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THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

VOLGOGRAD STATE UNIVERSITY

L.I. KARPOVA

PRACTISE READING NEWSPAPERS

VOLGOGRAD
2005

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Рецензенты:
О.Р. Валуйская – к.ф.н., доцент каф. английской филологии ВолГУ.

Л.И. Карпова
Учимся читать газеты.
Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов второго курса отделений
«международные отношения» и «регионоведение». – Вогоград, 2004.

Предлагаемое пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса


отделений «международные отношения» и «регионоведение» и нацелено
на развитие навыков чтения, понимания и перевода газетных статей
политической тематики, а также на использование лексики,
встречающейся в статьях, в речи студентов (в форме беседы по
содержанию текстов и монологических высказываний по обсуждаемым
темам).
Пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы
студентов, уже владеющих основными грамматическими и лексическими
языковыми навыками.

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От составителя:

Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для


студентов второго курса, специализирующихся на международных
отношениях и регионоведении и владеющих основными
грамматическими и лексическими навыками.
Пособие расчитано на 30 аудиторных часов, но может быть
использовано и для самостоятельной работы студентов дома (как пособие
по домашнему чтению).
Цель пособия – развитие навыков чтения, понимания и перевода
газетных статей политической тематики, а также использование лексики,
встречающейся в статьях, в речи студентов (в форме беседы по
содержанию текстов и монологических высказываний по обсуждаемым
темам).
Пособие состоит из двух частей и глоссария. Первая часть имеет
целью ознакомить студентов с основной лексикой, используемой при
изложении содержания газетных статей. Она включает задания,
направленные на то, чтобы научить студентов передавать основное
содержание газетной статьи, а также задания, имеющие целью отработку
в речи некоторых лексических моделей. Некоторые задания первой
части направлены на развитие навыков перевода, в том числе и с
русского языка на английский.
Вторая часть включает аутентичные газетные статьи, взятые с
соответствующих сайтов в интернете. Каждая статья сопровождается
тремя заданиями: первое акцентирует внимание на лексической стороне
текста, второе направлено на понимание содержания, третье
формулирует проблему, по которой необходимо подготовить
выступление.
Данное пособие должно выработать у студентов навыки
самостоятельной работы с газетным материалом.

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CONTENTS:

PRE-READING SECTION

READING SECTION

GLOSSARY

LITERATURE

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PRE-READING SECTION

Activity 1. Practising basic vocabulary.

A. Introduction.

Task 1. Complete the sentences with the following possible endings and
translate them into Russian.

1. Reading today’s newspaper I came across an article on…


 the development of trade relations between Great Britain and France.
 cooperation between Italy and Denmark in science and technology.
 the coming general election.
2. The author of the article made a review of…
 the situation in the Middle East.
 the history of the relations between Great Britain and the United States.
 economic development in Spain.
 the debates in the House of Commons.
3. In his report Professor Johnson dwelt on…
 the problem of disarmament.
 the problems connected with the introduction of market economy.
 the government’s economic policy.
 the proposals made by some members of Parliament.
 the new achievements in science and technology.
4. According to the BBC…
 a new trade agreement has been signed as a result of the talks.
 the problem has not yet been solved.
 the policy of the ruling party has been strongly criticized.
5. The editorial says that…
 the troops have been withdrawn from the occupied territory.
 a cease-fire agreement has been signed.
 the Government is going to maintain its nuclear missile program.
 the new economic treaty is based on mutual benefit.
 there are good prospects for the development of foreign trade.
6. The newspaper carries an article devoted to…
 the development of cultural relations between the two countries.
 space exploration.
 the introduction of market economy.
 the problems connected with privatization.

Task 2. Complete the sentences with your own endings.

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1. Reading today’s newspaper I 4. According to the BBC…
came across an article on… 5. The leading article says that…
2. The author of the article made a 6. The newspaper carries an
review of… article devoted to…
3. In his report the Prime Minister
dwelt on…

B. Rendering the main ideas of the article.

Task 3. . Complete the sentences with the following possible endings and
translate them into Russian.

1. The Prime Minister declared that the Government would take steps to…
 introduce a market economy system.
 reduce inflation.
 raise the standard of living.
 free the hostages.
 preserve peace and stability.
2. The Opposition leader said the Government was responsible for…
 the worsening economic situation in the country.
 the growing inflation.
 the worsening relations with the neighbouring countries.
 the increasing crime rate.
3. The speaker calls for…
 privatizing public services.
 settling the dispute in a peaceful way.
 restoring peace in the region.
 appointing another chairman.
 providing economic aid to the new development states.
 taking more effective measures.
4. There are fears that…
 the Government will have to resign.
 the economic program will not be fulfilled.
 the plan will be rejected.
 the conference will be cancelled.
 diplomatic relations will be broken off.
5. Reports say that…
 a new economic program has been worked out.
 the conference has been cancelled.
 the Government’s resignation has been accepted.
 the talks have been resumed.

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 the dispute has been settled.
6. The head of the Government accused the opposition forces of…
 trying to disrupt the negotiations.
 trying to prevent the settling of the dispute.
 trying to split the unity of the country.
 violating the agreement.
7. We are interested in…
 ensuring a high standard of living.
 closer economic cooperation with West European countries.
 working out a more effective economic program.
 preserving peace in the region.
 carrying on trade with the countries of that region.
8. It has been confirmed that…
 the ruling party has won 50% of the votes.
 the general election will be held next Thursday.
 the hostages have been freed.
 the tests were carried on successfully.
 the government forces have preserved control over the territory.
9. The President is due to…
 arrive in London on an official visit later this week.
 have talks with the German leadership.
 make a new proposal on disarmament.
 visit a number of countries in the Middle East.
10. The Government’s decision…
 has been supported by most of the population.
 has aroused widespread indignation.
 has been strongly condemned by the Opposition.
 is a threat to democracy.
 will have negative results.
11. The two leaders exchanged views on…
 the situation in the Middle East.
 disarmament.
 the development of economic links.
 establishing closer relations.
12. As a result of the talks…
 a trade agreement was signed.
 they reached agreement on a number of issues.
 a joint economic program was adopted.
13. The policy pursued by the Government is aimed at…
 ensuring peace.
 the privatization of public services.
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 establishing friendly relations with the neighbouring countries.
 raising the standard of living.
 consolidating peace.
14. We stand for…
 introducing a market economy system.
 creating a nuclear-free world.
 reducing inflation.
 maintaining friendly relations with all European states.
 the relaxation of international tension.
15. The delegate proposed that…
 all kinds of nuclear tests should be banned.
 a state of emergency should be declared.
 a cease-fire agreement should be signed.
16. They demanded that…
 the troops should be withdrawn.
 the war prisoners should be exchanged.
 the Government should resign.
 a new government should be formed.
 the spread of nuclear weapons should be banned.
17. He called on the opposition parties…
 to break the deadlock.
 to adopt a joint program.
 to support the proposal.
 to act together.
 to ensure order and security.
18. He considers that…
 it is necessary to reduce inflation.
 the question should be raised at the conference.
 a new trade agreement should be signed.
 unity should be strengthened.
19. The aim of his visit to Cairo is…
 to discuss some issues of mutual interest.
 to adopt a joint economic program.
 to strengthen cultural links.
20. He resigned because…
 his plan was not adopted.
 he wasn’t supported by his colleagues.
 he considered it impossible to work in such conditions.
 he wasn’t interested in his work any more.

