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LAB SHEET

VISITOR
INTERPRETATION
SERVICES
DEPARTMENT OF POLYTECHNIC EDUCATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

LECTURER COPY
Visitor Interpretation Services

Table of Contents

Course Description 2
Introduction 3
LAB SHEET 1 : INTERPRETATION FOUNDATION 4

LAB SHEET 2 : KNOWLEDGE OF RESOURCES AND 6


VISITORS

LAB SHEET 3 : INTERPRETIVE TECHNIQUE AND MEDIA 8

LAB SHEET 4 : INTERPRETATIVE TALK AND 10


PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE

LAB SHEET 5 : INTERPRETIVE MEDIA DEVELOPMENT 13

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Course Description
COURSE : VISITOR INTERPRETATION SERVICES

CREDIT(S) : 4

PREREQUISITE(S) : NONE

SYNOPSIS

VISITOR INTERPRETATION SERVICES covers the basic concepts and application of


interpretation services in tourist and visitor attraction. It includes the principles,
competencies, methodologies, and planning elements in interpretation services for
visitors and tourists. Students are required to plan and accomplish interpretation
assignments and project.

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

1. apply effectively the concept and application of visitor interpretation services.


(C3, PLO1)

2. organize effectively interpretive talk, presentation techniques and interpretive


media development for tourism attraction interpretation services. (P4, PLO2 )

3. display ethical information management in conducting visitor’s interpretation


services. (A5,PLO6)

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Introduction
This labsheet was created for interpretive guides. It has been written and
designed with the awareness that information is not interpretation. The purpose of
this labsheet is to provide student with tools to enhance and enrich student
knowledge and abilities to present that knowledge as meaningful and relevant
stories. These labsheet are filled with notes, exercise, activities, skills, examples
and scripts that transform facts, figures and information into usable interpretive
narratives.

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LAB SHEET 1: INTERPRETATION FOUNDATION

Duration: 15 minutes

Learning Outcomes
This Practical encompasses exercise 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D, activities 1A.

By the end of this practical activity, student should be able to:


1. Demonstrate mastery of knowledge and understanding of interpretation
foundation.

Exercise 1A
Choose the right answer for the following question.

1. Below are meaning of Interpretation EXCEPT _________________.

a) ‘..the work of revealing, to such visitors as desire the service, something of the
beauty and wonder, the inspiration and spiritual meaning that lies behind what
the visitor can with his senses perceive’
b) Interpretation is a communication process designed to reveal meanings and
relationships of our cultural and natural heritage to the public through first-hand
experiences with objects, artifacts, landscapes or sites.
c) ‘the process of communicating to people the significance of a place or object, so
that they enjoy it more, understand their heritage and environment better, and
develop a positive attitude to conservation’
d) Good interpretation stimulates an appreciation of sites and resources, the stories
behind them, the people who created them and those who are involved with them
now.

2: List accordinly how the interpretation work.


a) Affect emotions of visitor  Interpret information to visitor  Behavior change in
visitor
b) Behavior change in visitor  Interpret information to visitor  Affect emotions of
visitor
c) Interpret information to visitor  Behavior change in visitor  Affect emotions of
visitor
d) Behavior change in visitor  Affect emotions of visitor Interpret information to
visitor

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3: Why interpretation is important for management in term of economic perspective?


a) stimulating economy by creating appealing, quality experiences that encourage
visitors to: stay longer, - spend more
b) to increase physical and intellectual access to a site by offering alternative ways
to experience its resources
c) developing visitor ‘products’, promoting key sites effectively and attracting
increasing numbers of visitors to the area.
d) increase intellectual access to these resources by presenting information in ways
that all visitors can understand.

4: There are 3 (THREE) reason interpretation for visitor, which are __________.
a) Education, Emotional and Behaviour
b) Education, Entertainment and Emotional
c) Entertainment, Emotional and Behaviour
d) Escape, Entertainment and Education.

