold period of year
at relative humidity 30-45%. During warm period not more than 25 oC at relative
humidity 55%. When the seats for spectators are less than 800, the air temperature is 18
o
C. The air velocity for ice arenas shouldn’t exceed 0,3 m/s. The supply air volume
28

shouldn’t be less than 80m3/h for a sportsman and 20 m3/h for a spectator in the presence
of seats for them. The calculation of air exchange rate in the ice halls with seats for
spectators should be performed for the following operating modes: competition on ice
with the audience; competition or show with the audience without the use of ice; training
on the ice without spectators. In ice arenas without ice with seats for viewers the air
exchange rate calculation should be performed for two modes – with audience and
without. /18, p. 52-54/ and /19, p. 53-55/

The next guideline is SNIP 31-112-2004 “Ice rinks” /20/. It gives the same values as
SNIP 31-06-2009 “Public buildings and works” and SP 118.13330.2012 “Public
buildings and works”. The only added thing is the air temperature in ice arenas without
spectators, it should be 14 oC. /20./

All sports facilities must be equipped with heating, ventilation, air conditioning systems
to ensure proper temperature, humidity and cleanliness content of the air. To provide
such parameters of indoor air in indoor ice rinks with seats for spectators in all climatic
regions it is recommended to use air conditioning systems. At a time when indoor rinks
with seats for spectators are used for training exercises (without the presence of
spectators), the calculated temperature of air (in cold season) is adopted as for ice rinks
without seats for spectators. In the ice rinks with seats for spectators the design
temperature of the air for the cold period of the year, can be maintained only in the zone
of spectators, and in the area of sportsmen the temperature can be taken the same as for
ice rinks without seats for spectators. The ice arenas should be provided with the
independent supply and exhaust ventilation. The air heating systems can be combined
with ventilation and air conditioning systems; it is allowed to use the air recirculation.
The return air should pass through dedusting filters and effective disinfection of 95%.
In such sport facilities the water heating system could also be used. The air heating
system is used for spaces where there is a drop of temperature during non-working time.
The distribution of air should be separate: one for spectators and one for sportsmen. The
premises for AHU systems should be located in the basement floors. /20, p. 34-37./

The values for indoor environment are summarized in table 3 below.

TABLE 3. The requirements for indoor environment in ice rinks /18, 20/
Ice rinks
29

Standards Category Design values for indoor climate


Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
SP 31-112- - 18 30-45 - ≤0,3
2004 Max 55
Russian

SP - 18, not more 30-45 - ≤0,3


118.13330.201 than 25 Max 55
2/ SNIP 31-06-
2009

6.2 Finnish standards for sport facilities


In this chapter the description of Finnish guidelines will take place, especially D2
National building code of Finland “Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings” /24/,
Finnish classification of indoor environment LVI 05-10440 EN /25/ and LVI 06-10451
“Indoor swimming pools. HVAC design”. /26/

6.2.1 Sport halls and gyms

D2 National building code of Finland “Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings” /24/
is a mandatory document; this means that, firstly, engineers should follow the
recommendations from this document. D2 was published by the Ministry of the
Environment and it was developed by Housing and Building Department of Finland. D2
consists of five chapters. The information about indoor climate and thermal conditions
are in the second chapter and subparagraphs are two and three.

The value of air temperature in sport hall is 18 oC during heating season. “The maximum
permissible indoor air carbon dioxide content in usual weather conditions and during
occupancy is usually 2,160 mg/m3 (1,200 ppm).” /24, p. 9/ But there are no exact value
for relative humidity. The only thing that is written is that the humidity shouldn’t be too
high to cause moisture problems, like growth of microbes or micro-organisms or any
other health hazards. This document also gives the value of absolute humidity in
premises, which shouldn’t exceed 7 g H2O/kg of dry air. “The value of 7 g H2O/kg of
dry air corresponds to a room air condition where the relative humidity is 45% at the
room temperature of 21°C and at the air pressure of 101.3 kPa.” /24, p.10./
The last value is the air velocity, which can be found in table 6. There are values for
sport halls and small fitness halls. In this bachelor’s thesis the value for small fitness
30

halls will be used as a reference value for gym in U-building, which is 0,25 m/s and the
value for sport halls is 0,3 m/s. /24./

The next guideline is Finnish classification of indoor environment LVI 05-10440 EN


/25/. This document is not compulsory. It consists of four chapters. The values for indoor
environment are given in the first chapter; the subparagraph is two and three. The aim
of this standard is to use it for increasing the indoor air quality. According to Finnish
classification of indoor environment, the indoor environment can be divided into three
categories: S1, S2 and S3. “Category S1 corresponds to the best quality.” /25, p.4/ This
category is called “Individual indoor environment”. All indoor climate parameters are
good; there are no draughts, odors and impurities in such buildings. People feel
comfortable. The S2 category is called “Good indoor environment”. And again all
parameters are good; there is absence of smells, draught and impurities. But the
overheating may be in summertime. The S3 category is called “Satisfactory indoor
environment”. “The indoor air quality and the thermal environment of the space meet
the minimum requirements set by the building codes.” /25, p.5./

The values of air temperature are given in the form of operative temperature, which
includes radiation and convection. The operative air temperature should be 21,5 ±0,5oC
for S1, 21,5 ±1,0oC for S2 and 21±1,0 oC for S3 category. There are also values for air
velocity: ≤0,14 for S1, ≤0,17 for S2 and ≤0,2 for S3. The target values for indoor air
quality, particularly for CO2 concentration: ≤750 for S1, ≤900 for S2 and ≤1200 for S3.
The humidity values are ≥25 for S1 and for S2 and S3 are optional. /25./

The values for climate parameters are summarized in the table 4 below.
31

TABLE 4. The requirements for indoor environment in sport halls and gyms /24, 25/
Sport halls and gyms
Standards Category Design values for indoor climate
Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
D2 - 18 - ≤1200 ≤0,25/0,3
Finnish

Finnish S1 21,5±0,5 ≥25 ≤750 ≤0,14


classification
S2 21,5±1,0 optional ≤900 ≤0,17
of indoor
environment S3 21,0±1,0 optional ≤1200 ≤0,2

6.2.2 Swimming pools


D2 “Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings” doesn’t give the exact values for
swimming pools, it have only the requirements for air velocity. It should be 0,4m/s. For
this reason, D2 isn’t taken into account as guideline for swimming pool.

The basic document for pools in Finland is LVI 06-10451 “Indoor swimming pools.
HVAC design” /26/. The document gives the recommendations about HVAC systems
and also about indoor air climate. This guideline consists of 13 chapters. The values for
climate conditions can be found in chapter 1.1. The target values for air temperature is
generally 1,5÷2,5 oC higher than the water temperature. The water temperature
according to guidelines is + 26 ... + 28 °C for competitive and sport swimming. The
pool air temperature, however, should not normally exceed 31 °C. That’s why the
temperature of air should be 27,5÷30,5 oC. The pool’s relative humidity should be 45-
55%, but it doesn’t exceed 60%, because it will cause bacterial growth. Relative
humidity should be also formed according to the air temperature values: 28°C/60%,
30°C/55%, 32°C/50%. The absolute humidity should be less than 9g/kg. The air velocity
should be less than 0,4m/s. But it doesn’t give the values for CO2 concentration. /26./
All target values are summarized in the table 5 below.
32

TABLE 5. The requirements for indoor environment in swimming pools /26/


Swimming pools
Standards Category Design values for indoor climate
Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
LVI 06-10451 - 1,5÷2,5 oC ≤60 - 0,15
Finnish

higher than the


water
temperature

6.2.3 Ice rinks

There aren’t any special guidelines for ice rinks in Finland, but in this bachelor’s thesis
the values for sport halls will be used for ice rinks. The values for ice rink are introduced
in table 6.

