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THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SALT IN

BRINE SOLUTION ON THE POSTHARVEST RIPENING


OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum)

A Senior High School Research Project


presented to Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course/subject (Research Project)

by

Jude Andrei C. Batucan


Patrick James T. Bertulfo
Neil B. Broa
Shenith L. Canapi
Anne Richie M. Capua
Angelica A. Castro

March 2018
DEDICATION
This study is dedicated to our God Almighty,

Who is the very heart of our perseverance and hardwork,

For giving us the gift of wisdom, talent and the ability

to do this study successfully.

And to our parents who helped us and tirelessly guided

Us in achieving our dreams.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research would not be possible without the help and support of the
following people:

First and foremost, we would like to extend our deepest gratitude to our
Research adviser, Mrs. Dorren Fevag, for guiding us throughout the whole process of our
research.

We would also like to express our warmest appreciation to the panelists,


Mr. Ulysses Gastador, Mr. Noel Mondares and most especially to Mrs. Marites Arcilla
for extending extra effort in mentoring and guiding us in accomplishing our study.

To our classmates who have endured with us the heavy responsibilities of


being researchers and helping us in any way they can.

To our parents who supported us morally and financially.

And most importantly to God Almighty for giving us the gift of talent,
intellect and faith in order for us to realize this research study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

RESEARCH TITLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i

DEDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Review of Related Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Scope and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Chapter 2: RESEARCH METHODS

Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Data Collection Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

Ethical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Chapter 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Chapter 4: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

CURRICULUM VITAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
LIST TABLES

Table 2.1. Data collected after 8 days of observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Table 3.1. Tomato Shelf Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Table 3.2. First observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Table 3.3. Second observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Table 3.4. Third observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Table 3.5. Fourth observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Table 3.6. Fifth observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Table 3.7. Sixth observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Table 3.8. Seventh observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Table 3.9. Eighth observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Table 3.10. Total Data collected for 8 days of observation base on ripening stages . . 35
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2. Research Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
ABSTRACT

Crop perishability has been one of the concerns of many farmers in the
Philippines and around the world. Plenty of fruits and vegetables go to waste before
being consumed as a result to untimely spoilage. Due to this, various researchers studied
different methods of fruit and vegetable preservation. Osmotic dehydration using brine
solution is one of the methods developed to lengthen shelf life of different produces.
In this study the effect of different concentration of salt in brine solution
on the postharvest ripening of tomatoes was investigated. The researchers prepared
tomato samples distributed evenly to1 control (A) and 3 experimental set-ups (B1, B2, B3)
with brine solution of varying salt concentrations for the experimentation. The tomato
samples were left to ripen for 14 days, data were gathered through observation of color
change based on the USDA scale of tomato ripening. Data collected were analyzed using
one-way ANOVA. It was recorded that tomatoes in set-up B 3 had the shortest shelf life
while the control set-up had the longest shelf life. Furthermore, it was also observed that
spoiled tomatoes did not undergo complete ripening stages before spoiling. Based on
observation and statistical analysis, it was concluded that early and rapid tomato spoilage
occurred as salt concentration in brine solution increased and that there was no significant
difference between the effects of different concentrations of brine solution to the
postharvest ripening of tomato at p ≤0.05 level of significance.

Keywords: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), brine, salt concentration, postharvest,


shelf life, osmotic dehydration

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Perishability has been one of the main concerns of most farmers, crop
transporters and consumers alike. Due to natural high water content of most harvested
fruits and vegetables, coupled with improper handling, storage and lack of treatments to
slow down ripening, many harvested fruits and vegetables eventually undergo spoilage
before it could even be used. In this study, the researchers will investigate the effects of
brine solution with varying amount of salt concentrations on the postharvest ripening of
tomato. This study will also use the true experimental research design. Four set-ups will
be made during the experimentation, one control (set-up A) and three experimental set-
ups (set-ups B1, B2 and B3). Experimental set-ups B1, B2 and B3 will receive varying salt
concentrations.

With 95% water content (Bjarnadottir, 2015), tomatoes are easily one of
those fruits with high degree of perishability. In the Philippines, tomatoes are extensively
cultivated. This plant can be found throughout the country and would likely be sown in
most backyard vegetable garden and large farms. In a report made by the Philippine
Statistics Authority (PSA), last July to September 2017, the country produced a total of
27.22 thousand metric tons of tomatoes due to high demand for the fruit in the market.
Most of these harvested tomatoes came from farmers in rural areas of Northern
Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN and Central Visayas (PSA, 2017). With the large amount
of crop yield, tomato production is ranked 12 th among other agricultural commodities,
making it as one of the major crops in the country (Bareja, 2014). In addition, with the
high demand of tomato in the market, tomato farming and production are considered
important contributors to the country’s economy.

Overseas, tomatoes are also largely produced. According to a statistics released by the
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), tomatoes are the most important vegetable
crop with about 160 million tons produced in 2011 and a 20 kilogram per capita
consumption per year (FAOSTAT, 2014). Moreover, according to Bareja (2014), on a
worldwide scale, tomatoes are ranked 9th among other crop production.
Given the high crop yield, tomatoes serve as source of income for both
small and large scale farmers in the Philippines and other parts of the world. However,
due to the fruit’s natural high moisture content—which make it very susceptible to
pathogenic fungi attacks—improper handling and lack of methods to prevent decay,
postharvest losses make its production unprofitable, especially in developing countries.
Postharvest decay of tomatoes around the world results in substantial economic losses
with a global postharvest loss of as high as 42% and even much higher loss percentage in
third world countries (Arah et al., 2015) (Etebu et al., 2013). This worldwide loss of
tomato production due to spoilage or decay will consequently harm agricultural
livelihoods and ultimately lowering agriculture’s share to the economy.

In an effort to cease the problem on tomato production loss due to the


fruit’s perishability, various research has been done to find methods to delay postharvest
ripening and decay. Although many researchers were successful in doing so, some
methods like freezing and blanching showed detrimental effects to the product quality
(Chavan and Amarowicz, 2012). In addition, most of these methods may be complex and
difficult for local farmers and tomato transporters to follow. Moreover, most research
about the postharvest preservation of tomatoes and most fruits, in general, mainly focuses
on pretreated, peeled or cut and ripe produce not on freshly picked and untreated ones.

Fruit and vegetable dehydration using osmotic agents is one of the


commonly used methods to slow down postharvest ripening and spoilage; preserve
perishable goods.

Brine, a combination of salt and water, is one of those osmotic agents and
although it has already been studied by researchers, most of them did not focus on the
possible effect of varying salt concentration in brine solution on the postharvest ripening
of tomatoes. Additionally, according to Yadav and Singh (2014), brine is not commonly
used as an osmotic agent for fruits and vegetables as the most frequently used solute for
osmotic dehydration is either sucrose or glucose.
In response, the researchers made this study to investigate whether
different concentrations of salt in brine solution have an effect to the postharvest ripening
of tomatoes through osmotic dehydration.