5. Fill the blank for the statement below

Through_________________, understanding;
through understanding, __________________;
through appreciation, ___________________

a) Appreciation, protection, interpretation.


b) Interpretation, appreciation, protection.
c) Appreciation, interpretation, protection.
d) Protection, interpretation, appreciation.

Exercise 1B
Complete the flow of interpretation works below.

Interpret
information to _____________ _____________
visitor

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Exercise 1C
In interpretation there are TWO users that have their own objective of visitor
interpretation. Which are management and the user it self. Below are severel objective
for management and user. Match the following objective based on their categories.

Categories Explaination
Economic   developing visitor ‘products’, promoting
key sites effectively and attracting
increasing numbers of visitors to the area.
Site management   increase intellectual access to these
resources by presenting information in
ways that all visitors can understand.
Visitors management   to increase physical and intellectual
access to a site by offering alternative
ways to experience its resources
Marketing management   good interpretation stimulates an
appreciation of sites and resources, the
stories behind them, the people who
created them and those who are involved
with them now.
Educational   help the management to sustain their
environement, by informing why they
should not drop litter, should stay on the
path or treat a particularly sensitive area
with respect, rather than by simply
instructing them to do so.
Emotional   the ultimate behavioral benefit comes in
stimulating a desire to protect the
resource / place for the future that is
transferred into positive action
Behavior   stimulating economy by creating
appealing, quality experiences that
encourage visitors to: stay longer, -
spend more

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Exercise 1D

1. Describe FIVE keywords that DEFINE visitor interpretation.

Educational activities
Relate
Reveal
Provoke
Using illustrative media
Understand more
Enjoy it more
Positive attitude (select any five points)

2. Explain the differentiation between information and interpretation.


– Information is a sound knowledge of factual information is required
for interpretation but it is more than just facts. While
– Interpretation gives facts, context, elaborates on them and weaves
them into stories.

3. Explain why the interpretation is important visitor?


a) Emotional - (what visitors feel)
Interpretation can encourage visitors to care for the resource and can
stimulate and enhance a sense of pride and ownership.
b) Behavior
The ultimate behavioral benefit comes in stimulating a desire to protect the
resource / place for the future that is transferred into positive action –
control: flow, wear & tear, cost, maintenance,
c) Educational
Good interpretation offers a learning experience that is involving and
enjoy.

4. Identify TRUE or FALSE about the functions of interpretation to visitor.

Satisfy curiosity and thirst for knowledge T


Be a good activity on holiday or school trips T
Give shallow to the experience of places F
Provide insight and double meaning F
Be an opportunity to meet and talk with experts T
Provide factual information about the place visited F

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1. Explain below keywords of interpretation principles below with example.

i. Relate

Relate to the experience and knowledge of visitors


Relate to the motivation of visitors
example

ii. Reveal

Reveal the true meaning of the object, not just mere facts. Provide stories
and other interesting info using illustrative media and programs
exaample

Activity 1A
There are SIX (6) principles of interpretation. In a group of 2, discuss the principles of
interpretation.

Answer

1. Any interpretation that does not somehow relate what is being displayed or described
to something within the personality or experience of the visitor will be sterile.

2. Information, as such, is not interpretation. Interpretation is revelation based upon


information. But they are entirely different things. However, all interpretation includes
information.

3. Interpretation is an art, which combines many arts, whether the materials presented
are scientific, historical, or architectural. Any art is in some degree teachable.

4. The chief aim of interpretation is not instruction, but provaction.

5. Interpretation should aim to present a whole rather than a part, and must address
itself to the whole man rather than any phase.

6. Interpretation addressed to children (say up to the age of twelve) should not be a


dilution of the presentation to adults, but should follow a fundamentally different
approach. To be at its best, it will require a separate programme.

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LAB SHEET 2 : KNOWLEDGE OF RESOURCES


AND VISITORS
Duration: 5 hours

Learning Outcomes
This Practical encompasses exercise 2A, 2B, 2C and activities 2A.