TABLE 6. The requirements for indoor environment used in this thesis for ice rinks
ice rinks /24/, /30/
Ice rinks
Standards Category Design values for indoor climate
Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
jaahallien lampo- ja - 5-17 - - -
Finnish

kosteustekniikka (according to
suunnittelu- ja place of
rakennuttamisopas measurement)

6.3 Comparison of standards

This chapter will include the most important tables, which will show the reference
values from compulsory and recommendatory literature. Not all standards include the
target values for indoor climate. There are some standards which has partly values. It
mostly concerns Russian guidelines, because all of them didn’t have values for CO2
concentration, and some don’t have values for air velocity or humidity.
33

6.3.1 Sport halls and gyms

Below there is a comparison of Russian and Finnish standards for sport halls and gyms in
table 7.

TABLE 7. The comparison of Russian and Finnish standards for sport halls and
gyms /18, 20, 21, 24, 25/
Sport halls and gyms
Standards and Category Design values for indoor climate
recommendations Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
SP 31-112- - 15/18 35-60 - ≤0,5
2004
SP - 15/18 30-60 - ≤0,5
Russian

118.13330.201
2/ SNIP 31-06-
2009
SanPin 1567- - 15/18 - - -
76
D2 - 18 - ≤1200 ≤0,25/0,3
Finnish

Finnish S1 21,5±0,5 ≥25 ≤750 ≤0,14


classification
S2 21,5±1,0 optional ≤900 ≤0,17
of indoor
environment S3 21,0±1,0 optional ≤1200 ≤0,2

As it is seen from table, Russian standards give approximately the same target values
for indoor environment; therefore they will be combined in one Russian standard. In
table the values for air temperature: 15 oC- for halls without spectators, 18 oC- for halls
with spectators. The values for air velocity: 0,25 m/s-for gyms and 0,3 m/s-for sport
halls. Other values were discussed and explained in chapters 6.1.1 and 6.2.1. The
strictest requirements are for S1 category of the Finnish classification of indoor
environment.
34

6.3.2 Swimming pools

Below there is a comparison of Russian and Finnish standards for swimming pools in table
8.

TABLE 8. The comparison of Russian and Finnish standards for swimming pools
/18, 20, 23, 26/
Swimming pools
Standards and Category Design values for indoor climate
recommendations Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
SP 31-112- - 25-30 50-65 - ≤0,2
2004
SP - 25-30 50-60 - ≤0,2
Russian

118.13330.201
2/ SNIP 31-06-
2009
SanPin - 25-30 ≤65 - ≤0,2
2.1.2.1188-03
LVI 06-10451 - 1,5÷2,5 oC ≤60 - 0,15
Finnish

higher than the


water
temperature

Russian standards also give the equal target values, thus they will be formed in one
common Russian standard. The strictest guideline is absent.

6.3.3 Ice rinks

Below there is a comparison of Russian and Finnish standards for ice rinks in table 9.
35

TABLE 9. The comparison of Russian and Finnish standards for ice rinks
/18,19,20,30/
Ice rinks
Standards Category Design values for indoor climate
Air Relative CO2 Air
temperature, humidity, concent- velocity,
o
C % ration, m/s
ppm
SP 31-112- unified 18 30-45 - ≤0,3
2004 Max 55
Russian

SP unified 18, not more 30-45 - ≤0,3


118.13330.2012/ than 25 Max 55
SNIP 31-06-2009

jaahallien lampo- ja - 5-17 - - -


kosteustekniikka (according to
Finnish

suunnittelu- ja place of
rakennuttamisopas measurement)

The same will be done with Russian guidelines for ice rinks, they will be combined in
one. The strictest requirements are for S1 category of the Finnish classification of indoor
environment.
36

7 MEASUREMENTS OF IAQ IN SPORTS FACILITIES

This chapter will include the description of all measurements made in Russian and
Finnish sport facilities. The measurements were carefully planned. Firstly, the
measurement plan was created. The are some standards, which explain the basics for
measurements: EN ISO 7726; SFS 5511; SFS 5512. There is also Russian guideline:
GOST 30494-96 ”Residential and public buildings. Microclimate parameters for indoor
enclosures”. These guidelines give the information about the correct measurements, the
places and the heights of measurements.

All measurements were carried out with the device Testo 435. It is a professional
measuring instrument for assessing the quality of indoor air and the environment,
adjustment and testing of HVAC systems. It is equipped with a heated probe, impellers
and Pitot tube. One probe was used for measurements of air temperature, relative
humidity and CO2 concentration, another one was used for air velocity measurement.
This device is the new one and its characteristics are excellent. But in fact this device
can also measure the CO-concentration, surface temperature, radiant temperature.

The technical data for this device is the next. For temperature: the range of
measurements -200 … +1370 °C; the error is ±0.3 °C (-60 … +60 °C); the degree is
0,1°C. For air velocity: the range of measurements 0 … +20 m/s; the degree is 0.01 m/s.
For CO2 concentration: the range of measurements 0 … +10000 ppm CO2; the degree
is 1 ppm CO2. For relative humidity: the range of measurements 0 … +100 %; the degree
is 0.1 %. Figure 19 shows the device Testo 435.
37

FIGURE 19. Testo 435 with different probes

There are some rules of making measurements in different buildings. According to ISO
7726, the temperature measurement should be performed at least at one point in each
temperature zone. Measurements are carried out at the height of the workplace. The
temperature value is recorded after the stabilization of the sensor.

Humidity measurement should be performed at least at one point in each zone with
predetermined humidity requirements. Humidity values recorded after stabilization of
the sensor. Measurements should be performed at least for 5 min. Humidity
measurements should be carried out simultaneously with the temperature measurement.

The measurement of air velocity should be performed in different points of zone.


Measurements should be performed at least for 3 min. The measurement device
shouldn’t be influence by the source of air disturbance.

The CO2 concentration should be measured in different points of zone. The


measurements should be done at the end of the working day, because just then the CO2
concentration is at the maximum level.

The devices for these measurements should be placed so that people will influence very
small on the results of measurements. The measurements can also be done on different
heights from the floor. These measurements were carried out on the height of 1,5-1,6m,
because it’s the height of sportsmen breathing. The mode of measurement is start/stop
measurement. All measurements were carried out for two hours with interval of
38

samplings from 2-3 minutes. There are at least two points of measurements in each sport
facility.

7.1 Description of measurements in Russian sport facilities

The measurements were carried out in two sport facilities: the first is the sport complex,
which includes swimming pool, gym, sport hall and other different premises for
human’s sport life and the second is the ice rink, where the ice hockey matches take
place.

7.1.1 Sport complex

This sport complex is situated near the Volga River, in the southern part of Russian
Federation. It is a multistory building. The measurements were carried out in three
different premises there: in swimming pool, sport hall and gym. The entrance to the
technical room was prohibited. There was made a small survey of HVAC systems in
swimming pool, sport hall and gym.

Gym is situated in the basement floor of the sport complex. It also includes some other
premises for workout: dance hall, hall of Pilates, hall of martial arts, personal training
room, cardio zone and kick-boxing room. The gym is equipped with supply and exhaust
ventilation ducts, that are mounted in the suspended ceiling. Every room of gym is
equipped with water radiators and individual split air conditioning system, which can
be seen in the figure below. The room of gym is heated with air heating system. The
supply air diffusers are mounted on the ceiling and exhaust air diffusers are on the walls.

The measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and CO2
concentration were performed in different points of gym. There are three points of
measurements: #1,2 and 3. The placement of points is shown in the figure 20 below.
39

FIGURE 20. Measurement points in GYM

All measurements were carried out with Testo 435. The duration of measurements is 2
hours. The interval of samplings is 2 minutes. Due to the fact that there are magnets on
the back side of the instrument, there were not problems for mounting it on different
metal parts of the simulator. In figures 21, 22, 23 measuring points are introduced.

FIGURE 21. The measurement point #1 in gym


40

FIGURE 22. The measurement point #2 in gym

FIGURE 23. The measurement point #3 in gym

The second sport premise is sport hall. Sport hall is situated on the third floor of the
building. This room is equipped with water pipe heaters, which are mounted on the
walls. There is also a supply and exhaust ventilation. The supply air ducts are placed
under the balcony to carry fresh air into the sportsmen’s breathing zone. The exhaust air
duct is mounted on the ceiling. This is introduced in figure 24.
41

FIGURE 24. Sport hall with radiant pipe heaters and supply air duct

The monitoring of indoor climate in sport hall was performed during workout of
volleyball team. There are three points for thermal conditions measurements: #1,2,3. All
measurements were carried out with Testo 435. The duration of measurements is 2
hours. The interval of samplings is 2 minutes. The first and third measuring points are
on the opposite sides of sport hall and the second is in the center under the balcony for
spectators. The measurement points are introduced in figures 25,26,27 and 28.