Review of Related Literature


The following related studies and literature served as basis for the
researchers in constructing this study.

Tomatoes, known scientifically as Lycopersicon esculentum, are plants


belonging to the extremely large family Solanaceae. It is the second most popular and
highly nutritive crop after potato (Namitha and Negi, 2014). It is considered as vegetables
by most people, however, botanically speaking, it is a fruit based on its plant parts, It is
considered as one of the most important vegetable plants in the world (Gould, 2013). In a
report released by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), global production of
tomatoes reached at about 170 million tons on 2011 and a 20 kilogram per capita
consumption every year (FAOSTAT, 2014).

Tomato plants commonly grow in tropical regions as they are warm-


weather plants and very young plants need tremendous amount of heat and light to keep
them from growing tall and healthy. Approximately, it takes 45 to 80 or more days—with
an average of 70 days for medium-size red varieties—from planting for the plant to
develop and mature completely towards harvesting. After harvesting and under normal
conditions, it usually takes 5 to 7 days before the fruit becomes fully ripe (“Tomato plant
development,” 2012).

Before turning fully red and ripe, tomatoes undergo a series of


physiological maturity and developmental stages (Figure 1.2). First of these stages is the
“mature green stage.” At this stage, the tomato surface is completely green and the color
shade may vary from light to dark. The second stage is the “breaker stage.” This time, the
tomato exhibits a definite break of color from green to bruised fruit tannish-yellow with
pink or red color appearing at about 10% of its surface. Usually, tomatoes are harvested
during this stage for delivery to distant markets. The third stage is known as the “turning
stage.” At this stage, tomatoes are tannish-yellow with pink or red color covering more
than 10% but not more than 30% of its surface. The fourth stage is the “pink stage,”
where in the fruit already exhibits 30% but not more than 90% of pink or red color over
its surface. The fifth stage is the “light red stage.” Tomatoes undergoing this stage
already shows 60% but not more than 90% of pinkish-red or red color on the surface. The
sixth and final stage is the full “red stage,” where in the fruit exhibits 90% red color
change on its surface (Cantwell, 2013).

Tomatoes are famously cultivated and consumed worldwide due to its uses
and medicinal potential. In a report made by BBC News, tomatoes are even considered as
the world’s most favorite fruit (Mosley, 2017) due to it being the main ingredient of the
world’s famous tomato-based condiments and sauces like tomato ketchup and tomato
sauce. According to the International Market Analysis Research and Consulting
(IMARC) Group, the worldwide tomato processing market reached to a bulk of around
34 million tons in 2016 (GruppoBPC, 2017). This huge amount of worldwide
consumption might not only due to tomato-based products’ delicious flavor but also to
the fact that this fruit has a tremendous health potential. Studies are now slowly verifying
that there is a high possibility that consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products
actually may inhibit serum lipid oxidation and reduce the risk of macular degenerative
diseases (Bhowmik, D. et al., 2012). In addition, according to HealthLine, tomato
products such as ketchup, tomato juice, and tomato-based sauces are the richest dietary
sources of lycopene (Bjarnadottir, 2015) which, as said, greatly reduces the risk of
acquiring various type of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A certain study revealed
that high-intakes or high-serum concentration of lycopene is associated with significant
reductions in the risk of stroke (26%), mortality (37%) and cardiovascular diseases (14%)
(Cheng et al., 2017). This is particularly helpful in countries like the Philippines were in
cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes are among the
top killers in the country, causing more than half of the country’s death yearly (Diza,
2015).

According also to Organic Facts, the health benefits of tomatoes


can be attributed to their wealth of nutrients and vitamins. They have dietary fiber and
protein, as well as a number of organic compounds like lycopene that contribute to their
health benefits. The lycopene in tomatoes prevents serum lipid oxidation, thus exerting a
protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. A regular consumption of tomatoes has
been proven to decrease the levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.
These lipids are the key culprits in cardiovascular diseases and lead to the deposition of
fats in the blood vessels. A single tomato can provide about 40% of the daily vitamin C
requirement. Vitamin C is a natural antioxidant which prevents against cancer-causing
free radicals from damaging the body’s systems. It also contains abundant vitamin A and
potassium, as well as iron. Potassium plays a vital role in maintaining nerve health and
iron is essential for maintaining normal blood circulation. Vitamin K, which is essential
in blood clotting and controlling bleeding, is also abundant in tomatoes. The coumaric
acid and chlorogenic acid, in tomatoes, fight against nitrosamines, which are the main
carcinogens found in cigarettes. The presence of vitamin A in high quantities has been
shown to reduce the effects of carcinogens and can protect you against lung cancer
(“Impressive Tomatoes Benefits,” 2017).

The high yield and consumption of tomato worldwide is coupled with high
percentage losses due to the fruits perishability. As mentioned by Etebu et al. (2013),
postharvest decay of tomatoes result in substantial economic loss around the world with a
global economic loss of 30-40% and even higher in third world countries. The
perishability of tomato is mainly due to mishandling and high amount of moisture
naturally present in almost all fruits, including tomato. The water content of tomatoes is
around 95% (Figure 1.1). The other 5% consist mainly carbohydrates and fiber. One
medium sized tomato (123 grams) contains only 22 calories (Bjarnadottir, 2015).
Strenuous research has been going worldwide in order to find methods and treatments to
solve the problem about the perishability of tomatoes. Various methods like precooling,
blanching, cleaning and disinfecting, sorting and grading, packaging, and storing were
introduced to delay postharvest ripening and decay (Arah et al., 2016). Even though most
of these methods were proven effective, they were also proven, to some extent, harmful
to the products quality and can be very difficult to follow.

On the other hand, osmotic dehydration is also one of those methods


developed to delay postharvest ripening. A simple yet effective method involving the
process of water removal from lower concentration of solute through higher
concentration through semi permeable membrane that results in the equilibrium condition
in both sides of the membrane (Yadav and Singh, 2012). Salt is one of those effective
osmotic agent (Charvan and Amarowicz, 2012). As described by PubChem, salt or
sodium chloride is a white crystalline substance which usually contains chlorides of
calcium and magnesium which absorbs moisture (“Percentage concentration,” 2017)

Sodium chloride or table salt is the main ingredient used in the


preservation of meats. Salting meat draws water out and tying up the water within,
making it unavailable for chemical reactions that cause decay. High concentrations of salt
also interfere with the replication of microorganisms such as bacteria. Salt curing
frequently uses salts containing nitrates. Nitrates act as antioxidants in preserved foods,
preventing decay and spoilage through oxidation and free radical generation. However,
high consumption of preserved foods containing nitrates may be linked to a higher risk of
cancer. At lower water content, bacterial, fungal and mold growth is inhibited and the
enzymatic and non-enzymatic decay of food is slowed (Daniels, 2017).

