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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет

Кафедра иностранных языков

ЗАДАНИЕ № 109
по английскому языку для студентов I курса
специальностей 270102 – промышленное и гражданское строительство,
270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий и конструкций,
270114 – проектирование зданий.

Санкт-Петербург
2007
Рецензенты: доцент Л. Н. Борисова,
канд. филол. наук, доцент С. М. Журкина

Задание № 109 по английскому языку для студентов I курса спец. 270102 – УВАЖАЕМЫЕ ПРЕПОДАВАТЕЛИ И СТУДЕНТЫ!
промышленное и гражданское строительство, 270106 – производство строительных
материалов, изделий и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование зданий / СПб гос. Данное задание является элементом комплекса учебно-методических мате-
архит.-строит. ун-т; Сост.: А. С. Глебовский, Т. А. Денисова; Под ред. канд. филол. риалов для курса обучения студентов строительных специальностей английскому
наук, доцент А. С. Глебовского. – СПб., 2007. – 95 с. языку. Комплекс включает в себя:
· учебные задания по каждому из четырёх семестров обучения,
· краткий справочник по грамматике английского языка,
Задание предназначено для аудиторного чтения для студентов I курса (осенний семестр) · сборник тестов для промежуточного контроля качества овладения студента-
по специальностям 270102 – промышленное и гражданское строительство, 270106 – ми учебного материала.
производство строительных материалов, изделий и конструкций, 270114 – проектирование Задание состоит из 12 уроков. Каждый урок включает:
зданий. Задание составлено на основе оригинальных англоязычных текстов по вопросам · основной текст А для самостоятельного перевода со словарём,
строительства зданий.
· вспомогательный текст В для аудиторного перевода без словаря,
Цель задания - развитие у студентов знаний и навыков, необходимых для получения
информации в сфере их профессиональной деятельности. Задачи пособия: · вспомогательный текст С для домашнего чтения (в уроках 4, 8, 12),
· выработка навыков фонологически правильной речи, · набор лексических, грамматических и фонологических упражнений.
· овладение грамматикой английского языка, необходимой для понимания текстов по Фонологическая задача пособия – выработка навыков фонологически пра-
специальности, вильной речи, что подразумевает знание фонетической транскрипции и навыки
· овладение словарным минимумом по специальности. пользования словарём.
Задание состоит из 12 уроков. Каждый урок включает два текста из оригинальной
Лексическая задача пособия – овладение минимально-необходимым на-
литературы и набор лексических, грамматических и фонетических упражнений к ним. Каждый
четвёртый урок содержит, кроме того, текст для домашнего чтения. бором общеупотребительной и терминологической лексики по строительной спе-
Помимо учебных заданий пособие включает: описание знаков транскрипции, словарный циальности.
минимум по специальности, поурочный список грамматических тем и список использованной На основе частотной дифференциации лексического материала текстов был
литературы. выделен список высокочастотной лексики и список низкочастотной лексики. Вы-
сокочастотная лексика широко использована во всех типах тренировочных и кон-
трольных заданий. Низкочастотная лексика (1-2 употребления на весь текстовой
материал) дана в виде примечания к тексту с переводом на русский язык. В упраж-
нениях и заданиях она также даётся с переводом. Исключение составляют только
фонологические упражнения.
Новая лексика по текстам А и В дается в лексическом упражнении № 1
к соответствующему тексту. Новая лексика по текстам С в основном содержится
в следующим за ним задании. Лексический состав упражнений определяется той,
и только той, лексикой, которая уже была представлена в изученных на данный
момент текстах.
Новая терминологическая лексика дана в словарном минимуме с указанием
текста, в котором она впервые использована.
Грамматическая задача пособия – овладение знаниями грамматики необ-
ходимыми для перевода текстов по специальности и навыками правильного изло-
жения их содержания в ответах на вопросы.
Важнейшим принципом работы с грамматикой на первом курсе является
последовательное повышение сложности грамматической составляющей текстов.
Для снятия трудностей, вызванных незнанием правил грамматики, которые необ-
1
ходимы для правильного перевода текстов, они подвергались обработке. Напри- СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
мер, в текстах, предшествующих изучению пассивного залога, было исключено
использование подобных конструкций. Грамматические явления не представляю- Урок 2.1 ........................................................................................................................ 4
щие трудности при переводе, например, инфинитив в функции части сказуемого,
Урок 2.2 ...................................................................................................................... 10
могут встречаться в текстах задолго до изучения темы Инфинитив.
Список грамматических тем, которые отрабатываются в каждом уроке дан Урок 2.3 ...................................................................................................................... 16
в конце задания.
Урок 2.4 ...................................................................................................................... 22

Урок 2.5 ...................................................................................................................... 30


А.С.Глебовский
Урок 2.6 ...................................................................................................................... 36

Урок 2.7 ...................................................................................................................... 42

Урок 2.8 ...................................................................................................................... 48

Урок 2.9 ...................................................................................................................... 57

Урок 2.10 .................................................................................................................... 62

Урок 2.11 .................................................................................................................... 68

Урок 2.12 .................................................................................................................... 74

Знаки фонетической транскрипции ………………………..…………………… . 81

Словарный минимум строительных терминов …………..…………………….. . 83

Распределение грамматических тем по урокам …………..…………………….. .93

Библиография …………………………………………………..…………………. 95

2 3
to go all the way down to bedrock, or merely to some more desirable soil layer. In order
to accomplish this, the building is simply placed on stilts, or tall legs, in the ground. The
two basic types of elements that are used for this are piles and piers. Piles are elements
that are driven into the ground. Piers are shafts that are excavated and then filled with
Урок 2.1 concrete.
Фонетическое задание
Notes:
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим excavate v. рыть, копать
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова literally adv. буквально
rot n. гниение, гниль
списка В даны в списке А.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
A
[pIq]; ['strRtqm]; ['SxlqV]; ['xdIkwIt]; ['mIqlI]; ['jHtIlaIz]; ['neICq]; [flqVt]; 1. What are foundations?
2. What are the main important factors in foundation design?
['ekskqveIt]; [In'tWnl]; ['beqrIN]; ['trxnsfW]; ['nesIsqrI]; [faVn'deISqn] 3. What is the most common material in foundations?
B 4. What is the difference between shallow bearing foundations and deep
excavate necessary shadow float stratum foundations?
shallow internal pie bearing flirt 5. What are the most common types of shallow foundations?
boring foundation nature necessitate transfer 6. What is a raft?
utilize merely merrily pier adequate 7. When do builders utilize the resistance of lower soil strata?
8. What do they do in this case?
Текст A 9. What do we call “piles” and “piers”?
10. Where are piles and piers used?
BEHAVIOR OF FOUNDATIONS
Лексические упражнения
Foundations are elements that affect a transition between the building and the
ground. There are three general areas of importance in foundation design. Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Ка-
1. The nature of the structure that must be supported. кие из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно?
2. The nature of the ground. Как они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
3. The structural actions of foundation elements, involving internal stresses
and strains and the means by which they achieve the transfer of loads to the ground. pad (n.), bearing foundation, pile (n.), float (v.), utilize (v.), deep foundation, shallow
Most foundations consist of some elements of concrete, because of the relative foundation, internal (adj.), stratum (n.), distance (n.), bearing (n.), strip (n.), column
cost of the material and its high resistance to water, rot, etc. The two general types of footing, raft (n.), leg (n.), shaft (n.), wall footing, drive (v.), pier (n.), transition (n.),
foundations are shallow bearing foundations and deep foundations. With shallow bedrock (n.), stilt (n.), structural action, transfer (n.), footing (n.).
founda­tions load transfer occurs near the bottom of the building; with deep foundations
it involves soil strata at some distance below the building. Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
The most common types of shallow foundations are wall and column footings,
consisting of concrete strips and pads that are poured directly on the ground directly природа, характер; конструкция; грунт (2); тип; устойчивость; область, сфера;
supporting structural elements of the building. Sometimes several structural elements of усилие, сила; деформация, напряжение; основание; слой, пласт; стоимость;
the building may be supported by a single large footing. Such a foundation does literally
float on the soil and is called a raft. иметь место, случаться; состоять (из); достичь, получить; поддерживать; влиять
If the soil at the bottom of the building is not adequate for the load transfers, it на; использовать; добиваться чего-либо; включать в себя; становиться; отливать,
becomes necessary to utilize the resistance of lower soil strata. In this case builders have бетонировать;
4 5
глубокий; достаточный; просто; непосредственно, прямо; обычный; только; 8. Glass is a strong material in compression providing its full strength in tension.
основной (2); желательный; необходимый; несколько; высокий; 9. A film or coating is usually applied to a fabric improving its properties.
10. Construction work in cast-in-place concrete may start almost immediately giving
затем; который; это; для того чтобы; для; такой; иногда; между; из-за; и т.д.; рядом faster completion times.
с; под, ниже.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения. Определите время
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с фундаментом: его и залог сказуемого.
назначением, типами и особенностями этих типов. Перечислите их и дайте пере-
вод на русский язык. 1. Most foundations consist of some elements of concrete.
2. The two fundamental types of foundations were bearing foundations and deep
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными. foundations.
Укажите правильный перевод. 3. When not bearing on rock, piers are usually made wider at their ends.
4. Shallow foundation for the house is being built now.
erect возведение elevation фасад 5. Its mechanical properties are altered by the ground water.
temporary временный support опора 6. Their strength will have been achieved by the end of the work.
coating покрытие main важность 7. The Romans used their hydraulic concrete to place very heavy foundations.
exist существовать flexibility гибкость 8. They are generally produced as sheet, partly because they can be easily changed in
means средство reinforcement армирование shape.
relative относительный curve закругление 9. By that time the foundation will have been built.
importance необходимость slab плита 10. In this way tall structures have been successfully built.
load нагрузка humidity влажность
Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
Упражнение 5. Дайте синонимы следующих слов: модальные глаголы и их заменители.

1. Occasionally, several structural elements of the building may be supported by a


accomplish transmission occur utilize single large footing.
build affect several merely 2. Cast-in-place reinforced concrete is able to be applied to non-standard areas and
possess general adequate place v. shapes.
Грамматические упражнения 3. In order to obtain good strength and durability in the long term, concrete must be
allowed to cure.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, определите форму и 4. After it is placed in its final position, no wet concrete should be at a temperature
функцию причастия I. less than 5°C or 40°F.
5. This period of time is necessary because concrete should gain sufficient strength
1. Wall and column footings, consisting of concrete strips are the most common types of before it has to support itself.
shallow foundations. 6. A thin wall is difficult to concrete if it must be cast vertically because the concrete
2. Concrete strips are poured directly on the ground supporting structural elements of has to be placed in the narrow opening at the top of the form.
the building. 7. These laminations can be used straight in columns or beams and can be bent to
3. Stresses acting on the cross-sectional area parallel to the direction of the force are form arches.
called shear unit stresses. 8. This may require going all the way down to bedrock.
4. The supporting members are glued-laminated timbers. 9. Wall footings are to consist of concrete strips and pads poured directly on the ground.
5. A steel rod having a cross section 0.5 in2 can carry more than 40 men. 10. Piles may also be simply driven until their surfaces develop sufficient skin friction
6. Foundations are elements affecting a transition between the building and the ground. with the soil.
7. Builders producing concrete can pump, or spray it into all kinds of shapes.
6 7
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, определите функцию “it”. Грамматические упражнения

1. Engineers don’t design to stress a material to the point where it will fail. Упражнение 1. Найдите в первом абзаце текста причастие I. Определите его
2. We obtained unit stress by dividing the force by the area on which it acts and функцию и переведите на русский язык.
show it as pounds per square inch. Упражнение 2. Какие времена использованы в тексте?
3. It is important to know the nature of the ground. Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте модальные глаголы и их заменители.
4. It is a mixture of limestone and clay. Переведите их на русский язык.
5. Sometimes it becomes necessary to utilize the strength of the bedrock.
6. Concrete has many characteristics that make it a constructional material. Лексические упражнения

Текст B Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если


FOUNDATIONS Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
в котором оно использовано в тексте.
Structures are built on the ground, either directly on rock at or near the surface or
on soil lying over rock at some depth. Foundations on soil usually settle to some extent, series (n.), spread (v.), box (n.), superstructure (n.), settle­ment (n.), rock (n.), settle
and builders must ensure that this settle­ment is uniform and small. Differential settling (v.),basement (n.), bear (v.), raft foundation.
of the various parts of the structure results in cracking and damage of the fabric.
In the simplest type of foundation on soil, the footing, the topsoil is removed and Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
a layer of concrete a little wider than the wall or pier which it is to support is placed on
the ground. In ground of worse bearing quality the separate footings under the walls of
a building can be combined in order to form a single thicker and deeper raft foundation. A B A B
Under a footing the pressure that is caused by the weight of the superstructure is spread объём quality раздельный lie
into the soil under it, and the advantage of a raft is that the pressure is spread into a much преимущество damage отдельный reduce
greater volume and depth of ground than it is under a series of individual footings and распределять(ся) remove глубина volume
this reduces the settlement. The raft was developed by the Romans, who used their уменьшать a little один individual
hydraulic concrete when they placed very heavy foundations, of this type. Modern raft развивать also качество strength
foundations achieve their strength more from reinforce­ment than great thickness, and прочность results in вертикальная опора separate
under large buildings are often con­structed as a series of boxes in which the walls also толщина surface убирать spread
serve as a basement. также pier разрушение advantage
приводить к develop немного single
Notes: лежать depth поверхность thickness
differential settling неравномерная осадка
hydraulic concrete гидротехнический бетон
topsoil n. верхний слой почвы Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту base n - base v. - basement n.
separate adj. - separate v.
1. How are structures built on the ground?
2. Who must ensure that settle­ment is uniform and small?
3. What does differential settling results in?
4. How is the simplest type of foundation made?
5. How is the foundation made in ground of worse bearing quality?
6. Who was the raft developed by?
7. What are the characteristics of modern foundations?
8 9
1. footing for free-standing wall 7. basement wall
2. combined footing 8. footing for stairs, etc.
3. shear wall footing 9. wall footing
4. combined footing for closely spaced columns 10. footing for free-standing wall

Урок 2.2 5. rectangular footing


6. basement wall
11. footing for column in wall

FIGURE 1
Фонетическое задание Shallow foundation is the term usually used when the type or foundation that
trans­fers vertical loads by direct bearing on soil strata close to the bottom of the building
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим and a relatively short distance below the ground surface is described. There are three
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова basic forms of shallow foundations: the continuous, strip, wall footing; the individual
списка В даны в списке А. column or pier footing; and the mat or raft foundation. Figure 1 shows a number of
elements generally used in bearing foundation systems.
A Foundation walls are typically built of concrete or masonry. The structural and
["RkI'tekCqrql]; [kwaIt]; ['elIveIt]; ['lxtqrql]; [q"kjHmjV'leISqn]; ['relqtIvlI]; architectural functions of foundation walls vary, depending on the type of foundation,
['xkCVqlI]; [pq'tenSql]; [dI'skraIb]; [bI'lqV]; [sOIl]; [kqn'sIdqrqbql]; [Ig'zWt]; the size of the building, climate and soil conditions, and whether or not they form a
basement.
[djH] With no basement the walls are not actually walls. A principal difference relates
B to the construc­tion of the building floor, whether it consists of a framed structure elevated
quite believe accumulation exit quiet above the ground, or concrete placed directly on the ground.
considerable elevate describe actually soil When a basement is required foundation walls are usually quite high. In a half-
architectural sole exert below potential basement the basement floor is only a short distance below grade and the part of the
due lateral accommodation relatively discord basement wall above ground may be of different construc­tion than that extending into
the ground. If the basement floor is a significant distance below grade, major soil pressure
will be exerted horizontally against the outside of the wall. In such a case the
Текст A
wall will function as a spanning element supported laterally by the footing or the basement
floor at its lower end and by the building floor at its top. For buildings with multilevel
SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
basements, walls may become quite massive due to the accumulation of vertical load
and the potential for considerable lateral soil pressure.

