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PROJECT REPORT

ON
TICKETING
AND
RESERVATIONS

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:


Mr. P.K Aggarwal NEHA RAWAL
8240598/BBA/IPEC/2006-09

INDRAPRASTHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Affiliated to CHAUDHARY CHARAN SINGH, MEERUT
63, Site lV, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful accomplishment of a project work requires efforts of several

intellect minds. Several people have contributed their experiences and ideas

to make this project.

Words appear inadequate and hollow, when I take this opportunity to

express my deep sense of gratitude for my respectable project guide “MR.

P.K AGGARWAL”. This project work bears at every stage the impression of

their wise and concrete suggestion, careful and reasoned criticism and

meticulous attention, able guidance and constant encouragement throughout

the project.

I also extend my sincere gratitude to other faculty members for helping me

to channelise my efforts in the right direction.

NEHA RAWAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S. NO. CONTENTS
i) Acknowledgement
1. Executive Summary
2. Company Profile
3. Objectives of Study
4. Research Methodology
5. About The Topic
 Nature of airlines in India
 Ticketing
 Refunds
Validity of tickets
 Reservation procedures
Electronic Reservation System (ERS)
 Galileo

6. Data Analysis
 International Air Transport
Association (IATA)
 Role of IATA
Airlines Alphabetical Codes
 Airlines City Codes Of India
 Airlines City Codes Of World

7. Interpretation
8. Conclusion
9. Limitation
10. Bibliography
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Tourism industry is playing an important role these days. With

Asian Games coming in 2010, there is a lot to improve in terms of

infrastructure in India so as to lure tourists. I have endeavor to

put the basic components of tourism (accommodation,

transportation and destination) to see how a tour operator

company works, how they link these components and promotes a

final package to the customers. This report contains the in depth

study of tour operation and includes the basics of tourism, its

sectors and types.


COMPANY PROFILE

New High flying travels is one of Delhi’s largest travel agencies, established in Feb1991,

incorporated as a Private Limited company received accreditation as an approved travel

agent from the International Air Transport Association (IATA) IN Sep1991.

Subsequently, recognition was received form the Reserve Bank of India and the ministry

of Tourism, Government of India. New High Flying is also a member of the Travel

agent’s Association of India (TAAI) and the Indian association of Tour Operators

(IATO).

35 qualified travel professionals insure convenient and comfortable travel arrangements,

both in domestic and international sphere. Their efforts justify our performance.
SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY

 International and Domestic air tickets

 Passport, Visa and Related Services

 Hotel booking in India and overseas

 Car hire services

 Individual and group tours

 Conference and Convention Management

 Corporate Incentive programs

 International air charter handling

 Emergency residential contact numbers for service beyond normal operating hours

 Mobile phones for senior staff in Delhi.

FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY


 Web site and internet

 Real time linkages with major international reservation system- Amadeus, Galileo

and Indian Airlines systems.

 Ticket stocks of over 20 major international airlines and domestic carriers

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

1) To analyse about company profile

2) To study about how book airlines ticket reservation

3) To analyse the view point system of reservation

4) To know about the working scenario of the travel company


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methodology is of two types: Primary and Secondary. In this project I have used

secondary data. Secondary data means data that are already available i.e., they refer to the

data which has already been collected and analyzed by someone else. When researcher

utilizes secondary data, then he has to look into various sources from where he can obtain

them. These are those relevant materials which are already existing and available for the

researcher to the study. It may be in the form of statements, records, scripts etc.

Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data.

The various secondary data that I have used in my project are as follows:

Internet Websites:

 www.google.com

 www.indiatimes.com

 www.tourism-india.com
NATURE OF AIRLINES IN INDIA

There is certainly nothing wrong with small entrepreneurs thinking big, but the Nature of

aviation poses particular difficulties when trying to get off the ground, whereas start ups

in most other industries have a much easier go of it.

For example, it is a hugely capital-intensive industry requiring investment to the tune of

several hundreds of crores of rupees, both in equity and debt. A 150-seater Boeing-737,

which is favoured by the private operations for example, costs close to Rs 150 crore to

buy and around Rs 20 crore a year to lease. In contrast, the strain capital of name of the

current private Indian operations exceeds Rs 70 crore, and hence it is not surprising that

not one of them actually own an aircraft - all are leasing.

An even more undermining factor is that almost everything that is involved in the running

of an airline is imported. Practically all of the aviation industry except manpower is

overseas technology. Aircraft, engines, avionics, simulators, navigation equipment, seat

upholstery - nothing is produced indigenously. Fuel is imported at dollar prices and duty

is built on top of that. Navigation and landing fees are determined in dollars by the

airports authority of India in keeping with International aviation practice. Insurance

premiums are in dollars as aircrafts are normally issued at near-replacement cost


stipulated in dollars. Further, all the private airlines have to send their aircraft overseas

for scheduled checks and repairs, which is a further drain on their dollar resources. Given

this structure in India with its own aircraft, all these externally determined elements add

up to 80 to 90 percent of the total cost of operation. This dollar denomination plays havoc

in two ways. On the one hand air carriers have had to suffer the consequences of

depreciating rupee, and on the other are subject to changing global aviation market

pressures. So while the dollar has appreciated by close to 20 per cent against the rupee

over the last two years, the price of aviation turbine fuel has also gave up in keeping with

the rising trend in crude prices.

Fuel accounts for almost 40 per cent of an airline’s cost of operations in India, whereas it

varies between 10 to 12 per cent in most other countries. Even foreign airlines refueling

in India pay 40 per cent less for the fuel.

All this, combined with a lack of management expertise in a specialized industry and

mandatory flights in the uneconomical social sector routes, has but killed the private

airline industry. Also, the government’s interference in the airlines running is a constant

irritant.