FIGURE 25. Measurement points in sport hall


42

FIGURE 26. The measurement point #1 in sport hall

FIGURE 27. The measurement point #2 in sport hall


43

FIGURE 28. The measurement point #3 in sport hall

The third premise is the swimming pool, which is situated on the second floor of the
sport complex. The pool is equipped with supply and exhaust ventilation system. The
supply air ducts are mounted on the ceiling, the exhaust air diffusers are mounted on the
walls. There are many water radiators for heating of pool’s space which are mounted
along the walls’ perimeter. The monitoring of indoor climate in swimming pool was
performed in the evening, for accurate measuring of CO2 concentration. There are two
points for thermal conditions measurements: #1,2. All measurements were carried out
with Testo 435. The duration of measurements is 2 hours. The interval of samplings is
2 minutes. The first measurement point was near the stand of swimming equipment. The
second measurement point was near the entrance to men’s cloakroom. The measurement
points are on the figures 29, 30, 31.

FIGURE 29. Measurement points in swimming pool


44

FIGURE 30. The measurement point #1 in swimming pool

FIGURE 31. The measurement point #2 in swimming pool

7.1.2 Ice Arena

This ice arena is situated in the southern part of Russian Federation and it is the training
ground for ice hockey team.
Ice arena is equipped with supply air diffusers under the spectators and the exhaust air
diffusers are placed on the ceiling. The heating system is the electric radiant heaters
45

which are mounted on the stands in front of spectators’ seats. And, presumably, the air
heating system could be also there.

The monitoring of indoor climate in ice rink was performed during the hockey team
training for accurate measuring of CO2 concentration. There are two points for thermal
conditions measurements: #1,2. The measuring points are situated on the opposite sides
of ice arena on the tribunes. All measurements were carried out with Testo 435. The
duration of measurements is 2 hours. The interval of samplings is 2 minutes. The
measurement points are in the figures 32 and 33.

FIGURE 32. The measurement points #1 and #2 in ice arena


46

FIGURE 33. Measurement points in ice rink

7.2 Description of measurements in Finnish sport facilities

The monitoring of indoor climate was done in three sport facilities: in sport hall in D-
building, gym in U-building at Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences and swimming
pool “Naisvuoren uimahalli”. Sport hall and gym are located on the Mikkeli University
area.

7.2.1 Sport hall in D-building

The monitoring of thermal conditions in sport hall was during the fitness workout. There
are three points for measurements: #1,2,3. The height of measurements is 1,5-1,6 m, it
is a height of people’s breathing zone. All measurements were carried out with Testo
435. The duration of measurements was 2 hours. The interval of samplings was 3
minutes. The point one and three are on the opposite sides of sport hall and the second
point was situated near the center, but closer to the seats of sportsmen.

Below there are measurement points in sport hall in D-building can be seen in figures
34,35,36.
47

FIGURE 34. Measurement points in sport hall

FIGURE 35. Sport hall in D-building, the measurement of thermal conditions in


point #1
48

FIGURE 36. Sport hall in D-building, the measurement of thermal conditions in


point #3
The survey of HVAC systems was made in sport hall. There are heating radiators
mounted on the walls and on the ceiling there are supply and exhaust air ducts, which
are introduced in the figure 37.

FIGURE 37. The ventilation system in sport hall


49

7.2.2 Gym in U-building

The monitoring of thermal conditions in gym was in two rooms U232A and U232B.
The first room is for group training classes, the second room has different simulators.
There are three points for measurements in U232B: #1,2,3 and two points in U232A:
#1,2. The height of measurements is 1,5-1,6 m. All measurements were carried out with
Testo 435. The duration of measurements is 2 hours. The interval of samplings is 3
minutes. The mode of measurement is start/stop measurement. The measurement points
are in the figures 38, 39, 40, 41.

FIGURE 38. The measurement points in U232A and U232B of gym

FIGURE 39. The measurement point #1 in U232A


50

FIGURE 40. The measurement point #3 in U232B

FIGURE 41. The measurement point #5 in U232B

The survey of HVAC systems was also made in gym. There is a supply and exhaust
mechanical ventilation system in all rooms of gym. The heating system is water
radiators, which are mounted on the walls under the windows. The supply and exhaust
air ducts are mounted on the ceiling.
51

FIGURE 42. The supply air duct in U232A

FIGURE 43. The exhaust air duct in U232B

7.2.3 Swimming pool “Naisvuoren uimahalli”

This swimming pool is situated in the center of Mikkeli under the rock. Besides sport
swimming pool it also includes gym and swimming pool for children. The monitoring
of thermal conditions was only in swimming pool hall. There are two points for
measurements: #1,2, which are on the opposite sides of the pool. The height of
measurements is 1,5-1,6 m. All measurements were carried out with Testo 435. The
52

duration of measurements is 2 hours. The interval of samplings is 3 minutes. The


measurement points are in the figures 44,45.

FIGURE 44. The measurement point in swimming pool in Mikkeli

FIGURE 45. The measurement point #1 and 2 in the swimming pool in Mikkeli
There was also the investigation of HVAC systems used for maintenance of thermal
climate. It has underfloor heating to prevent visitors from draught and discomfort. The
supply air diffusers are mounted on the ceiling, while the exhaust air diffusers are
53

mounted on the walls along the perimeter of the pool. They are shown in the figure 46.
There should also be the installation of dehumidifiers.

FIGURE 46. The exhaust air diffuser

All sport facilities were shown in this chapter where the measurements took place.
Further the results of measurements will be discussed and analysed.
54

8 CALCULATIONS AND RESULTS

In this chapter the results got from the measurements are analyzed, summerized in tables
and chart and compared with Russian and Finnish guidelines and regulations. There are
also some calculations concerning the results got from the measurements.

For calculations of PMV and PPD values it is necessary some values: metabolic rate,
clothing insulation, air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and water vapor
partial pressure. Some values were measured in sport facilities. But metabolic rate and
clothing insulation could be found from /27/ or /28/. The value “met” is equal to 58
W/m2. Due to the fact that this formula include only the value of 4 met/ 232 W/m2, there
may be some deviation from normal results. The table 10 shows the met and clo values.

TABLE 10. Met and clo values for different sport facilities
Sport facility Metabolic rate, Real metabolic Clothing
met/ W/m2 rate, met/ W/m2 insulation,
clo
Swimming pool 4 met/ 232 W/m2 6 met/348 W/m2 0,1
Sport hall 4 met/ 232 W/m2 7 met/406 W/m2 0,33
Gym 4 met/ 232 W/m2 5,5met/319 0,33
W/m2
Ice rink 4 met/ 232 W/m2 8 met/464 W/m2 0,61

According to the results the absolute humidity also was found from the Mollier chart.

8.1 Russian sport facilities

This chapter includes the final results of measurements in Russian sport facilities:
swimming pool, gym and sport hall and ice rink. All the results are presented in tables,
figures and charts.
As it was written before, all Russian standards were combined in one guideline. For
comparison of results there were used different colors, which are in table 11.
55

TABLE 11. The colors for the comparison with standards used in this thesis
meets the
requirements
nearly meets the
requirements
doesn't meet the
requirements

8.1.1 Sport complex


8.1.1.1 Gym

The measurements were in three points. The results were entered to excel file, where the
maximum, minimum and average values were found. Below there are introduced the most
interesting results and some description of them. It was decided to show the results only
for one point, because the results got in different parts of sport facilities are approximately
the same. In this case, it is the measuring point #2, which is situated in the central part of
the gym. To present the result, the values were divided into two parts: air temperature and
relative humidity; air velocity and CO2 concentration. Below there are tables 12 and 13
for these values.