Notes:
accumulation n. накопление
continuous footing ленточный фундамент
half-basement n. полуподвал
multilevel adj. многоуровневый, многоэтажный
pier footing столбчатый фундамент

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту

1. When is the term “shallow foundation” used?


2. How many forms of shallow foundations do you know?
3. What does figure 1 show?
4. What are foundation walls?
10 11
5. How do the functions of foundation walls vary? welding сваривать footing основание
6. What is the role of a basement? straight прямой deep глубина
7. When is a basement required?
plate плита adequate соответствующий
8. What does the term “half-basement” mean?
9. When will the wall function as a spanning element? settlement осадка drive забивать (сваю)
10. Why may walls buildings with multilevel basements become quite massive? Упражнение 5. Дайте производные от перечисленных ниже слов. Укажите
часть речи, которой является данное слово и его производные. Переведите их на
Лексические упражнения русский язык.
elevate; extend; settle; base; deep; transfer.
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как Грамматические упражнения
они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
architectural (adj.), span (v.), transfer (v.), mat foundation strip, footing extend (v.), framed функцию причастие II в предложении.
structure, lateral (adj.), shallow (adj.), elevate (v.).
1. Deformation means a change in the outside dimensions of an object caused by a
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык: force.
2. The term unit strain, also called strain, means the total change in dimensions divided
наружная сторона; уровень; потенциал; стена; термин; функция; каменная кладка; by the original dimension.
рисунок; расстояние; сплошной фундамент; подвал; сжатие; 3. The most interesting of all cast-iron (чугунный) buildings was the Crystal Palace
built in 1851.
применять; помещать; описывать; действовать; поддерживать; показывать; строить; 4. The safety factor equals the failure unit stress divided by the allowable unit stress.
различаться; образовывать; становиться; прилагать (силы); требовать; 5. Important factors considered in deciding on a safety factor are listed here.
6. The description of new building materials was given in the article written by our
массивный; близкорасположенный; значительный; довольно; обычно (3); specialist.
вертикальный ;относительно; основной; фактически; 7. The bridge built over the river in1980 needed reconstruction.
8. The material is not efficiently used, and stresses are high.
над; ли … или …; в зависимости от; под; когда; из-за; его, её; только; как, в качестве; 9. Since the structures designed by engineers are planned to be stable, horizontal and
несколько; такой; на, к, против.
vertical forces must be balanced.
10. Prestressed concrete is an improved form of reinforce­ment.
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с фундаментами
мелкого заложения: их типами, особенностями и свойствами. Перечислите их и
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие словосочетания.
дайте перевод на русский язык.
soil strata, surface temperature, glass fibre reinforcement, cross section dimension, climate
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными.
and soil conditions, concrete structure design, basement floor, moisture content, shrinkage
Укажите правильный перевод.
and temperature stresses
main основной superstructure подземная часть здания
support опора series серия Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения, определите их главные
finish отделывать heavy тяжёлый и второстепенные члены.
surround нагружать serve действовать
reinforcement арматура pad опорная плита 1. With no basement these walls are not actually walls.
2. A sample subjected to a compressive force becomes shorter and wider.
storey этаж strip полоса
3. The designer prepares plans consisting of drawings
welding сваривать footing основание
12 13
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на 3. When are the walls used as spanning members?
причастие I. 4. In which case the walls and columns share the load to some extent?

1. In practice the most serious changes causing failure of floors and roofs are dimensional Грамматические упражнения
ones.
2. Some structural materials having low thermal conductivity serve as insulation. Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте причастия II. Определите их функцию
3. Various kinds of cement are available, for example, those having rapid hardening и переведите на русский язык.
properties. Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте причастия I. Определите их функцию
4. Forces acting at an angle are a combination of horizontal and vertical forces. и переведите на русский язык.
5. Stress is the force or pressure tending to strain or deform a structure or its various
parts. Лексические упражнения
6. Heat movement takes place by conduction through any solid object separating areas
of different tempera­tures. Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если
Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
Текст B в котором оно использовано в тексте.
FOUNDATION WALLS
closely spaced, equalize (v.), monolithically (adv.), relationship (n.), edge (n.),
Foundation walls provide a ground-level edge for the building and support for distribute (v.).
elements of the building. In addition to these usual functions they often serve a number
of functions for the building foundation system. Some of these are as follows: Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
Walls of some length and height typically form stiff beamlike elements. Their
structural potential in these cases is often used for additional purposes: they distribute or A B A B
equalize the load. случай height высота between
Walls may be used as spanning members, carrying their own weight as well as их these твёрдый also
some supported loads. This is often the case in buildings with deep foundations and a обеспечивать stiff собственный if
column structure. Deep foundation elements are placed under the columns, and walls опираться carry эти bear
are used in order to span from column to column. This can also be the case with bearing делить own служить different
foundations if the column footings are quite large and reasonably closely spaced; the между tend также their
, уравновешивать provide степень equalize
stiff wall then is actually bearing not on its own footing but tends to span between the
larger footings. дополнительный share нести additional
When columns occur in the same plane as a foundation wall, many different следующий extent разный as follows
relationships for the structural action of the walls, columns, and column foundations are колонна column если case
possible. If the walls and columns are monolithically constructed, the walls generally
share the load to some extent. Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
Notes: bear – bearing - bearing foundation
beamlike adj. похожий на балку outside n. - outside adj. - outside adv. – outside prep.
spanning member ригель рамы

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту

1. What are the usual functions of the foundation walls?


2. What is the foundation wall structural potential often used for?
14 15
As the wall load increases the increased width of the footing required for the
control of soil stress eventually produces significant trans­verse bending and shear in
the footing. At some point this determines the required thickness for the footing and for
required reinforcing in the transverse direction.
Урок 2.3 When the building has no basement and the floor consists of a concrete slab placed
directly on the ground, these footings are sometimes poured monolithically with the
floor slab.
Фонетическое задание
Notes:
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим bearing stress напряжение смятия
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова mortar bed растворная постель
списка В даны в списке А. projection n. выступ

A Ответьте на вопросы к тексту


['kxntI"lJvq]; [rek'txNgjVlq]; [trxnz'vWs]; [prq'Gekt]; [dI'rekSqn (daI-)];
1. What do wall footings consist of?
['InkrJs]; [dI'tWmIn]; ["sICV'eISqn]; [q'SVq]; [I'venCVqlI]; [wIdT]; ['beIsmqnt]; 2. What is the most common type of wall footing?
["mPnq'lITIkqlI]; [q'dISqnql] 3. How is the critical dimension of the footing calculated?
4. Is wall footing used as a platform?
B 5. What is a minimum width for the footing?
project n. direction additional assure situation
6. When is the additional width for the footing used?
rectangular transversal wide transverse width
7. What does the minimum width required for platform depend on?
admissible increase n. monolithically eventually cantilever
8. What will the short projection of the footing from the wall face produce?
project v. increase v. detection determine basement
9. Where do most designers prefer to provide reinforcement of the footing?
Текст A 10. When are footings poured monolithically with the floor slab?
WALL FOOTINGS
Лексические упражнения
Wall footings consist of concrete strips placed under walls. The most common
type of wall footing consists of a strip with a rectangular cross section projecting an Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
equal distance as a cantilever from both faces of the wall. For soil stress the critical из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
dimen­sion of the footing is the width of the footing bottom measured perpendicular to они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
the wall face.
In most situations the wall footing is used as a platform upon which the wall is project (v.), rectangular (adj.), long direction, transverse (adj.), cantilever (n.), platform
constructed. Thus a minimum width for the footing is determined by the wall thick­ness, (n.), reinforcing (n.), floor slab, masonry unit.
the footing usually being made wider than the wall. With a concrete wall this additional
width is used in order to support the wall forms while the concrete is poured. For masonry Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
walls this added width assures an adequate base for the mortar bed for the first layer of
the masonry units. напряжение сдвига; грунт; подвал; точка, момент; изгиб; основание; случай;
With relatively lightly loaded walls the minimum width required for platform ширина; направление; проектировщик; почва; (лицевая) поверхность;
depends on the allowable bearing stress on the soil. In this case, the short projec­tion of
the footing from the wall face will produce relatively transverse bending and shear обеспечивать; лить, заливать; добавлять; использовать; определять; сооружать;
stresses, permitting a minimum thickness for the footing and no transverse reinforcing. измерять; состоять (из); класть, устанавливать; требовать; увеличивать(ся);
Most designers prefer, however, to provide some continuous reinforcing in the long обеспечивать, давать;
direction of the footing, even when none is used in the transverse direction.
16 17
дополнительный; достаточный; минимальный; большинство; одинаковый; 5. Deep foundation elements being placed under the columns, the walls are used in
перпендикулярный; в конце концов; критический, решающий; поперечный; order to span from column to column.
значительный; сплошной, неразрезной; относительно; 6. The walls having been constructed, the workers left the site.
7. The horizontal forces must equal each other, there not being too much thrust either to
этот; чем; таким образом; как, в качестве; оба; иногда; когда; какой-то; первый; по the right or to the left.
мере того как. 8. A basement being required, foundation walls are quite high.
Упражнение 3. Переведите данные существительные и образуйте с их 9. In order to produce compressive prestress the concrete member was placed between
помощью группы существительных, характерные для строительной терминологии. two abut­ments, pressure being applied with the jacks.
Переведите их на русский язык. 10.Structural carbon steel being cheap and convenient to use, it is the most important
class of steel for the construction industry.
column footing pad strip
concrete foundation pier surface Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
condition ground raft thickness причастия I и II. Определите функцию причастий.
element load soil transfer
face mat strata wall
1. A property associated with concrete is shrinkage, which is the permanent contraction
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными. of concrete caused by loss of water after it hardens.
Укажите правильный перевод. 2. Plastics are widely used in construction having high strength to weight ratio and
resistance to corrosion.
distribute распределять own собственный 3. The total curing period is extremely long, that is, there is a steady gain in properties
height высота tend натягивать over time.
stiff жёсткий edge край, ребро, фаска, кромка
equalize уравновешивать closely spaced близкорасположенный
4. Form costs are much less with the concrete precast be­cause the forms do not have
relationship зависимость possible вероятный to be supported.
nevertheless однако occur встречаться 5. Wood has a cellular structure looking like a number of tubes lain in the direction of
short term краткосрочная перспектива quite довольно the grain.
tube труба flat плоский 6. More water, more sand and less coarse aggregate, especially rounded coarse
accept отдавать single единственный
affect воздействовать на means недостатки aggregate, make the mix more fluid but all these factors make the hardened concrete
have more shrinkage and creep, and less durability.
Упражнение 5. Дайте антонимы следующих слов: 7. Some materials, including concrete, continue to deform although there is no increase
stiff shallow foundation temporary in load.
separate simple especially 8. Having used toughened glass the designers overcame the typical drawbacks of this
material.
Грамматические упражнения 9. The limiting strain depends on the level of stress.
10. The designer’s organization prepares plans consisting of drawings which show
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на how the finished construction will look.
независимый причастный оборот.
Текст B
1. A minimum width for the footing is determined by the wall thickness, the footing
usually being made wider than the wall. The design of a symmetrical wall footing is done as follows:
2. High level of sound absorption being required, porous material was used. 1. Footing width is determined by the soil pressure limit, considering that the
3. All the necessary materials being easily available, construction work in cast-in-place minimum width required for construc­tion is not adequate for bearing. The usual design
concrete started almost immediately. technique is to estimate a required footing thickness, find the width required for this
4. Concrete elements can be precast on site, crane being used in order to lift them into footing thickness, check the footing stresses in order to assure the adequate thickness.
their final position.
18 19
2. Since the reinforcing is not cheap, while concrete poured into a hole in the Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
ground is relatively cheap, the footing thickness is usually not critical to compressive
strength of the concrete. A thick­ness is selected that is adequate which means that it A B A B
elimi­nates the need for shear reinforcing and minimizes the percentage of tensile определять consider допустимый reasonable
reinforcing. The minimum footing is also necessary so as to place dowels for the wall учитывать mean пространство distance
reinforcing. требовать assure раз bar
3. A reasonable minimum value is a steel area of 0.0015 times the gross concrete марка, сорт area значить determine
area, which is the minimum reinforcement required in a horizontal direction in walls. арматурный прут cheap так как so as
The distance of the reinforcing from the edges of the footing, which is called cover, формировать reinforcing дешевый available
must be a minimum of 3 in. if the edge is not formed and 2 in. if the edge is formed. доступный thickness отверстие grade
Reinforcing bars are usually of a low grade of steel, often the lowest grade available. армирование form обеспечивать require
расстояние time с тем, чтобы since
Notes: арматура reinforcement толщина hole
gross area площадь брутто
percentage n. величина (в процентах)
pressure limit предел давления Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
shear reinforcing армирование для восприятия напряжений сдвига (среза) слов:
tensile reinforcing армирование для восприятия напряжений растяжения
need n. - need v.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту
minimum adj. - minimize v.
project n. - project v.
1. How is footing width determined?
2. What is the design technique used for that?
3. Why is the footing thickness usually not critical to compressive strength of the
concrete?
4. What does adequate thick­ness mean?
5. How large should the cover be?
6. What grade of steel is usually used for reinforcing bars?