DECODING OF THE AIRLINES

AIRLINE CODES
AIR INDIA (INTERNATIONAL) AI
INDIAN AIRLINES IC
AIR SAHARA S2
JET AIRWAYS 9W
AIR DECCAN DN
ALLAINCE AIRWAYS CD
JAGSON AIRWAYS JA
TICKETING

a) Issue tickets strictly in accordance with the status of each flight segment involved

(open, confirmed, waitlisted). NEVER ISSUE tickets showing "space confirmed"

unless confirmation has been received from the airline concerned.

b) Never issue the same passenger a ticket with multiple reservations when it is

evident he/she can use only one of the flights reserved.

c) When required, report in the prescribed manner all deposits collected.

d) Strictly adhere to all established ticketing time limits.

HOW TO BOOK AIRLINE TICKET

Customer can book Airlines ticket by ringing up or visiting any airlines booking office or

approved travel agent in India like New Airways Travel (Pvt.) Ltd. and approved General

sales agents of Airlines and interline partners abroad.

When customer make a reservation on an Indian Airlines flight, the time limit by which

you much purchase their ticket would be indicated.


If they are wait-listed on a fully booked flight, the airline will call you up on their contact

number as soon as your reservation is upgraded from the wait-list (against cancellations

that may follow).

If a ticket is not purchased or presented for endorsement before the expiry of the

indicated time limit, the reservation is automatically cancelled by the reservation system.

Customer can buy ticket by Cash/Credit Card/Debit Card (MAESTRO and VISA

ELECTRON)

WHERE TO BOOK?

Each Airlines domestic and international stations has Booking Offices. Besides, there are

eight off-line stations, which have our booking offices also.

At the four major metros, i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai, there are multiple

booking offices including one that works round the clock. The airline has nearly 1600

approved travel agents all over India and General Sales Agents at the foreign stations,

who are always available for ticketing. Reservations can also be made abroad through

other IATA airlines, who are AIRLINES interline partners and through their approved

travel agents as well.

SOME INDICATION WHILE BOOKING


When people make a booking with Indian Airlines, you must indicate all your contact

numbers.

This should include your residence, business and mobile numbers, as well as, the

numbers where you can be contacted at all points of your itinerary.

This will help the airline inform you in case of any flight delay or change of schedule.

 WHOEVER IS BOOKING THE TICKET ON YOUR BEHALF MUST

INDICATE YOUR DESIRED MEAL PREFERENCE.

On many occasions, the correct meal preference is not indicated, through ignorance or

lack of attention. While uplifting food for any flight. Indian Airlines goes as per the

indicated vegetarian/non-vegetarian ratio of the booked passengers any subsequent

change, therefore, upsets the balance.

Of course, extra meals of both types are put on board but sometimes even these are not

enough to take care of the variation.

 PLEASE DO INDICATE ANY ASSISTANCE REQUIRED AT THE AIRPORT.

Airlines offers assistance to all passengers who require special handling -wheel chair,

stretcher or assistance of unaccompanied minors, etc. If you or any passenger being

booked by you require any special assistance at the airport, please indicate it when you

make the booking to ensure the service is provided.

CANCELLATION CHARGES
As part of the effort to increase passenger convenience, now they do not levy any

cancellation charge.Also any changes in reservations are easy to make.

The reservation status is endorsed in the relevant column of their ticket. Their office, on

the presentation of the ticket, the office will duly authenticate any change in the

reservation status.

They may, however, make such changes on the telephone on a time-limit basis and get

your ticket endorsed before the expiry of the time limit.

NO-SHOW CHARGES

Although there are no cancellation charges for changes in reservations, No-show charges

are applicable if a confirmed reservation is not cancelled at least one hour prior to

departure.

No refund is permissible on No-show tickets. If they change their travel plan, please do

inform Airlines office so that the seat can be utilized for another passenger or else a

valuable air-seat goes unutilized, the airline looses revenue and a needy passenger is

denied transportation.

Now, they can phone or fax their cancellation advice to our main metro booking offices

and present your ticket for cancellation within 24 hours.


REFUNDS

TICKETS ISSUED AGAINST CASH

A refund can be obtained from any Airlines station in India for tickets issued against

cash.

TICKETS ISSUED BY TRAVEL AGENTS

However, they can't refund cash against tickets issued by travel agents. Such refunds can

be obtained from the concerned travel agent.

TICKETS ISSUED AGAINST CREDIT CARDS

Refund for the tickets issued against credit cards are made by Airlines offices through

credit slips only. The amount will be credited to their account by the credit card

organization subsequently.

All passengers are requested to keep safe custody of their tickets, as no refund is

permissible against the lost cash value documents.

However, for international travel, where passport control is possible, duplicate tickets can

be issued after completion of certain formalities.


TICKETS ISSUED AGAINST DEBIT CARD

The passenger will surrender his/her ticket at Airlines counter and the amount would

have refunded to the passenger in cash. The ticket holder should show the debit card

against which the ticket was purchased so that the debit card number on the ticket is

verified to ensure that the refund is being given to a bona-fide customer Normal

Cancellation Rules / Refund Administration Fee would apply The net amount would be

refunded in cash
VALIDITY OF TICKETS

 DOMESTIC TICKETS

Their domestic tickets, issued on normal fares are valid for one year from the date of

issue of ticket. Re valid for one year from the date of issue.

 INTERNATIONAL TICKETS

International tickets are valid for one year from the date of travel on the first leg of

journey.

 CONCESSIONAL TICKETS

Validity of Concessional tickets may be different as governed by the rules applicable

to that particular concession.