Task 4. Complete the sentences with your own endings.


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1. The Prime Minister declared 10. The Government’s decision…
that the Government would take 11. The two leaders exchanged
steps to… views on…
2. The Opposition leader said the 12. As a result of the talks…
Government was responsible 13. The policy pursued by the
for… Government is aimed at…
3. The speaker calls for… 14. We stand for…
4. There are fears that… 15. The delegate proposed that…
5. Reports say that… 16. They demanded that…
6. The head of the Government 17. He called on the opposition
accused the opposition forces parties…
of… 18. He considers that…
7. We are interested in… 19. The aim of his visit to Cairo
8. It has been confirmed that… is…
9. The President is due to… 20. He resigned because…

Activity 2. Additional practice for some vocabulary patterns.

Task 5. Study the following patterns and translate the sentences into English.

1. call on smb. to do smth./ for smth.


2. achieve one’s aim/good results/what one wants
3. prevent smth./smb. from doing smth.
4. be aimed at smth./at doing smth.
5. adopt a resolution/a plan/a proposal/a constitution/a program
6. establish/maintain/re-establish/break off
(diplomatic/economic/trade/cultural) relations
7. propose smth./that smb. should do smth.; make a proposal
8. demand smth./that smb. should do smth./for smth.
9. be responsible for one’s activities/the situation/what has happened
10. arouse smb.’s suspicion/indignation/interest/curiosity
11. settle disputes/questions/arguments/differences; solve problems
12. hold talks/an election/a meeting/a speech
13. threaten smb.(smth.); a threat to smb.(smth.)
14. appoint smb. Deputy Minister/managing director/Ambassador
(to)/head of smth.
16. violate a treaty/an agreement/a rule/a border/the air space of…/traffic
regulations
17. be interested in smth./doing smth.; take an/no interest in; not to take
much interest in smth.

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1. Съезд призвал к разоружению.
2. Выступающий призвал делегатов действовать совместно.
3. Многие делегаты призывали ввести рыночную экономику.
4. Я рад, что вы достигли своей цели.
5. Делегаты достигли соглашения.
6. Он надеялся достигнуть хороших результатов.
7. Необходимо предотвратить новые конфликты.
8. Ничто не помешает ему прийти.
9. Что помешало вам достигнуть соглашения?
10. Надеюсь, что ничто не помешает им выполнить план.
11. Цель переговоров состоит в том, чтобы установить более тесные
экономические связи.
12. Цель его визита состояла в том, чтобы добиться соглашения по этому
вопросу.
13. Политика нового президента направлена на повышение уровня жизни
в стране.
14. Политика министра экономики направлена на снижение инфляции.
15. Когда была принята Декларация независимости?
16. К сожалению, я не могу принять ваше предложение.
17. Конституция была принята примерно 7 лет тому назад.
18. Как они восприняли эту новость?
19. Если бы не вы, резолюцию бы не приняли.
20. Мы поддерживаем экономические отношения со многими странами
мира.
21. Почему были прерваны дипломатические отношения?
22. Мы стоим за восстановление дипломатических отношений.
23. Кто предложил этот план?
24. М-р Браун предложил, чтобы мы подписали документ.
25. Новое предложение министра направлено на снижение инфляции.
26. Кто внес это предложение?
27. Выступающий предложил, чтобы программа была утверждена.
28. Демонстранты требовали радикальных реформ.
29. Многие делегаты требовали, чтобы проблема была срочно решена.
30. На такие книги большой спрос.
31. Многие выступающие требовали, чтобы все виды испытаний
ядерного оружия были запрещены.
32. Кто ответственный за работу?
33. Кто отвечает за организацию конференции?
34. Все мы отвечаем за то, что он сделал.
35. Книга вызвала всеобщий интерес.
36. Новый план вызвал наше любопытство.
37. Новая экономическая программа, разработанная комиссией, вызвада
всеобщий интерес.

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38. Решение правительства повысить цены вызвало всеобщее
возмущение.
39. Вопрос все еще не решен.
40. Необходимо урегулировать разногласия.
41. Проблема все еще решается.
42. Будет трудно решить эту проблему.
43. Где проводилось собрание?
44. Переговоры будут проводиться завтра.
45. М-р Браун собирается произнести речь на завтрашней сессии.
46. Когда будут проводиться следующие всеобщие выборы?
47. Не пытайтесь угрожать ему.
48. Экологическая обстановка в этом районе является угрозой здоровью
людей.
49. Никто из нас ему не угрожал.
50. Кто был назначен заместителем министра?
51. Его назначили послом в Индию.
52. Я предлагаю назначить господина Форда главой комиссии.
53. Когда его назначили директором-распорядителем (исполнительным
директором)?
54. Когда был нарушен договор?
55. Кто нарушил границу?
56. Не нарушайте правила дорожного движения.
57. Воздушное пространство страны было нарушено самолетами
соседнего государства.
58. Мы заинтересованы в подписании этого договора.
59. Обе стороны заинтересованы в экономическом сотрудничестве.
60. Все были заинтересованы в выполнении плана.

Task 6. Insert prepositions or adverbs if necessary.