According to Moncel (2017), when salt is mixed with water it is called a


brine. Brining is soaking food in this heavily salted water and is used to preserve and
flavor the food (pickling is a form of brining).

Helmenstine (2017) stated that salt draws water out of cells via the process
of osmosis. Essentially, water moves across a cell membrane to try to equalize the
salinity or concentration of salt on both sides of the membrane. If you add enough salt,
too much water will be removed from a cell for it to stay alive or reproduce. Organisms
that decay food and cause disease are killed by a high concentration of salt. A
concentration of 20% salt will kill bacteria. Lower concentrations inhibit microbial
growth, until you get down to the salinity of the cells, which may have the opposite and
undesirable effect of providing ideal growing conditions.

In a review on the osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables, Yadav


and Singh (2012) stated that the main cause of perishability of fruits and vegetables are
their high water content. To increase the shelf life of these fruits and vegetables many
methods or combination of methods had been tried. Osmotic dehydration is one of the
best and suitable method to increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. This process is
preferred over others due to their vitamin and minerals, color, flavor and taste retention
property. In this review different methods, treatments, optimization and effects of
osmotic dehydration have been reviewed. Studied showed that combination of different
osmotic agents were more effective than sucrose alone due to combination of properties
of solutes. During the experiments it was found that optimum osmosis was found at
approximately 40 °C, 40 °B of osmotic agent and in near about 132 min. Pretreatments
also leads to increase the osmotic process in fruits and vegetables. Mass transfer kinetics
study is an important parameter to study osmosis.

A review made by Khan (2012) on the osmotic dehydration technique for


fruit preservation stated that water loss from vegetables and fruits took place in the first
two hours and maximum salt gain within 30 minutes. Temperature and concentration of
osmotic agent increased the rate of water loss during osmotic dehydration.

In a study conducted by Chavan and Amarowicz (2012), it is stated that


osmotic dehydration has received greater attention in recent years as an effective method
for preservation of fruits and vegetables. Being a simple process, it facilitates processing
of fruits and vegetables such as banana, sapota, fig, guava, pineapple, apple mango,
grapes, carrots, pumpkins, etc. with retention of initial fruit characteristics viz., colour,
aroma, texture and nutritional composition. It is less energy intensive than air or vacuum
drying process because it can be conducted at low or ambient temperature. It has
potential advantages for the processing industry to maintain the food quality and to
preserve the wholesomeness of the food. It involves dehydration of fruit slices in two
stages, removal of water using as an osmotic agent and subsequent dehydration in a dryer
where moisture content is further reduced to make the product shelf stable.

In their study, Ramya and Jain (2016) explained that Osmotic dehydration
is a simultaneous mass transfer process which mainly promotes the flow of water
molecules from the food to osmo-active solution and some migration of solutes from the
solution into the food, thus maintaining good organoleptic and functional properties in
the finished product. They presented the mechanism of osmotic dehydration and factors
affecting the process, such as temperature of osmotic solution, concentration of osmotic
agent, type of osmotic agent, agitation/stirring process during osmotic process, osmotic
solution and food mass ratio. The benefits of osmotic dehydration which includes energy
saving methods and quality of final product were also reviewed.
Both the related literatures and studies presented in this study have
differences and similarities between one another. For instance, both differs in the sense
that the related literatures mainly focus on past and already known knowledge about
tomatoes while the related studies show recently discovered or improved methods and
ideas to delay postharvest ripening of fruits and vegetables. In contrast, the two are
similar in the fact that both present information regarding the benefits brought by the use
or consumption of tomatoes.

With regards to the differences and similarities between the current


researcher’s study and the previous researches presented, the current study uses osmotic
dehydration using brine solution as treatment to induce an effect to different fruits and
vegetable samples, much like other previous researches. The difference comes from the
fact that the current study focuses mainly on investigating the effects of different salt
concentrations of salt in brine solution (osmotic agent) on the postharvest ripening of
fresh and untreated tomatoes.

Finally, the studies and literatures mentioned above has provided great
help to the researchers in understanding more about their own study and finding answers
that would satisfy their curiosity on the water dehydrating property of salt solution
(brine), as well as its effect on the postharvest ripening of tomatoes.
Statement of the Problem

The main objective of this study is to determine whether there will be an


effect in the postharvest ripening of tomato if the concentration of salt in brine solution is
varried. This study will be conducted at Compostela Science and Technology High
School. The observation will approximately take 1 to 2 weeks.

This study aims to answer the following questions:

1) What is the shelf life of harvested tomatoes in the control set-up and
tomatoes soaked in brine solution with 10% NaCl concentration (100 grams of salt and
900 grams of water), 25% NaCl concentration (250 grams of salt and 750 grams of water)
and 50% NaCl conentration (500 grams of salt and 500 grams of water)?

2) Is there a significant difference between the control and experimental


set-ups (B1, B2 and B3) with differerent salt concentrations of brine solution based on the
ripening stages and shelf life of tomato?

Statement of Null Hypothesis

H0:There is no significant difference between the effects of different salt concentrations


in brine solution on the postharvest ripening of tomato.
Significance of the Study

The study about the effect of osmotic dehydration of brine solution


varying in salt concentration to the postharvest ripening of tomatoes can become a source
of information for people who deals with the consumption and/or production of tomatoes.
These following benefactors may use the information from this research to avoid
unnecessary circumstances where in it involves the spoilage and wasting of tomato
resources.

Farmers. The result will give insight to the farmers wishing to cultivate
and produce tomatoes. At the end of this study, the farmers will be able to know how
osmotic dehydration affect the postharvest ripening of tomatoes.

Entrepreneurs. Large scale producers of tomatoes face the same problem


of postharvest losses due to high perishability of the fruit. At the end of this study,
entrepreneurs will be able to know how brine solution affect the untimely spoiling of
tomatoes they will also know what factor/s are affecting the duration of the tomatoes'
shelf life.

Consumers. After the study, households will be able to know how to


properly store and/or preserve tomatoes for a satisfactory consumption.

Other researchers. This study will be helpful to other researchers who wish
to venture in related studies or wish to continue this research.
Scope and Limitations

This study focuses on the effect of different concentrations of pure table


salt in brine solution on the postharvest of tomato. The whole study stared on November
2017 and will last until March 2018.

The duration of the research experimentation will last approximately 1 to


2 weeks, relative to the postharvest ripening of tomato at normal room temperature.