RE-ROUTING PROCEDURES

The itinerary of travel can also be changed with value adjustments. Even tickets issued by

AIRLINES travel agents can be re-routed at any of their office.

However, tickets issued by the airlines interline partners are generally not re-routed by

Indian Airlines and may be referred only to the airline concerned.

RE-CONFIRMATION PROCEDURES

Their passengers are advised to reconfirm their return or onward reservations when

they break their journey for more than 72 hours at any of the stations.

Failure to reconfirm at least 72 hours prior to departure may result in cancellation of the

already confirmed space.

Re-confirmation is not necessary when the break in journey is for less than 72

hours.
RESERVATIONS PROCEDURES

Most of the airlines now have COMPUTERISED RESERVATIONS facility available.

Airlines Reservations System is a perfect example of updating of the inventory with each

completed transaction. The moment a seat is sold or cancelled, the system automatically

makes adjustment in the inventory of seats for that particular flight/class segment. The

final analysis of any flight will give updated information till that time. This information

is available on system basis. We sitting in Delhi can obtain information for flight starting

from New York and vice-versa. The Passenger cabin of each aircraft is divided into

different classes. It is called the CONFIGURATION of the aircraft.


FOLLOWING IS THE STANDARD CONFIGURATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES

OF AIRCRAFT.

FIRST EXECUTIVE ECONOMY


AIRCRAFT CODE CLASS CODE CLASS CODE CLASS CODE
B-747-200 747 16 F 40 c 336 Y

B-747-300 COMB 74D 16 F 67 c 227 Y

AIRBUS A310-300-310 310 00 - 25 c 181 y

AIRBUS A300 –200 AB4 00 - 22 c 216 Y

ILYUSHIN 62M IL6 12 F 18 c 99 y

The configuration can be changed depending on the requirements of a particular flight or

over a period of time. The seats can be remove and replaced according to the airlines

requirements.
While effecting booking/reservations, the airlines require following Mandatory in-

formation for creating a PASSENGER NAME RECORD (PNR) in the system

 NAME/S OF PASSENGERS

 SEGMENT OF TRAVEL

 DATE OF TRAVEL

 CLASS OF TRAVEL

 CONTACT OF PASSENGER

 TICKET NUMBER

Apart from mandatory information for making the booking, the following Optional

Information is also obtained from the Passenger.-

a) DIET DETAILS

b) SEAT SELECTION FOR FIRST/BUSINESS CLASS

c) CHOICE OF SEAT FOR ECONOMY CLASS

EXAMPLE-

-WINDOW OR AISLE SEAT

-NO SMOKING SEAT

-SEAT WITH MORE LEG ROOM

-CARRY COT POSITION FOR INFANT TRAVELLING WITH FAMILY


d) HOTEL ACCOMMODATION AT DESTINATION OR STOPOVER POINT

AT PASSENGERS COST

e) CAR HIRE AT DESTINATION OR STOPOVER POINT AT PASSENGER'S

COST.

f) WHEEL CHAIR FOR INCAPACITATED/HANDICAPPED/OLD

PASSENGER

g) CARRIAGE OF PET IN THE CABIN OR CARGO HOLD AS PART OF

THE PASSENGER BAGGAGE.

h) UNACCOMPANIED MINOR.

One PASSENGER NAME RECORD (PNR) can be created for more than one person

provided all the persons are traveling to a common station/flight/class of service.

A passenger can effect booking for an itinerary consisting of more than one segment.

These segments can be on the flight/s of one airline or more than one airline.
BOOKING ON ONE AIRLINE'S FLIGHTS

When the booking is made with an airline for one or more than one segment of the same

airline's different flights, the availability of the seats is known for each segment. It is

called the STATUS of the flight:

a) Available in the class of service desired.

b) Not available-but waitlist is open

c) Completely closed

 If the seats are available in the class of service desired, the spot confirmation is

given.

 If the seats are not available-but waitlist is open, the passenger is registered as

waitlist. The system confirms such waitlist seats as and when the cancellations

are received.

 If the STATUS is completely closed, no booking can be effected and the

passenger is requested for alternate flight/date.


BOOKING ON MORE THAN ONE AIRLINE'S FLIGHTS

When the itinerary consisting of more than one segment necessitates booking on more

than one airline n different segments, for booking on own airline's flights, the procedure

outlined in the proceeding paragraphs is applicable.

For making booking on another carrier (interline Carrier), the following procedure is

followed: -

a) FREE SALE FACILITY (SELL AND REPORT)

b) REQUEST FOR SEATS

a) FREE SALE FACILITY (SELL AND REPORT)

Some airlines give this facility whereby interline Carrier can sell the seats on any of

their flights up to certain days before the date of departure of the flight and advise

details of each seat sold. Seats thus sold will be protected. Airlines Computerized

Reservation Facility is programmed accordingly. When the booking is made for such

flight on which free sale facility is available, the spot confirmation is given.

b) REQUEST FOR SEATS

After the time limit of Free Sale Facility or when the Free Sale Facility is not available,

a request is made to interline Carrier.

The moment PNR mandatory entries are entered in the system and transaction is ended,

the system automatically generates a teletype message to the Reservations Headquarters


of the interline Carrier advising the number of seats sold under free sale facility or the

request made.

When the interline carrier replies to the request for seat confirmation, the reply can be

one of the following:

a) Seat confirmed

b) Seat not confirmed-but waitlisted

c) Seat cannot be confirmed

d) Flight not operating

When seat is confirmed, the request code or waitlist code changes to confirmation code

and the system puts such PNRs in the CONFIRMATION QUEUE. The staff would

retrieve PNRs from this QUEUE and will advise passengers regarding confirmation of

the seats.