TABLE 12. The air temperature and relative humidity basic parameters in gym
Duration of measurement 2 hours
Interval of samplings 2 minutes
Number of measuring point 3
Average value of air temperature 19,5 °C
Minimum of air temperature 18,9 °C
Maximum of air temperature 20,5 °C
Average value of relative humidity 40,6 %
Minimum of relative humidity 38,6 %
Maximum of relative humidity 43,3%
Outdoor air temperature + 17,2 °C
Relative humidity outdoors 58,3 %
56

TABLE 13. The air velocity and CO2 concentration basic parameters in GYM
Number of measuring points 3
Average value of air velocity 0,15 m/s

Minimum level of air velocity 0,0 m/s


Maximum level of air velocity 0,28 m/s
Average value of carbon dioxide level 761 ppm
Minimum level of carbon dioxide 558 ppm
Maximum level of carbon dioxide 863 ppm
Average number of people 19 persons

Below there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines in table
14.

TABLE 14. Indoor climate parameters in gym


T, oC RH, % CO2, ppm V, m/s
Gym in sport 19,5 40,6 761 0,15
complex
Russian 15/18 30-60 - ≤0,5
standards
D2 18 - ≤1200 ≤0,25
Finnish ≈20,0, than S3 ≥25, than S1 ≈ 750, than ≈0,14, than S1
classification S1

From table it is seen that temperature in gym doesn’t meet the requirement of Russian
standards and D2. But it meets the requirements of the strictest guideline Finnish
classification and the category is approximately S1 for air velocity, CO2 concentration
and relative humidity, the temperature is only for S3 category.

After there were made some calculations and the results are the next:
PMV=1,51. The PMV value was calculated with the excel file and to check the correctness
of the calculations the result was entered in special program in the Internet.

PPD=51% . The PPD value is easily found from the diagram in figure 49. PPD=51% means
that 51% of people will be dissatisfied with thermal conditions. DR=18,7%. Draught rate
is also calculated with special formula. The charts for PPD and PMV values are in the
figure 49.
57

FIGURE 49. PMV and PPD in GYM /27/

It is seen from the diagram that the value of PMV and PPD are high. The reason could be
that the calculations were not correct, due to the metabolic rate. Draught rate value is also
big, but not so as PMV and PPD values.

The figure 50 shows the Mollier chart with the values of air temperature and relative
humidity for gym. The absolute humidity is 5,6 g/kg; dew point temperature is 6oC.

FIGURE 50. The Mollier chart. The determination of absolute humidity in GYM
58

The results of measurements are introduced in Appendix 1. From the curves it is seen that
the temperature and humidity changes uniformly during 2 hours, because the indoor
thermal conditions can change cardinally during such short period. The temperature and
humidity deviated from the average value at the beginning and end of measurements. The
values began to rise only at the end of measurements, because it was the peak time of the
largest number of sportsmen. And the CO2 concentration also varied during measurements,
because of the rising number of visitors and its peak value was at the mid part of
measurements.
59

8.1.1.2 Sport hall

The measurements in sport hall were also in three points. For introduction of maximum,
minimum and average values of the results, the excel file was used. To present the result,
the values were divided into two parts: air temperature and relative humidity; air velocity
and CO2 concentration. Below there are tables 15 and 16 for the values, where the results
of measuring point #3, which are equal to the results in other points.

TABLE 15. The air temperature and relative humidity basic parameters in sport
hall
Duration of measurement 2 hours
Interval of samplings 2 minutes
Number of measuring point 3
Average value of air temperature 19,7 °C
Minimum of air temperature 19,1°C
Maximum of air temperature 20,5 °C
Average value of relative humidity 45,3 %
Minimum of relative humidity 43,4 %
Maximum of relative humidity 47,3 %
Outdoor air temperature + 14,4 °C
Relative humidity outdoors 63,3 %

TABLE 16. The air velocity and CO2 concentration basic parameters in sport
hall
Number of measuring points 3
Average value of air velocity 0,13 m/s

Minimum level of air velocity 0,0 m/s


Maximum level of air velocity 0,25 m/s
Average value of carbon dioxide level 753 ppm
Minimum level of carbon dioxide 575 ppm
Maximum level of carbon dioxide 866 ppm
Average number of people 14 persons
60

Below there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines in table
17.

TABLE 17. Indoor climate parameters in sport hall


T, oC RH, % CO2, ppm V, m/s
Sport hall in sport 19,7 45,3 753 0,13
complex
“Samarskiy”
Russian standards 15/18 30-60 - ≤0,5
D2 18 - ≤1200 ≤0,3
Finnish ≈20,0, ≥25, than ≈ 750, than <0,14, than
classification than S3 S1 S1 S1

From table it is seen that temperature in sport hall also doesn’t meet the requirement of
Russian standards and D2. But it meets the requirements of the strictest guideline
Finnish classification and the category is approximately S1. After there were made some
calculations and the results are: PMV=1,6; PPD=56,4%; DR=15,2%. The charts for
PPD and PMV values are in the figure 51.

FIGURE 51. PMV and PPD in sport hall

But the value of PMV and PPD are really big. The reason could be that the calculations
were not correct, due to the metabolic rate. Draught rate value is also big.

The figure 52 shows the Mollier chart with the values of air temperature and relative
humidity for sport hall. The absolute humidity is 6,1 g/kg; dew point temperature is 7oC.
61

FIGURE 52. The Mollier chart. The determination of absolute humidity in sport
hall

The results of measurements in sport hall are introduced in Appendix 2. From chart it is
seen that the temperature changed insignificantly. The maximum value of visitors was at
the midpoint of measurements and it influenced the value of relative humidity and CO2
concentration, which had reached the highest level. And the steep decline of values wasn’t
observed till the end of measurements.
62

8.1.1.3 Swimming pool


The measurements were made in two points. The maximum, minimum and average
values were found. Below there are introduced the most interesting results and some
description of them. The average results were got in the measuring point #2. To present
the result, the values were divided into two parts: air temperature and relative humidity;
air velocity and CO2 concentration. Below there are tables 18 and 19 for these values.

TABLE 18. The air temperature and relative humidity basic parameters in
swimming pool
Duration of measurement 2 hours
Interval of samplings 3 minutes
Number of measuring point 2
Average value of air temperature 29,1 °C
Minimum of air temperature 28,1 °C
Maximum of air temperature 30,2 °C
Average value of relative humidity 60,4 %
Minimum of relative humidity 58,7 %
Maximum of relative humidity 65,2 %
Outdoor air temperature + 15,3 °C
Relative humidity outdoors 62,3 %

TABLE 19. The air velocity and CO2 concentration basic parameters in
swimming pool
Number of measuring points 2
Average value of air velocity 0,15 m/s

Minimum level of air velocity 0,0 m/s


Maximum level of air velocity 0,23 m/s
Average value of carbon dioxide level 736 ppm
Minimum level of carbon dioxide 582 ppm
Maximum level of carbon dioxide 979 ppm
Average number of people 17 persons
63

Below there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines in table
20.

TABLE 20. Indoor climate parameters in swimming pool


T, oC RH, % CO2, ppm V, m/s
Swimming pool in 29,1 60,4 736 0,15
sport complex
“Samarskiy”
Russian standards 25-30 50-65 - ≤0,2
LVI 06-10451 1,5÷2,5 oC higher ≤60 - 0,15
than the water
temperature

The water temperature was 27,2 oC, it means that the temperature of air meets the
requirements of Russian and Finnish guidelines and standards. From table it is seen that
all parameters meet the requirement of Russian and Finnish standards.

After there were made some calculations and the results are: PMV=2,7; PPD=96,8%;
DR=6,3%. The charts for PPD and PMV values are in the figure 53.

FIGURE 53. PMV and PPD in swimming pool

But the value of PMV and PPD are really big. The reason could be that the calculations
were not correct, due to the metabolic rate. It is difficult to show them on the chart above.
Draught rate value is normal.
64

The figure 54 shows the Mollier chart with the values of air temperature and relative
humidity for swimming pool. The absolute humidity is 15,3 g/kg; dew point temperature
is 20,5oC.