A. 1. As a result…the talks the two leaders reached agreement…economic and


cultural cooperation. 2. The speaker called…strengthening unity. 3.
Thousands…people demonstrated…protest…the high taxes and the low
standard…living. 4. There is a great demand…workers…various
professions…that region…the country. 5. Many delegates
spoke…support…the new economic program. 6. The speaker said it was
necessary to prevent developing countries…building weapons…mass
destruction. 7. It is possible to improve the economic situation…the
country…reducing inflation. 8. The policy pursued…the new
administration is aimed…reducing the danger…a new war. 9. The two
states broke…diplomatic relations over a border conflict. 10. The lecturer
made a review…the international situation. 11. According…official mass
media the troops will be withdrawn…the occupied territory early next

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week. 12. “Anything new…the situation…the Middle East?” “Nothing
much.” 13. “Did the speaker dwell…the problems connected…the
privatization…railway service?” “Yes, he did.”
B. 1. Speaking…TV the Prime Minister said the opposition forces were
responsible…the unrest…the country. 2. As is reported…Paris, the
negotiations have been broken… . 3. As is clear…the report, the
negotiations are due to be resumed later this month. 4. The cease-fire
agreement is reported to have been violated…both sides. 5. A new
economic plan is being worked… …the commission. 6. Some West
European states are planning to provide economic aid…the states hit…the
disaster. 7. The new violations…the border are a threat…peace…the area.
8. Both sides said they were interested…developing contacts. 9. The
chairman asked the speakers not to go…details. 10. Over six hundred
miners are reported to be…strike. 11. The lecturer was asked to
comment…the problem…disarmament. 12. We expect you to tell
us…detail…the tests which are being carried… …your laboratory. 13.
There is an acute shortage…food supplies…that region. 14. Professor
Dixon addressed…the congress…a speech.

Activity 3. Home task.

Task 7. Translate the following senetences into English using your active
vocabulary.

A. 1. Введение рыночной экономики сделает экономическую ситуацию


в стране еще хуже. 2. В результате приватизации цены в сфере услуг
населению (public service prices) возрастут. 3. Есть множество
проблем, которые не могут быть решены посредством переговоров. 4.
Многие страны против запрета на распространение ядерного оружия.
5. Многие африканские страны имеют оружие массового уничтожения
в своих арсеналах. 6. Восточно-европейские страны против
установления более тесных связей с Западной Европой. 7. Западно-
европейские страны не заинтересованы в импортировании нефти и
газа с Ближнего востока (the Middle East). 8. Развитие торговли с
иностранными государствами способствует росту национальной
экономики. 9. Необходимо защищать демократию и права человека.
10. Ядерная война не может быть предотвращена созданием оружия
массового уничтожения.
B. 1. Как сообщается в средствах массовой информации, переговоры
подошли к концу. 2. Эта программа не может быть выполнена. 3.
Выступающий сделал обзор экономического положения в стране. 4.
Редакционная статья посвящена последней встрече глав государств,
членов ООН. 5. Что нового слышно о ситуации в этом регионе? –
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Ничего особенного. 6. Вчера я встретил интересную статью о новых
достижениях в науке и технике. 7. Наши страны должны установить
более тесные экономические отношения. 8. Если этот план будет
одобрен, он будет способствовать развитию экономики. 9. Многие
выступающие говорят, что они хотят сократить траты на вооружение.
10. Войска были выведены с оккупированной территории.
C. 1. Приватизация сферы услуг (public services) будет способствовать
экономическому развитию. 2. Уровень преступности обычно растет в
периоды политической нестабильности. 3. Многие политики думают,
что наилучший способ улаживания споров посредством силы. 4.
Введение рыночной системы экономики вызовет дальнейшую
инфляцию и сделает уровень жизни еще ниже. 5. Все виды сборов с
населения (public gatherings) следует запретить, потому что они
являются угрозой порядку и безопасности. 6. Ядерные испытания не
улучшают экологическую ситуацию. 7. Правительство предприняло
эффективные меры, чтобы сократить инфляцию. 8. Ситуация в стране
продолжает быть напряженной. 9. Комитет решил обеспечить помощь
странам, пострадавшим во время катастрофы. 10. Обе стороны
заинтересованы в возобновлении переговоров, которые были
прерваны в результате пограничного конфликта.
D. 1. Было решено предоставить кредиты Индии и Китаю. 2. Обе стороны
заинтересованы в восстановлении мира в этом регионе. 3. Отставка
премьер-министра была принята единогласно. 4. Правящая партия
получила большинство голосов. 5. Правительство хотело сохранить
контроль в этом регионе. 6. Как сообщают из Лондона, переговоры
были прерваны. 7. Как ясно из статьи, проблема будет рассмотрена
позднее. 8. В заключение выступающий сказал, что разрабатывается
новая программа сотрудничества. 9. Комиссия пришла к выводу, что
испытания должны быть прекращены. 10. Рабочие забастовали в знак
протеста против высоких цен.

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READING SECTION

Task 8. Read Text 1 and find the English equivalents to tthe following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)обвинить в, (2)отсрочка исполнения, (3)под стражей, (4)вести всои
внутренние дела, (5)предоставить вуверенитет, (6)освобидить людей,
(7)поддержать, (8)учитывая свое собственное знание истории
Ближнего Востока, (9)правительство марионеток, (10)смещать
ориентиры, (11)умолять кого-либо, (12)очевидное обезглавливание,
(13)ужасные сцены, (14)подвергнуться той же участи.
Text 1. Hostage's brother accuses US over freedom moves.
The brother of British hostage Kenneth Bigley today accused the American
government of "sabotaging" moves to free his brother.
Paul Bigley said that his brother had been granted a "stay of execution" by
yesterday's announcement by Iraqi authorities that they would free female
prisoner Dr Rihab Taha - a key demand of the hostage-takers.
But the American authorities in Iraq moved swiftly to say that the former germ
warfare specialist, who is in their custody, would not be freed.
Following the release of a direct video plea from Mr Bigley to ask Prime
Minister Tony Blair to intervene, Paul Bigley today said that the UK and US
should keep out of what should be an internal Iraqi affair.
He said on the BBC Radio 4 Today programme: "Mr Blair can go fishing as
far as I'm concerned. He hasn't got to call or do anything.
"All the powers have to do now is allow the Iraqis to conduct their own
internal affairs the way they should be doing. They have been handed over
sovereignty to conduct their business on a day-to-day basis.
"A judge has made a legal decision to release three people, one female and two
males. The Minister of Justice has endorsed this, and this gentleman published
this on the international news.
"Based on this, together with my personal lobbying in the background in the
Middle East, we had a stay of execution and we have saved my brother's life
for at least 24 hours.
"That was a shadow of light in a big, long, dark, damp, filthy, cold tunnel.
"Now this has been sabotaged."
Mr Bigley asked: "Is this a puppet Government or the Americans moving the
goalposts to suit their own aims again? What is going on here?
"Leave the Iraqis to do their own Iraqi business."
Mr Bigley's captors released a video yesterday in which the 62-year-old
hostage broke down and pleaded with Mr Blair to save his life.
The engineer faces a gruesome execution if his kidnappers' demands are not
met as he is now the only survivor of three men snatched from Baghdad six
days ago.
14 14 14

14
His family have released a statement pleading with the kidnappers to spare Mr
Bigley's life.
Meanwhile, the brutal Tawhid and Jihad group has also released another video
showing the apparent beheading of his fellow hostage, American Jack
Hensley.
The grisly scenes followed the beheading of the third man, American Eugene
Armstrong, shown on an Islamic website on Monday.
The group, led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, had threatened that Mr Bigley
would suffer the same fate if women prisoners are not released from Iraqi jails.
The trio were seized from the garden of their home in the wealthy al-Mansour
district of Baghdad without a struggle last Thursday.
They were working for Middle East-based Gulf Supplies and Commercial
Services. Mr Bigley was just days from retirement.