Грамматические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте причастия II. Определите их функцию


и переведите на русский язык.
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте причастия I. Определите их функцию
и переведите на русский язык.

Лексические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если


Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
в котором оно использовано в тексте.

dowel (n.), symmetrical (adj.), minimize (v.), technique (n.), need (n.), cover (n.), esti­mate
(v.), check (v.).
20 21
100k 100k

A
Урок 2.4 1 2 ''c o lu m n
2 0 ''
10'
1 0 k /ft o n fo o tin g

Фонетическое задание
A A -A
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
списка В даны в списке А.
FIGURE 2
Considering the wall by itself and ignoring the columns, the minimum wall footing
A
according to our estimates is 11in. thick, 42in. wide. Thus, if we want to ignore the
[rqV]; ["mAltI'stLrI]; ['estImIt]; [Ik'stIqrIq]; [lqV'keISqn]; ["pPsI'bIlItI];
spanning potential of the wall, this would be the required footing for the wall between
[rI'leISqnSIp]; ['preSq]; [bI'twJn]; [Ig'nL]; [skweq]; ['tqVtl]; ['kIlqgrxm]; the column footings. For the column, if it were freestanding and not in the line of the
wall, the required square footing would be 6ft2, 16in. thick. However, in this case even if
['fVtIN]
it is decided to use a square footing, it would need to be larger, since it also supports part
B of the wall. And the larger it is, the more of the wall it supports. If we increase its size to
kilogram squire estimate n. total pressing 8ft2, the total load on the footing will be the column load of 100 k plus 8ft of the wall
pressure row location fitting ignore load at 10 k/ft, or a total load of 180 k.
footing ignite square exterior external
rough relationship multi-storey between possibility Notes:
freestanding adj. свободностоящий
ignore v. не принимать в расчёт
Текст A
COLUMNS IN WALLS Ответьте на вопросы к тексту

A common problem in the design of building foundations is a foundation wall 1. What kind of a foundation wall is a common problem in the design of building
that must share its location with a row of columns. This takes place along the exterior foundations?
walls of buildings with frame struc­tures. When loads are transferred to the ground there 2. Where does this problem occur?
are various possibilities for the relationships between the columns, the wall, and the 3. When are column loads light?
foundation elements. The column loads may be light, as in the case of a one-storey 4. When are column loads large?
building with light construction and short spans or the column loads may be large, as in 5. When is usually the wall designed as a spanning element?
the case of a multi-storey building. 6. How is the total footing load estimated in the example?
Type of Foundation. If the foundation consists of deep elements, either piers or groups
of piles, the wall is usually designed as a spanning element of one type or another. When Лексические упражнения
the foundation is of the shallow bearing type, there may be several possibilities for the
column/wall/footing relationships. Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
EXAMPLE (see fig. 2)
из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
Allowable soil pressure: 3000 psf (150 kPa). они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Concrete design strength: 3000 psi (21 MPa).
Allowable tension on reinforcing: 20,000 psi (140 MPa). estimate (n.), row (n.), multi-storey (adj.), exterior (adj.).
22 23
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык: 2. It becomes necessary to utilize the resistance of lower soil strata.
3. Concrete must be allowed to cure.
группа; случай; пролёт; этаж; возможность; каркасная конструкция; часть; 4. To overcome GRP flexibility is the purpose of double skin panels.
местоположение; потенциал; натяжения; 5. Wood is a very good material to cut and work.
6. GRP will creep, that is it will continue to deflect, if there is a permanent load on it.
состоять из; передавать; происходить; требовать; решать; нуждаться; поддерживать; 7. When it is decided to build a structure an architect is asked to design the building
увеличивать; соединять; делить; проектировать; project.
8. The materials to be selected by the builder will function under different conditions.
другой; глубокий; лёгкий; неглубокий; несколько; различный; обычный; 9. It is difficult to concrete a thin wall because the concrete has to be placed in the
допустимый; общий; широкий; narrow opening at the top of the form.
10. The decision to use deep foundations should be done by building designers.
в качестве; между; вдоль; сам по себе; согласно; таким образом; однако; так как;
также; как . Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
сравнительный оборот the … the … .
Упражнение 3. Перечислите термины, характеризующие фундаменты: их
типы, свойства и особенности, которые описаны в уроках 2.1 -2.4. Дайте их перевод 1. The shorter the route taken by a load to its foundations and the fewer the elements
на русский язык. involved in so doing, the greater the economy of the structure.
2. The larger a square footing is, the more of the wall it supports.
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными. 3. The more the compressive force is the shorter a rubber band subjected to it becomes.
Укажите правильный перевод. 4. The higher thermal conductivity of the material is the lower is the rate of heat
movement which takes place by conduction through any solid object that separates
sometimes лёгкий void связь areas of different tempera­tures.
subject качество low исходный
capacity соединение value способность Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
initial сборный adequate достаточный условные придаточные предложения.
joint пустота eliminate относительно
quality ценность relatively иногда 1. If beams which support a roof can’t withstand loads that they have to carry they
permit устранять width сжатие will break.
widen ширина connection подвергать 2. If the beam itself didn’t have sufficient strength to counterbalance the weight it
tie низкий easy расширять support from above it would fail.
compression соединение precast позволять 3. It would become necessary to utilize the resistance of lower soil strata if the soil at
the bottom of the building were not adequate for the load transfers.
Упражнение 5. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык следующие 4. If a force remains constant, the actual unit stress will change with the change of the
сокращения: cross section.
°C; ft2; in2; kPa; lb; psi; °F; k; MPa; psf.
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
Грамматические упражнения причастия I и II. Определите функцию причастий.

Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, определите функцию 1. While choosing the type of foundation for a building, designers should consider
инфинитива. the soil structure on the site.
2. Applying a film or coating to a fabric we can improve its properties.
1. The stiff wall then is bearing not on its own footing but has tendency to span between 3. Significantly reduced cost of cast-in-place concrete was achieved by the constant
the larger footings. re-use of formwork.
24 25
4. Tendons placed along the centroidal axis are rare. 4. How should pedestals be designed when carrying major loads?
5. When applied to the beam, loads produce both tensile and compressive stresses at 5. How should they be designed when loads are light?
the middle of the span. 6. When should pedestals have the voids filled with concrete?
6. Welding the steel members the builders made the connection strong.
7. The materials used allowed minimum work on the site. Грамматические упражнения
8. Materials having very low density are used for thermal insulation.
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте инфинитивы. Определите их функцию и
Текст B переведите на русский язык.
USE OF PEDESTALS Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте причастия I и II. Определите их функцию и
переведите на русский язык.
There are many cases in which a short compression element, called a pedestal, is
used as a transition between a footing and some supported element. Some of the purposes Лексические упражнения
for pedestals are the following:
· If the bearing area on the top of the footing is widened, the pedestal will Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если
achieve a reduction in the shear and bending stresses in the footing, permitting Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
the use of a thinner footing. в котором оно использовано в тексте.
· To permit the use of a lower-strength concrete in the footing, it may be possible
to use a pedestal with a strength that is transitional between the column and hollow (adj.), the following (n.), vulnerable (adj.), essentially (adv.).
the footing.
· The use of a pedestal may allow the doweling of large column-reinforcing Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
bars within the pedestal height. The pedestal reinforcing may then be done
with bars. A B A B
· When the bottom of the footing must be some distance below the ground затем etc. переход support
surface, a pedestal may be used in order to keep vulnerable elements above в between полностью within
ground. позволить use и так далее then
Pedestals of masonry or concrete are essentially short columns. When carrying применение light легкий thin
major loads, they should be designed as reinforced columns with required vertical между completely соединительная арматура masonry
reinforcement, ties, and dowels. When loads are light and the pedestal height is less than тонкий top основной keep
three times the thickness, however, they may be designed as unreinforced elements. If достигать some каменная кладка transition
вершина purpose держать achieve
built of hollow masonry units (concrete blocks, etc.) they should have the voids completely
цель above над dowel
filled with concrete.
поддерживать major некоторый allow
Notes:
bearing area опорная поверхность, опорная площадь
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
bending stress напряжение при изгибе слов:
pedestal n. подколонник equal - equally - equalize
reduction n. снижение, уменьшение, ослабление follow - as follows - the following
transitional adj. переходный
Текст C
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту DEEP FOUNDATIONS

1. What kind of element a pedestal is? In most cases deep foundations are utilized only where it is not possible to have
2. What is it used for? shallow foundations. The decision to use deep foundations, the selection of the type of
3. What are the reasons for the use of pedestals? system, and the design of the elements of the system should all be done by building
26 27
designers with considerable knowledge and experi­ence in foundation design, including Notes:
knowledge of the types of systems, their capabilities and drawbacks, and some of the alignment n. выравнивание
problems connected with the use of such systems for building foundations. consolidate v. укреплять
history n. история
Need for deep foundations
sensitive adj. восприимчивый
The most common reasons for the use of deep foundations are the following: waterfront n. береговая линия
1. Lack of Adequate Soil Conditions for Bearing Footings. There are a number
of soil conditions that may make the usual bearing foundation elements near the Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
bottom of the building not possible. The deep foundation thus is used essentially in
order to reach a desirable bearing level at some distance from the bottom of the 1. What kind of knowledge and experi­ence should a building designer possess to use
building. deep foundations?
2. Heavy Loads on the Foundations. In some cases the soil at upper levels may 2. What are the most common reasons for the use of deep foundations?
be sufficient for the use of bearing elements for relatively light loads, but the size of 3. What are the typical structures requiring deep foundations?
footings required, the need for limited settlement, or other factors occurring with 4. Why are deep foundations used in situations in which shallow footings are not
extremely heavy loads, may require a deep foundation. High-rise buildings, long-span possible?
structures, and construction of massive elements of concrete or masonry are cases in 5. When is a cost analysis of alternatives necessary?
which loads may become considerable and may be above the simple bearing capabilities 6. What will such an analysis usually require?
of ordinary soils. 7. Why is foundation design and construction practices often influenced by the location
3. Instability of Ground-Level Soil. Use of deep foundations may be necessary of a building?
where soil at the level of the bottom of the building is subject to some forms of change 8. Who are deep foundation elements constructed by?
in the soil structure or the general state of the soil mass. This situation sometimes
occurs at waterfront and hillside locations. In these cases the use of deep foundations Лексическое упражнение
is necessary in order to anchor the building to a more reliable, stable ground mass.
4. Support of Structures Sensitive to Settlement. In some situations, settlement В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы в
of foundations is highly critical. Examples are buildings with stiff rigid frame structures тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите те их перевод в списке В.
and buildings housing equipment that requires precise and continuous alignment. Bearing
foundations will settle on almost any soil other than solid bedrock. Deep foundations А B А B
tend to have little settlement, especially when the elements are bearing on rock or on a soil жёсткий high-rise building альтернатива
highly consolidated soil stratum. house v. анкер drawback подрядчик
Deep foundations are usually used only in situations in which shallow footings occur влияние particular специфический
are not possible. The primary reason is cost. Where ordinary footings can be used and settlement грунт alternate использовать
their size is not excessive, the cost of deep foundations will rarely be competitive. If near редко capability отсутствие
footings are possible but their size is excessive—it may be necessary to perform a cost utilize главный primary альтернативный
analysis of alternatives. Such an analysis will usually require relatively complete designs analysis высотное здание sufficient достаточный
of the alternate systems and can be difficult when the alternate foundation systems require hillside местный competitive решение
significant differences in the building structure. lack n. косогор upper около
Foundation design and construction practices are often influenced by the location selection конкурентный perform встречаться
of a building. This may be partly because of the local climate and soil conditions. Where decision недостаток experience выполнять
there is some history of construction in the area, however, it may also be due to local precise излишний influence выбор
local точный excessive верхний
experience with particular foundation systems or construction techniques.
equipment возможность rarely помещаться
Most deep foundation elements—piles or piers—are constructed by special
contractor опыт stiff оборудование
foundation contractors.
alternative анализ anchor осадка

28 29
· adaptable to flexible internal layout of the floor space in the steel-framed building
and to modification of its components;
· suitable for the specific properties and features of the structural steel frame;
· economical from the point of view of fire protection.
Урок 2.5 The open arrangement of the structural steel frame enables the installation and
subsequent modification of services and equipment in both the vertical and horizontal
directions.
Фонетическое задание
Notes:
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим constructional material конструкционный материал
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова favourable adj. удобный, подходящий
списка В даны в списке А. load-bearing capacity несущая способность
A make use of использовать
[q'reInGmqnt]; ['fleksIbql]; ["Instq'leISqn]; ['fJCq]; ['sAbsIkwqnt]; skeleton n. каркас

["mPdIfI'keISqn]; ['leIaVt]; ['strAkCqrql]; ['klxdIN]; [prq'tekSqn]; ['sWvIsIz]; Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.