FIGURE 54. The Mollier chart. The determination of absolute humidity in


swimming pool

The measurements of indoor climate conditions in swimming pools are introduced in


Appendix 3. The air temperature and air humidity curves were not stable during all
measuring time. They were fluctuating greatly in the first part of measurements, the
magnitude of temperature and humidity of the second part was uniform. From the chart it
is seen, the value of CO2 concentration is in direct ration to the number of sportsmen. It
means that when the number of visitors raised, the magnitude of CO2 concentration also
increased. The maximum value CO2 concentration reached in the first part of
measurements.
65

8.1.2 Ice arena


The measurements in ice arena were in two points. The results consist of maximum,
minimum and average values. Below there are introduced the most interesting results and
some description of them. The measuring point #1 was chosen for showing the results,
because the magnitudes are equal in these two points. To present the result, the values
were divided into two parts: air temperature and relative humidity; air velocity and CO2
concentration. Below there are tables 21 and 22 for these values.

TABLE 21. The air temperature and relative humidity basic parameters in ice rink
Duration of measurement 2 hours
Interval of samplings 3 minutes
Number of measuring point 2
Average value of air temperature 16,9 °C
Minimum of air temperature 16,2 °C
Maximum of air temperature 17,5 °C
Average value of relative humidity 52,2 %
Minimum of relative humidity 49,7 %
Maximum of relative humidity 58,5%
Outdoor air temperature + 16,1 °C
Relative humidity outdoors 65,7 %

TABLE 22. The air velocity and CO2 concentration basic parameters in ice rink
Number of measuring points 2
Average value of air velocity 0,23 m/s

Minimum level of air velocity 0,0 m/s


Maximum level of air velocity 0,34 m/s
Average value of carbon dioxide level 1054 ppm
Minimum level of carbon dioxide 907 ppm
Maximum level of carbon dioxide 1223 ppm
Average number of people 17 persons
66

Below there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines in table
23.
TABLE 23 Indoor climate parameters in ice rink
T, oC RH, % CO2, ppm V, m/s
“Ice palace” 16,9 52,2 1054 0,23
Russian standards 18 30-45 - ≤0,3
Max 55
jaahallien lampo- 5-17 - - -
ja
kosteustekniikka
suunnittelu- ja
rakennuttamisopas

From table it is seen that temperature and relative humidity in ice rink also don’t meet
the requirement of Russian standards. But it meets the requirements of Finnish
guideline. After there were made some calculations and the results are: PMV=1,18;
PPD=34,3%; DR=38,7%. The charts for PPD and PMV values are in the figure 55.

FIGURE 55. PMV and PPD in ice rink

But the value of PMV and PPD are a bit big. The reason could be that the calculations were
not correct, due to the metabolic rate. Draught rate value is also a bit big.

The figure 56 shows the Mollier chart with the values of air temperature and relative
humidity for ice rink. The absolute humidity is 6,2 g/kg; dew point temperature is 7,5oC.
67

FIGURE 56. The Mollier chart. The determination of absolute humidity in ice rink

The results of measurements in ice arena are introduced in Appendix 4. From chart the values for
relative humidity and CO2 were at the highest point at the beginning of measurements. Maybe it
relates to the fact that the sensor of the device still showed the values for thermal conditions
outdoors. Because the furthest magnitude of humidity became relatively uniform. The temperature
values were approximately the same during all measuring time. And the frequency of fluctuation
of CO2 concentration depended on the number of sportsmen in the ice arena, it means that when
the number of visitors raised the CO2 concentration also increased.
68

8.2 Finnish sport facilities

This chapter includes the final results of measurements in Finnish sport facilities:
swimming pool, gym and sport hall. All the results are presented in tables, figures and
charts. As it was written before, all Russian standards were combined in one guideline.

8.2.1 Sport hall in D-building

The measurements were in three points. The results were entered to excel file, where the
maximum, minimum and average values were found. Below there are introduced the most
interesting results and some description of them. It was decided to show the results only
for one point. In this case, it is the measuring point #1. To present the result, the values
were divided into two parts: air temperature and relative humidity; air velocity and CO2
concentration. Below there are tables 24 and 25 for these values.

TABLE 24. The air temperature and relative humidity basic parameters in sport
hall in D-building
Duration of measurement 2 hours
Interval of samplings 2 minutes
Number of measuring point 3
Average value of air temperature 19,8 °C
Minimum of air temperature 19,3 °C
Maximum of air temperature 20,7 °C
Average value of relative humidity 40,4 %
Minimum of relative humidity 38,8%
Maximum of relative humidity 43%
Outdoor air temperature + 5,6 °C
Relative humidity outdoors 99,9 %
69

TABLE 25. The air velocity and CO2 concentration basic parameters in sport
hall in D-building
Number of measuring points 3
Average value of air velocity 0,14 m/s

Minimum level of air velocity 0,0 m/s


Maximum level of air velocity 0,43 m/s
Average value of carbon dioxide level 592 ppm
Minimum level of carbon dioxide 493 ppm
Maximum level of carbon dioxide 823 ppm
Average number of people 18 persons

Below there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines in table
26.

TABLE 26 Indoor climate parameters in sport hall


T, oC RH, % CO2, ppm V, m/s
Sport hall in 19,8 40,4 592 0,14
D-building
Russian 15/18 30-60 - ≤0,5
standards
D2 18 - ≤1200 ≤0,3
Finnish ≈20,0, than ≥25, than <750, than S1 ≤0,14, than S1
classification S3 S1

From table it is seen that temperature in sport hall also doesn’t meet the requirement of
Russian standards and D2. It meets the requirements of the strictest guideline Finnish
classification and the category is approximately S3. After there were made some
calculations and the results are: PMV=1,58; PPD=55,3%; DR=0%. The charts for PPD
and PMV values are in the figure 57.
70

FIGURE 57. PMV and PPD in sport hall in D-building

But the value of PMV and PPD are a big. The reason could be that the calculations were
not correct, due to the metabolic rate. Draught rate value is absent.

The figure 58 shows the Mollier chart with the values of air temperature and relative
humidity for sport hall in D-building. The absolute humidity is 5,8 g/kg; dew point
temperature is 6,5oC.

FIGURE 58. The Mollier chart. The determination of absolute humidity in sport
hall in D-building
71

The results of measurements in sport hall in D-building are introduced in Appendix 5.


The chart shows that the temperature and relative humidity didn’t deviate from the average
value in the first part of measurements. The temperature continued to maintain
approximately the same values on the duration of all measurement, but the relative
humidity began to fluctuate insignificantly. It could be due to the increasing number of
visitors, which came to the scheduled workout. The people in the amount of 20 also
influenced the fluctuation of CO2 concentration, which had risen to the end of workout.
72

8.2.2 Gym in U-building

The measurements were made in five points. It was decided to show the results in one
point #4 as in other sport facilities. Below there are introduced the most interesting results
and some description of them. To present the result, the values were divided into two
parts: air temperature and relative humidity; air velocity and CO2 concentration. Below
there are tables 27 and 28 for these values.

TABLE 27. The air temperature and relative humidity basic parameters in gym in
U-building
Duration of measurement 2 hours
Interval of samplings 2 minutes
Number of measuring point 5
Average value of air temperature 20,3 °C
Minimum of air temperature 19,2 °C
Maximum of air temperature 20,8 °C
Average value of relative humidity 39,7 %
Minimum of relative humidity 32,1 %
Maximum of relative humidity 46,5%
Outdoor air temperature + 0,4 °C
Relative humidity outdoors 73,6 %

TABLE 28. The air velocity and CO2 concentration basic parameters in gym in
U-building
Number of measuring points 5
Average value of air velocity 0,05 m/s

Minimum level of air velocity 0,00 m/s


Maximum level of air velocity 0,24 m/s
Average value of carbon dioxide level 908 ppm
Minimum level of carbon dioxide 653 ppm
Maximum level of carbon dioxide 1197 ppm
Average number of people 5 persons
73

Below there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines in table
29.