Task 9. Read Text 1 again and answer the following questions:


1. What is the reason for a “stay of execution”announced by Iraqi
authorities?
2. What do the Iraqis demand?
3. What is there on the video released by Tawhid and Jihad group?
4. What can happent to Mr. Bigley?

Task 9. Speak on the problems of hostages giving examples from Text 1.

Task 10. Read Text 2 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)защищать свободу прессы, (2)осуждать, (3)быть застреленым,
(4)оказывать сопротивление чему-либо, (5)выполнять свой долг,
(6)остаться безнаказанным, (7)отдать кого-либо под суд.

Text 2. UNESCO chief condemns murder of Dominican journalist.

Continuing its campaign to defend press freedom in the face of political or


criminal attacks, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) today condemned the murder of yet another
journalist, a Dominican reporter gunned down just after completing a
broadcast on a provincial crime wave.
Juan Andújar, a correspondent with the Santo-Domingo-based daily Listín
Diario, was shot dead after a radio broadcast on a crime wave that has shaken
the southern town of Azua.
“By taking a stand against the gangs waging terror, Juan Andújar was carrying
out his duty as a journalist and a citizen,” UNESCO Director-General Koïchiro
Matsuura said. “Juan Andújar breached the silence, and we in turn must speak
out. His killers must not benefit from our silence.

15 15 15

15
“A journalist did not want criminal acts to go unpunished and we must not
allow the worst of crimes – the murder of this journalist – to go unpunished,”
he added, calling for everything possible to be done to bring those responsible
to justice.
Mr. Matsuura’s condemnation was just the latest of many he has issued so far
this year on the murder of journalists around the world.

Task 11. Read Text 2 again and render the main ideas of it using the active
vocabulary.

Task 12. Read Text 3 and find the English equivalents to the following Russian
vocabulary:
(1)в попытке (что-то сделать), (2)идти по следу контробанды,
(3)неразрешенное приобретение, снабжение, владение, использование,
передача или распродажа, (4)укреплять ядерную безопасность,
(5)предупредительные меры (усилия), (6)подлежать более полному
обзору и подтверждению, (7)выпуск новостей, (8)отслеживаться в базе
данных, (9)чтобы улучшить программу.

Text 3. In bid to prevent nuclear terrorism, UN agency tracks illicit


trafficking.

Stepping up its efforts to prevent nuclear and radiological terrorism, the


United Nations atomic watchdog agency says that as of today close to 60 new
potentially illicit trafficking incidents have been reported just since the
beginning of the year.
These include possible cases of unauthorized acquisition, provision,
possession, use, transfer or disposal of nuclear material and other radioactive
material.
Participants to the 48th International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General
Conference being held in Vienna this week have received an overview of how
the Agency’s Illicit Trafficking Database, comprising information confirmed
by states on illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, helps
strengthen nuclear security.
In a report to the Agency’s Board of Governors last week, IAEA Director-
General Mohamed ElBaradei warned that although preventive efforts continue
to accelerate and expand, “clearly, the circumstances that first led to a plan for
protection against nuclear and radiological terrorism have not diminished.”
Some 540 illicit incidents spanning the past decade were reported through
December, 2003, but “as of today, the number is closer to 600, subject to fuller
review and confirmation,” the IAEA said in a news release.
Several hundred additional incidents, reported in open sources but not
confirmed by states, are also tracked in the IAEA database but not included in

16 16 16

16
the confirmed statistics. Of the 540 confirmed cases as of December, 182
involved nuclear material, 330 radioactive material other than nuclear, 23 both
nuclear and other radioactive material, and five other material.
The database includes reported incidents from the 80 participating Member
States. Non-participating States are urged to join the Database in order to
enhance the programme.

Task 13. Read Text 3 again and determine whether the statements are true or
false. Correct the false tsatements.
1. Only 10 new potentially illicit trafficking incidents have been reported just
since the beginning of the year.
2. The 48th International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference
was held in London.
3. IAEA Director-General said that the circumstances that first led to a plan
for protection against nuclear and radiological terrorism have not
diminished.”
4. Today it is confirmed that the number of illicit incidents is closer to 600.
5. The database includes reported incidents from the 180 participating
Member States.

Task 14. Speak on efforts taken to prevent nuclear terrorism, using ideas from
Text 3.

Task 15. Read Text 4 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)взять обязательство перед прессой, (2) объявить супружескую
неверность преступлением, (3)сделать что-либо правонарушением,
(4)публичное примирение, (5)резкий поворот на 180 градусов,
(6)уголовный кодекс, (7)враждебное общественное мнение, (8)„класть
под сукно‟ меры, (9)вмешиваться во внутреннюю политику,
(10)первоначально поддерживать, (11)настороженное общественное
мнение, (12)отвлечь внимание от, (13)принять один закон.

Text 4. Turkey back on track for EU membership.


Turkey's long battle for EU membership was back on track yesterday, after
Ankara pledged to press ahead with key reforms and backed down over plans
to criminalise adultery.
The breakthrough came after pledges from the Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip
Erdogan, that the parliament would approve the reforms on Sunday - without
controversial moves to make adultery an offence.