By the end of this practical activity, student should be able to:


1. Demonstrate mastery of knowledge and resources interpretation.
2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of visitor interpretation

Exercise 2A
1. Below are the important of resources in interpretation, EXCEPT
a) To know what are the types of resources that the interpreter gain.
b) To know who is the person that give the information
c) To know when the event happen
d) To collect the data of visitor

2. What is the meaning of Testimonial?


a) Individual statements by people indicating personal responses and reactions.
b) Use of established standards to assess knowledge, skill, performance such
as in pen-and-pencil tests or skills tests.
c) Recording of events over time revealing the personal perspective of the
writer/recorder.
d) Recording of chronological entries which are usually brief and factual.

3. “Recording of chronological entries which are usually brief and factual”. This
statement refers to:
a) Document analysis
b) Photographs, slides, videos
c) Logs
d) Diaries, journals

4. Below are the advantages of observation, EXCEPT


a) Collect data where and when an event or activity is occurring
b) Does not rely on people’s willingness to provide information
c) Provides a “behind the scenes” look at a program that may not be directly
observable
d) Directly see what people do rather than relying on what they say they do

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5. Below are the disadvantages of Survey, EXCEPT


a) Does not provide valid information at the individual level
b) Survey respondents may not complete the survey resulting in low response
rates
c) Items may not have the same meaning to all respondents
d) Size and diversity of sample will be limited by people’s ability to read

Exercise 2B
There are 13 methods in collecting resources information. Match the following definition
with the correct appropriate method in collecting information of resources interpretation.

Survey   use of content analysis and other


techniques to analyze and summarize
printed material and existing information
Case Study   recording of chronological entries which
are usually brief and factual.
Interviews   recording of events over time revealing
the personal perspective of the
writer/recorder.
Observation   use of photography to capture visual
images.
Group assessment   use of established standards to assess
knowledge, skill, performance such as
 in pen-and-pencil tests or skills tests.
Expert or peer   individual statements by people indicating
review personal responses and reactions.
Portfolio reviews   collection of materials, including samples
of work, that encompass the breadth and
scope of the program activity being
evaluated.
Testimonials   collecting standardized information
through structured questionnaires to
generate quantitative data. Its may be
mailed (surface and electronic), completed
on site or through interviews, either face-
to-face or telephone.
Tests   in-depth examination of a particular case
(program, group of participants, single

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individual, site/location). Its use multiple


sources of information and methods to
provide as complete a picture as possible.
Diaries, journals   information collected by talking with and
listening to people, either faceto-face or
over the telephone. Interviews range on a
continuum from those which are tightly
structured (as in a survey) to free flowing,
conversational interviews.
Logs   collecting information through “seeing”
and “listening.” Observations may be
structured or unstructured.
Document   use of group processes to collect
analysis evaluation information such as nominal
group technique, focus group, Delphi,
brainstorming and community forums.
Photographs,   examination by a review committee, panel
slides, videos of experts or peers.

Exercise 2C
1. Identify types of information to collect from this questions when you are
collecting resource for Makam Mahsuri Langkawi.

Answer
What What happened? What the curse
Who Who is Mahsuri, her parents, killed her, ancestors
Why Why she was killed, why white blood, why 7 ,
When When it happen
Where Where it happened

2. List down five (5) types of visitor information usually collected by


researcher.

i. History
ii. People involved
iii. The events
iv. Who are the visitors
v. Why they come
vi. How long they stay
vii. Demographic
**Any other suitable answers

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Activity 2A
Compare and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses these types of method in
collecting visitor’s information for the following tourism scenarios

Scenario 1:
A tourism planner is a arranging a series of interviews with opinion leaders to learn more
about their views on the current range of interpretative tools product offerings.
 List three strengths and three weaknesses of this type of method.

Scenario 2:
A tourism planner is trying to learn about current industry trends to generate ideas for
future products. He has doing some survey from industry organizations.
 List three strengths and three weaknesses of this type of interpretation

Scenario 3:
A tourism planner has commissioned a series of telephone surveys to discover which
tourism destination that being choosen most.
 List three strengths and three weaknesses of this type of interpretation.