When the seat is not confirmed -but waitlisted, the passenger is advised. The passenger

is also requested to give alternate booking in case the present booking is not confirmed.

When the interline carrier replies that seat cannot be confirmed, the passenger is

requested to give revised booking.

The passenger is also requested to give revised booking when the interline carrier replies

that the flight on which seat request was made is not operating.
To ensure passage on the required date, a reservation should be made and fare paid well

in advance. At destination or stopover point the passenger is advised to check return or

onward reservations as least 72 hour prior to the scheduled departure of the flight.

A normal fare ticket is valid for a period of one year from the date of commencement of

the journey. In case of special fare tickets, the validity would depend on the type of fare

used.

Any person of the age of'12 years or more pays applicable ADULT FARE Children

between the age of 2 and 12 years pay 67% of the applicable Adult Fare.

Infants less than 2 years of age pay 10% of the applicable Adult Fare.

There are no cancellation charges levied on the international tickets if the passenger does

not show up for the flight on which the seat was confirmed in advance. However, some

domestic airlines apply cancellation charge on domestic tickets. The cancellation charge

is applied by Indian Airlines and Air India on tickets issued for only domestic Travel,

when the booking already confirmed is cancelled or postponed:


GENERAL RESERVATION RULES

HOW TO MAKE A RESERVATION

 GENERAL RESERVATION RULES

It is recommended that the following rules be adhered to in order to ensure smooth

handling of reservations and to avoid inconvenience to the travelling public.

Accurate and complete records must be kept covering all reservations. These

must include flight numbers, class of service, date of travel, departure and arrival times,

reservation status of all segments, names and initials of passengers with their contact

address /telephone number and ticketing status.

 RESERVATION OF SEATS

a) Always adhere to standard reservations procedures.

b) Never make duplicate reservations for the same passenger.

c) When confirmation of a reservation request for a group cannot be obtained, never

attempt to secure the space by requesting the required number of seats in several

individual transactions.

d) Facilitate the handling of reservations by always establishing the itinerary,

minimum connecting times, flight numbers, etc., before contacting airlines.


e) Always attempt to establish a definite contact address (es) with the passenger and

advise-the airlines accordingly. This is particularly important as it enables airlines

to better serve your customers when your office is closed.

f) Travel agents should always request all reservations for a specific itinerary, and

advise subsequent changes, through one airline. Where this is not practicable,

each airline with whom reservations have been made must be informed of

reservations made with other airlines.

 CANCELLATION OF SEATS

a) Whenever passengers cancel their reservation, such cancelled space must be imme-

diately released. Normally, this is done in the same manner as the space was

originally obtained.

b) When passengers change their itinerary, ensure that all space and supplementary

services on longer required are cancelled at the time that new bookings are effected.
HOW TO MAKE A RESERVATION

Reservations Communications by Telephone Between Agents and Airlines the airline

reservations agent should receive the following information in order to make the most

suitable reservation.To ensure this, the best method is to adhere to the procedure below:

PROCEDURES EXAMPLE

YOUR IDENTITY This is John Brown of ABC Travel

PURPOSE OF CALL I wish to make

 a reservation

 a cancellation

 an amendment

 a reconfirmation

NUMBER OF SEATS For one passenger

FLIGHT, CLASS, QF27 in Y 22 August


DATE

BOARDING From SYD to HKG (and continuing flights, if any)


DISEMBARKING

HOTEL Give city name, action required, arrival and departure dates,
RESERVATION
Types of room, name and category of hotel.

PASSENGER’S NAME Brown John Mr.


INITIALS TITLE AND
Home tel.: 48 62 43
CONTACT

SPECIFIC Special handling. e.g. medical assistant Bassinet, smoking or non-


REQUIREMENTS
smoking
CHECK YOUR Airline read-back of action taken, With details of flights, dates, times and
ACTION
Ticketing time limit date.

OTHER USEFUL If any.... (E.g. passenger speaks only French).


INFORMATION

In addition an agreement should be reached with the clients as to when and how they will pay for

their reservation. In this connection, a date should be fixed for partial or full payment to the travel

agency. The travel agency's internal policy will determine the acceptance of cash, cheques or

credit cards. Certain airfares require an earlier ticketing time limit and the passengers must be so

advised.

A reservation does not become valid until passengers have bought their ticket or

exchange order indicating the confirmed space.

Most itineraries will require that passengers and their baggage make direct connection

from one flight to another. The amount of time needed to make such a connection, known

as the minimum connecting time, is published in airline guides. It is your responsibility to

determine these when establishing and reserving an itinerary.

Do not make a double reservation for the passenger except where it is impossible to get

a confirmed seat on a given flight and the carrier has waitlisted your client. Only then

can a "protective reservation" be made, which should be notified to the carriers. The

carrier should be advised of all developments, with all space no longer required being

cancelled.
All reservations for, and changes to, an itinerary should be requested through one

carrier only whenever possible. This will reduce the costs and workload of the, travel

agent and will assure the passenger of the accurate transmission of his arrival times and

the correct execution of reconfirmation procedures. If it is easier to make reservations

through several carriers, each carrier should be given details of the whole itinerary,

indicating the reservations preceding and following the segment for which it is

responsible.

When making reservations for groups, a list of the names must be presented so that any

seats eventually not used may be recalled When a carrier is. unable to confirm the

required number of seats, you should not try to obtain these by requesting several indi-

vidual reservations.

However, it is recommended that each carrier's manual instructions be consulted, as

time limits may vary according to the fare paid, destination and elapsed time between

date of reservation and departure.

If a change or an addition is being made to an existin,3 record, specify this before

giving new details; this will help to locate the existing file and avoid duplication.