17 17 17

17
Yesterday's public reconciliation marked a considerable turnaround after a
fortnight during which Brussels and Ankara rowed in public.
Using unusually explicit language, the European commissioner for
enlargement, Günther Verheugen, said that Mr Erdogan's assurances during
talks in Brussels meant there were "no more obstacles on the table", and he
would "make a very clear recommendation" in a crucial report due on 6
October.
If the Turkish parliament votes in favour of reform of the penal code on
Sunday, the Commission is almost certain to recommend the start of
negotiations on EU membership. That would be an important landmark in
Turkey's 41-year battle to take part in European integration.
Mr Verheugen's document will be used by EU leaders, who have the final say
on whether to start EU membership negotiations with Ankara. Providing Mr
Erdogan can deliver on his promise, he should also win approval for the start
of talks from EU leaders in December.
With a mainly Muslim population of 70 million, and acute poverty in regions
near the borders with Iraq, Turkey will not be easy for the EU to absorb. But
the governments of all the big EU member states favour the start of talks on
Turkish accession, even if public opinion in several of them is hostile.
Ankara had shelved the measures following a move from Mr Erdogan's
Islamic-rooted party to insert into the new penal code a law criminalising
adultery. The row had raised tensions ahead of the Commission's report and
six EU foreign ministers warned Turkey that criminalising adultery would
damage its bid for membership talks. The European said that the penal code
was an implicit part of Turkey's reform efforts. Mr Erdogan responded by
telling Brussels not to meddle in internal Turkish politics.
Yesterday Mr Erdogan, who initially backed the adultery measure, gave clear
assurances that his Justice and Development Party would support the new
penal code. He said: "No item which is not already included in the draft of the
Turkish criminal code will be included and, I mean by that, the issue of
adultery."
Despite the strong political support for a start for talks with Turkey, public
opinion in France, Germany and Austria is wary. The recent row has
galvanised politicians who are sceptical about the country joining the EU, and
some critics believe that the dispute over adultery was manufactured in Ankara
to divert attention from other human rights issues.
Yesterday the French Prime Minister, Jean-Pierre Raffarin, told The Wall
Street Journal: "We are not doubting the good faith of Mr Erdogan, but to
what extent can today's and tomorrow's governments make Turkish society
embrace Europe's human rights values?"
But Turkey's negotiations with the EU are likely to take up to a decade to
complete, and Mr Erdogan said this would give Turks time to achieve a
"change in their way of thinking".

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He added: "This will not be as easy as adopting a piece of legislation but
during the course of negotiations it will be settled."

Task 16. Read Text 4 again and answer the following questions:
1. How did the plans to criminalise adultery influence the problem of
Turkey‟s membership in the UN?
2. What did the Prime Minister say during talks in Brussels?
3. What‟s the most important reason for starting negotiations?
4. What do big UN member staes think of these talks?
5. What did Mr Erdogan say about the new penal code?
6. Why are some galvanised politicians sceptical about the country joining
the EU?

Task 17. Speak on the importance of passing or rejecting some pieces of


legislation using the ideas from Text 4.

Task 18. Read Text 5 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)проникнуть на территории военного поста, (2)устроить засаду для
патруля, (3)быть тяжело раненым, (4)быть предпринятым совместно
(кем-то), (5)смелая партизанская операция, (6)запустить ракету в,
(7)военные транспортные средства, (8)выпустить минометный снаряд
на, (9)сносить.

Text 5. Six die in Palestinian raid on Gaza army post.


Three Israeli soldiers and three Palestinian gunmen were killed yesterday in
battles near the Gaza Strip settlement of Morag. The clash came a day after a
woman suicide bomber killed two Israeli border police guards at a Jerusalem
bus stop.
The militants infiltrated a military post early yesterday under cover of thick
fog and ambushed a patrol. In an intensive exchange of fire, an Israeli captain
and two sergeants were shot dead and a fourth soldier was critically wounded.
Other troops rushed out and killed two of the gunmen, who were armed with
AK-47 assault rifles and grenades. They hunted down and killed a third, who
was hiding among settlement greenhouses. Soldiers later found an unexploded
bomb. A Palestinian sniper wounded Itzik Saban, one of a party of Israeli
reporters touring the site.
The Morag raid was mounted jointly by three militant groups associated with
Fatah, Islamic Jihad and Hamas. The official Palestinian Authority website
celebrated it as a "courageous guerrilla operation".
Elsewhere in the Gaza Strip, an Israeli helicopter fired a missile into the Khan
Yunis refugee camp, wounding 12 Palestinians, including a 13-year-old boy.
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19
An 11-year-old girl died in hospital yesterday after being shot in the head by
an Israeli sniper on 7 September.
Palestinian witnesses reported that about 20 military vehicles invaded the
refugee camp yesterday after militants fired a mortar shell at the neighbouring
settlement of Neve Dekalim. Israeli army bulldozers then demolished five
houses and partly demolished seven homes.

Task 19. Read Text 5 again and render the main ideas of it using the active
vocabulary.

Task 20. Read Text 6 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)осуждаться, (2)сбрасывать ядерные/радиоактивные отходы,
(3)обедневшая бывшая советская республика, (4)уран используемый в
реакторе, (5)для реализации, (6)экономически осуществимо,
(7)перерабатывать остатки, (8)сократить запасы на месте,
(9)консультант (чей-то), (10)возмутительно с моральной точки зрения.

Text 6. British nuclear waste to be sent to Central Asia.


British Nuclear Fuels plans to ship 1,800 tons of radioactive materials to
Kyrgyzstan for reprocessing, in a scheme that has been condemned as "a back-
door route to dump British nuclear waste on an impoverished former Soviet
republic".
The company defended the decision, which will recover 90 tons of reactor-
grade uranium while, in effect, removing 10,600 drums of slightly radioactive
waste from its Springfields reactor plant near Preston, in north-west England,
for disposal in a uranium mine in the central Asian country.
The plan was condemned by activists who pointed out that it would be
simpler, and cheaper, to buy fresh uranium directly from the mine.
A spokesman for BNFL Springfields said it was "economically viable to
process these residues and extract the uranium, and a benefit is it will reduce
the store on site". He said British Energy, which runs the Magnox power
stations which would need the fuel, would buy the extracted uranium.
Pete Roche, a consultant to the environmental pressure group Greenpeace said
it was "morally objectionable" to send British nuclear products abroad "any
way you look at it".

Task 21. Read Text 6 again and ask questions in order to get the following
answers.
1. 1,800 tons. 4. It would be simpler, and
2. 90 tons. cheaper, to buy fresh uranium
3. North-west England. directly from the mine.
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20
5. The Magnox power stations. 6. Pete Roche.

Task 22. Speak on the problem of nuclear waste and its effect on the
envioronment using the facts mentioned in Text 6.