Answer
Strengths High response rate
More representative of visitor types
Flexible to type of data to collect & expectations
Weakness Costly
Scenario 1 Time consuming
What to do with refusals
(interview)

Strengths Good recall rate


Easy to implement
Many visitors can be intercepted
Weakness Data needs to interpreted for distribution
Scenario 2 May have smaller response rate
Time consuming
(Survey)

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Strengths Timing can determine recall


Completed after entire visit
Quick to implement
Weakness Can be perceived as invasive
Scenario 3 Expensive
Need some information about visitor prior in order to reach them
(Telephone
Survey)

LAB SHEET 3: INTERPRETIVE TECHNIQUE AND


MEDIA

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Duration: 5 hours

Learning Outcomes
This Practical encompasses activities 3A and 3B.

By the end of this practical activity, student should be able to:


1. Demonstrate mastery of knowledge and understanding of interpretive technique
and media.

Activity 3A
Compare and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses these types of interpretation for
the following tourism scenarios

Scenario 1:
A party of three on a tour of an art gallery has hired an audio transcript describing the
exhibition (Audiovisual product)
 List three strengths and three weaknesses of this type of interpretation

Scenario 2:
You are the guide leading a group of six through a nature walk with a spoken
interpretation. (Visitor Center)
 List three strengths and three weaknesses of this type of interpretation

Scenario 3:
You are visiting a glacier (self guided) and come across a sign explaining the geological
and cultural history of the area. (Side walk)
 List three strengths and three weaknesses of this type of interpretation.

Strengths

Weakness Cannot be use everywhere.

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Scenario 1 No two way communication.


(Audiovisual
product)
Strengths

Weakness
Scenario 2
(Visitor
Center)
Strengths

Weakness
Scenario 3
(Side walk)

Activity 3B

Based on the different interpretation environment listed below:

1. Museum
2. Nature trail
3. Interpretive Centre
4. Visitor information booth

• Prepared the script writing

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• Present as the interpreter based on the above location


• Use any media such as brochure, website, leaflet, slide presentation to assist
your presentation

As the interpreter, you should follow this guideline:

Criterion A: Knowledge and understanding of the work(s)


• How much knowledge and understanding does the student show of the work(s) used in
the presentation?

Criterion B: Presentation
• How much attention has been given to making the delivery effective and appropriate to
the presentation?
• To what extent are strategies used to interest the audience (for example, audibility, eye
contact, gesture, and effective use of supporting material)?

Criterion C: Language
• How clear and appropriate is the language?
• How well is the register and style suited to the choice of presentation? (“Register”
refers, in this context, to the student’s use of elements such as vocabulary, tone,
sentence structure and terminology appropriate to the presentation.)

LAB SHEET 4: INTERPRETATIVE TALK AND


PRESENTATION TECHNIQUE

Duration: 5 hours

Learning Outcomes
This Practical encompasses exrcise 4A, 4B and activities 4A and 4B.

By the end of this practical activity, student should be able to:


1. Demonstrate mastery of knowledge and understanding of interpretive talk and
presentation techniques.

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Exercise 4A
1. What is the interpretative talk?
a) Technique that assists audiences through communication media in making
both emotional and intellectual connections with resources.”
b) ” Medium through which a message is transmitted to its intended audience,
such as print media or broadcast (electronic) media.”
c) the process of communicating to people the significance of a place or object,
so that they enjoy it more, understand their heritage and environment better,
and develop a positive attitude to conservation’
d) Is a prepared formal presentation delivered in-person to form the audience
own intellectual without relying on media, demonstration, or resources
immersion.

2. What the ‘POW’ means in structuring the presentation?


a) Illustrate the main message of your program with examples. Listeners enjoy
personalized “for instances.”
b) Connect the introduction to the body of the talk and to the interests of the
audience.
c) An introduction does two things. It promises your listeners a rewarding
experience and it introduces your talk theme.
d) Conclude the presentation by summarizing or giving a call to action. Answer
the question, “So What?”