[pR'tISqn]; [kqm'pqVz]; [spI'sIfIk]
1. Why is it necessary to know the properties of the supporting structural system?
B 2. What are the basic components of a steel structure?
precision arrangement modificate layout modification 3. What kind of elements are they?
structural arrogant flexible protection specific 4. What is assembled from these members?
cladding partition subsequent feature figure 5. What is the function the structural steel frame performs?
specify compose installation services compress 6. What is the one it does not?
Текст A 7. Which production techniques are favourable for structural steelwork?
STEEL-FRAMED BUILDING 8. What are the requirements to the space-enclosing system?
9. What does the open arrangement of the structural steel frame enable?
In order to explain the various features which enable the design of a multi-storey
steel-framed building to make full use of the constructional material, it is necessary to Лексические упражнения
start with the properties of the supporting structural system itself. The main constructional
work, the cladding and the services should correspond to this. Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
The basic components of a steel structure are steel sections. These include thin- из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
walled slender elements which possess high load-bearing capacity having at the same они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
time small overall dimensions and low weight. The system that performs the load-bearing
function — the structural steel frame — is assembled from these relatively slender steel structural steelwork, partition (n.), feature (n.), layout (n.), structural steel frame, services
members. The frame is thus a skeleton which does not have a space-enclosing function (n.), modification (n.), flexible (adj.), fire protection, com­pose (v.), arrangement (n.),
to perform, although it does provide support for such space-enclosing elements as floors, steel-framed building, installation (n.), assemble (v.), space-enclosing, cladding (n.),
walls and partitions. subsequent (adj.), frame (n.).
The steelwork is usually prefabricated in a factory, structural steelwork mass
production techniques being favourable. Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
The successful use of the favourable properties of structural steelwork can be
more efficiently achieved if the space-enclosing system is designed so that it is: приводить к, позволять, легко приспосабливаемый, соответствовать, точка зрения,
· composed of prefabricated units which ensure that the particular speed of erection свободный, тот же самый, гарантировать, эффективно, технология, сборный,
of structural steelwork results in a short overall construction time; обеспечивать, хотя, общий, стальные конструкции, тонкий, обладать, характерный,
· light, so that the overall weight of the building is minimized; успешный, скорость.
30 31
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с особенностями и 3. To fix wood is not difficult if we use nails, screws, bolts, etc.
свойствами стальных несущих конструкций. Перечислите их и дайте перевод на 4. The pedestal reinforcing may be done with smaller bars.
русский язык. 5. The building material to be used should be porous.
6. Materials have to function under different conditions.
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными. 7. The high-rise buildings are to be constructed as very rigid tubes.
Укажите правильный перевод. 8. All buildings have to be stiff for resistance to loads.
9. The structure to be built will be a steel-framed one.
anchor закреплять difference различный 10.It is necessary to start with the properties of the supporting structural system.
location положение bear опираться
sometimes иногда reason причина Упражнение 3. Задайте пять общих вопросов к тексту А.
state состояние span пролёт
subject подвергать unreinforced армированный Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
considerable предусмотренный estimate оценка на независимый причастный оборот.
light лёгкий area пространство
essentially по существу rock скальный грунт 1. Construction joints provided, the effects of shrinkage can be reduced.
pile свая because of потому что 2. Cast-in-place concrete requires much time before the removal of the formwork, the
experience опыт settle оседать concrete having to gain sufficient strength before it can support itself.
3. Carbon steels are cheap and convenient to use, the class including steels which
Упражнение 5. Дайте антонимы следующих слов: have not more than 0.25 % carbon.
4. The design having been approved (одобрять) the construction began.
specific flexible solid
5. The dimensional stability of a coated fabric depends mainly on the fibre, the light
slender upper constant
transmission depending mainly on the coating in use.
Грамматические упражнения 6. Glass having low thermal conductivity, significant temperature dif­ferences can be
found within any glass in general use.
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения с объектным инфинитивным
оборотом. Текст B
1. The frame does not have a space-enclosing function to perform, although it BRACING
provides support for walls, floors and partitions.
2. The various features enable the design of a multi-storey building to make full use All buildings have to be stiffened for resistance to wind loads, but in certain parts
of the constructional material. of the world they have to be given additional bracing so as to withstand earthquake and
3. The system showed the structural steel frame to perform the load-bearing function. other horizontal forces.
4. The design includes thin-walled slender elements to possess high load-bearing The decision on the adequate method of bracing affects:
capacity. Use of building Stiffening with the help of lattice bracing results in fixed points in
5. They expected the space-enclosing system to be designed successfully. the building thus restricting the possibilities of internal layout and arrangement of the
6. We want load-bearing structures to be slender. circulation system. The methods of stiffening and their arrangement within the structure
7. The soil not being adequate caused the designers to use piles for foundation. are of major importance for the design.
8. The builders rely (полагаться на, рассчитывать на) on construction joints to Economy A building can be stiffened by means of steel bracing or by concrete
reduce the effects of shrinkage. walls or cores. Cores are heavy, require more elaborate foundations, and, for tall buildings,
have to be constructed with thicker walls and more reinforcement than necessary for the
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, определите форму и fire protection of the services. Vertical steel bracing is therefore usually the less expensive
функцию инфинитива. solution, especially when arranged in large bays or panels.
1. The usual design technique is to estimate a required footing thickness. Effect on appearance If the bracing is placed in the external walls of the building
2. Walls are used to span from column to column. and takes the form of rigid frames or systems with externally exposed diagonal members
32 33
the pattern of force transmission is clearly shown: but the building may have an appearance Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
which is not usual. This method allows those high-rise buildings which are square, слов:
rectangular or circular on plan to be constructed as very rigid tubes.
stiff - stiffen v. - stiffening n.
Notes: elaborate adj. сложный mean v. - means - by means of

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. Where have buildings to be given additional bracing?


2. How does bracing affect the design of the building?
3. How does it influence the economy of construction?
4. What is the effect of bracing on the building appearance?

Грамматические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте инфинитивы как части сказуемого


и переведите их на русский язык.
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте объектные инфинитивные конструкции
(Objective-with-the-Infinitive-Construction) и переведите их на русский язык.

Лексические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если


Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
в котором оно использовано в тексте.

circular (adj.), expose (v.), lattice bracing, diagonal (adj.), stiffening (n.), bracing (n.),
circulation (n.), stiffen (v.), core (n.), wind load, bay (n.), external (adj.).

Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.

A B A B
квадратный rectangular жёсткий earthquake
землетрясение heavy внешний вид major
располагать results in их certain
таким образом therefore внутри square
определенный clearly основной arrange
устанавливать point приводить к by means of
посредством within труба solution
решение appearance поэтому their
тяжёлый rigid точка place
отчётливо thus прямоугольный tube

34
In general, the weight of the slab should be as low as possible. To achieve this, the
supporting beams must be quite closely spaced, so that the actual slab spans only short
distances. The typical component of the floor structure of a steel-framed building is the
narrow elongated floor bay. The span of the floor beams is generally between 6.00 and
Урок 2.6 20.00 m, while the width of the bays varies from 1.50 to 3.00 m.

Notes:
Фонетическое задание again adv. снова
waffle slab железобетонная плита с перекрёстными рёбрами
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
списка В даны в списке А.
A 1. What does a multi-storey building comprise?
[beI]; ['kxvItI]; ['JlPNgeItId]; ['GANkSqn]; ["Intq'sekt]; ['grIlIG]; ["In'sItjH]; 2. Where are floors supported?
[GOIn]; [kqm'praIz]; [dI'stINgwIS]; ['wPfql]; ['nxrqV]; ['sWtn]; [vjH] 3. What kinds of forces are transmitted to the foundations?
4. What is the simplest floor shape?
B 5. How can the weight of the floor slab be reduced?
John grillage waffle certain compose 6. What is typical of in-situ-concrete construction?
intersect distinguish way bay cavity 7. What does the structural steel floor comprise?
elongated view join junction in-situ 8. Why does construction of a grillage for equal load transmission in both directions
curtain buy narrow inspect comprise involve considerable effort?
Текст A 9. How can low weight of the slab be achieved?
FLOOR STRUCTURE IN STEEL-FRAMED BUILDINGS 10. What are the general dimensions of an elongated floor bay?

A multi-storey building comprises a number of floors which are erected one above Лексические упражнения
the other and which, in a framed structure, are supported at certain specific points. The
vertical and horizontal forces acting upon the framework are transmitted to the Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
foundations. из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
From the structural point of view, a floor in a framed building consists of a number они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
of floor bays. The following shapes on plan may be distinguished:
Square concrete slab The simplest type of construction is the solid concrete slab. grillage (n.), junction (n.), intersect (v.), two-way (adj.), elongated (adj.), in-situ (adj.),
With long spans, such slabs tend to be very thick and heavy. To reduce weight, the slab planning grid, join (v.), space (v.), cavity (n.), framework (n.), one-way (adj.), rib (n.).
may be formed with internal cavities or composed of a system of one-way or two-way
ribs joined together by a relatively thin top layer of concrete, the latter being described Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
as a waffle slab. The load transmission conditions being approximately the same in both
directions, a planning grid with a square mesh is often adopted, this being typical of in- пролёт, передача, типичный, метр, в то время как, как можно ниже, балка,
situ concrete construction. приблизительно, обычно (2), перекрытие, от … до …, горизонтальный, стальная
Rectangular floor bay The structural steel floor comprises the floor slab and the несущая конструкция , один над другим, последний (из перечисленных), выбирать,
beams that support it. It is characteristic of steel-framed buildings that the floor beams выделять, характерный, включать, вместе, многоэтажное здание, толстый,
transmit the loads in one direction only and that the floor slabs are generally supported, значительный.
on two sides. To construct a grillage for equal load transmission in both directions involves
considerable effort in structural steelwork, as it is necessary to cut the intersecting beams Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с конструкцией
at every junction and connect them again in a manner suitable to transmit the loads. перекрытий. Перечислите их и дайте перевод на русский язык.
36 37
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными. one of the most versatile binders known.
Укажите правильный перевод. 2. An increase in the value of this ratio would produce a concrete with more voids
giving lower compressive strength.
a number of номер top верхний
mesh сетка solid сплошной 3. The fire resistance can be made a little lower by aggregates containing silica.
cut разрезать internal внутренний 4. The safest technique used appeared to be the best.
as так как reduce сокращение 5. In this respect it is usually better than unreinforced masonry.
both оба the same тот же 6. Failure takes place when an object can no longer serve its purpose.
erect выпрямлять involve повлечь за собой 7. Failure unit stress may be smaller than that determined experimentally.
core ядро suitable подходящий 8. The qualities of most fabrics will not become worse in the range of temperatures
external внешний advantage преимущество from at least - 40°C to + 60°C.
bracing монтаж связей soil грунт
wind load ветровая нагрузка principal главный Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обратите внимание
на причастия и причастные обороты.
Упражнение 5. Дайте синонимы следующих слов:
1. The forces acting upon the framework are transmitted to the foundations.
join specific upper 2. A floor in a framed building consists of a number of floor bays.
in-situ concrete slender primary
3. The space required for services is significant in the selection of the arrangement of
comprise feature exterior
beams.
Грамматические упражнения 4. To make toughened glass its surface, being at a high temperature, is rapidly cooled.
5. At high temperature GRP even moderate stressed can fail with time.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, определите функцию 6. The slab, supported at its four corners, transmits the loads to the columns.
инфинитива.
Упражнение 4. Задайте пять общих и пять альтернативных вопросов к тексту
1. The Romans sometimes used iron rods to strengthen their buildings. А.
2. To produce compressive prestress a concrete member can be placed between two
abut­ments, with jacks between its ends and the abutments, and pressure is Текст B
applied with the jacks. TYPES OF FLOOR WITH STEEL BEAMS
3. In contrast with cast-in-place concrete construction, precast concrete requires field
The shorter the route taken by a load to its foundations and the fewer the elements
connections to tie the structure together.
involved in the process, the greater the economy of the structure. Nevertheless, the space
4. To reduce weight, the slab may be formed with internal cavities.
required for services is significant in the selection of the arrangement of the main and
5. In ground of worse bearing quality the separate footings under the walls of a
secondary beams, their interrelationship and their depth.
building can be combined to form a single thicker and deeper raft foundation.
Floor without steel beams The flat concrete slab, supported at its four corners,
6. With a concrete wall additional width is used to support the wall forms while the
transmits the loads directly to the columns. With long spans the slab is very heavy.
concrete is poured.
Therefore, this form of construction can be used only in combination with closely spaced
7. Builders mix cement with sand, aggregate and water to make concrete.
columns.
8. People build every building project to get a structure which will function for some
Floors with one-way beam systems The floor beams are supported directly by the
time.
columns. The force transmission routes being short, this is an economical solution. The
9. The builder has to understand building materials to produce the satisfactory
planning grid consists of elongated rectangles with columns widely spaced in one
structure.
direction, closely spaced in the other.
10. Sometimes concrete is prestressed mostly in order to prevent cracking.
Floors with beams in two directions If the columns are widely spaced in both grid
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, определите степень
directions, the loads from the secondary beams are transmitted to main beams which, in
сравнения прилагательных.
turn, transmit them to the columns. The forces thus have to pass farther than in the
1. The basis of modern production of elements in concrete is hydraulic cement powder,
38 39
examples given above. In general, it is better to keep the span of the main beams shorter Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже слов:
than that of the secondary beams.
For very long spans it may be necessary to support the main beams on a third set characteristic n. - characteristic adj.
of members, such as lattice girders, which finally transmit the loads to the columns. space n. - space v.
thick adj. - thickness n.
Notes: interrelationship n. взаимоотношение, взаимосвязь
rectangle n. прямоугольник

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. What does the economy of the structure depend on?


2. What does the space required for services influence?
3. What are the features of floor without steel beams?
4. What are the features of floors with one-way beam systems?
5. What are the features of floors with beams in two directions?
6. When is a third set of members used?

Грамматические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте инфинитивы и переведите их на русский


язык.
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте причастия и переведите их на русский язык.

Лексические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если


Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
в котором оно использовано в тексте.

grid (n.), lattice girder, route (n.), corner (n.), in turn, secondary beam.

Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.

A B A B
однако above зависимость therefore
комплект combination пролёт flat
над directly далекорасположенный closely spaced
плоский span сила relationship
поэтому such as такой как force
инженерные сети height сочетание set
близкорасположенный widely spaced непосредственно nevertheless
высота depth толщина services

40
interfering. This method also possesses the advantage that it is easier to place the bond
beam steel at the top of the wall. The steel extending along the wall at the floor slab level
serves to tie all the slabs together. Another method of tying the slabs together lies through
the use of weld plates embedded in the slabs so that the weld plates can be used as
Урок 2.7 splices to adjacent panels, tying them together directly.

Notes:
Фонетическое задание bond beam steel крепёжная арматура железобетонной балки
cell n.1 секция, камера
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим grout n. жидкий строительный раствор
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова grouting n. заливка строительного раствора
списка В даны в списке А. interfere v. мешать, сталкиваться
ungrouted masonry колодцевая кладка без заполнения пустот строительным раствором
A weld plate сварная пластина
[q'GeIsqnt]; ['sentq]; [graVt]; ['sJkwqns]; [Im'bed]; ['dxmIG]; ["Intq'fIq];
[q'pIq]; [prq'sJGq]; [I'fISqnt]; [prI'saIslI]; [q'kAmplIS]; [tek'nJk]; ['daVql] Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. What is typical with any constructional technique?


B 2. What is the first construction technique described?
procedure sentence damage embed efficient 3. What is its drawback?
drainage accomplish precisely techniques proceed
4. Is there a safer method?
adjacent technique dowel interfere appear
5. What is it?
grout sequence growl centre amber
6. What is the second method described?
Текст A 7. What is the advantage of this method?
SETTING THE FLOOR SLABS 8. What other method of tying the slabs together is there?