NOTE: Many carriers with computerized reservation systems assign as identification

or locator code to each individual or group file. This should be noted or,

the agent's record ad quoted in any subsequent contact with the airline.
Children from 2 to 12 years of age normally pays 67% of the adult fare. They are

entitled to a confirmed seat and to the full adult free baggage allowance. When

accompanied by an adult, an infant under 2 years of age normally pays 1 0% of the

adult fare, but is not entitled to a seat reservation or free baggage allowance.

Most airlines will accept a child of 8 years old and over travelling alone. each company

should be contacted for details of acceptance and the applicable fare.

Reservations for physically handicapped persons must be checked with carrier for ac-

ceptance, special handling requirements necessitated by each case, and the applicable-

fare, will be determined at that time.

Airlines alter their timetables according to traffic load problems over a given city, sea-

sonal fluctuations, adjustment to summer time in some areas, and changes in equipment.

The timetables are found in the airline guides: they are of the utmost importance in

ticketing, both for determining connections and advising passengers of their check-in

time limit.

RECONFIRMATION

Passengers who break their journey should be advised of the reconfirmation procedures

required by the airlines involved. At each stopover point, they are requested to advise the
airline concerned with the next leg of the journey of their intention to use the space

reserved for them on that segment. Time limits for reconfirmation vary according to

regions and airlines; they are clearly stated in the publications of each airline.

Failure to reconfirm can result in the passenger's reservations-including those for the

remainder of the itinerary being cancelled. Therefore, it should be stressed to passengers,

at the time of issuing the ticket, that they reconfirm their reservations with the airline

concerned. This may be done at the stopover point, either by contacting a travel agent or

the airline on whose flight the booking was made.

Instructions for reconfirmation can generally be found in the "Conditions of Contract"

and information pages of the passenger's ticket.

CANCELLATION

If passengers cannot use their reservation, they should at once advise the airline

concerned, well before departure of the flight, either through their travel agent or directly

with the airline.In canceling their reservation within the prescribed time limits, they are

entitled to reimbursement for their ticket or to use it for another journey (except in case of

some excursion fares).

If a travel agent has made reservations for passengers who have not paid for their ticket

within the time limit, it is the agent's responsibility to advise the airline. If passengers

holding a confirmed reservation fail to present themselves for the flight concerned ("no-

show"), the rest of their journey may be cancelled.


"No-shows" and late cancellations cause the airlines loss of seating space and revenue.

For this reason, certain penalties may be imposed on passengers when they claim,

reimbursement or make new reservations. Cancellation time limits may vary and,

therefore, individual airlines' manuals should be consulted for verification.


ELECTRONIC RESERVATIONS SYSTEM

Today, most airlines use computers for all reservation work. Several airlines have

developed sophisticated systems, which they also make available to their appointed sales

agents. The latter are equipped with an appropriate terminal and receive the necessary

instructions to carry out the reservation procedures.

The following are some of the most common terms and abbreviations used with

electronic systems.

TERM DEFINITION

VDU Visual Display Unit = terminal unit, supplied with a screen and keyboard.

also called a CRT- Cathode Ray Tube.

PNR Passenger Name Record =a file concerning the passenger.

TTL Ticketing Time Limit =time within which tickets must be issued.

CPU Central Processing Unit =unit processing all transactions entering the

system.

EDP Electronic Data Processing =handling information electronically

Hardware The computer equipment.

Software The programmes fed into the computer.

Input The entering of date into the computer.


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Travel, and OAG.

A comprehensive database and multiple updates provide access to the most current fare

information. Galileo 360O Public Fares™ is trusted by over 120 carriers worldwide and

supplies fares to the airline system.

GALILEO 360° AGENCY PRIVATE FARES

Agency Private Fares make it extremely easy for agents to load fares and also get full

automatic rule validation. Galileo 360° Agency Private Fares™ provides real-time

solutions like automation of agency-created private fares through a web-based GUI, full

rules validation and a fully integrated display, more accurate data entry of agency-created

private fares, significantly fewer Agent Debit Memos (ADMs), and quicker-to-market

fares- allowing agencies to be more efficient, and more competitive.

Galileo also undertakes to guarantee all auto fare quotes at the time of ticketing, subject

to adherence to all the fare rules illustrated by the Airline and ATPCO, on the Galileo

System.
GALILEO ROOM MASTER

Room Master is the most complete and accurate hotel booking tool available, providing

direct, real time access to the hotels’ own inventory. Room Master is the simplest and

fastest way to process a hotel reservation. Room Master Inside Availability®, a first in

the industry, adds power to gain real-time access and view accurate up-to-the-minute

availability.

GALILEO CAR MASTER

Car Master is a comprehensive, accurate and flexible car hire system, which is

specifically designed to work on Galileo reservation system. There is no faster or more

complete car booking system with online access to all major car hire companies

worldwide. Car Master brings you all the productivity, tailored specifically to your car

booking requirements.

GALILEO LEISURE SHOPPE CRUISES

Leisure Shopper®- Cruises is an advanced and comprehensive leisure distribution

system, providing real time access to the vendors - displaying availability and negotiated

agency rates.

GALILEO LEISURE

DISCOVER NEW OPPORTUNITIES

Galileo Leisure is a website that integrates land and air content on to a single itinerary
improving efficiency and operating costs. This website is packaged with useful
destination information and excellent and unparalleled negotiated rates. Travel agents can
book hotels, villas and apartments, tours and excursions, car hire and transfers. This
creates a new integrated revenue stream for the agent and enhances customer service with
destination information available on Galileo Leisure.