TABLE 29 Indoor climate parameters in gym


T, oC RH, % CO2, ppm V, m/s
Gym in U- 20,3 39,7 908 0,05
building
Russian 15/18 30-60 - ≤0,5
standards
D2 18 - ≤1200 ≤0,25
Finnish ≈20,0, than ≥25, than S1 ≈ 900, than S2 ≤0,14, than S1
classification S3

From table it is seen that temperature in gym also doesn’t meet the requirement of
Russian standards and D2. It meets the requirements of the strictest guideline Finnish
classification and the category is approximately S1 or S2. After there were made some
calculations and the results are: PMV=1,6; PPD=56,3%; DR=16,1%. The charts for
PPD and PMV values are in the figure 59.

FIGURE 59. PMV and PPD for GYM in U-building

But the value of PMV and PPD are big. The reason could be that the calculations were not
correct, due to the metabolic rate. Draught rate value is normal.

The figure 60 shows the Mollier chart with the values of air temperature and relative
humidity for gym in U-building. The absolute humidity is 5,6 g/kg; dew point temperature
is 6oC.
74

FIGURE 60. The Mollier chart. The determination of absolute humidity in GYM in
U-building

The measurements in GYM in U-building are introduced in Appendix 6. According to chart


the temperature in a whole was stable, but there were some deviations from average value
at the beginning of measurement. What about relative humidity and CO2 concentration,
their magnitudes were not permanent due to the frequent changing of amount of visitors.
And another reason of such fluctuation may be the interest of sportsmen which were
observing the device and its sensor, they were breathing near it creating a large amount of
CO2.
75

8.2.3 Swimming pool “Naisvuoren uimahalli”


The measurements were in two points. The results were entered to excel file, where the
maximum, minimum and average values were found. Below there are introduced the most
interesting results and some description of them. It was decided to show the results only
for one point. In this case, it is the measuring point #1. To present the result, the values
were divided into two parts: air temperature and relative humidity; air velocity and CO2
concentration. Below there are tables 30 and 31 for these values.

TABLE 30. The air temperature and relative humidity basic parameters in
swimming pool
Duration of measurement 2 hours
Interval of samplings 2 minutes
Number of measuring point 2
Average value of air temperature 23,1 °C
Minimum of air temperature 19,4 °C
Maximum of air temperature 25,5°C
Average value of relative humidity 59,8 %
Minimum of relative humidity 46,5 %
Maximum of relative humidity 86,5%
Outdoor air temperature + 7,3 °C
Relative humidity outdoors 74,2 %

TABLE 31. The air velocity and CO2 concentration basic parameters in
swimming pool
Number of measuring points 2
Average value of air velocity 0,14 m/s

Minimum level of air velocity 0,00 m/s


Maximum level of air velocity 0,3 m/s
Average value of carbon dioxide level 648 ppm
Minimum level of carbon dioxide 402ppm
Maximum level of carbon dioxide 1032 ppm
Average number of people 7 persons
76

Below there is a comparison of the results with Russian and Finnish guidelines in table
32.
TABLE 32 Indoor climate parameters in swimming pool area
T, oC RH, % CO2, ppm V, m/s
Swimming pool 23,1 59,8 648 0,14
Russian standards 25-30 50-65 - ≤0,2
LVI 06-10451 1,5÷2,5 oC higher ≤60 - 0,15
than the water
temperature
(about 27,5÷30,5)

Water temperature is 26,8oC, and it doesn’t meet any Russian or Finnish requirement,
because the temperature of air, according to Finnish guidelines should be 1,5÷2,5 oC
higher than the temperature of water. And according to Russian standards the
temperature of air should be 1÷2oC higher than the temperature of water. The
recommended value of water temperature in sport swimming pools is 26÷28. Therefore,
the temperature of air should be 27,5÷30,5 oC.

From table it is seen that temperature in swimming pool also doesn’t meet the
requirement of Russian standards and LVI 06-10451. After there were made some
calculations and the results are: PMV=1,82; PPD=68,1%; DR=12,8%. The charts for
PPD and PMV values are in the figure 61.

FIGURE 61. PPD and PMV for swimming pool


But the value of PMV and PPD are big. The reason could be that the calculations were not
correct, due to the metabolic rate. Draught rate value is normal.
77

The figure 62 shows the Mollier chart with the values of air temperature and relative
humidity for swimming pool. The absolute humidity is 10,6 g/kg; dew point temperature
is 15oC.

FIGURE 62. The Mollier chart. The determination of absolute humidity in


swimming pool

The results of measurements in swimming pool are introduced in Appendix 7. Firstly about
temperature curve, it is seen that it was stable in the first hour of measurement, but then the
temperature had risen a bit and again remained stable. What about relative humidity, at the
beginning it had the maximum value, but it could be due that the device with the sensor
was brought from outside where the relative humidity is too high. And subsequently the
value of relative humidity began to decrease and became stable at the value of 50%. But
the magnitude of CO2 concentration is very difficult to explain, because it is not somehow
related to the amount of people, which was often changing. Only the highest level of CO2
concentration was when the number of people was maximum.
78

8.3 Comparison of the results

Below there is a table 33 where all results of calculations are combined.

TABLE 33. Comparison of the results in different sport facilities


Sport facility PMV PPD,% DR,% Absolute
humidity, g/kg
Russian
Sport hall 1,6 56,4 15,2 6,1
Gym 1,51 51% 18,7 5,6
Swimming pool 2,7 96,8 6,3 15,3
Ice rink 1,18 34,3 38,7 6,2
Finnish
Sport hall 1,58 55,3 0 5,8
Gym 1,6 56,3 16,1 5,6
Swimming pool 1,82 68,1 12,8 10,6

From table it can be made a conclusion, that visitors of sport facilities won’t be satisfied
at all. Maybe such results are received, due to the impossibility to calculate PMV with
higher met values. But the draft rate is normal, except ice rink in Russia. And the
absolute humidity of Russian swimming pool is too high. It means that the ventilation
system does not good enough.

According to the tables of comparisons with standards, swimming pool in Russia has
the best indoor conditions, but the calculations showed that not all aspects are good. The
worst results were in ice rink in Russia, it almost doesn’t meet the requirements, but it’s
PMV and PPD values are better than in other sport facilities. The draft rate exceeds
normal values. But according to GOST R ISO 7730-2009 /27/ the PMV value should be
in the range of values -0,7≤ PMV≤ 0,7. It means that our results don’t satisfy the needed
values.
79

9 DISCUSSION

The study was designed to show what is the indoor climate in Russian and Finnish sport
facilities and to highlight the question of HVAC systems used there. The measurements
were made and the results were got. The comparison of the results with standards and
recommendations also was made and the results were presented in different forms, like
charts, tables and calculations.

The main results showed that not all indoor climate parameters meet the requirements of
guidelines. Specifically, almost all the results have the deviation from Russian standards
and Finnish D2 in temperature values, because they give low values for temperature. There
are also high values for PMV and PPD, that’s why the results show many people
dissatisfied. For such building special HVAC systems should be selected, which will
control and maintain indoor climate parameters in permissible range.

Compared to earlier studies, which were explored in the gym in U-building and sport hall
in D-building, the results of measurements are approximately the same. There were also
the deviations of temperature from the requirements.