With any construction technique, problems often appear and procedures have to Лексические упражнения
be developed which can overcome these in a practical and efficient way. This has been
the same in the case of high-rise buildings. Often, different methods are adaptable to the Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
same situation. из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
Several techniques have been developed for placing the reinforcement as well as они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
grouting. One sequence involves laying walls to storey height and placing the slabs on
the ungrouted masonry. Then the vertical reinforcement is placed into the block cells, lift (n.), grout (v.), centre (v.), sequence (n.), adjacent (adj.), position (v.), embed (v.),
ensuring that it projects above the finished floor slab to serve as dowels for the next splice (n.).
storey walls. This is a very efficient method, but the unreinforced wall possesses relatively Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
little stability and can be easily damaged when the floor slabs are being placed on it. A
safer method involves building the masonry walls to full height with the reinforcement класть, устанавливать, в качестве, другой, разрушать, элемент каменной кладки,
located in the walls as the masonry units (brick or block) are laid up. Grouting is then полезный, эффективный, относительно, устойчивость, размещать, преодолевать,
accomplished in full-storey height lifts. The dowels projecting above the slab must be сваривать, скреплять, тянуться, так же как и, опускать, надёжный, высотой в этаж.
precisely centred in the wall so that when the slabs are lowered into position, the projecting Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с установкой перекры-
dowels do not interfere with them. тий. Перечислите их и дайте перевод на русский язык.
In another procedure, the grouting is stopped a short distance below the floor
line, dowels are placed in the grout space, and this space is solid grouted after the slabs Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными.
have been positioned. Thus, the slabs can be placed without dowels positioned earlier Укажите правильный перевод.

42 43
project v выступать technique технология Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, определите время и
precisely точно use n использование залог глаголов.
accomplish добиваться along длинный
grouting заливка раствором settlement осадка 1. Several techniques have been developed for placing the reinforcement as well as
slab плита superstructure большое здание grouting.
finished готовый pier вертикальная опора 2. Grouting is accomplished in full-storey height lifts.
ensure обеспечивать footing основание 3. The unreinforced wall possesses relatively little stability and therefore can be easily
develop разрабатывать shaft ствол knocked over when the floor slabs are being placed on it.
way способ possess процесс 4. The grouting is stopped a short distance below the floor line, dowels are placed in
procedure процесс strip полоса the grout space, and this space is solid grouted after the slabs have been positioned.
5. This procedure will provide for a continuous uniform bearing.
Упражнение 5. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого 6. Other schemes involved the use of steel.
ниже списка: 7. Such slabs do not require a topping.
loads space types used ways 8. A topping slab will be poured on top of the filler block to form the finished wearing
surface of the tee shape and the floor diaphragm.
Building materials are used in two basic (1)… . In the first way they are used to
support the (2)… on a building and in the second way they are used to divide the (3)… Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения, определите функцию
in a building. Building components are made from building materials and the form of a инфинитива.
component is related to the way in which it is (4)… . We can see how this works by
considering three different (5)… of construction. 1. To construct a grillage for equal load transmission in both directions involves
(продолжение текста в упражнении 5 урока 2.8 стр. 48) considerable effort.
2. The structural steel floor comprises the floor slab and the beams to support it.
Грамматические упражнения 3. To achieve this, the supporting beams must be quite closely spaced.
4. Low temperatures decrease stretch of the fabric but make it easier for tears to develop.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, определите функции 5. Insulation, which is material with a very low U, is used to make the rate of heat flow
герундия. as low as possible.
6. Steels which have higher carbon contents are more brittle at low temperatures and
1. A property particularly with concrete is shrinkage caused by loss of water after more difficult to weld.
hardening. 7. To reduce the weight of the slab is the task of an engineer.
2. Summer is good for building. 8. The type of concrete mix and the properties of the hardened concrete may be altered.
3. Because of the low tensile strength of concrete, shrinkage when restrained leads to To do that the proportions of the ingredients may be varied, the type of cement and
cracking. aggregates may be altered and admixtures may be used.
4. The wet concrete can be transported to its final position on site by pumping.
5. More fluid concrete mixes are required for pumping. Упражнение 4. Задайте пять разделительных и пять альтернативных
6. No wet concrete, after being placed in its final position, should be at a temperature вопросов к тексту А.
less than 5°C or 40°F.
7. The concrete must be prevented from drying out too fast because this may cause Текст B
cracking. TYPES OF FLOOR SYSTEMS
8. A concrete structure may be constructed by casting the concrete in place on the site, Floor systems not only support the vertical loads but they also serve as the
by building it of elements cast in some other place or by a combination of the two. horizontal diaphragms which distribute the lateral forces to the shear walls. There are
9. With some types of precast concrete construction no time is lost in waiting for concrete several different types of floor systems:
to gain strength at one level of a structure before the next level can be placed. Cast-in-place slabs
10. Special admixtures make hardening faster.
44 45
The simple cast-in-place slab floor system is sometimes used where there are irregular (adj. ), tee (n.), floor deck, diaphragm (n. ), topping (n. ), deck (n. ), shear
irregular floor designs that would make it difficult to form similar precast units. It provides wall, finish (n. ).
a good structural tie without requiring any specific type of a joint.
Prestressed elements Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
Precast prestressed tees are a different type of system. They provide economical
long spans giving open space below that can be easily divided with partitions. A topping
slab provides both a finished floor surface and a tie, so that the system functions as a A B A B
diaphragm. This cast-in-place topping slab must be thick enough so that the reinforcement обеспечивать prove стяжка bar
within it can achieve adequate bond to the concrete. иногда since потолок cast-in-place
Steel bar joists вспомогательная балка joint так как several
The system uses steel bar joists which support a concrete floor slab or a metal перегородка tie брус partition
deck with a concrete topping surface. It is useful where some space between the ceiling несколько sometimes оказываться provide
and floor deck above for different kinds of services is required. соединение distribute монолитный useful
Lift-on slab распределять achieve полезный joist
A lift-on slab, usually of full room size, has proven to be economical and efficient. стык ceiling достичь bond
Such slabs do not require a topping or finish since the floor surface and ceiling finish are
part of the slab. Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
Notes:
lift-on precast slab сборное железобетонное перекрытие, монтируемое методом “lift stable adj. - stability n.
slab” finish n. - finish v.
steel bar joist решётчатая вспомогательная стальная балка

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. Which functions do floor systems perform?


2. When is cast-in-place slab floor system used?
3. When are precast prestressed tees used?
4. Why must cast-in-place topping slab be thick?
5. What is the reason for the use of steel bar joists?
6. What are the advantages of a lift-on slab?

Грамматическое упражнение

Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте неличные формы глагола, определите,


какими частями речи они являются, какую функцию выполняют в предложении, и
переведите их на русский язык.

Лексические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если


Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
в котором оно использовано в тексте.

46
formwork, such as precast concrete units or steel troughs. A floor composed of precast
concrete units generally requires only a very thin screed. If these units are precast in
standardised steel moulds, a surface of such evenness can be obtained that the floor
covering may be laid directly upon the structural floor.
Урок 2.8 Normally, a steel floor cannot be considered as watertight. To make it watertight
an in-situ concrete floor should be laid in one continuous operation, without construction
joints, and the concrete itself should be of good quality and well compacted.
Фонетическое задание
Notes:
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим evenness n. ровность (поверхности)
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова preliminary adj. предварительный
списка В даны в списке А.
A
[kqm'pxkt]; ['tPlqrqns]; [skrJd]; [rI'kwaIqmqnt]; ['wLtqtaIt]; [In'hIqrqnt]; Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

[mqVld]; [pq'mIsIbql]; [trPf]; ['kAvqrIN]; ['speIsIN]; [prI'lImInqrI]; [qb'teIn]; 1. What are the factors important in determining the span for the floor slab?
['stxndqdaIzd] 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of lightweight concrete for
floor slabs?
B 3. What does the degree of evenness of the structural floor depend on?
screed spacious tolerance mould spacing
4. Why is the application of a screed required?
ordain inherent permissible waterfront compact v.
5. How are smaller tolerances obtained?
trough standardised obtain covering watertight
6. What should be done to achieve very high evenness of the structural floor?
requirement contact recruitment traffic preliminary
7. How can watertightness of the structural floor be obtained?
Текст A
FLOOR REQUIREMENTS Лексические упражнения

The floor must be designed considering all the functions it will be required to Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
perform. The following factors are important in determining the span to be adopted for из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
the floor slab: они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
• The span of the slab should fit in with the dimensions of the planning grid for
the building. screed (n. ), tolerance (n. ), watertight (adj. ), covering (n. ), dimensional tolerance,
• The thickness of the concrete slab depends not only on structural factors, but permissible (adj. ), in­herent (adj. ), compact (v. ), trough (n. ), construction joint, structural
also on such requirements as sound insulation and fire protection. floor, mould (n. ), finishing (n. ), spacing (n. ), requirement (n. ).
• The spacing of the floor beams is determined by the maximum permissible width
necessary for transportation of the precast concrete units, the main joints of which are Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
parallel to these floor beams.
Lightweight concrete used either as a filler material or as a structural material, соответствовать, операция, сокращать, легкий бетон, нагрузка, более того,
reduces the weight of the floor. However, it may involve some loss of sound insulation огнезащита, как, балка перекрытия, уплотнять, водонепроницаемый, ширина,
and fire protection. Furthermore, with long spans and heavy loads, the weight advantage постоянная опалубка, получать, главный, сборный бетон.
of lightweight concrete may be reduced because deeper sections are necessary.
The degree of evenness of the surface of the structural floor depends on the method Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с проектированием и
of construction. The dimensional tolerances in­herent in the construction of an in-situ возведением перекрытий. Перечислите их и дайте перевод на русский язык.
concrete floor require the application of a screed as a preliminary finishing layer over
the slab. Smaller tolerances are obtained when in-situ concrete is placed on permanent
48 49
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными. 4. Applying long term loads may cause sagging of timber beams due to creep.
Укажите правильный перевод. 5. Stiffening with the help of lattice bracing or solid diaphragm walls results in fixed
points in the building.
deck настил bracing система связей 6. The spacing of the supports determines the spans of the floor structure and therefore
finish отделка arrangement размещение its construction depth.
prove оказываться subsequent последующий 7. Mixing aggregates, cement and water followed by curing produces the hardened
equalize уравновешивать slender тонкий concrete.
topping верхний primary основной 8. Although bulk costs of metal are higher than those of most other materials building
irregular неправильной формы perform выполнение of steel is still reasonable.
grid решётка capability возможность
expose обнажать row ряд Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие глаголы.
Упражнение 5. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого arrange design produce
ниже списка: build erect start
construct form use

as fixed together Образуйте от них глаголы с помощью приставки re- , означающей повторное
building form действие. Переведите полученные производные слова.
can be plastics
compressive solid Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения. Определите, от каких
concrete strength
слов и с помощью каких суффиксов образованы подчеркнутые существительные.
(Продолжение. Начало в упражнении 5 урока 2.7, стр.42 )
1. The thickness of the concrete slab depends on such requirements as sound insulation
1. In one kind of construction, blocks of materials such as brick, stone, or (1)… are and fire protection.
joined together to form (2)… walls. These materials are heavy, however they have 2. The dimensional tolerances inherent in the construction of an in-situ concrete floor
high (3)… strength. Walls made up of blocks support the building and divide the require the application of a screed as a preliminary finishing layer over the slab.
space in the (4)… . 3. The most popular thermosetting plastic in use in the construction industry, due to
2. In another type of construction, sheet materials (листовой материал) are used to its cost, strength, relative hardness and toughness, is fibreglass reinforced polyester.
(5)… walls which act as both space-dividers and structural support. Timber, concrete 4. It can be easily adapted to changing requirements.
and some (6)… can be made into large rigid sheets and (7)… to form a building. 5. Folding screens can be moved by the users of the building themselves.
3. Rod materials (8)… used for structural sup­port but not for dividing spaces. Timber, 6. Steel loses strength and stiffness at high temperatures.
steel and concrete can be formed into rods and used (9)… columns. Rod materials
with high tensile and compressive (10)… can be fixed together to form framed Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения. Определите функции
structures. неличных форм глагола.
Грамматические упражнения 1. Admixtures are available to retard the setting of the wet concrete and this can be used
in hot weather to prevent a premature set.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
2. The material may fail by breaking or by excessive deformation.
на герундий в функции подлежащего.
3. A structural member made this way is called a glu-lam member.
4. A building used by people must be kept warmer than the surrounding air in cold
1. The spacing of the floor beams is determined by the maximum permissible
climates and cooler than the surrounding air in hot climates.
transportable width of the precast concrete units.
5. Since the structures designed by civil engineers are intended to be stationary or
2. Welding or bolting of steel components produces high strength connections.
stable, these forces must be kept in balance.
3. Altering the internal layout involves dismantling and re-erecting the partitions.
50 51
6. Longitudinal reinforcing has been selected on the basis of providing minimal shrinkage. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
7. To reduce weight the slab may be formed with internal cavities or composed of ribs
joined together by a thin top layer of concrete, the latter being described as a waffle 1. What must acoustic insulation be provided against?
slab. 2. What is the structural difference between a single-layer and a two-layer floor?
8. All buildings have to be stiffened to resist wind loading. 3. What does the term “three layer floor” mean?
9. The load transmission conditions being approximately the same in both directions, a 4. How can the fire resistance of a floor be achieved?
planning grid is adopted this being typical of in-situ-concrete construction. 5. When should a floor comprise a heat-insulating layer?
10. The joints may be sealed by binding the precast concrete floor units together with a
special adhesive mortar. Грамматическое упражнение

Упражнение 5. Задайте три вопроса к подлежащему, три – к определению Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте неличные формы глагола, определите,
подлежащего и три разделительных вопроса к тексту А. какими частями речи они являются, какую функцию выполняют в предложении, и
переведите их на русский язык.
Текст B
FLOOR REQUIREMENTS (continued) Лексические упражнения

Sound insulation In modern high-rise buildings, where many people have to live Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если
or work most of their time acoustic insulation is a very important factor. The floor must Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
provide the necessary insulation against airborne noise and footstep sound. Speaking в котором оно использовано в тексте.
about this acoustic function, the floor comprises one or more layers:
The single-layer floor comprises only the structural floor. protection (n.), encase (v.), resilient (adj.), protective (adj.), heat-insulating (adj.),
The two-layer floor comprises the structural floor and a surfacing separated from suspended ceiling, terrace (n.).
it by a resilient insulating material classified as floating floor. A two-layer floor may
consist of the structural floor with a suspended ceiling fitted below. Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
The three layer floor is a combination of the two latter forms of construction that
is a floating floor with a suspended ceiling.
Fire protection The fire resistance of a floor required can be achieved in various A B A B
ways: жёлоб anchor от fit
• for the floor slab itself: choice of a fire-resistant form of construction or a плоский straight слой strip
protective coating or finish; последний both нуждаться spray
• for the steel beams: sprayed protection or cladding; высотный trough покрытие layer
• as an alternative, the floor structure as a whole may be encased. тот же against полоса latter
Heat insulation If a floor separates a heated storey from one that is not heated, it устанавливать weld сваривать coating
should comprise a heat-insulating layer, which is not needed if the storeys above and оба same прямой flat
below the floor are both heated. Terraces should be heat-insulated on the same principles распылять need закреплять high-rise
as for flat roofs.
Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
Notes: слов:
airborne noise воздушный шум
floating floor плавающий пол require – requirement
footstep sound звук шагов
permit - permissible
heat v. нагревать
as a whole в целом
practice - practical