FEATURES

 WIDER CHOICE OF HOTELS

Galileo Leisure has an enhanced range of independent leisure oriented hotels that

increases an agent’s range of offering

 EXCELLENT NEGOTIATED RATES

Agents can access the excellent negotiated rates of Gulliver Travel Associates (one of

the world's largest wholesalers) though Galileo Leisure. Agents can offer competitive

rates to their customers and earn commission at the same time

 OFFERS ADDITIONAL CONTENT AND GENERATES NEW REVENUE

STREAMS

Galileo Leisure offers a wealth of additional content such as sightseeing tours,

travel guides, car rentals and transfers

 PROVIDES DESTINATION INFORMATION

Agents can now provide timely and accurate additional information such as

destination guides and real time weather.

BENEFITS

 INCREASES REVENUE
Agents can offer their customers value-add content such as transfers and excursions

and earn commission Guaranteed Commission since agents book with Galileo

Leisure, we pay the commission not the supplier no delays in payment and the agency

can easily calculate earnings

 REDUCES COSTS

Easy to use no additional training is required and agents can connect through a simple

web based registration No need for site visits from engineers, as no additional

software is required

 SAVES TIME AND IMPROVES EFFICIENCY

Agents can access a wealth of non-GDS content including more than 20,000 Hotels;

3,000 Apartments and Villas; 3,000 Car Rental Locations; 2,500 Transfers; 1,200

Tailor-made sightseeing tours; 2,000 Tours and Excursions; and 300 Travel Guides

across 4,000 cities around the world at the click of a button All version upgrades are

automatic. No need to load updates onto individual machines As it is browser based,

agents can access Galileo Leisure from the office and at home using any Internet

connection Agents can produce reports to monitor their sales and revenue figures.

SERVICES

Galileo India backs its products and solutions with exceptional service with an
infrastructure spreading across 18 dedicated offices, 16 service centers and 7 training

centers, backed by talented and committed people.

SERVICE CENTER

Galileo’s dedicated team of professionals provides online support to travel agents across

the countries. For this purpose, dedicated service centers operate across 16 cities.

TECHNICAL

Galileo India provides a range of hardware and connectivity options to meet your specific

need, backed by an excellent team of field engineers.

TRAINING

Galileo India’s state-of-the-art training infrastructure is available across 7 cities. Galileo’s

well-qualified trainers also provide on-site training when required. Training and

certification is provided to travel agents on the Basic CRS course (Level 1 and 2),

Document Production, and the advanced product certification- Galileo India Professional.

Training is a focus area and Galileo India has full-fledged training centres in New Delhi,

Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Calcutta, Trivandrum and Hyderabad. These training

centres work with flexible modules to ensure that the Galileo system is used optimally.

The training centres are supported by 16 service centres in India.


The trainings are conducted by certified Galileo trainers who ensure that the travel

agency staff is up-to-date on all product features. All Galileo training centers are

equipped with state-of-the-art technology.

Training is provided on the basis of different levels as follows:

Level I

Level II

Level III

Level IV

Level V
INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA)

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The International Air Transport Association was founded by airlines 1945 to help meet

the problems anticipated in the expansion of civil services after Second World War. It is

the successor in functions to the previous International Air Association, initiated at The

Hague at the very dawn of regular air transport in 1919.

It is a non-governmental organization and draws its legal existence from a special Act of

the Canadian parliament, given Royal Assent in December 1945.

In both, its organization and its activity, IATA has been closely associated with ICAO-

International Civil Association Organization.

IATA is voluntary, non-exclusive, non-political and democratic. Membership is open to

any operating company, which has been licensed to provide schedule air service by a

government eligible for membership in ICAO. Airlines engaged directly in International

operations are ACTIVE MEMBERS, while those offering domestic services are

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS.
AIMS OF IATA

 TO PROMOTE….. Safe, regular and economical air transport for the benefit of

the people of the world, to foster air commerce and to study the problems

connected therewith.

 TO PROVIDE….. Means for collaboration among the air transport enterprises

engaged directly or indirectly in International ait transport services.

 TO CO-OPERATE….. With International Civil Aviation Organization and other

International Organizations.

IATA’s ROLE IN AIR TRANSPORT

IATA’s contribution comes in only after governments have completed negotiating traffic

and other rights (air service agreements) among themselves and have authorized airlines

to perform such services. But from that point on, the activity of the Association spreads

through most phases of air transport operations.

The basic source of authority in IATA is the Annual General Meeting in which all the

Active Members have an equal vote. Year-round policy direction is provided by an

elected Executives Committee (of Airline’s chief Executives) and its creative work is

largely carried out by its Traffic, Technical and Financial Committees. Coordination of
fares and rates agreements is entrusted to the IATA Tariff Coordination Conferences,

with separate meetings considered passenger and cargo matters.

Members of IATA committees are nominated by individual airlines and are subject to the

regulation and review of the Executive Committee, which serve as experts on behalf of

the entire industry. In the tariff Conferences, however, delegates act as representatives of

their individual companies. While the Executive Committee fixes the terms of reference

of these Conferences, their decisions are subject only to the review of governments and

cannot be altered by any other part of the association.

The association has two main offices, one in MONTREAL and the other in GENEVA.

Regional Directors are based in SINGAPORE, GENEVA, BUENOS, AIRES, BEIRUT

and WASHINGTON, and the regional Technical Directors in Bangkok, Dakar, London,

Nairobi, and Rio de Janeiro.

IATA’s budget is financed from the dues paid by its members, largely in proportion to

the part of the total international air traffic carried by each airline. Some of the activities

are self-supported through charges for services rendered.


FINANCIAL ROLE

The IATA Financial Committee deals with all aspects of accounting and settlements

between airlines in respect of business they do with one another or, one another’s behalf.

It is also concerned with data collection and with many of the airline’s common problems

in regard to currency and exchange, taxation, charges, insurance and statistics.