The main implication of this study is that approximately all Russian and Finnish sport
facilities meet the requirements and that’s why they are provided with suitable indoor
conditions and HVAC equipment.
80

REFERENCES

1. Nilsson, Per-Erik. Achieving the Desired Indoor Climate. Energy Efficiency


Aspects of System Design. Denmark.: Studentlitteratur , Lund. 2007
2. Building company «Konsol». Engineering systems. 05.06.2014 Ventilation of
fitness centers. WWW
document.http://consoldv.ru/tehnicheskaya_informaciya/ventilyaciya_fizkultkompleksov/
. Updated 20.11.2014. Referred 20.11.2014.
3. Virshillo R. Sports facilities. Design and construction. 1968
4. Heal disease. Medicine and sport. Fundamentals of Hygiene of sports facilities.
WWW document. http://www.healdisease.ru/htns-711-1.html Updated 20.11.2014.
Referred 20.11.2014.
5. Bulekov S.N. The climate comfort in fitness centers. ABOK. 1, 4. 38-42. 2007.
6. Shonina N. A. Specifics of Heating and Ventilation Systems Design in Fitness
Clubs. ABOK. 6, 8. 44-52. 2014
7. Naumov A. L., Kapko D. V. Best National and Foreign Energy Efficient
Engineering Systems. ABOK. 5, 10. 20-30. 2014.
8. Bartenev V.G., Bartenev G.V., Chernov M. Yu. The modernization of the heating
system of sport complex. Energy saving. 3, 4. 42-46. 2005.
9. Kokorin O. Ya. Comparison of air-conditioning systems in terms of energy
efficiency . ABOK, 2, 10. 46-56. 2011.
10. Building company «Kontur». The heating of sport facilities with the infrared
heaters. WWW document. http://nppkontur.hut1.ru/SaveEnergy%20Technologies/
IkoLine/IkoLine%20Technologies14.html. Updated 20.11.2014. Referred 20.09.2014.
11. Building company «Advanced Technologies». The Heating of sports facilities with
EcoLine infrared heaters. WWW document http://www.obogrevatel-volgograd.ru/stati/63-
otoplenie-sportivnyh-uchrezhdenij-infrakrasnymi-obogrevateljami-jekolajn.html.
Updated 20.11.2014. Referred 20.09.2014.
12. Facilities Report 02. A designer’s guide to underfloor heating in sports halls.
13. Gerasimov V. The climate in the pool. The maintenance of swimming pools. The
construction and operation of sports facilities. 78, 6. 64-70. 2012.
14. The recommendations of ABOK. 7.5-2012 “Energy and HVAC environmental
guidelines for the design of indoor swimming pools”. Saint-Petersburg, 2012.
15 Kokorin O. Ya. 2003. Modern air-conditioning system. Moscow,2003
81

16 Pankratov V. V., Shilkin N. V. The features of conditioning of ice arenas. ABOK,8,


12. 24-36. 2009.
17 Denisihina Daria, Kolosnitsyn Andrew, Lukanina Mary 2013. Ice arena in Sochi.
Experience in mathematical modeling. Sustainable building technologies. Summer 2013.
18 The National Building Regulation of Russia. SP 118.13330.2012. An update
edition. “Public buildings and works”. Moscow. 2013
19 The National Building Regulation of Russia. SNIP 31-06-2009. “Public buildings
and works”. Moscow. 2010
20 The National Building Regulation of Russia. SP 31-112-2004. Part 1,2,3. Moscow.
2004.
21 SanPin 1567-76. “Sanitary Regulations of setting up and maintaining of places for
physical culture and sport”. Moscow, 2004.
22 The National Building Regulation of Russia. SP 31.113.2004. An update edition.
“Swimming pools”. Moscow. 2004
23 SanPin 2.1.2.1188-03 “Swimming pool. Hygienic requirements for arrangement,
operation and water quality. Quality control”. Moscow, 2003.
24 D2 National building code of Finland. Indoor climate and ventilation of
buildings.
Helsinki, Finland. Ministry of the Environment on the indoor Climate and ventilation
of buildings. 2002.
25 Classification of Indoor Environment. LVI 05-10440 EN. FSIAQC. Espoo. 2008.
26 LVI 06-10451: 2009 Uimahallen ja virkistysuimaloiden LVIA-suunittelu.
Rakennustietosäätiö RTS.
27 GOST R ISO 7730-2009. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical
determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and
PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. Moscow, Standartinform 2011
28 GOST R ISO 14644-3- 2007. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Instruments
for measuring physical quantities. Moscow, 2007
29 Mikkelin peruskorjausta odottavat kohteet. WWW document. http://www.lansi-
savo.fi/galleria/mikkelin-peruskorjausta-odottavat-kohteet. Updated 25.11.2014. Referred
25.11.2014
30 Jaahallien lampo- ja kosteustekniikka suunnittelu- ja rakennuttamisopas.
Teknillinen korkeakoulu. Suomen jaakiekkoliitto.
82
C˚and %

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
15:33
15:35
15:37
15:39
15:41
15:43
15:45
APPENDIX 1

15:47
15:49
15:51
15:53
15:55
15:57
15:59
16:01
16:03
16:05
16:07
16:09
16:11
16:13
Air temperature and humidity

16:15
16:17
16:19
16:21
16:23
16:25

air humidity
16:27
16:29
16:31
16:33
16:35
16:37
Time, h:m 16:39
16:41
air temperature 16:43
16:45

FIGURE 63. The measurements of air temperature and relative humidity in gym in point #2
16:47
16:49
16:51
16:53
16:55
16:57
16:59
17:01
17:03
17:05
17:07
17:09
17:11
17:13
17:15
17:17
17:19
17:21
17:23
17:25
17:27
17:29
17:31
17:33
82
CO2

-
1 000,0

100,0
200,0
300,0
500,0
600,0
700,0
800,0
900,0

400,0
15:33
15:35
15:37
15:39
15:41
15:43
15:45
15:47
15:49
15:51
15:53
15:55
15:57
15:59
16:01
16:03
16:05
Amount of people and CO2

16:07
16:09
16:11
16:13
16:15
16:17
16:19
16:21
16:23
16:25
16:27
16:29
16:31
16:33
16:35

Amount of sportsmen
16:37
Time, h:m 16:39
16:41
16:43

FIGURE 64. The measurements of air velocity and CO2 concentration in gym in point #2
CO2 16:45
16:47
16:49
16:51
16:53
16:55
16:57
16:59
17:01
17:03
17:05
17:07
17:09
17:11
17:13
17:15
17:17
17:19
17:21
17:23
17:25
17:27
17:29
17:31
17:33
-
5
10
15
20
25
30
83

Amount of people
C˚and %

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
13:06
13:08
13:10
13:12
13:14
13:16
13:18
APPENDIX 2

13:20
13:22
13:24
13:26
13:28
13:30
13:32
13:34
13:36
13:38
13:40
13:42
13:44
13:46
Air temperature and humidity

13:48
13:50
13:52
13:54
13:56
13:58

air humidity
14:00
14:02
14:04
14:06
14:08
Time, h:m 14:10
14:12
14:14
air temperature 14:16
14:18
14:20
FIGURE 65. The measurements of air temperature and relative humidity in sport hall in point #3 14:22
14:24
14:26
14:28
14:30
14:32
14:34
14:36
14:38
14:40
14:42
14:44
14:46
14:48
14:50
14:52
14:54
14:56
14:58
15:00
15:02
84

15:04
15:06
CO2

-
1 000,0

100,0
200,0
300,0
400,0
500,0
600,0
700,0
800,0
900,0
13:06
13:08
13:10
13:12
13:14
13:16
13:18
13:20
13:22
13:24
13:26
13:28
13:30
13:32
13:34
13:36
13:38
Amount of people and CO2

13:40
13:42
13:44
13:46
13:48
13:50
13:52
13:54
13:56
13:58
14:00
14:02
14:04
14:06
14:08

Amount of sportsmen
14:10
Time, h:m
14:12
14:14
14:16
CO2 14:18
14:20
14:22
14:24
14:26
14:28
14:30
14:32
14:34
14:36
FIGURE 66. The measurements of air velocity and CO2 concentration in sport hall in point #3

14:38
14:40
14:42
14:44
14:46
14:48
14:50
14:52
14:54
14:56
14:58
15:00
15:02
15:04
15:06
-
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
20

18
85

Amount of people
C˚and %

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
18:21
18:23
18:25
18:27
18:29
18:31
18:33
APPENDIX 3

18:35
18:37
18:39
18:41
18:43
18:45
18:47
18:49
18:51
18:53
18:55
18:57
18:59
19:01
Air temperature and humidity

19:03
19:05
19:07
19:09
19:11
19:13

air humidity
19:15
19:17
19:19
19:21
19:23
19:25
Time, h:m 19:27
19:29
air temperature 19:31
19:33
19:35
19:37
19:39
19:41
19:43
FIGURE 67. The measurements of air temperature and relative humidity in swimming pool in point #2