52 53
Текст C with other struc­tures. For this, the space-enclosing elements, as well as the actual
structural frame, must be composed of demountable standardised components. Only a
FLEXIBILITY OF LAYOUT number of parts of such a building are dismantled, for example, the roof covering, floor
finishes, services, etc. The foundations or basements are either back­filled or used for
The more extensive use of steel in multi-storey buildings results from the need for other structures. Construc­tional systems which comply with these require­ments are
convertibility of buildings. It often occurs that the internal layout and facilities originally available for external and internal walls and for ceilings.
provided in a building soon prove to be not adequate or at least not completely adequate. Fifth degree of flexibility
A building can obtain a longer useful life if it is flexible in the sense that it can be easily The last way of adaptation of an existing building to meet changing circumstances
adapted to changing requirements. is by demolition to give place for a new building when structural modification is not
Depending on the extent of the conversions involved, the following degrees of economically pos­sible.
flexibility may be distinguished: When considering the type of structural system to adopt for a projected new
First degree of flexibility building, ease of demolition should be included in the cost analysis. Steel-framed
The modification of the floor space is altered by changing the arrangement of buildings can be demolished quickly, at moder­ate cost.
space-separating elements, for example, folding screens which can be moved by the
owners of the building themselves. Notes:
Second degree of flexibility backfill v. обратно засыпать
In this case, altering the internal layout in­volves dismantling and re-erecting the comply with соответствовать
convertibility n. конверсионность, возможность изменения
parti­tions. This is possible only if the latter are non-loadbearing. This requirement can
demolition n. снос (здания)
only be fulfilled by framed buildings in which the load-bearing and space-enclosing folding screen раздвижная стенка
functions are separate and are performed by different sets of components. The columns last adj. последний
of a framed building may, however, be a problem to internal changes. Wide col­umn life n. зд. срок службы
spacings and long floor spans improve the flexibility of layout. Flexibility in altering originally adv. первоначально
and rearranging the services is also essential. In a building provided with movable rearrange v. перегруппировать, расположить по-новому
soon adv. скоро
partitions, these must be installed in the floors. Hence it is desirable to provide a floor in
which the services can be installed according to the design and when the need occurs Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
modified, as re­quired.
It is necessary to distinguish between the following different types of partition: 1. What does the more extensive use of steel in multi-storey buildings result from?
· movable prefabricated units; 2. How can a longer useful life of a building be obtained?
· demountable walls whose materials can be re-used­; 3. How many degrees of flexibility are there?
· demountable walls whose materials cannot be re-used. 4. What do they depend on?
Third degree of flexibility 5. How can the modification of the floor space be altered with the first degree of
Modification of the load-bearing structure be­comes necessary, for example, in flexibility?
the following circumstances: 6. What is its difference from the second degree of flexibility?
· strengthening the structure to carry heavier loads; 7. Why must parti­tions be non-loadbearing in case of the second degree of flexibility?
· increasing the spans by the removal of internal supports; 8. What does the third degree of flexibility involve?
· increasing the height with additional storeys; 9. Which elements of a structure can be re-used for other purposes and in combination
· extending a building; with other struc­tures with the fourth degree of flexibility?
· demolishing certain parts of a building. 10. What does the fifth degree of flexibility mean?
These modifications can be fulfilled easily, without excessive damage to the
existing building if it is steel-framed and not be expensive. Лексическое упражнение
Fourth degree of flexibility
This comprises structures which - except for the foundations - can be completely В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы в
dismantled and whose components can be re-used for other purposes and in combination тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В.
54 55
А B А B
depending on также как и dismantle расширять
alter несколько sense обширный
facilities разборный except for чей
re-erect за исключением extend двигать Урок 2.9
fulfil устанавливать movable умеренный Фонетическое задание
moderate достаточный install составлять
project демонтировать extensive интервал Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
a number of в зависимости от move изменять словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова
etc важный layout оборудование
списка В даны в списке А.
modify и так далее separate повторно возводить
whose смысл adequate ненесущий
A
demountable передвижной compose модифицировать
[In'klqVZq]; [flaIt]; ["Intq'mJdIqt]; ['spaIqrql]; ['steqkeIs]; ["sWkjV'leISqn];
non-loadbearing раздельный as well as осуществлять
spacing расположение essential проектировать [kqn'vJnIqns]; ['frJkwqnt]; ['eskqleItq]; [GI'PmItrI]; [dI'stINkSqn]; [I'speSqlI];
[pq'tIkjVlq]; ['sIqrJz]
B
fleet enclosure enclose escalator circulation
staircase series flight serious immediate
excavator convenience distraction geometry distinction
especially intermediate frequent spiral particular

Текст A
STAIRCASES

Stairs are used for vertical circulation in buildings. A distinction must be made
between fixed stairs and escalators. Ramps and, as well as lifts, may perform similar
functions.
Depending on the space available, or the architectural requirements, stairs may be
straight, curved or spiral on plan. The most frequent type, especially in buildings designed
for construc­tion by mass production techniques, is the staircase with straight flights.
In the design of stairs the following problems should be paid particular attention
to: the geometry of the staircase; the construction of its components; the vertical enclosure
of the staircase in relation to the storeys and to the rest of the building generally.
The fixed straight staircase comprises flights and landings. A series of more than
three steps is a flight. For reasons of safety the length of a flight should be limited to
about 18 steps. It is rarely that two floors in a multi-storey building are connected by a
single flight of stairs. If two or more flights are installed in each storey, one or more
intermediate landings, as well as top and bottom landings, will be needed. If the successive
flights are at right angles to one another the landing at each change of direction is known
as a quarter-space landing. With two flights per storey, this is the most common form of
construction and takes up the least space on plan.

57
Construction of the steps Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными.
The convenience and safety of stairs very much depend on the relationship between Укажите правильный перевод.
the tread and the riser. Standardised tread and riser dimensions make planning easier
movable передвижной only только
and enable the related features such as hand-rails to be pro­duced to uniform dimensions. completely полностью way способ
The depth of the landing and the length of the flight should be a dimension which can be storey этаж heat нагрев
divided by 60 or, if this is not possible, by 30 or, in an extreme case, by 10. cost стоимость tolerance допускаемое отклонение
also такой же enough достаточно
Notes: through жёлоб prefabricated сборный
convenience удобство direction направление combination сочетание
geometry n. геометрическая форма rarely редко resilient эластичный
hand-rail n. перила
landing n. лестничная площадка Упражнение 5. Дайте антонимы следующих слов:
quarter-space landing промежуточная лестничная площадка non-loadbearing irregular in-situ concrete
riser n. подступёнок install join external
tread n. проступь, ступень
Грамматические упражнения
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
1. What are stairs used for? на независимый оборот без причастия.
2. What other facilities can be used for this purpose?
3. What types of staircases are there? 1. With loads considerable, deep foundation was used for the structure.
4. What are the problems in the stairs design to be paid particular attention to? 2. Climate cold, extensive thermal insulation should be paid attention to.
5. What are the characteristic features of the straight staircases? 3. Foundations vital (жизненно важный) for the structure stability and difficult to
6. How are stairs constructed? build, only specialists must construct them.
4. Wood, with moisture content high, loses its strength.
Лексические упражнения 5. The construction of the foundation over, the superstructure building was begun.
6. Structural modification not economically pos­sible, the building will be
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие demolished (сносить).
из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык? Упражнение 2. Проанализируйте подчёркнутое в тексте предложение:
выделите в нём подлежащее, сказуемое и второстепенные члены и укажите часть
stair (n.), staircase (n. ), planning (n.), intermediate (adj.), spiral (adj.), relation (n.), речи, которой являются эти члены предложения.
flight (n.), vertical circulation, ramp (n.), enclosure (n.).
Упражнение 3. Задайте три вопроса к подлежащему или его определению,
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык: три альтернативных и три разделительных вопроса к тексту А.

частый, оборудование, безопасность, серия, внимание, многоэтажное здание, Текст B


чрезвычайный, последующий, прямой угол, монтировать, такой как, остальные, SUSPENDED CEILING
изогнутый, эскалатор, выполнять, защита, быть результатом.
The term ‘ceiling’ in modern building comprises all constructional features situated
Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с конструкцией лестниц. underneath the structural floor, that is, in structural steelwork it means those com­ponents
Перечислите их и дайте перевод на русский язык. of the floor structure which are installed below the slab and beams. In steel-framed
buildings, the ceilings are usually of the suspended type.
58 59
In general, a suspended ceiling comprises the actual ceiling, a system of beams to Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
support it, and the hangers, these being suspended from the structural floor. Many different
materials and methods of construction are used for suspended ceilings, traditional ones A B A B
being used as well as new standardised systems. New types are being developed, often соседний other владелец dry
for special purposes. Of particular importance are suspended ceiling systems which подвесной demountable степень mean
provide fire protection of the steel beams from below and also perform one or more of означать destroy расположение disadvantage
the other functions. Such ceilings are not much more expensive than those which do not разрабатывать prove разрушать develop
provide fire protection. снизу adjacent разборный degree
Plastered ceilings comprise a plaster coat applied to lathing. They have the другой owner недостаток arrangement
disadvantage that the space above the ceiling can not be easily reached without destroying сухой particular исключительный suspended
part of the ceiling. оказываться reach доходить до from below
Demountable prefabricated panels have the general advantage of dry construction,
and the same applies to the arrangements for closing or covering the joints. Separate
panels can easily be removed without damaging adjacent ones. Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
Notes:
lathing n. основание (под штукатурку) plan n. - plan v. – planning
plaster coat слой штукатурки plaster n. - plaster v.

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. What does the term “ceiling” mean?


2. What does a suspended ceiling consist of?
3. What are new types of suspended ceilings developed for?
4. What are the advantages of demountable panels?

Грамматические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте причастные обороты и переведите их на


русский язык.
Упражнение 2. Задайте вопросы к подлежащему и его определению, а
также альтернативный и разделительный вопрос к подчёркнутой в тексте В
части предложения.

Лексические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если


Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
в котором оно использовано в тексте.

traditional (adj.), plaster (v.), hanger (n.), situated (adj.), underneath (prep.),
suspend (v.).

60
Lightweight concrete slabs, though possessing good thermal insulation capacity,
must never­theless be provided with additional insulating layers of adequate thickness
to ensure that the temperature in the concrete always remains above the dew-point. Aerated
concrete is very suitable as a light­weight covering, as are also various lightweight
Урок 2.10 aggregate concretes. A fall for rainwater run-off from a concrete roof can also be ob­tained
more economically by properly sloping the roof beams than by means of a screed.
Фонетическое задание
Notes:
air-conditioning n. кондиционирование воздуха
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим blind rivet глухая заклёпка
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова fall n. зд. уклон
списка В даны в списке А. impervious adj. непроницаемый
sheeting n. обшивка
A
['bxrIq]; ['rAnPf]; ['djHpOInt]; ['gxlvqnaIzd]; ['InsjVleIt]; ["lPnGI'tjHdInql]; Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
[SJt]; [slqVp]; ['veIpq]; [Im'pWvIqs]; ['rIvIt]; [DqV]; ['xgrIgIt]; ['waIdlI]
1. What is the difference between the structure of a flat roof and a floor?
B 2. What kinds of roofing are described in the text?
dew-point through insulate vapour sheet 3. What should be esti­mated in construction of metal roofing?
shirt impervious barrier longitudinal galvanised 4. What are the features which characterise metal roofing watertightness?
widely viper isolate aggregate though 5. When is concrete roofing more suitable?
river run-off slope rivet bearer 6. What kinds of concrete slabs are used for the purpose?
7. What must be done to achieve good thermal insulation of concrete roofing?
8. What must be done to avoid rainwater leakage (протечка) in a concrete roof?
Текст A