3. Below are the standard competency standard for all interpreters, EXCEPT
a) Acquire and use information that is accurate appropriate
b) Use knowledge about resources to form audience intellectual
c) Select and apply techniques appropriate to audience
d) Puppetry –easy and interesting

4. Arrange the following step in structuring the presentation


i- POW
ii- Body
iii- Bridge
iv- Conclusion

a) I,iii,ii and iv
b) I, ii, iii and iv

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c) Ii,iii,I and iv
d) Iv,iii,ii and i

5. Below are the function media in interpretation, EXCEPT


a) The media plays a common carrier role
b) Acting as a public representative
c) Socializing people
d) Increase level of education of visitor

Exercise 4B
1. Give TWO (2) types of interpretative media tools, with appropriate example.
a) Print Media –Example, newspaper, magazines, pamphlet, brochures
b) Electronic Media - Television, radio, computer, CD, DVD, camera and video
console.
(any appropriate example are accepted)

2. Give THREE (3) functions of media in interpretation.


a) The media plays a common carrier role
b) Providing the political forum
c) Acting as a public representative
d) Socializing people
(any three of the list and appropriate explanation is accepted)

Activity 4A
Indivually, you are to research, write and deliver an interpretation on a local tourist
attraction at your area: (Local course). In this case it is a "roving interpretation".

As part of this task you will also lead the tour (fellow students) when at the attraction and
be assessed on how well you demonstrate your interpersonal skills in a group situation.

Interpretation Requirements
 A spoken interpretation between 3-5 minutes is to be delivered
 An outline/plan (template provided) for your interpretation should be discussed
with your lecturer before proceeding. Your interpretation must incorporate an

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"introduction, body and conclusion." It cannot be read straight from your


transcript; however, you may use cue cards.

Please incorporate the following within your interpretation:


 interpretive techinque - use of spoken word
 interpretive theme - general topic reflecting the characteristics of the area
 intepretive message or concept - simple yet meaningful statement which
embodies your theme

Activity 4B
Match the ffollowing definition
ANSWE
R
A Interpretative A Pow-bridge-body-conclusion
talk
B Slide talks B Storyboard / Special effects / Slide
projector / Color
C Creative & Art C Costumed interpretation – costumed /
Techniques Storytelling-story / Using live animal
experience / Puppetry –easy and
interesting

LAB SHEET 5: INTERPRETIVE MEDIA


DEVELOPMENT
Duration: 1 hours

Learning Outcomes
This Practical encompasses exercise 5A and 5B.

By the end of this practical activity, student should be able to:


1. Demonstrate mastery of knowledge and understanding of interpretive media
development.

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Exercise 5A

“Visitors often ask for printed information when they first arrive, seeking an
informative resource they can carry throughout the trip and a tangible
reminder of an experience.”

1. The above statement refers to:


a) Wayside Exhibits
b) Brochures
c) Blog
d) Museum Exhibits

2. Below are the advantages of Wayside Exhibits, EXCEPT


a) Helps identify physical resources
b) Orientation and interpretation 24/7
c) Provides a souvenir and interpretation at home
d) Can show changes in a resource over time

3. Which of the item below are the personal services for interpretive media
a) Living history
b) Social media
c) Publications
d) Historic Furnishing

4. Below are the function of interpretative technique and media, EXCEPT


a) Informative
b) Persuasive
c) Reminder
d) Entertainment

“What kind of budget can be projected?”

5. Which of following refer the statement above for the element in media decision?
a) Message
b) Audience
c) Resources
d) Informative

Exercise 5B

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1. Match the following definition


Method Answer Definition
A Testimonials B use of photography to capture visual
images.
B Photographs, A examination by a review committee,
slides, videos panel of experts or peers.
C Expert or peer D collection of materials, including
review samples of work, that encompass
D Document C the breadth and scope of the program
analysis activity being evaluated.
E Portfolio E use of content analysis and other
reviews techniques to analyze and summarize
printed material and existing
information.
(5 marks)
2. Below are the functions of interpretive technique & media, match according the
function.

Answer
A INFORMATIVE B To remind audience about where
they can get the service
B PERSUASIVE A To correct false impression.
C REMINDER C To increase customer loyalty to
provider.

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