19:45
19:47
19:49
19:51
19:53
19:55
19:57
19:59
20:01
20:03
20:05
20:07
20:09
20:11
20:13
20:15
20:17
86

20:19
20:21
CO2

-
1 000,0
1 200,0

200,0
400,0
600,0
800,0
18:21
18:23
18:25
18:27
18:29
18:31
18:33
18:35
18:37
18:39
18:41
18:43
18:45
18:47
18:49
18:51
18:53
Amount of people and CO2

18:55
18:57
18:59
19:01
19:03
19:05
19:07
19:09
19:11
19:13
19:15
19:17
19:19
19:21
19:23

Amount of sportsmen
19:25
Time, h:m 19:27
19:29
19:31
CO2 19:33
19:35
19:37
19:39
19:41
FIGURE 68. The measurements of air velocity and CO2 concentration in swimming pool in point #2
19:43
19:45
19:47
19:49
19:51
19:53
19:55
19:57
19:59
20:01
20:03
20:05
20:07
20:09
20:11
20:13
20:15
20:17
20:19
20:21
-
5
10
15
20
25
87

Amount of people
C˚and %

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
14:05
14:07
14:09
14:11
14:13
14:15
14:17
APPENDIX 4

14:19
14:21
14:23
14:25
14:27
14:29
14:31
14:33
14:35
14:37
14:39
14:41
14:43
14:45
Air temperature and humidity

14:47
14:49
14:51
14:53
14:55
14:57

air humidity
14:59
15:01
15:03
15:05
15:07
Time, h:m 15:09
15:11
15:13
air temperature 15:15
15:17
15:19
FIGURE 69. The measurements of air temperature and relative humidity in ice rink in point #1 15:21
15:23
15:25
15:27
15:29
15:31
15:33
15:35
15:37
15:39
15:41
15:43
15:45
15:47
15:49
15:51
15:53
15:55
15:57
15:59
16:01
88

16:03
16:05
CO2

-
1 000,0
1 200,0
1 400,0

200,0
400,0
600,0
800,0
14:05
14:07
14:09
14:11
14:13
14:15
14:17
14:19
14:21
14:23
14:25
14:27
14:29
14:31
14:33
14:35
14:37
Amount of people and CO2

14:39
14:41
14:43
14:45
14:47
14:49
14:51
14:53
14:55
14:57
14:59
15:01
15:03
15:05
15:07

Amount of sportsmen
15:09
Time, h:m 15:11
15:13
15:15
15:17
CO2

FIGURE 70. The measurements of air velocity and CO2 concentration in ice rink in point #1
15:19
15:21
15:23
15:25
15:27
15:29
15:31
15:33
15:35
15:37
15:39
15:41
15:43
15:45
15:47
15:49
15:51
15:53
15:55
15:57
15:59
16:01
16:03
16:05
-
2
4
6
8
89

10
12
14
18
20

16

Amount of people
C˚and %

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
45
50

40
16:15
16:17
16:19
16:21
16:23
16:25
16:27
APPENDIX 5

16:29
16:31
16:33
16:35
16:37
16:39
16:41
16:43
16:45
16:47
16:49
16:51
16:53
16:55
16:57
16:59
17:01
17:03
17:05
17:07

air humidity
17:09
17:11
17:13
17:15
17:17
Time, h:m 17:19
17:21
17:23
17:25
air temperature
Air temperature and humidity

17:27
17:29
17:31
17:33
17:35
17:37
17:39
17:41
FIGURE 71. The measurements of air temperature and relative humidity in sport hall in point #1

17:43
17:45
17:47
17:49
17:51
17:53
17:55
17:57
17:59
18:01
18:03
18:05
18:07
18:09
18:11
90

18:13
18:15
CO2

-
100,0
200,0
300,0
400,0
500,0
700,0
800,0
900,0

600,0
16:15
16:17
16:19
16:21
16:23
16:25
16:27
16:29
16:31
16:33
16:35
16:37
16:39
16:41
16:43
16:45
16:47
16:49
16:51
16:53
16:55
16:57
16:59
17:01
17:03
17:05
17:07
17:09
17:11
17:13
17:15
17:17

Amount of sportsmen
17:19
Amount of people and CO2

Time, h:m 17:21


17:23
17:25
CO2 17:27
17:29
17:31
FIGURE 72. The measurements of air velocity and CO2 concentration in sport hall in point #1 17:33
17:35
17:37
17:39
17:41
17:43
17:45
17:47
17:49
17:51
17:53
17:55
17:57
17:59
18:01
18:03
18:05
18:07
18:09
18:11
18:13
18:15
-
5
10
15
20
25
30
91

Amount of people
C˚and %

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
15:10
15:12
15:14
15:16
15:18
15:20
15:22
APPENDIX 6

15:24
15:26
15:28
15:30
15:32
15:34
15:36
15:38
15:40
15:42
15:44
15:46
15:48
15:50
Air temperature and humidity

15:52
15:54
15:56
15:58
16:00
16:02

air humidity
16:04
16:06
16:08
16:10
16:12
Time, h:m
16:14
16:16
16:18
air temperature 16:20
16:22
16:24
16:26
16:28
16:30
16:32
FIGURE 73. The measurements of air temperature and relative humidity in gym in point #4

16:34
16:36
16:38
16:40
16:42
16:44
16:46
16:48
16:50
16:52
16:54
16:56
16:58
17:00
17:02
17:04
17:06
92

17:08
17:10
CO2

-
1 000,0
1 200,0
1 400,0

200,0
400,0
800,0

600,0
15:10
15:12
15:14
15:16
15:18
15:20
15:22
15:24
15:26
15:28
15:30
15:32
15:34
15:36
15:38
15:40
15:42
15:44
15:46
15:48
15:50
15:52
15:54
15:56
15:58
16:00
16:02
16:04
16:06
16:08
16:10
16:12

Amount of sportsmen
16:14
Time, h:m 16:16
16:18
16:20
16:22
Amount of people and CO2

CO2
16:24
16:26
16:28
16:30
16:32
16:34
FIGURE 74. The measurements of air velocity and CO2 concentration in gym in point #4

16:36
16:38
16:40
16:42
16:44
16:46
16:48
16:50
16:52
16:54
16:56
16:58
17:00
17:02
17:04
17:06
17:08
17:10
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
93

Amount of people
C˚and %

100

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
13:25
13:27
13:29
13:31
13:33
13:35
APPENDIX 7

13:37
13:39
13:41
13:43
13:45
13:47
13:49
13:51
13:53
13:55
13:57
13:59
14:01
14:03
14:05
14:07
14:09
14:11
14:13
14:15
14:17

air humidity
14:19
14:21
14:23
14:25
14:27
Time, h:m
14:29
14:31
14:33
air temperature 14:35
Air temperature and humidity

14:37
14:39
14:41
14:43
14:45
FIGURE 75. The measurements of air temperature and relative humidity in swimming pool in point #1

14:47
14:49
14:51
14:53
14:55
14:57
14:59
15:01
15:03
15:05
15:07
15:09
15:11
15:13
15:15
15:17
15:19
15:21
94

15:23
15:25
CO2

-
1 000,0
1 200,0

200,0
400,0
600,0
800,0
13:25
13:27
13:29
13:31
13:33
13:35
13:37
13:39
13:41
13:43
13:45
13:47
13:49
13:51
13:53
13:55
13:57
13:59
14:01
14:03
14:05
14:07
14:09
14:11
14:13
14:15
14:17
14:19
14:21
14:23
14:25
14:27

Amount of sportsmen
14:29
Amount of people and CO2

Time, h:m
14:31
14:33
14:35
14:37
CO2 14:39
14:41
14:43
14:45
14:47
FIGURE 76. The measurements of air velocity and CO2 concentration in swimming pool in point #1
14:49
14:51
14:53
14:55
14:57
14:59
15:01
15:03
15:05
15:07
15:09
15:11
15:13
15:15
15:17
15:19
15:21
15:23
15:25
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
95

Amount of people

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