ROOFS Лексические упражнения

The structure of a flat roof is generally similar to that of a floor, but lighter. In Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
steel-framed buildings the roof materials most widely used are steel and concrete. из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
Metal roofing Galvanised steel sheet is widely used for externally insulated roofs. они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
The sheets are fixed to the supporting beams by welding, bolts or blind rivets etc. The
required depth of the section and the weight of the sheeting as a function of the total roof roofing (n.), galvanised steel, vapour barrier, composite action, longitudinal (adj.), run-
load, the span and the support conditions, single or two spans should be esti­mated. If off (n.), dew-point (n.), insulate (v.), sheet (n.), slope (v.), vapour (n.).
the upper surface of the roof has to be constructed to a certain fall to help rainwater run-
off, this should be achieved by an adequate sloping of the roof beams. Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
The steel sheet is in itself impervious to water vapour, but the longitudinal and
transverse joints are not always watertight. Under normal internal and external conditions стально-каркасное здание, плита из лёгкого бетона, однако, обычно, современный,
(internal relative humidity 65%, internal temperature + 20°C, outside temperature - 15°C), промежуточный, внимание, обстоятельства, изоляционный слой, средство, балка
however, a vapour barrier is not required if full air-conditioning is not installed. покрытия, оставаться, поризованный бетон, относительная влажность, потолок,
Concrete roof slabs Concrete roof slabs, laid in-situ or composed of precast плита бетонного покрытия.
concrete units and with or without composite action, are generally similar in con­struction
to floor slabs. Such roofs are more particularly suitable in circumstances where relatively Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с конструкцией крыши:
large loads have to be supported by the roof structure. её типами, особенностями и свойствами. Перечислите их и дайте перевод на
русский язык.
62 63
Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными. 8. Such slabs tend to be very thick and heavy.
Укажите правильный перевод. 9. The roof has to be disturbed only at the points where column splices have to be
made.
internal внутренний depth глубина 10. The rest of the roof can be left in position until the additional storeys have been
sheet лист total совокупный completed.
fix закреплять screed цементная стяжка 11. Structural modification is not economically possible.
tolerance допуск hanger подвеска 12. Large loads have to be supported by the roof structure.
corner угол underneath поэтому
than что damage повреждать Упражнение 2. Задайте общий, альтернативный, разделительный и 5
transmission передача actual активный специальных вопросов к подчёркнутому в тексте А предложению.
grid решётка provide обеспечивать
Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения. Определите функцию
Упражнение 5. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному неличных форм глагола.
термину.
1. The following considerations are relevant in determining the span to be adopted for
the floor slab.
A. FLOOR SYSTEM 1. Force per unit area.
2. The steel work is prefabricated in a factory, structural steelwork mass production
B. PARTITIONS 2. The system of structural components techniques being favourable.
3. The concrete must be prevented from drying out too fast because this may cause
separating the stories of a building.
cracking.
C. SPAN 3. Deformation of a material per unit length. 4. Carbon steel is the most important class of steel for the construction industry. These
D. STRAIN 4. The distance between the supports of a steels are cheap and convenient to use
5. The most common way is to stretch steel bars or wires, that are called tendons, and
structure. to anchor them to the concrete
E. STRESS 5. The walls separating spaces in a building. 6. With some types of precast concrete construction, no time is lost in waiting for
concrete to gain strength at one level of a structure before the next level can be
Грамматические упражнения placed.
7. The planning grid consists of elongated rectangles with columns widely spaced in
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения и определите one direction, closely spaced in the other.
функцию глаголов “to be”, “to have”. 8. In structural steelwork the term “ceiling” means components of the floor structure
installed below the slab and beams.
1. The upper surface of the roof has to be constructed to a certain fall to assist
rainwater run-off. Текст B
2. If the building is to be subsequently raised by the addition of one or more storeys ROOF STRUCTURE
the roof should be designed as a normal floor.
3. Many different materials and methods of construction are used for suspended To prevent the loss of warmth, the insulating panels are often laid in several layers.
ceilings. In some systems, the insulating panels are supplied with various other layers which
4. Where services have to be installed in this space and may need attention or may have been bonded to them, for example, with the following composition, from top to
have to be altered later, this type of construction is therefore inadequate. bottom:
5. This type of construction has many disadvantages. Waterproof layer
6. The insulating panels are supplied with various other layers which have been Venting layer
bonded to them. Heat insulating layer
Vapour barrier
7. A floor in a framed building is a number of floor bays.
Venting layer
64 65
Such panels can be laid ‘dry’ and they must be carefully sealed at the joints under Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
dry condi­tions. In this way, a temporary roof covering is obtained, which can be
completed later under better weather conditions, by the addition of the finishing layers. A B A B
The structural roof slab also provides thermal insulation and is provided with проём cavity пар prevent
only a waterproof layer. The structural slab itself is subjected to considerable temperature большой often снабжать comprise
differences which may cause variations in length. временный close часто eventually
The space between the roof structure and the ceiling may be a factor to consider кровельное покрытие joint подвергать expensive
in designing the roof insulation. If this space is not in effective contact with the air соединение supply препятствовать vapour
inside the room, the upper layer of air in the cavity may eventually reach a tempera­ture содержать subject близкий considerable
close to that of the outside air, the structural slab becoming saturated with moisture. дорогой temporary полость roofing
Slots or holes in the ceiling don’t prevent this effect. On the other hand, it does not occur в конце концов longitudinal продольный opening
if the ceiling space is in effective contact with the interior of the room, for example, if
the ceiling is formed by slats and large openings. Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
Notes:
bond v. соединять relate – relation - relationship
later adv. позже insulate - insulation
saturate v. пропитывать
venting layer вентиляционный слой
warmth n. тепло
waterproof adj. водонепроницаемый

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

What are the functions of the insulating panels?


What must be done when such panels are used?
Why is the space between the roof structure and the ceiling a factor to consider?
What are the two alternatives?

Грамматические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте неличные формы глагола. Определите их


функции и переведите на русский язык.

Упражнение 2. Задайте 4 специальных вопроса к тексту В.

Лексические упражнения

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если


Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
в котором оно использовано в тексте.

seal (v.), inside (adv.), slat (n.), slot (n.), interior (n.), contact (n.), structural slab.

66
• Multi-layer lightweight concrete cladding units comprise a dense inner concrete
leaf, a thick intermediate layer of insulating lightweight concrete and an outer finishing
layer of concrete.
Sandwich panels These can be self-supporting wall or spandrel panels and panels
Урок 2.11 which are fitted between supporting mullions or columns. Depending on their physical
function in relation to the interior space, open and closed panels are to be distinguished.
As a rule, a cladding panel comprises the outer skin, the insulating core, the vapour
Фонетическое задание
barrier and the inner skin.
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим
Notes:
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова rendering n. оштукатуривание
списка В даны в списке А.
A Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
[dens]; ['InfIlIN]; ["Intqkq'nekt]; [lJf]; ['mAljqn]; ['brIkwWk]; ['sxnwIG];
["selfsq'pLtIN]; ["mAltI'leIq]; ['spxndrql]; ['fIzIkql]; [In'tIqrIq]; [hRf]; [wID'In] 1. What are external walls built of?
2. What kinds of bricks are used?
B 3. What is the structure of a concrete slab?
interior life dense leaf infilling 4. Which lightweight concrete slabs are there?
half spandrel sandwich million calf 5. What sandwich panels are to be distinguished?
mullion within multi-layer brickwork self-supporting
physical dance interconnect spaniel facial
Лексические упражнения
Текст A
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
EXTERNAL WALLS из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
Brickwork Ordinary or lightweight bricks, with or without external rendering, are
placed within the frame. For high walls the masonry is also supported by vertical and dense (adj.), mullion (n.), spandrel panel, self-supporting (adj.), interconnect (v.),
horizontal steel members. Such infillings may be a half or a whole brick thick. composite (adj.), infilling (n.), skin (n.), multi-layer (adj.), brickwork (n.), leaf (n.),
Concrete panels and slabs These units, usually of precast concrete, are provided sandwich panel.
with a heat-insulating. The concrete slab is a composite three-layer unit, comprising an
outer and an inner leaf with a layer of insulating material sandwiched between; the inner Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
leaf performs the main supporting function and is thicker than the outer. The two are
interconnected by stainless steel ties extending through the insulation. To avoid stresses таким образом, внутренний (2), облицовочная панель, выделять, тип, промежу-
in the panels due to temperature differences, rigid connections are provided at the centre точный, центр, выполнять, физический, тянуться, половина, как правило, внешний,
of each panel and elastic connections at the edges. край, влажность, профиль, из-за, разрезать.
Lightweight concrete panels and slabs Because of their low weight and moderate
cost, they are particularly suitable for steel-framed buildings. There are different kinds Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с конструкцией
of these: наружной стены: её особенностями и свойствами. Перечислите их и дайте перевод
• Aerated concrete is cast in large blocks which are then cut up into panels or на русский язык.
slabs. Aerated concrete panels and slabs are used as single-layer cladding units.
• Lightweight concrete slabs are used as single-layer cladding units which can Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными.
be cast to any required shape. Укажите правильный перевод.

68 69
then затем support поддерживать 9. Use of deep foundations may be necessary in case of instability of ground-level
moderate современный avoid избегать soil.
connection соединение masonry монолитный бетон 10. Unlike most metals, an increase in temperature even of 10°C has a major effect on
rigid жёсткий brick кирпич the stiffness of the plastic.
slot паз air воздух 11. When the existing building is to carry heavier loads its load-bearing structure can’t
bottom низ occur встречаться be left (от неправильного глагола leave [left – left] - оставлять) unchanged.
various разнообразный seal герметизировать 12. Though glass has low thermal conductivity temperature dif­ferences are not
technique технология carefully тщательный insignificant for its strength.
Упражнение 5. Выберите толкование, которое соответствует строительному Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, определите части речи
термину. подчеркнутых слов.

A. BUILDING CORE 1. A form of iron, steel or other metal 1. A building can be stiffened by means of steel bracing, concrete walls or cores.
with a particular constant type of 2. Many bridges span the Neva.
cross-section (for example I, L, or T). 3. The builders position sandwich panels between supporting mullions or columns.
B. CLADDING 2. The maximum load that a structure can 4. When the slabs are lowered into position, the dowels that project do not interfere
carry before a specific limit of action is with them.
reached. 5. New means of building unit transportation are used.
C. SECTION
3. A system of structural elements 6. The designers space column footings reasonably closely in this foundation.
designed to support loads. 7. In most cases the builders concrete wall footings.
D. STRENGTH 8. They design the wall as a spanning element of one type or another.
4. A slender structural element used to
9. The space between the roof structure and the ceiling may be a factor to consider.
resist tensile forces.
E. STRUCTURE 10. In this case separate footings are better for the foundation.
5. The exterior covering of the structural 11. Several insulating layers separate the outside of the roof from its inside.
components of a building. 12. In a one-storey building with light construction and short spans the column loads
F. TIE
6. Vertical core around stairs, lifts, and may be light.
mechanical shafts.
Грамматические упражнения Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на
функции слов one и that.
Упражнение 1. Переведете следующие предложения, обратите внимание
на префиксы с отрицательным значением. 1. Cement is one of the most versatile binders.
2. Fabric has a low or zero shear modulus, that is, the material can be made that shears
1. This type of foundation is inadequate for the soil condition on the site. with little or no effort.
2. A disadvantages of toughened glass is its loss of properties above 300°C 3. If pedestal is built of hollow masonry units one should have the voids completely
3. This material is non-elastic. filled with concrete.
4. Many great buildings built centuries ago had great strength, unnecessary in most 4. The shallow founda­tions are those with which load transfer occurs near the bottom
cases. of the building.
5. Where floor designs are irregular the simple cast-in-place slab floor system is 5. Separate panels can easily be removed without damaging adjacent ones.
sometimes used. 6. Builders must ensure that this settle­ment is uniform and small.
6. The house is unusual in its external wall finish. 7. The part of the basement wall above ground may be of different construc­tion than
7. Non-loadbearing internal walls should be so designed that they are not subjected to that extending into the ground.
additional loads. 8. The first degree of flexibility is the one which allows modification of the floor
8. It is impossible to build modern houses without the knowledge of new techniques. space by the owners of the building themselves.
70 71
9. That the thick­ness selected is adequate means that it elimi­nates the need for shear Грамматические упражнения
reinforcing.
10. The basic components of a steel structure are steel sections. These include thin- Упражнение 1. Работа в парах.
walled slender elements.
Студент C: Задайте 6 вопросов различных типов к тексту B.
Упражнение 4. Работа в парах. Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
Студент C: Задайте 6 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C. Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте примеры употребления слов one и that.
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями. Обратите внимание на их перевод.

Текст B Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте слова, которые могут быть другими частями
речи.
EXTERNAL WALL FEATURES
Лексические упражнения
The following characteristics typical of steel-framed buildings affect the
construction and often also the external appearance of the facade: Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Если
• In steel-framed buildings the loads are trans­mitted by the columns, no load-bearing Вы не знаете слово, найдите его в словаре. Выпишите из словаря то значение слова,
external wall being necessary. Hence, lightweight walls are generally more suitable в котором оно использовано в тексте.
than heavy ones. The columns may be completely or partly incor­porated into those
walls. facade (n.), wind-bracing (n.), outside (prep.), in front of (prep.), behind (prep.).
• The location of the columns in relation to the external wall must therefore be
considered, as they may be behind, in, or in front of the wall. Упражнение 2. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
• As external columns can support the facades, mullions are often not necessary.
• The external wall can be fixed quite simply to the structural frame by bolting or
welding. A B A B
• Wind-bracings comprising diagonal mem­bers, whether installed inside or outside средник member внешний вид tolerance
the facade, largely affect the design of the external wall. поэтому between воздействовать на due to
• Proper attention should be paid to relative movements between the structural frame сочетать incorporate характеристика proper
из-за therefore строительство mullion
and the external wall. The deformations of a steel frame due to temperature variations,
правильный characteristic допуск appearance
vertical live load and wind load and, in tall buildings, the oscillations due to wind -
между combine включать consider
are usually greater than those of a concrete frame. пересечение erection деталь junction
• Because of factory production, dimensional tolerances in a steel frame are smaller усиливать affect обдумывать stiffen
than in structures built of other materials.
• Erection of the external wall can often be combined with erection of the structural
steelwork. Упражнение 3. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже
слов:
Notes:
oscillation n. колебание com­pose - composite adj. - composite n. - composition n.