An outstanding example of the Association’s financial work is the IATA Cleaning House

through which the airlines settle monthly accounts for interlines settle monthly accounts

for interline revenue transactions. It enables them to select and pay their worldwide debts

simultaneously by a single cash settlement in either dollars or convertible sterling,

regardless of the number of national currencies involved.

Clearance House Operation began in January 1947. Since then, the IATA clearing house

participation has broadened to include over 300 airlines-many of them not members of

the Association- carrying out 14 billion dollars’ worth of transactions annually.


TARIFF COORDINATION

The tariff coordination process- the negotiation of International fares and rates for

submission to governments- arises from the special nature if air transport. Any country in

the world is accessible by air, and the airlines fly between most major cities over

interrelated route. Most governments reserve control over their own space and what air

carriers may charge the public.

International fares and rates and the conditions that underline them-are the subject of

discussions in which virtually every country has some direct or indirect concern.

However, participation in such activity by IATA Member airlines is optional.

The tariff cooperation framework is intended to provide considerable flexibility and since

Members need to respond quickly to the market changes, provision has been made for

them to introduce innovative passenger fares or cargo rates rapidly without necessarily

affecting other tariffs in their area of operation.


TRAFFIC SERVICES

Although tariff activities are the most visible of the various responsibilities relating to the

Traffic Committee, they are not the only ones of considerable importance for the

international air transport industry.

Of crucial significance for the worldwide system is the whole series of standardization

measures- ticket format, air waybills and other documents, plus uniform procedures for

passenger, baggage and cargo handling. These activities are grouped under the generic

heading of “traffic Services”.

The Traffic Services work falls into three areas:

 Passenger services

 Cargo Services

 Airport

Those combine to permit the world schedule air transport system to handle about one

billion passenger journeys annually.

The emphasis of passenger services is one speeding travelers through airport terminals

and on to their flights at the lowest possible cost, but with due regard to many individual

requirements. Automation has already facilitated reservations, ticketing and the

associated accounting procedures, but even greater progress can be expected in the years

to come.
The world’s airlines have been carrying incapacitated passengers for many years. during

this time precise industry standards for the guidance of airlines, physicians and

handicapped people themselves have been developed by the carriers to simplify matters

as much as possible.

The industry now handles over a billion pieces of checked baggage each year. Despite the

development of elaborate mechanical systems, some baggage is still manually. From time

to time, some are mishandled and there are standard procedures for their tracing,

including the IATA/SITA BAGTRAC system.

WORLD COOPERATION

Since they arise from the very basic necessities of International air transport, IATA’s

aims and activities are essentially practical. Underlying them, however, is the process of

cooperation, which the Association represents. The resulting habit of tolerance,

understanding and mutual adjustment continues to permit world aisline cooperation

through IATA “to promote safe, regular and economical air transport fot the benefit of

the peoples of the world”.


WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL/TRAFFIC AREA CONFERENCE

AREA AREA 2 AREA 3


North America Europe Asia
South America Africa Australia
Canada Middle East South Pacific

(New Zealand)

THESE CONFERENCES SESSIONS ARE HELD AT THE SAME TIME AND AT


THE SAME PLACE.

AIRLINES ALPHABETICAL CODES FOR DOMESTIC AS

WELL AS INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE BOOKINGS


ALPHABETS FULL FORMS
A Alpha
B Beta/Bravo/Baker
C Charlie
D Delta
E Easy
F Father
G Gold
H Harry
I India
J Juliet/Jack
K Kilo
L Leema/Lima
M Mother
N Nancy
O Oscar/Orange
P Peter
Q Queen
R Roger
S Sugar
T Tango
U Union/Uncle
V Victory
W Water
X X-ray
Y Yanky/Yellow
Z Zebra/Zero
3 LETTER AIRPORT CITY CODES OF INDIA

CITY AIRLINES CITY CODE


AGATTI AGX
AGRA AGR
AHMEDABAD AMD
ALLAHABAD IXD
AMRITSAR ATQ
AURANGABAD IXU
BAGDOGRA IXB
BANGALORE BLR
BHAVNAGAR BHV
BHOPAL BHO
BHUBNESHWAR BBI
BHUJ BHJ
CHANDIGARH IXC
CHENNAI MAA
COIMBTORE CJB
DELHI DEL
DIBRUGARH DIB
DIMAPUR DMU
GUWAHATI GAU
HYDERABAD HYD
IMPHAL IMF
INDORE IDR
JAIPUR JAI
JAMMU IXJ
JAMNAGAR JGA
JODHPUR JDH
JORHAT JRH
KATHMANDU KTM
KHAJURAHO HJR
KOCHI (COCHIN) COK
KOLKATA CCU
KOZHIKODE (CALICUT) CCJ
KULLU KUU
LEH IXL
LUCKNOW LKO
MADURAI IXM
MANGALORE IXE
MUMBAI BOM
NAGPUR NAG
PATNA PAT
PORBANDAR PBD
PORT BLAIR IXZ
PUNE PNQ
RAIPUR RPR
RAJKOT RAJ
RANCHI IXR
SHIMLA SLV
SILCJAR IXS
SRINAGAR SXR
TEZPUR TEZ
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM TRV
TIRUCHIRAPALLI TRZ
TIRUPATI TIR
UDAIPUR UDR
VADODARA BDQ
VARANASI VNS
VISHAKAPATNAM (VIZAG) VTZ

ATC / IATA CODES AND ABBREVIATIONS

The Member airlines of the Air Traffic Conference of America (ATC) and of IATA have

developed the Standard ATC / IATA Reservations interline Message Procedures -

Passenger (AIRIMP) for the purpose of communicating with each other when making

interline reservations, whether by manual, mechanical or computerized reservations sys-

tems in order to ensure uniformity, understanding, accuracy and economy.