Task 23. Read Text 7 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)накрывающие бункеры бомбы, (2)авиабомбы, (3)подтвердить
(повторить) свою решимость, (4)вопреки чему-либо, (5)решающий шаг
по направлению к чему-либо, (6)в чисто гражданских целях, (7)совсем
нет, (8)крупнейшие в мире запасы нефти, (9)приостановить испытания,
(10)истребитель, (11)проникать на глубину 30 футов, (12)дальнобойные
истребители-бомбардировщики Ф-16, (13)быть размещенным против
других потенциальных врагов, (14)хранить современное оружие в
укрепленных подземных базах.
Text 7. US offers 500 'bunker-busting' bombs to Israel.
The United States is planning to sell Israel 500 "bunker busting" bombs which
could destroy Iran's underground nuclear stores and laboratories. Security
sources in Tel Aviv said yesterday that they would be part of a $319m
(£178m) package of air-launched bombs paid for by American military aid.
The news came on the same day that Iran reiterated its determination to
continue its uranium enrichment programme in defiance of the United Nations
watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Gholamreza
Aghazadeh, the head of Iran's Atomic Energy Organisation, told reporters at
the IAEA's Vienna headquarters that they had begun converting 37 tons of raw
"yellowcake" uranium for use in nuclear centrifuges, which is seen as a crucial
step towards the bomb. "Some of the 37 tons have been used," he said. "The
tests have been successful, but they have to be continued."
Western diplomats are not convinced by Tehran's insistence that the
programme is purely for civilian purposes, not least because Iran has some of
the world's largest oil reserves. It hardly needs nuclear power stations.
Mohamed ElBaradei, the IAEA director, again called on Iran to suspend the
tests.
The bunker busters are guided by lasers or satellites. They can be launched
from Israel's advanced fleet of American F-15 fighters, which took part in the
1981 bombing of Saddam Hussein's Osirak reactor. They can penetrate up to
30 feet of earth and concrete.
Israel has also recently taken delivery of a squadron of modern, long-range F-
16 fighter bombers that could carry the new weapons.
Israel, with a widely estimated 100 to 200 warheads, is the only Middle East
state known to have nuclear weapons.

21 21 21

21
The weapons could also be deployed against other potential enemies, such as
Syria, Egypt and Iraq, which have been storing advanced weapons in
reinforced facilities underground.

Task 24. Read Text 7 again and complete the following sentences:
1. "Bunker busting" bombs which could destroy…
2. Iran's Atomic Energy Organisation had begun converting…
3. The programme is not at all for civilian purposes because…
4. American F-15 fighters took part in the bombing of…
5. The weapons could be deployed against such potential enemies as…

Task 25. Speak on the problems of military and civilian purposes of using
atomic enery giving examples from Text 7.

Task 26. Read Text 8 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)столкнуться с наложением международных санкций, (2)разъяснять,
(3)злоупотребление правами человека, (4)дипломатические пререкания,
(5)воздерживаться, (6)грабить, (7)поддерживать
дислоцирование…войск.
Text 8. UN threatens Sudan with sanctions over Darfur.
The United Nations last night told the government in Khartoum that it risked
being hit with international sanctions if it failed to act immediately to end the
violence in Darfur and co-operate with the African Union monitoring mission.
A resolution adopted by the UN Security Council spelt out that unless the
killing stops, the world body "shall consider taking additional measures ...
such as actions to affect Sudan's petroleum sector and the Government of
Sudan or individual members of the Government of Sudan". It also authorises
the UN to create a commission to investigate human rights abuses in Sudan
and determine whether or not genocide has occurred.
It was not a unified council that delivered the warning, however. After days of
diplomatic wrangling, the resolution was passed by 11 votes with four
countries abstaining. China had threatened to veto the text, which it said was
too harsh on Khartoum.
About 50,000 people have been killed in Darfur and 1.2 million have been
forced from their homes since Arab militias began killing, raping and pillaging
local farming families and their villages.
Russia, Algeria and Pakistan were the other countries to abstain in the vote.
The resolution endorses the deployment of African Union troops to the area to
act as a buffer.

Task 27. Read Text 8 again and answer the folowing questions:
22 22 22

22
1. Who does the government in Khartoum have to cooperate with?
2. What measures may the UN Security Council take?
3. In what way did oppinions on the problem differ?
4. What are the cases of human rights abuses?

Task 28. Speak on the problem of human rights abuses and the UN sanctions
on the basis of the informatiom from Text 8.

Task 29. Read Text 9 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)голоса, отданные на…выборах, (2)претендент, (3)сдаваться,
(4)подсчет голосов, (5)недостатки правительства,
(6)децентрализовать управление страной, (7)быть более восприимчивым
к нуждам людей, (8)укреплять чью-либо уверенность, (9)быть
недооцененным, (10)справиться с терроризмом, (11)быть под
тяжестью чего-либо, (12)свирепствующая коррупция, (13)выбрать
новый законодательный орган.
Text 9. President refuses to acknowledge election defeat.
Indonesia's president Megawati Sukarnoputri has refused to acknowledge
defeat in this week's national elections.
With 104 million of the estimated 120 million votes cast in Monday's elections
counted, challenger Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono had 61 per cent to
Megawati's 39 per cent, according to the General Election Commission.
Despite this, Megawati said she would not concede until official results were
announced. That is scheduled to take place on 5 October but could happen
earlier given the quick pace of vote counting. Yudhoyono said he would not
formally claim victory until the tally was complete.
Megawati apologised for her government's shortcomings today and called on
the next administration to be "more responsive to the needs of the people."
She told the People's Consultative Assembly that her Cabinet had enacted key
democratic reforms, helped decentralise the country's administration and
peacefully ended several sectarian and religious conflicts across the
archipelago.
But she acknowledged that corruption and terrorism remain problems, saying
"it is hoped that the next government will be more responsive to the needs of
the people."
"It is undeniable that there are a lot of tasks which we did not complete and
various weaknesses that still have to be improved. For these weaknesses and
all the things that have not been finished ... I offer you my deepest apologies."
"The bombing in ... Bali on October 12, 2002, the bombing at the Marriott
Hotel in Jakarta on August 5, 2003, as well as the bomb in front of the

23 23 23

23
Australian embassy on September 9, 2004, have reinforced our awareness that
terror threats must not be underestimated," she said.
Megawati said the government needed to adopt "more effective methods and
procedures to handle terrorism."The nation, which is home to more Muslims
than any other country in the world, is saddled with almost 40 per cent
unemployment and rampant corruption, and has been hit by three terror attacks
by al-Qaida-linked militants in the past two years.
The election capped a year of democracy in Indonesia, whose voters elected a
new legislature in April before taking part in two rounds of balloting for the
president.
The process has been held up by the United States and other governments as a
key step in the country's transition to democracy six years after the downfall of
ex-dictator Suharto.

Task 27. Read Text 9 again and answer the folowing questions:
1. Who won this week‟s national elections?
2. What did the former administration manage to do?
3. What are the main problems which the next government has to face?
4. Why was it a year of democracy in Indonesia?

Task 28. Speak on the problems facing governments of most countries in the
world by the example of Indonesia (Text 9).