72 73
Pipes and wiring for sanitary and electrical installations are often fitted within
internal walls. In the case of prefabricated partitions this makes special arrangements,
for example, units specially designed for bathrooms, etc. necessary. Demountable
partitions should not contain any services, except wiring to sockets.
Урок 2.12 Partition wall units are generally prefabricated to 120cm width, the partitioning
being based on fixed modular dimensions, generally 10, 30 and 60 cm.
Фонетическое задание
Notes:
duty n. задача, цель
Прочитайте транскрипцию в списке A, соотнесите её с соответствующим impact load ударная нагрузка; динамическая нагрузка
словом из списка B и переведите слово на русский язык. Учтите, что не все слова modular dimension модульный размер
списка В даны в списке А. partitioning n. разделение на секции
A bathroom n. ванная комната
[q'txCmqnt]; [rI'GIdItI]; ['sxnItqrI]; ['sentI"mJtq]; ['waIqrIN]; ['sPkIt];
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
[kqm'pRtmqnt]; ['ADqwaIz]; [rI's°v]; ['Impxkt]; ['djHtI]; [dI'maVntqbl];
["sAbdI'vaId]; [Ik'sept] 1. What do the functions of the internal walls depend on?
2. What general types of internal walls are there?
B 3. Why are load-bearing internal walls used in framed buildings?
wearing centimetre attainment attachment compartment 4. What are the requirements for the non-loadbearing internal walls?
socket receive impact demountable intact 5. Why are special arrangements necessary in prefabricated partitions?
sanitary except duty subdivide wiring
solitary rigidity otherwise cricket expect
Лексические упражнения
Текст A
INTERNAL WALLS Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык приведённые ниже слова. Какие
из перечисленных слов могут быть другими частями речи? Какими именно? Как
Depending on the duties they have to perform, internal walls have to fulfil various они в этом случае переводятся на русский язык?
functions determined partly by conditions of use and partly by structural requirements.
In the choice of a suitable wall, the problem of cost is certainly very important. rigidity (n.), bending moment, pipe (n.), socket (n.), wiring (n.), attachment (n.), attach
A general distinction can be drawn between load-bearing and non-loadbearing (v.), sanitary (adj.), fire compartment.
internal walls.
Load-bearing internal walls Framed buildings normally have no walls designed Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык:
for the specific purpose of transferring vertical loads, but they frequently have walls
which increase structural rigidity, that is, serving to transmit horizontal loads. These are разборная перегородка, в зависимости от, дополнительная нагрузка, в противном
shear walls and they usually also receive a certain amount of vertical load, if only for случае, воспринимать, несущая конструкция, функционально, только, стена
counterbalancing the tensile forces that would otherwise be caused by bending moments. жёсткости, уравновешивать, определённый, оказывать (действие), присоединять,
Such walls in most cases also perform a fire protection function in subdividing the building часто, конструкционное требование, определять.
into fire compartments.
Non-loadbearing internal walls Functionally these are partitions, merely separating Упражнение 3. Найдите в тексте термины, связанные с конструкцией
room from room. They should possess the necessary strength and stability to support their внутренней стены: её особенностями и свойствами. Перечислите их и дайте перевод
own weight and the loads exerted by objects attached to them, as well as any horizontal на русский язык.
forces due to such attachments and also live load, including effects of impact loads. Such
walls should be so designed and attached to the load-bearing structure of the building that Упражнение 4. Какие из указанных переводов слов являются ошибочными.
they are not subjected to additional loads which they are not designed to take. Укажите правильный перевод.
74 74
suitable подходящий width широкий Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения. Определите, от каких
fulfil заполнять service инженерные сети слов и с помощью каких суффиксов образованы подчеркнутые прилагательные
possess обладать choice выбирать и наречия.
variation колебание cause вызывать
quite довольно weight вес 1. The more extensive use of steel in multi-storey buildings results from the ease of
tall высокий increase увеличивать its use in construction.
comprise включать fit устанавливать 2. There is the choice of fire resistant form of construction or a protective coating.
relative относительный design рассчитывать 3. Fabrics require different methods of design.
4. The dimensional stability of a coated fabric depends mainly on the fibre.
Упражнение 5. Заполните пропуски в тексте, используя слова из приведённого 5. Glass has hardness comparable with steel.
ниже списка: 6. Shallow foundation having a relatively short distance below the ground surface
trans­fer vertical loads by direct bearing on soil strata close to the bottom of the
although concrete interior supported building.
cast-in-place ends storeys systems 7. Concrete roof is particularly suitable when relatively large loads have to be supported
Framing systems by the roof structure.
The roof and the floors of build­ings are generally (1)… by one of the three 8. Demountable prefabricated panels have the general advantage of dry construction.
com­mon framing (2)…: (a) bearing wall, (b) structural frame composed of beams and
columns or slabs and columns, and (c) special long-span roof systems. Упражнение 3. Работа в парах.
In bearing-wall construction, walls support the (3)… of the floor and roof beams
and slabs in addition to enclosing (огораживать) (4)… space. The bearing wall can he Студент C: Задайте 6 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
made of bricks, concrete blocks, (5)… rein­forced concrete, or precast concrete panels. Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C.
(6)… bearing-wall construction is more common for one-family houses and some Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями.
industrial buildings, reinforced (7)… bearing walls, com­monly known as shear walls,
are increasingly being used for tall buildings up to 75 (8)… . Текст B
INTERNAL WALLS REQUIREMENTS
Грамматические упражнения
Fire protection and sound insulation
Depending on the function it will be expected to perform in the case of a fire, the
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
internal wall may have to be of fireproof construction to separate the building into fire
на герундий в функции определения.
compartments and to protect the escape routes. Most building regulations include the
following requirements:
1. Framed buildings normally have no walls designed for the specific purpose of
• Adequate fire protection and additional strength for compartment walls and
transferring vertical loads.
staircases, described as ‘protected shafts’
2. Shear walls also perform a fire protection function of subdividing the building
• Walls along escape routes should have adequate fire-retarding capacity.
into fire compartments.
• Double-leaf partitions can often be made to provide fire protection for structural
3. There are no reliable methods of estimating the degree of airborne sound
steel components, if the leaves are of proper fireproof materials. Thus, floor beams may
conduction achieved by a wall.
be protected in this way, if their spacing is the same as that of the partitions, the beams
4. Buildings have the advantage of being stiffened by the floors.
being incorporated within the latter. No suspended ceiling is needed, the partitions being
5. The purpose of using reinforcement in concrete is to increase its tensile strength.
extended to the bottom side of the floor slab.
6. Their structural potential of foundation wall is often used for additional purposes
After fire protection, sound insulation is the most important function of the internal
of distributing or equalizing the load.
wall, especially in providing insulation against airborne sound transmission from room
7. Several techniques of placing the reinforcement have been developed.
to room. The degree of insulation provided by a single-layer wall depends on its weight;
8. Flexibility in altering and rearranging the services is essential.
in the case of a multi-layer wall it depends also on the thickness and nature of the material
76 77
of the outer leaves, the nature of the insulating material sandwiched between, and on the Текст C
manner in which they are inter-connected. There are no reliable methods of estimating
the degree of airborne sound conduction achieved by a wall. HIGH RISE BUILDINGS: FRAMES AND TUBES

Notes: A large number of high-rise buildings use shear walls to provide lateral stability.
building regulations строительные нормы и правила A development of the shear wall is the core structure in which a number of shear walls
escape route путь эвакуации are placed together, usually enclosing lifts, stairs or services to form tubes or other plan
shapes. Compared to a single wall the core or shaft structures have ‘flange’ as well as
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту. ‘web’ parts to resist horizontal forces. However the overall shear and bending moment
patterns in shear wall and core structures follow that of a cantilever. In practice there is
1. Why should internal walls be fire-resistant? a difficulty because of the need to provide openings in the core structure for service
2. What requirements do most building regulations include? runs. With only small openings the core structure will not be affected but larger openings
3. What does the degree of sound insulation of an internal wall depend on? will require strengthening round the openings, especially at sharp corners. Most core
structures are of poured concrete construction in which additional reinforcement may be
Грамматические упражнения placed as necessary but cores may also be built in reinforced or unreinforced masonry.
Where a high-rise concrete frame of cast-in-place construction is used, it is natural to
Упражнение 1. Работа в парах. connect the frame with shear walls so that they interact with each other.
A further increase in stiffness against horizontal forces can be provided in steel
Студент C: Задайте 6 вопросов различных типов к тексту B. buildings by using a shear truss and frame with belt trusses. In this system deep horizontal
Студент D: Ответьте на вопросы к тексту студента C. outrigger trusses are connected to the central shear trusses which are vertical, and to a
Студенты C и D: Поменяйтесь ролями. horizontal belt truss in the perimeter of the steel frame.
In order to prevent bending moment being passed over into the perimeter columns,
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте причастие I и герундий. Определите их the connection between them and the belt trusses can be a pinned one. There are certain
функции и переведите на русский язык. best locations for the belt trusses: if two belt trusses are used they would be best placed
somewhere near the half and three-quarter points in the height of the building; if only
Лексические упражнения one belt truss is used, it would be best placed somewhere between these two positions,
although in practice the highest belt truss is often placed at the top of the building.
Упражнение 1. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В. The most effective way of resisting horizontal loads, for any given plan area, is to
use a cantilever with a solid section; however hollow tubes are more efficient in that
A B A B they are almost as stiff but use very much less material than a solid section cantilever.
ожидать depend особенно along The direct stresses of tension and compression and the shear stresses are those connected
оценить expect зависеть elevate with a pure cantilever. Solid sections are not practical forms and hollow sections without
вдоль thus многослойный especially openings are generally only feasible for towers and other such uses. However high-rise
способность multi-layer надёжный shallow buildings can still be designed to exploit the inherent efficiency of tube action by an
сторона leaf лист capacity adequate choice of form. The purpose, if tube-type systems are used, is to increase the
получить separate защищать estimate plan area of the tube as much as possible that is to increase the effective section area of
неглубокий reliable отделять achieve the cantilever, and to make the structural behaviour as close as possible to that of the
поднимать side таким образом protect hollow tube without openings in it. As window openings are necessary for the building,
Упражнение 2. Напишите предложения с каждым из перечисленных ниже the perimeter structure is weaker and more flexible than that of the pure tube. However
слов: buildings do have the compensating advantage of being stiffened by the floors, which
circular circulation act as a series of horizontal diaphragms and prevent deformation of the cross-section of
rigid – rigidity the building throughout its height.
attach - attachment
78 79
Notes: ЗНАКИ ФОНЕТИЧЕСКОЙ ТРАНСКРИПЦИИ
direct stress напряжение, усилие (растяжения или сжатия)
outrigger truss выносная ферма Произношение в упражнениях задания и словаре даётся по международной
pure adj. простой фонетической системе.
sharp adj. острый Ударение в фонетической транскрипции ставится перед ударным слогом.
shear moment момент сдвига Второстепенное ударение ставится внизу перед ударным слогом.
shear truss ферма жёсткости
solid section сплошное сечение Гласные звуки
structural behaviour работа/поведение строительной конструкции
J – долгий и
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту. I – краткий, открытый и
e – как э в словах этот, эти
1. What is used to provide lateral stability in high-rise buildings? · - очень открытый э, как ударный гласный в слове бяка
2. What is a difficulty in providing strength of the core or shaft structures? ± - долгий, глубокий а, как ударный гласный в слове палка
3. How can this difficulty be overcome? P - краткий, открытый о
4. How are most core structures built? L - долгий о
5. What can be done to increase the stiffness of steel buildings against horizontal V – краткий у
forces? H – долгий у
6. What are the best locations for the belt trusses? µ - краткий а, как в словах варить, мосты
7. Why are hollow tubes more efficient than a cantilever with a solid section? W – как долгое ё в словах Фёкла, свёкла
8. How can the inherent efficiency of tube action be exploited in high-rise buildings? q – безударный гласный похожий на русский безударный гласный в словах нужен,
9. What prevents deformation of the cross-section of the building throughout its height? голос, карета
Двугласные звуки
Лексическое упражнение
eI - эй OI - ой
В списке А даны некоторые слова и выражения, которые использованы в qV - эу Iq - иа
тексте для домашнего чтения. Найдите их перевод в списке В. aI - ай eq - эа
aV - ау Vq - уа

А B А B Согласные звуки
throughout сплошной pinned connection полое сечение
service run шарнирное соединение exploit противостоять p-п
lateral stability эффективность difficulty дополнительный b–б
round площадь в плане central окружать m-м
compensate взаимодействовать flange ферма
belt truss проход для коммуникаций efficiency везде
w – звук образуется, когда губы, в положении как при свисте, резко раздвигаются.
perimeter решётка (фермы) truss система Напоминает звук у.
plan shape здание башенного типа interact компенсировать f-ф
hollow section поперечная устойчивость window хотя v-в
further фланец web периметр T - (без голоса) оба звука образуются при помощи языка,
resist трудность enclose вокруг
although окно tower консоль D - (с голосом) кончик которого помещается между
cantilever использовать plan area профиль в плане передними зубами
solid центральный pattern ленточная ферма s-с
z-з
t – т, но при произношении кончик языка касается дёсен, а не зубов
d–д ~ ~ ~ ~
80 81
n–н ~ ~ ~ ~ СЛОВАРНЫЙ МИНИМУМ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ ТЕРМИНОВ
l–л ~ ~ ~ ~ I – II СЕМЕСТРОВ
r – нераскатистое, краткое, слабое р (кончик языка немного завёрнут назад)
S - мягкое ш
Z - мягкое ж
C-ч
» - очень мягкое слитное дж
k-к
g-г
N - произнесённый задней частью спинки языка звук н
h – простой резкий выдох
j – слабый звук й

83
84 85
86 87
88 89
90 91
РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ ТЕМ ПО УРОКАМ

Урок
Новые грамматические темы Повторение

Функции it
Participle I в функции определения Модальные глаголы и их
и обстоятельства заменители
2.1
Времена глагола в
действительном и страдательном
залоге
Participle I в функции определения
Participle II в функции Группа существительных
2.2 определения и части сказуемого
Части речи и члены предложения
Participle I в функции определения
и обстоятельства
2.3 Независимый причастный оборот
Participle II в функции
определения и части сказуемого

Инфинитив в функции Participle I & II


2.4 подлежащего, дополнения и Условные предложения
определения Сравнительный оборот the…the…
Инфинитив в функции части Инфинитив в функции
сказуемого подлежащего, дополнения и
2.5 Объектный инфинитивный оборот определения
Общие вопросы Независимый причастный оборот

Participle I & II
Инфинитив в функции
обстоятельства цели Степени сравнения
2.6 прилагательных и наречий
Альтернативные вопросы
Общие вопросы

Инфинитив
Герундий в функции дополнения
и обстоятельства Времена глагола в
2.7 действительном и страдательном
Разделительные вопросы залоге

Альтернативные вопросы

92 93
БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ
Урок Новые грамматические темы Повторение
1. Orton, Andrew. The Way We Build Now. Wokingham, 1988, ISBN 0-74760-011-2.
2. Francis, Arthur J. Introducing Structures. Oxford.1980, ISBN 0-07-022701-5.
Приставка re- 3. Hart, Franz. Multi-storey Building in Steel. London.1978, ISBN 0-258-96974-1.
Герундий в функции Неличные формы глагола 4. Ambrose, James. Simplified Design of Building Founations. New York.1988,
2.8 подлежащего Суффиксы существительных ISBN 0-471-85898-6.
5. Schneider, Robert, Dickey, Walter. Reinforced Masonry Design. Englewood Cliffs.1987.
Специальные вопросы к Разделительные вопросы
ISBN 0-13-771726-1.
подлежащему и его определению
6. Мюллер В.К. Новый англо-русский словарь. Москва, Русский язык, 2003, ISBN
Независимый причастный оборот Общие, альтернативные и 5-200-03176-1.
2.9 без причастия разделительные вопросы 7. Новый большой англо-русский словарь под общим руководством Э.М. Медниковой
Части речи и члены предложения и Ю.Д. Апресяна в 3-х томах, Москва, Русский язык, 1993, ISBN 5-200-01848-X
8. Корчемкин С.Н., Кашкин С.К., Курбатов С.В. Англо-русский строительный
Неличные формы глагола словарь. Москва, Русский язык, 1995, ISBN 5-200-02313-0
Специальные вопросы Функции глаголов have и be 9. Фоменко В.Я., Любимцев А.Н., Любимцева С.Н. Русско-английский разговорник
2.10 для строителей. Москва, Русский язык, 1990, ISBN 5-200-00758-5.
Специальные вопросы к
подлежащему и его определению 10. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Dictionaries, Harlow, 2005,
ISBN 1-405-81126-9
Функции one и that
Отрицательные приставки
2.11 Конверсия
Вопросительные предложения
Герундий в функции определения Суффиксы прилагательных
2.12
Вопросительные предложения

94 95
Задание № 109

по английскому языку для студентов I курса


специальностей 270102 – промышленное и гражданское строительство,
270106 – производство строительных материалов, изделий и конструкций,
270114 – проектирование зданий.

Составители: Александр Сергеевич Глебовский,


Татьяна Алексеевна Денисова

Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой

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