During the experimentation, the researchers opted to exclude other


proven-effective alternative ways in preserving tomato as basis for the effectiveness of
the table salt in brine solution.

The experiment will be conducted in a normal and well-ventilated


classroom with the set-ups exposed to normal room temperature. Common food
containers are to be used to separate the samples.
DEFINITION OF TERMS

ANOVA – Analysis of variance, a statistical method used to determine the differences


between the control set-up and the set-ups with 10%, 25% and 50% salt
concentration in brine solution based on the ripening stages of tomatoes.

Brine solution – Water saturated or strongly impregnated with salt; used as an osmotic
agent for tomato preservation.

Drying – The process of removing excess water in the tomatoes soaked in the brine
solution through direct contact to air.

Effect – The expected result of soaking the tomatoes in the brine solutions with different
salt concentrations for a given amount of time.

Postharvest ripening – Physiological and physical changes that occur in the tomatoes
after harvesting.

Salt concentration – The percentage ratio (by mass) of salt in the brine solution.

Shelf life – The length of time for which the tomatoes remain usable, fit for consumption
or saleable.

Chapter 2
RESEARCH METHODS

Research Design

In this study, the researchers used the true experimental research design.
This type of research design is generally associated with true experiments in which it
introduces conditions that directly affect the variations. In its simplest form, the true
experimental research design aims to predict the outcome (dependent) by inducing a
change of the preconditions, which is reflected in a variable called the predictor
(independent). The researchers prepared 1 control and 3 experimental set-ups. The
control set up (set-up A) received no intervention for the whole duration of the
experimentation while the experimental set-ups (set-ups B 1, B2, B3) were soaked in brine
solution with 10%, 25%, 50% salt concentration, respectively, each with 5 tomato
replicates.

For this study, thorough experimentation was performed in order to


answer the following problem: whether the varying concentrations of table salt in brine
solution will have an effect on the postharvest ripening of tomato. The researchers
expected that the higher the concentration of salt in the brine solution the slower the
postharvest ripening of the tomato.

In the experimentation, identical food containers, brine solution with


different salt concentration and tomato samples were utilized. The researchers assigned
five tomatoes in every set-up experiment. There were 4 set-ups, one control set-up and
three experimental set-ups that were made to attain reliability and accuracy of data
collected.

For the whole duration of the experimentation, observations were recorded


quantitatively and was subjected to one-way ANOVA statistical treatment. Thereafter,
the results and conclusion were generated.
RESEARCH PROBLEM HYPOTHESIS

Will different H0: There is no significant difference


concentrations of salt in between the effects of different salt
brine solution have an concentrations in brine solution to the
effect on the postharvest postharvest ripening of tomato.
ripening of tomato?

RESEARCH EXPERIMENT NEEDED MATERIALS

A control set-up and three The researchers used food containers, brine
experimental set-ups were solution with different salt concentrations and
made to attain data reliability 20 tomato replicates for one control set-up
and accuracy. and three experimental set-ups.

DATA COLLECTION AND


ANALYSIS
RESULTS AND
Observations were recorded CONCLUSIONS
DISCUSSION
quantitatively to be used for
statistical analysis and generation
of results and conclusion.
Figure 2.1 Research Process
Sampling

The researchers collected twenty mature green tomato samples. These


tomatoes were stored until all of them underwent breaker stage (Figure 1.2), wherein they
were physiologically mature enough to continue ripening off the vine, before starting the
experiment. After, the tomatoes were divided equally and assigned to four different set
ups (one control set up and three experimental set-ups). Each set up received five tomato
replicates. The tomato replicates in each set up were weighed—more or less 226.5 grams
— first to ensure mass proportionality of the different variants during the
experimentation.
Data Collection Procedure

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of different


concentrations of salt in brine solution to the postharvest ripening of tomato. To
determine whether there will be an effect in the postharvest ripening of tomatoes soaked
in brine solution with varying amount of concentration of salt, the researchers have
conducted an experiment.

The researchers conducted 20 tomato samples. Specifically, the tomato


samples used in the experiment were those in their color break stage (from green to
tannish-yellow, pink or red) (Cantwell, 2013).

After collecting 20 tomatoes, the researchers prepared the brine solution


used in the experimentation.

For set-up B1, 100 grams of salt was added with 900 mL of water to attain
10% NaCl concentration (by mass). Next, for set-up B2, 250 grams of salt was added
with 750 mL of water to attain 25% NaCl concentration. Then, for set-up B3, 500 grams
of salt was added with 500 mL of water to attain 50% NaCl concentration.

The solutions were stirred until all were fully saturated.

Figure 2.2. Preparation of brine solution


Figure 2.3. Brine solution

100 grams of NaCl


Set-up B1: × 100=10 % NaCl concentration
1000 grams of Brine solution

250 grams of NaCl


Set-up B2: × 100=25 % NaCl concentartion
1000 grams of Brine solution

500 grams of NaCl


Set-up B3: × 100=50 % NaCl concentration
1000 grams of Brine Solution

The water temperature for the three set-ups (with brine solution) was also
measured to be at 33°C. Thereafter, the experimentation proper took place.

Figure 2.4. Measuring temperature of water to be used in the brine solution

The 20 tomatoes were distributed to 4 set-ups so that each set-ups have 5


tomatoes. The tomatoes within each set-ups were weighed and were identified to be more
or less 226. 5 grams.
Figure 2.5. Weighing the tomatoes in each set-ups

The set-ups were divided into 2 groups: the control set-up and the
experimental set-ups.

The control set-up was composed of 5 tomatoes without contact to the


brine solution.

The experimental set-up (B) has 3 sub set-ups. The first experimental set-
up (B1) was composed of 5 tomatoes soaked in brine solution (salt and water) with 10%
concentration. The second experimental set-up (B2) was composed of 5 tomatoes soaked
in brine solution with 25% salt concentration. And the third experimental set-up (B 3) was
composed of 5 tomatoes soaked in brine solution with 50% salt concentration.

The three experimental set-ups were soaked in brine solution for 2 hours,
after which the tomatoes underwent drying process. All the set-ups including the control
set-up were placed in the same room, at normal room temperature.
Observation and checking for the group with fully ripe tomatoes took
place afterwards.

The researchers took pictures and checked the set-ups once a day for 2
weeks.

Data Analysis
This study is a Quantitative Experimental Research. Observation was the
main method in collecting and analyzing the data. The researchers moved from the raw
data that was collected as part of the research study and used it to provide explanations,
understanding and interpretation of the effects the different concentration. The main goal
of the researchers was to examine the meaningful content that will be found within.

In analyzing data from the quantitative research study, the researchers


examined, categorized, tabulated and recombined the evidences that was obtained from
the research, in discovering any important underlying patterns.