Task 29. Read Text 10 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)возродить планы, (2)завоевать поддержку, (3)альтернативное
голосование, (4)являться частью кампании, проводимой кем-то,
(5)вернуть (отвоевать) поддержку, (6)покинуть партию в знак
протеста против, (7)в период, предшествующий какому-либо событию,
(8)выявить стратегии, (9)подпирать, стать опорой кому-либо,
(10)пропорциональное представительство, (11)резко увеличить число,
(12)держать кого-либо подальше от власти, (13)избиратели,
(14)сохранять свою свободу, (15)обязательство чего-либо,
(16)пережить выступления (восстания) с чьей-либо стороны,
(17)жертвы, потери.
Text 10. Labour Party ready to offer electoral reform.
Tony Blair may revive plans for electoral reform in an attempt to win the
support of the Liberal Democrats if Labour's majority is cut sharply at the next
general election.
Informal talks between senior Labour and Liberal Democrat figures have
already taken place about whether the parties would support the introduction
of the alternative vote (AV) at general elections. Under this system, used in
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24
Australia, voters mark their candidates in order of preference. The bottom one
drops out and the second preferences are redistributed until one person secures
more than half of the votes cast.
The revival of reform may form part of a drive by Labour to win back the
support of people who have deserted the party in protest at the Iraq war. In the
run-up to the election, the party will highlight policies that appeal to liberal,
progressive voters - such as the freedom of information law which takes effect
in January - and plans to remove the 92 remaining hereditary peers and having
a partly or fully elected House of Lords.
Charles Kennedy said this week he would not prop up a minority Labour
government, but ministers believe he would be open to a deal if electoral
reform was offered. The Liberal Democrat leader would face opposition in his
party because AV is not the pure form of proportional representation it
favours. The system would, however, boost the number of Liberal Democrat
MPs and could help to keep the Tories out of power. One attraction is that the
system keeps the traditional link between MPs and their constituencies.
A review of the electoral systems used has begun at the Department of
Constitutional Affairs and is expected to report soon after the general election
likely to be next May.
The move to introduce AV has the support of Peter Hain, the Leader of the
Commons; Peter Mandelson, the close Blair ally who will soon become a
European commissioner, and others. Supporters argue that Labour and the
Liberal Democrats could reach a deal on AV without entering a formal
coalition. In return for reform, Mr Kennedy's party might agree to back Labour
in most Commons votes, while retaining its freedom to oppose policies with
which it disagreed.
A pledge of general support could help Mr Blair survive rebellions by Labour
MPs. If Labour's majority is cut significantly, many of the casualties will be
Blairite MPs, while most left-wingers have safer seats.

Task 30. Read Text 10 again and answer the folowing questions:
1. What is the reason for electoral reform?
2. What does the alternative vote at general elections mean?
3. What is the ruling party going to do to win back the support of people?
4. What benefits would Liberal Democrats get with the introduction of AV?
5. In what case could Labour and the Liberal Democrats reach a deal on
AV?

Task 31. Speak on the system of general election in Great Britain and its
problems according to Text 10.

Task 32. Read Text 11 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:

25 25 25

25
(1)акционеры-инвесторы, (2)выкачивать деньги из, (3)резкое увеличение
цен на нефть, (4)передышка, (5)сколько осталось пробежать,
(6)опрокидывать, (7)по поводу влияния дорогой нефти на что-то,
(8)Фьючерсные сделки на поставку сырой нефти, (9)идти на попятный,
(10)утечка (убыть); приток (прибыль), (11)особенно чувствительный к
чему-либо, (12)прогноз (перспективы) для, (13)препятствовать
экономическому росту, (14)активы, (15)стабильный рост рейтингов,
(16)размещать (деньги, напр.).

Text 11. Asia equity investors pull money as oil hits $50

NEW YORK - Investors pulled money from Asia equity funds for the first
time in six weeks after the recent surge in oil prices to $50 a barrel raised
questions about the region's economic recovery, a research company said.
Prior to the latest spike -- oil prices hit $49 on Sept. 23 and have climbed
steadily since -- investors had been warming to the region's growth story,
EmergingPortfolio.com Fund Research said in a report on Wednesday.
After a respite in late August and most of September, the surge in oil prices to
$50 and higher has forced fund managers to ask how much mileage is left in
Asia's economic recovery, the Boston-based company said.
"Oil prices pushed over $50 a barrel again in early October, putting regional
equity markets under pressure as investors fretted about the impact of
expensive oil on consumer spending, corporate profits and inflation,"
EmergingPortfolio.com said.
U.S. light crude futures for November delivery surged above $53 a barrel on
Thursday, before backtracking slightly to $52.35 at midday.
There was an outflow of $109.8 million from equity funds invested in Asia,
less Japan, in the week ended Sept. 29, EmergingPortfolio.com said. In the
previous five weeks, there had been inflows of $684.6 million, it said.
Japan is particularly sensitive to high oil prices, since it imports almost all of
its oil. Though the outlook for the Japanese economy is still strong, fear of
pricey oil posing a drag on economic growth led investors to pull money out of
Japan equity funds for three straight weeks to Sept. 29.
Still, these funds have seen strong inflows this year of $8.84 billion, or 54
percent growth in assets this year, helped by stabilizing energy prices and a
steady pace of ratings upgrades, the company said.
Fund managers have been deploying this new money: the average cash
weighting for Asia ex-Japan equity funds has fallen from 3.16 percent in July
to 1.96 percent in September, it said.

Task 33. Read Text 11 again and answer the folowing questions:
1. What was the result of the recent surge in oil prices?
2. Why did higher oil prices put regional equity markets under pressure?

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3. What happened to investments in Asia?
4. What is the reason for the fact that the Japanese economy is sensitive to
high oil prices?

Task 34. Speak on the influence oil prices exercise over the economy of Asian
countries giving examples from Text 11.

Task 35. Read Text 12 and find the English equivalents to the following
Russian vocabulary:
(1)платежная ведомость, (2)предоставить последний снимок,
(3)принимать пост, (4)выйти из биржи труда, (5)все еще неохотно
нанимать кого-либо, (6)цены на что-то, растущие с космической
скоростью, (7)сектор обслуживания, (8)быть отягощенным чем-либо,
(9)розничное обслуживание, (10)успевать за кем-либо, (11)не смотря ни
на что, (12)на этой ступени экономического роста, (13)цитировать
факты, (14)неуправляемые цены на энергоносители, (15)вялый
(медленный) рост заработной платы, (16)сокращение производства,
(17)увольнение в…(различных) отраслях промышленности, (18)доверие
потребителей, (19)посреди таких волнений, (20)расходы потребителей.

Text 12. September job growth weaker than forecast.