3 LETTER AIRPORT CITY CODES OF WORLD

CITY, COUNTRY CODE


Agra, India AGR

Auckland, New Zealand AKL

Algiers, Algeria ALG

Ahmedabad, India AMD

Amsterdam, Netherlands AMS

Athens, Greece ATH

Amritsar, India ATQ

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) AUH

Austin, TX USA AUS

Bahrain BH

Bhubneshwar, India BBI

Belgrade, Yugoslavia BEG

Beirut, Lebanon BEY

Bergen, Norway BGO

Bangkok, Thailand BKK

Bangalore, India BLR

Bombay/Mumbai, India BOM

Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK) CBG

Calicut, India CCJ

Calcutta, India CCU

Paris Charles De Gaulle Apt. France CDG

Sao Paulo Congonhas Apt. SP Brazil CGH

Jakarta, Soekarno CGK

Christchurch, New Zealand CHC


Chicago, IL USA CHI

Coimbatore, India CJB

Colombo, Sri Lanka CMB

Cochin, India COK

Dhaka, Bangladesh DAC

Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic DAM

Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania DAR

Delhi, India DEL

Denver, CO USA DEN

Detroit, City Apt, MI USA DET

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia DHA

Dharamshala, India DHM

Doha, Qatar DOH

Darwin, NT Australia DRW

Dubai, UAE DXB

New York EWR

Frankfurt, FRG FRA

Goa, India GOI

Geneva, Switzerland GVA

Havana, Cuba HAV

Khajuraho, India HJR

Hong Kong HKG

Phuket, Thailand HKT

Kathmandu, Nepal KTM

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia KUL

Kuwait KWI

Luanda, Angola LAD


Las Vegas, NV USA LAS

Lahore, Pakistan LHE

Lima, Peru LIM

Lisbon, Portugal LIS

Lucknow, India LKO

London, UK LON

Lagos, Nigeria LOS

Liverpool, UK LPL

Luxembourg LUX

Luxor, Egypt LXR

Madras/Chennai, India MAA

Madrid, Spain MAD

Manchester, UK MAN

Melbourne, VI Australia MEL

Mexico City, Mexico MEX

Mauritius MRU

Nairobi Kenva NBO

Nice, France NCE

Nagasaki, Japan NGS

New York NYC

Osaka, Japan OSA

Paris, France PAR

Parnaiba, PI Brazil PHB

Beijing, P.R. China PEK

Perth, WS Australia PER

Philadelphia, PA USA PHC


Pitsburg, PA USA PIT

Panama City PTY

Rio De Janeiro, Brazil RIO

Rome, Italy ROM

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia RUH

Sanaa, Republic of Yemen SAH

San Diego, CA USA SAN

Santiago, Chile SCL

San Francisco, CA USA SFO

Shanghai, P.R.China SHA

Shilong, India SHL

Singapore SIN

Sri Nagar, India SXR

Sydney, NS Australia SYD

Tripoli, Libya TIP

Tokyo, Japan TYO

Venice, Italy VCE

Vienna, Austria VIE

Vishakhapatnam, India VNS

Washington DC, USA WAS

Zurich, Switzerland ZRH


OBSERVATIONS AND FINDINGS

Ease of reservation and cancellation: - kingfisher & Indian Airlines and Jet are all in the

race for providing better service, and ease of reservation and cancellation is important

factor considered by the respondents.

(EASE OF RESERVATIONS AND CANCELLATION) (%)

1) Not Important 10%

2) Least Important 40%

3) Important 40%

4) Very Important 10%

Very
Important

Important

Least
Important

Not Important

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%


No of Respondents
CONCLUSION

With the increasing competition in the tourism market every tour

operator has to first analyse need and preference of the

customer then provide him with best package in his budget,

increasing goodwill of the company in the market, the company

should focus more on promotion and personal relationship so as to

keep itself updated with the dynamic environment.

Universal Travels & Allied Services Private limited being a part of

tour industry must expand its business and work on its loopholes

for business and increasing market share in future.


LIMITATIONS

• Despite repeated proof-reading, there is a possibility of

spelling error of otherwise, which may have been overlooked.

• All this report has been an individual attempt and also it

involves the human process of interpretation and analysis so

there are chances of human error.


RECOMENDATION

• Dedicated counters should be made to handle last minute

reservation, preferably for reservations being done on the day

of the flight.

• Ticket counters can be placed at major corporate houses which

have a substantial amount of travel budget: where in all the

information about the schemes are available. These ticket

counters are to be maintained at the expense of any Airlines

company.

• There should be internal and external audits to look in to the

working of various departments.

• An incentive scheme should be launched for the people at the

front desk of the agency such as the ticketing agents. The

ticketing agents should be provided with a unique identity

number that they would have to quote on the tickets.


Thepoints would automatically credit to their account. On the

accumulation of certain number of points they will be given

FOC’s. This will also help in checking false ticketing.

• Tele reservation and computerized check-in procedure should

be made mandatory.

• The process of ticketing and cancellation should be made more

easy, smooth and as flawless as possible as most of the

respondent are not happy with the present ticketing

procedure.

• Indian Airlines needs to undertake aggressive marketing.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reservations Procedures by IITTM Faculty

• Court Material by Air Travel Fares and Ticketing Course

WEBSITES

• www.google.com

• www.indianairlines.com

• www.indianairlines.net

• www.indian-airlines.com

• www.indian-airlines.nic.in

• www.indianairlines.indiatimes.com

• www.jetairways.com

• www.airsahara.com

• www.airliners.com

• www.airsahara.net