Furthermore, the researchers evaluated which set-up was the most efficient
in slowing down the postharvest ripening of tomato. Thus the time duration was
measured for each set-up to achieve fully ripened tomatoes. In determining whether there
are significant differences between the set-ups, the researchers used one-way ANOVA.
After which the researchers interpreted the results of the test.

Ethical Issues
Throughout the research, ethical measures were considered to adhere to the
research etiquettes.

Environment Friendly

The researchers only utilized measured amounts of the abundant resources


to prevent the scarcity and insufficiency of products. Furthermore, the substances used
for the experiment were all natural therefore there were no harmful side effects.

Honesty in Presenting the Results

In achieving legitimate results, the researchers maintained truthfulness


throughout the entirety of the data gathering and analysis.

Acknowledgement of Other Works

Upon doing the research, different resources were utilized by the


researchers to further strengthen the study. Thus, proper and polite acknowledgement of
the different resources were also observed and practiced by the researchers.

Ownership of the Authors

The researchers claim full ownership of the research therefore other


researchers who wish to continue and/or include this study should seek permission from
the authors.

Chapter 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results and Discussion

Based on the raw data gathered after the observations (Table 2.1), the
tomatoes in the control set-up (without contact to brine solution) lasted the longest
compared to the other remaining tomatoes soaked in brine solution. The table below
shows the maximum number of days before at least one of the tomatoes in each set-up
was spoiled.

Table 3.1. Tomato Shelf life

SHELF LIFE
SET-UPS (Maximum number of days before at least one of the
tomatoes was spoiled)
Control Set-up (A) 14
Set-up B1 (10% NaCl) 7
Set-up B2 (25% NaCl) 4
Set-up B3 (50% NaCl) 3

For set-up A (control set-up), the tomatoes lasted until the 8 th observation
(14th day) with 3 out of 5 tomatoes still on their “light red stage.” For set-up B 1, the
tomatoes endured until the 6th observation (7th day). On the 7th observation, 3 out of 5
tomatoes in the set-up were already spoiled with the remaining two already on their “full
red stage.” For tomatoes in set-up B2, all endured until the 5th observation (5th day) before
1 of the 5 tomatoes inside it spoiled. The shortest shelf life was recorded in set-up B 3, as
1 out of 5 tomatoes only lasted until the 3 rd observation (3rd day) before spoiling on the
next observation.

Table 3.2. Data collected after 8 days of observation


OBSERVAT CONTROL SET- SET-UP B1 (10% SET-UP B2 (25% SET-UP B3 (50%
IONS UP NaCl Concentration) NaCl Concentration) NaCl Concentration)
SAMPLES SAMPLES SAMPLES SAMPLES
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
1 2 3 4 5 ∑ 6 7 8 9
0 ∑ 1 2 3 4 5 ∑ 6 7 8 9 0 ∑
1 1 2 2 3 1 9 2 1 2 1 1 7 1 1 2 2 2 8 2 1 1 2 2 8
1 1 1 1
2 1 3 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3
1 1 1 1
3 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 2 3 3 4
1 1 1 2
4 2 4 4 4 3 7 4 3 4 2 3 6 4 4 3 4 3 8 4 X 4 4 4 2
1 1 2 3
5 3 4 4 4 4 9 5 3 4 2 4 8 4 X 4 5 X 5 X X X X X 0
2 2 2 3
6 4 5 4 4 4 1 5 3 4 3 5 0 5 X 5 X X 8 X X X X X 0
2 2 3 3
7 5 5 4 4 4 2 X X 5 X 5 8 X X X X X 0 X X X X X 0
2 3 3 3
8 5 5 4 4 4 2 X X X X X 0 X X X X X 0 X X X X X 0

USDA SCALE FOR STAGES OF TOMATO RIPENING (Figure 1.2):


1=Breaker Stage, 2=Turning, 3=Pink, 4=Light Red, 5=Full Red
Addendum: X=Spoiled

Table 3.3. First observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 (10% SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL
NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
SET-UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)

Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample


Tomato 1=1 6=2 11=1 16=2
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
on the 2=2 7=1 12=1 17=1
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample 1Tomato
Scale on 3=2 8=2 13=2 sample 18=1
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Stages of 4=3 9=1 14=2 19=2
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
5=1 10=1 15=2 20=2

On the first observation, tomato samples 1 and 5 in the control set-up were
still in their breaker stage, tomato samples 2 and 3 were already in their turning stage and
tomato sample 4 was at its pink stage. For set-up B 1, tomato samples 7, 9 and 10 were
still in their breaker stage while tomato samples 6 and 8 were already in their turning
stage. For set-up B2, tomatoes 11 and 12 were still in their breaker stage, while tomato
samples 13, 14 and 15 were already in their turning stage. For set-up B 3, tomato samples
17 and 18 were still in their breaker stage while tomato samples 16, 19 and 20 were
already in their turning stage.

Table 3.4. Second observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 (10% SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL
NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
SET-UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)

Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample


Tomato 1=1 6=4 11=2 16=3
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
on the 2=3 7=2 12=2 17=2
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Scale on 3=3 8=3 13=2 18=2
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Stages of 4=4 9=1 14=3 19=3
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
5=2 10=1 15=3 20=3

On the second observation, tomato sample 1, in the control set-up, was


still in its breaker stage, tomato sample 5 was already in its turning stage, tomato samples
2 and 3 were already in their pink stage, and tomato sample 4 was already in its light red
stage. For set-up B1, tomato samples 9 and 10 were still in their breaker stage, tomato
sample 7 as already in its turning stage, tomato sample 8 was already in its pink stage and
tomato sample 6 was already in its light red stage. For set-up B 2, tomatoes 11, 12 and 13
were already in their turning stage, while tomato samples 14 and 15 were already in their
pink stage. For set-up B3, tomato samples 17 and 18 were already in their turning stage
while tomato samples 16, 19 and 20 were already in their pink stage.

Table 3.5. Third observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 (10% SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL
NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
SET-UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)

Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample


Tomato 1=2 6=4 11=3 16=3
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
on the 2=3 7=3 12=3 17=3
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Scale on 3=3 8=3 13=3 18=2
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Stages of 4=4 9=1 14=3 19=3
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
5=2 10=2 15=3 20=3

On the third observation, tomato samples 1 and 5 in the control set-up


were already in their turning stage, tomato samples 2 and 3 were already in their pink
stage and tomato sample 4 was already in its light red stage. For set-up B 1, tomato sample
9 was still in its breaker stage, tomato samples 10 was already in its turning stage, tomato
samples 7 and 8 were already in their pink stage and tomato sample 6 was still in its light
red stage. For set-up B2, all tomato samples (11, 12, 13, 14 and 15) were already in their
pink stage. For set-up B3, tomato sample 18 was still in its breaker stage while tomato
samples 16, 17, 19 and 20 were already in their pink stage.