WASHINGTON - Employers' payrolls grew by just 96,000 in September in a


weaker-than-expected government report that provided a final snapshot before
Election Day of a lackluster jobs market.
Friday's Labor Department report means President Bush will face the
electorate with 821,000 fewer jobs in the country than when he took office,
though 1.78 million jobs have been added in the past year.
Economists had predicted net job growth of 150,000 in September. Hurricanes
probably didn't affect the data, the government said. The unemployment rate
held at 5.4 percent as 221,000 job seekers dropped out of the labor pool.
The economy is growing, yet businesses remain reluctant to hire new workers
because of global pricing pressures and skyrocketing costs for health care and
pensions. Much of September's payrolls increase was in government hiring,
with 37,000 net new jobs. The service sector continued to add jobs in such
categories as professional and business services, financial services and leisure
and hospitality.
But growth was weighed down by losses in manufacturing, retail and
information services.
The economy must create about 150,000 new jobs a month to keep pace with
population growth. Payrolls should be growing by 250,000 a month or more at
this point in the recovery.

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"The reality is that a 96,000 increase in a work force of a 131 million base is in
no way a satisfactory increase," said economist Ken Mayland of ClearView
Economics.
Regardless, "this is a very disappointing report at this stage of an expansion,"
Chan said. Bush is the first president since the Great Depression to seek re-
election or to close a term with a jobs deficit, economists said.
"Times will remain tough," said Peter Morici, an economist and international
business professor at the University of Maryland.
He cited factors likely to depress hiring: soaring energy prices, the expanding
trade deficit, sluggish wage growth, production cutbacks at Ford and General
Motors, and layoffs in the airlines, telecommunications, furniture and textile
industries. Businesses announced more than 16,000 layoffs just this week.
Consumer confidence last month dropped to its lowest levels since midsummer
amid such worries, according to an AP-Ipsos consumer confidence index.
That's a concern for economists because consumer spending accounts for two-
thirds of total economic activity.

Task 36. Read Text 12 again and answer the folowing questions:
1. What is the situation with jobs before Election Day?
2. Why do businesses remain reluctant to hire new workers?
3. Which sectors give much of payrolls increase?
4. What has to be done to keep pace with population growth?
5. What is President Bush notorious for?
6. What factors are likely to depress hiring?

Task 37. Speak on the problem of employment in America before presidential


election using the facts from Text 12.

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GLOSSARY
Achieve – достигать Dwell on – останавливаться на
Adopt – принимать Eliminate – устранять,
Agreement – соглашение; reach ликвидировать
agreement (on smth.)– приходить к Ensure (order, stability, security) –
соглашению; under the обеспечивать (порядок,
agreement – в соответствии с стабильность, безопасность)
соглашением Equality – равенстово
Aim – цель; иметь целью Establish – устанавливать,
Armaments - вооружение утверждать (что-либо)
Ban – запретить Establishment – установление;
Benefit – выгода; mutual benefit – establishment of diplomatic
взаимная выгода relations – установление
Call (for) – призывать (к) дипломатических отношений
Cease-fire – прекращение огня Force – принуждать; be forced to
Come across – случайно do smth. – быть вынужденным
встретить, натолкнуться на сделать что-либо
Condition – условие Forces – силы; armed/military
Cooperate (with) – сотрудничать forces – вооруженные/военные
(с кем-либо) силы
Cooperation – сотрудничество General – всеобщий; general
Cut – резать, снижать (цены, election – всеобщие выборы
налоги) Government - правительство
Deadlock – тупик; come to a Humanity - человечество
deadlock – зайти в тупик; break Independent – независимый
the deadlock – выйти из тупика Interfere (in) – вмешиваться (в)
Declare (smth.) – заявлять, Interference (in smb.’s home
объявлять (что-либо); declare a affairs) – вмешательство (в чьи-
state of emergency – объявлять либо внутренние дела)
чрезвычайное положение Leadership - руководство
Defence – защита, оборона Maintain – сохранять; maintain
Defend – защищать relations – поддерживать
Demand (for) – требование (чего- отношения
либо), потребность (в чем-либо) Military – военный; (attempted)
Deploy – дислоцировать, military coup [ku:] –
размещать (неудавшийся) военный
Destruction – разрушение переворот
Deterrent – средство устрашения, Missile – реактивный снаряд,
сдерживания ракета
Diminish - уменьшать Occupy – занимать, оккупировать
Disarmament – разоружение Peace - мир
Disaster – катастрофа, бедствие

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Policy – политика; (foreign, Rights – права; human rights –
home) policy – (внешняя, права человека
внутренняя) политика Rise (in smth.) – повышение,
Politics – политика; политические подъем, улучшение (чего-либо);
события, взгляды; talk politics – повышать, подниматься
обсуждать политические события Round - тур
Power – держава; власть; powers Security - безопасность
– полномочия Sign – подписывать
Prevent (smth.) – предотвращать Spokesman (for smb., smth.) –
(что-либо); prevent smb. from представитель, выступающий от
doing smth. – помешать кому- чьего-либо имени
либо сделать что-либо Spread – распространять;
Prisoner – заключенный, узник, распространение
пленный Stand (for) – стоять (за),
Promote – содействовать; защищать
продвигать по службе Steady – неуклонный,
Proposal – предложение; make a стабильный
proposal – вносить предложение Strengthen – укреплять,
Public – общественный; public усиливать
opinion poll – опрос Support - поддержка;
общественного мнения, поддерживать
социологисеское обследование Tax – налог; income tax –
Pursue (a policy) – проводить подоходный налог
(политику) Term – срок; term in office – срок
Rally – массовый митинг полномочий
Reduce – сокращать, уменьшать Trade - торговля
Raise – поднимать, повышать Transformation - преобразование
Reject - отвергать Treaty (on smth.) – договор (о
Relations – отношения; (friendly, чем-либо)
diplomatic, trade) relations – Unite – объединять, объединяться
дипломатические, торговые) Unity - единство
отношения; break off diplomatic Urgent – срочный, неотложный,
relations – порвать насущный
дипломатические отношения Weapons – оружие; nuclear
Relaxation – разрядка; relaxation weapons – ядерное оружие;
of international tension – weapons of mass destruction –
разрядка международной оружие массового поражения
напряженности Withdraw (troops from) –
Resign – уходить в отставку выводить (войска из)
Resignation – отставка
Review - обзор

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Literature

1. Arbekova T., Makarova G., Vlasova N. A textbook for Learners Who Take
English Seriously. – Moscow: Inka.Teler, 1993.
2. 2004 Independent Digital (UK) Ltd.
3. 2004 UN News Service.
4. DDA 2003 Update.
5. New English-Russian Dictionary. Edited under the Direction of Professor
I.R. Galperin, Phil. Dr. and Professor E.M. Mednikova, Phil. Dr. – Russky
Yazyk Publishers Moscow 1987.

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