Table 3.6. Fourth observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 (10% SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL
NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
SET-UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)

Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample


Tomato 1=2 6=4 11=4 16=4
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
on the 2=4 7=3 12=4 17=X
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Scale on 3=4 8=4 13=3 18=4
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Stages of 4=4 9=2 14=4 19=4
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
5=3 10=3 15=3 20=4

On the fourth observation, tomato samples 1, in the control set-up, was


still in its turning stage, tomato samples 5 was already in its pink stage and tomato
samples 2, 3 and 4 were already in their light red stage. For set-up B 1, Tomato samples 9
was already in its turning stage while tomato samples 7 and 10 were already in their pink
stage and tomato samples 6 and 8 were already in their light red stage. For set-up B 2,
tomatoes 13 and 15 were still in their pink stage, while tomato samples 11, 12 and 14
were already at their light red stage. For set-up B 3, tomato samples 16, 18, 19 and 20
were already at their light red stage while tomato sample 17 was already spoiled before
turning to its light red stage.

Table 3.7. Fifth observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 (10% SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL
NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
SET-UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)

Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample


Tomato 1=3 6=5 11=4 16=X
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
on the 2=4 7=3 12=X 17=X
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Scale on 3=4 8=4 13=4 18=X
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Stages of 4=4 9=2 14=5 19=X
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
5=4 10=4 15=X 20=X

On the fifth observation, tomato sample 1, in the control set-up, was


already in its pink stage, while the remaining tomato samples 2, 3, 4 and 5 were already
in their light red stage. For set-up B1, tomato samples 9 was still in its turning stage,
tomato sample 7 was still at its pink stage, tomato samples 8 and 10 were already at their
light red stage and tomato sample 6 was already in its full red stage. For set-up B 2,
tomatoes 11 and 13 were already at their light red stage, tomato sample 14 was already in
its full red stage and tomato samples 12 and 15 were already spoiled before entering full
red and light red stage, respectively. For set-up B 3, all remaining tomato samples 16, 17,
18, 19 and 20 were already spoiled.

Table 3.8. Sixth observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 (10% SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL
NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
SET-UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)

Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample


Tomato 1=4 6=5 11=5 16=X
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
on the 2=5 7=3 12=X 17=X
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Scale on 3=4 8=4 13=5 18=X
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
Stages of 4=4 9=3 14=X 19=X
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato sample
5=4 10=5 15=X 20=X

On the sixth observation, tomato sample 1, 3, 4 and 5, in the control set-


up, were already in their light red stage, while the remaining tomato samples 2, 3, 4 and 5
were already in their light red stage, while tomato sample 2 was already in its full red
stage. For set-up B1, tomato samples 7 and 9 were already in their pink stage, tomato
sample 6 and 10 were already in their in their full red stage, tomato sample 8 was still in
its light red stage. For set-up B2, tomato samples 11 and 13 were already in their full red
stage, while tomato samples 12, 14, and 15 were already spoiled. For set-up B3, all the
tomato samples 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 were already spoiled.

Table 3.9. Seventh observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL SET-
(10% NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)

Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato


Tomato 1=5 6=X sample 11=X sample 16=X
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
on the 2=5 7=X sample 12=X sample 17=X
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
Scale on 3=4 8=5 sample 13=X sample 18=X
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
Stages of 4=4 9=X sample 14=X sample 19=X
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
5=4 10=5 sample 15=X sample 20=X

On the seventh observation, tomato sample 3, 4 and 5, in the control set-


up, were still in their light red stage, while the remaining tomato samples 1 and 2 were
already in their full red stage. For set-up B 1, tomato samples 8 and 10 were already in
their full red stage, while the remaining tomato samples 6, 7 and 9 were already spoiled.
For set-up B2 and B3, all tomato samples were already spoiled.

Table 3.10. Eighth observation. Tomatoes in each set-up are arranged from top to bottom and then left to right
SET-UP B1 SET-UP B2 SET-UP B3
CONTROL SET-
(10% NaCl (25% NaCl (50% NaCl
UP
Concentration) Concentration) Concentration)
Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
Tomato 1=5 6=X sample 11=X sample 16=X
rating based Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
on the 2=5 7=X sample 12=X sample 17=X
USDA Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
Scale on 3=4 8=X sample 13=X sample 18=X
Ripening Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
Stages of 4=4 9=X sample 14=X sample 19=X
Tomatoes. Tomato sample Tomato sample Tomato Tomato
5=4 10=X sample 15=X sample 20=X

On the eighth and final observation, tomato sample 3, 4 and 5, in


the control set-up, were still in their light red stage, while the remaining tomato samples 1
and 2 were already in their full red stage. The rest of the tomatoes inside the three
remaining set-ups were already spoiled.

Throughout the whole course of the observation and before tomato


spoilage, the researchers noticed differences in the rate of color change between the
tomatoes in the different set-ups. It was observed that slower rate of color change
occurred for the tomatoes soaked in the brine solution than on the tomatoes in the control
set-up and that all spoiled tomatoes, afterwards, did not complete all the ripening stages
for tomatoes as stated by the USDA scale (Figure 1.2) before spoiling. One tomato (T 17),
for instance, in set-up B3, was still on its “pink stage” before spoiling. It was also
observed that there was a rapid decline on the firmness of the tomatoes as the percentage
salt concentration of brine solution increases.

This occurrences may be due to too much dehydration brought about by


the brine solution to the cell walls of the tomatoes. In a study conducted by Paniagua et.
al (2013) on the relationship between water loss and firmness change during postharvest
storage of blueberry, it was stated that blueberry moisture loss (measured in weight loss)
has coincided with decreased fruit firmness, which may subsequently result to hastened
and abnormal fruit spoilage. Furthermore, low levels of moisture loss contribute to
blueberry firming rather than softening.

Similarly, according to Cantwell (2013), water loss directly leads to loss


of fresh appearance (gloss, shrivel, pitting, and sunken areas), loss of texture, and
turgidity. In addition, water loss during initial phase of ripening affects rates of ripening.
Shelf life of “Hass” avocados induced with higher percentage of water loss decreased
significantly.

In another report made by Ahmad and Siddiqui (2015), 40-50% of


horticulture crops produced in developing countries are lost before they can be
consumed, mainly because of high rates of bruising, water loss and subsequent decay
during postharvest handling.

Postharvest spoilage may also be hastened because of the fact that in the
current study, the tomatoes were soaked in the brine solution for 2 hours, the time needed
to attain maximum rate of water loss. Rapid tomato spoilage may also be caused by the
high percentage concentration of salt in the brine solution since too much concentration
of osmotic agent results to increased rate of dehydration or water loss (Khan, 2012).

The relationship between moisture content of fruits and fruit coloration


has been studied by previous researchers. According to a study conducted by Haggag et.
al (2013) on the changes in fruit weight, dry matter, moisture content and oil percentage
during fruit development stages of two olive cultivars, fruit moisture content showed a
steady increase in value towards the ripening stages. This means that high moisture lost
may cause slow down or even inhibition of normal ripening of fruits.
Moreover, Yadav and Singh (2014) stated that osmotic dehydration
preceding air drying decreases color changes and increases flavor in fruits and
vegetables.

Table 3.11.Total Data collected for 8 days of observation base on ripening/color stages

Set-up B1 (10% Set-up B2 (25% Set-up B3 (50%


Control Set-up (A)
NaCl) NaCl) NaCl)
9 7 8 8
15 11 12 13
14 13 15 14
17 16 18 22
19 18 25 30
21 20 28 30
22 28 30 30
22 30 30 30

The table above shows the sums of all data gathered after 8 days of
observation. These data were statistically analyzed and revealed that there is no
significant difference between the effects of different concentration of salt in brine
solution on the postharvest ripening of tomatoes, confirming the null hypothesis.

Chapter 4
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

After days of experimentations, various changes were seen on the tomato.


Tomatoes with no contact to brine solution lasted longer than tomatoes that were soaked
in brine solution.

The set-up with least concentration of salt solution only has a shelf life of
7 days than without contact to brine solution with more than 14 days.

Osmotic dehydration has been proven effective way of slowing down


postharvest ripening of fruits and vegetables, but the concentration of salt in brine
solution should be lesser than 10%. The soaking time of tomatoes in brine solution
should also be lesser than 2 hours, since it is the time that attains the maximum rate of
water loss.

Results revealed that the greater salt concentration in brine solution, the
greater the rate of tomato dehydration, that will lead to earlier and rapid tomato spoilage.

Statistically, the null hypothesis was accepted and that there was no
significant difference between the effect of different concentrations of salt in brine
solution on the postharvest ripening of tomatoes.
Recommendations
In congruence to the results and conclusion, the researchers noted possible
alterations and improvements of the study. These would serve as guide for other
researchers, should they wish to continue the study and examine it further in the future.

The researchers suggest decreasing the salt concentration of the brine


solution in all the set-ups. It is also recommended decreasing the soaking time of the
tomatoes in the brine solution. Moreover, other factors affecting postharvest ripening of
tomatoes like firmness, water loss, ethylene production, and shriveling are also suggested
to be examined and measured to attain more reliable and accurate data on the effects of
the brine solution to the postharvest ripening of tomatoes. The current fact finders,
likewise, suggest to study the effect of the temperature of the brine solution and how may
it alter the ripening process of tomatoes.

The researchers propose combining other osmotic agents—such as sucrose


—to the brine solution and see if it will significantly affect and modify the data collected
in the current study. Similarly, if the methods are already changed as suggested by the
present researchers and if by any chance these changes will lead to positive effects on the
postharvest ripening of tomatoes, it is suggested that it would be better to compare it to
other alternative methods of fruit preservation.

The next researchers are also encouraged to try using other type of fruit as
subject for experimentation.

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Paniagua, A., East, A., Hindmarsh, J., & Heyes, J. (2013). Moisture loss is the major
cause of firmness change during postharvest storage of blueberry. Postharvest
Biology and Technology,79, 13-19. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.12.016

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Ramya, V., & Jain, N. K. (2016). A Review on Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits and
Vegetables: An Integrated Approach [Abstract]. Journal of Food Process
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Yadav, A., & Singh, S. (2014). Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables: A Review
[Abstract]. Retrieved from
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APPENDICES

Appendix A

Figure 1.1 “Nutrition Facts: Tomato-100 grams”


From A., Bjarnadottir. (2015). Tomatoes 101: Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits.
Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods/tomatoes

Annex B

Figure 1.2 “Maturity and Ripening Stages of Tomato”


From Cantwell, M. (2013, March 18-19). Ripening tomatoes. Retrieved from
http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/datastore/234-2498.pdf

Annex C

One-way ANOVA Result


Sources of Degree of Sum of Mean
Variation Freedom Squares Squares F-Value
(df) (SS) (MS)
Computed Tabulated
Between
3 124.84375 41.61458333
Groups 2.95
Within 0.680960382
28 1711.125 61.11160714
Group
Total 31 1835.96875
Table 3.2. ANOVA Summary

CONCLUSION: Since the F-computed value of 0.68 is lesser than the F-tabular value of
2.95 at 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is confirmed. This means that there
is no significant difference between the effect of different salt concentration of salt in
brine solution on the postharvest ripening of tomatoes.

Annex D

Photo Documentation
The researchers as they prepare for the study’s observation, assisted by Ms. Doreen
Fevag, Research Adviser

The researchers while gathering data by observing the color change of each tomatoes
CURRICULUM VITAE
JUDE ANDREI CAPUYAN BATUCAN
judeandrei10@gmail.com

I. PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Residential Address: Bonifacio Extension, Danao City, Cebu Age: 18


Date of Birth: October 29, 1999 Civil Status: Single
Place of Birth: Cebu City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Name of Father: Marito Batulan Batucan Occupation: None
Name of Mother: Susan Capuyan Batucan Occupation: Teacher

II. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Present Senior High School–Science, Technology,


Engineering, and Mathematics Track
Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2016 Completed Junior High School


Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2012 Graduated Elementary Education


Northeastern Cebu Colleges-Learning Center, Inc.
P.G. Almendras St., Danao City, Cebu

III. WORK EXPERIENCES


2017 – PRESENT Photo-Journalist of Campus Stellae Publication (Filipino Department)

2017 Videographer & Video Editor — Mega Cebu Video-Making Contest


(1st Runner Up)

Video-Graphics Editor of Pundok sa Maabi-abihong Compostelanhon in


Queseo Festival 2017 (Grand Champion)

Videographer & Video Editor — CSTHS Through the Years (school


video-documentary project)

2016 Video-Graphics Editor of Pundok Manindahay in Queseo Festival 2016


(Grand Champion)

IV. SEMINARS/TRAININGS CONFERENCES

May 27, 2017 Henry’s Camera Shop — Cebu in Focus 2


Ayala Center, Cebu

April 28 – May 2, 2014 Computer Workshop on PC Assembly with Configuration and


Networking
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

April 22-26, 2013 Computer Workshop on Photo Editing


Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

April 23-27, 2012 Basic Computer Operations Training


Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

V. SPECIAL SKILLS/TALENTS

 Fluent in speaking Sinugbuanong Bisaya, Filipino, & English


 Computer literate
 Proficient in Microsoft Word, Excel, Powerpoint, & Publisher
 Proficient in Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Lightroom & Adobe Premiere
 Flexible in handling duties and responsibilities
ANNE RICHIE MANDALUNES CAPUA
arcapua@gmail.com

I. PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Residential Address: Dapdap, Compostela, Cebu Age: 18


Date of Birth: June 16, 1999 Civil Status: Single
Place of Birth: Danao City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Name of Father: Occupation:
Name of Mother: Mary Jean M. Capua Occupation: Teacher

II. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Present Senior High School–Science, Technology,


Engineering, and Mathematics Track
Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2016 Completed Junior High School


Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2012 Graduated Elementary Education


Dapdap Elementary School
Dapdap, Compostela, Cebu
III. WORK EXPERIENCES

June 2017 – PRESENT Supreme Student Government (SSG) P.I.O


Compostela Science and Technology High School

June 2015 – March2016 Performing Arts Club, Vice President


Compostela Science and Technology High School

June 2014 – March 2015 Solid Waste Management, (SWM) Representative


Compostela Science and Technology High School

IV. SEMINARS/TRAININGS CONFERENCES

March 2016 Foreign Language Class (Mandarin)


Compostela, Cebu

October 2015 Division Science Fair


Consolacion, Cebu

April 2013 Dance Workshop


Compostela, Cebu

V. SPECIAL SKILLS/TALENTS

Has knowledge on how to interact with variations of people, student-writer, and


academic achiever, technologically literate and able to speak in English, Filipino, and
Sinugbuanong Bisaya.
PATRICK JAMES TAPALES BERTULFO
patrickjamesbertulfo@gmail.com

I. PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Residential Address: Purok Bakhaw, Sulima, Cot-cot, Liloan, Cebu Age: 18


Date of Birth: December 14, 1999 Civil Status: Single
Place of Birth: Cebu City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Name of Father: Alberto B. Bertulfo Occupation: None
Name of Mother: Lucia T. Bertulfo Occupation: None

II. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Present Senior High School–Science, Technology,


Engineering, and Mathematics Track
Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2016 Completed Junior High School


Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2012 Graduated Elementary Education


Liloan Central School
Liloan, Cebu
III. WORK EXPERIENCES

2016-2017 School Paper Publication Contributor

Schools Press Conference

IV. SEMINARS/TRAININGS CONFERENCES

2016 DRR-CCA Youth Seminar


Golden Prince Hotel, Cebu City

Area Level Schools Press Conference


(Science Writing Lecture)

YCT Level 2 Passer

2015 YCT Level 1 Passer

V. SPECIAL SKILLS/TALENTS

 Science Writing
 Knowledgeable in Science-related topics and subjects
 Computer literate and well-versed in Microsoft Office (Word, Powerpoint and Excel)
SHENITH LAIRE LUMANTAO CANAPI
laireshenith@gmail.com

I. PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Residential Address: Tabok, Maslog, Danao City, Cebu Age: 17


Date of Birth: March 19, 2000 Civil Status: Single
Place of Birth: Maslog, Danao City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Name of Father: Christopher Canapi Occupation: Vendor
Name of Mother: Renilda Canapi Occupation: None

II. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Present Senior High School–Science, Technology,


Engineering, and Mathematics Track
Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2016 Completed Junior High School


Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2012 Graduated Elementary Education


Maslog Elementary School
Maslog, Danao City, Cebu
III. WORK EXPERIENCES

Assists in family own small business


Tabok, Maslog, Danao City, Cebu

2017 Engineering Staff (Work Immersion)


Poblacion,Compostela, Cebu

IV. SEMINARS/TRAININGS CONFERENCES

2015 - 2016 YCT Level 2 Passer


Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2014 - 2015 YCT Level 1 Passer


Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

V. SPECIAL SKILLS/TALENTS

 Computer Literate
 Communication Skills (English, Mandarin, Korean)
ANGELICA ALBIAR CASTRO
acct.angelica13@gmail.com

I. PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Residential Address: Estaca, Compostela, Cebu Age: 18


Date of Birth: July 13, 1999 Civil Status: Single
Place of Birth: Compostela Cebu
Religion: Roman Catholic
Name of Father: Leo Benabaye Castro Occupation: Electrician
Name of Mother: Maribeth Albiar Castro Occupation: None

II. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Present Senior High School–Science, Technology,


Engineering, and Mathematics Track
Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2016 Completed Junior High School


Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2012 Graduated Elementary Education


Compostela Central School
Compostela, Cebu

III. WORK EXPERIENCES


June 2017 – PRESENT Supreme Student Government (SSG) Vice-President
Compostela Science and Technology High School

Campus Journalism Filipino Editor-in-Chief


Compostela Science and Technology High School

Science Club Vice-President


Compostela Science and Technology High School

IV. SEMINARS/TRAININGS CONFERENCES

November 2017 Division Level Schools Press Conference


Balamban, Cebu

April 2016 Seminar in Campus Journalism


Compostela, Cebu

March 2016 Foreign Language Class (Mandarin)


Compostela, Cebu

V. SPECIAL SKILLS/TALENTS

Has good leadership skills, knows how to interact with variations of people, student-
writer, academic achiever, math and science challenger, and able to speak in English,
Filipino, and Sinugbuanong Bisaya.
NEIL BONGCAS BROA
skbrader@gmail.com

I. PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Residential Address: Cogon, Compostela, Cebu Age: 19


Date of Birth: July 13, 1999 Civil Status: Single
Place of Birth: Compostela Cebu
Religion: Roman Catholic
Name of Father: Rodulfo Broa Occupation: Company
Supervisor
Name of Mother: Erma Broa Occupation: None

II. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Present Senior High School–Science, Technology,


Engineering, and Mathematics Track
Compostela Science and Technology High School
Cogon, Compostela, Cebu

2016 Completed Junior High School


University of the Visayas – Compostela Campus
Cabatingan, Poblacion, Compostela, Cebu

2012 Graduated Elementary Education


Compostela Central School
Compostela, Cebu

III. WORK EXPERIENCES


June 2015 – March 2016 Supreme Student Government (SSG) P.I.O
University of the Visayas Compostela Campus

June 2014 – March 2015 Sports Club, President


University of the Visayas Compostela Campus

IV. SEMINAR/TRAINING CONFERENCES

April 2015 Computer Software Servicing UVCC


Compostela, Cebu

October 2014 Seminar in Campus Journalism


Compostela, Cebu

V. SPECIAL SKILLS/TALENTS

 Able to adopt in a new environment and changing situations


 Computer Literate and well-verse in AVS video editor and FL Studio