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Steels – Carbon Steels, Mild Steel, Carbon-Manganese


Steels, Alloys Steels, Low-Alloy Steels and Micro-Alloy
Steels

Topics Covered
Background
Carbon steels
Mild Steel, Normal Strength or Ordinary Weldable Steel
Carbon-Manganese Steels
Alloy Steels
Low Alloy Steels
Micro-Alloyed Steels

Background

Steels are usually defined as alloys of iron and carbon, containing not more than 2% carbon,
with or without other alloying elements. With more than 2% carbon, the material comes into
the category of ‘cast iron’.

Carbon steels

AZoNetwork on Facebook Steels containing only carbon as the specific alloying element are know as carbon steels.
Like These steels can also contain up to 1.2% manganese and 0.4% silicon. Residual elements
such as nickel, chromium, aluminium, molybdenum and copper, which are unavoidably retained
3,082 people like AZoNetwork. from raw materials, may be present in small quantities, in addition to ‘impurities’ such as
phosphorous and sulphur.

Mild Steel, Normal Strength or Ordinary Weldable Steel


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These trade terms are often used interchangeably to describe standard carbon steels used
for structural purposes, a typical example being AS3679 grade 250 or grade 300.

The term ‘mild steel’ is also applied commercially to carbon steels not covered by standard
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specifications. Carbon content of this steel may vary from quite low levels up to
F acebook social plugin approximately 0.3%. Generally, commercial ‘mild steer’ can be expected to be readily weldable
and have reasonable cold bending properties but to specify ‘mild steel’ is technically
Related Books inappropriate and should not be used as a term in engineering.

Carbon-Manganese Steels

The manganese content in carbon steels is often increased for the purpose of increasing
depth of hardening and improving strength and toughness. Carbon steels containing over
1.2% up to approximately 1.8% manganese are referred to as carbon-manganese steels.
Typical examples of this type of steel are AS3679 grade 300 and AS1442/1320.

Latest Articles Alloy Steels


C onstructing North America’s Largest Alloy or alloyed steels are defined by the ISO specification 4948/1 in the following manner.
C ommercial Passive House – An Interview Alloy steels are those containing any element listed below in a quantity equal to or greater
With Ross Elliott than the quantity for that listed element.
Glass Fibre Manufacturing and Sizing Stability
Al 0.10%, B 0.008%, Bi 0.10%, Cr 0.30%, Co 0.10%, Cu 0.40%, Mn 1.65%, Mo 0.06%, Pb
Photosynthetic Biorefinery In Diatoms: An
0.40%, Se 0.10%, Si 0.50%, Te 0.10%, Ti 0.05%, W 0.10%, V 0.10%, Zr 0.05%, Lanthanides
Interview With Prof. Greg Rorrer
(each) 0.05%, other specified elements (except C, S, P, N) 0.05%.
10/18/12 Steels – Carbon Steels, Mild Steel, Carbon-Manganese Steels, Alloys Steels, Low-Alloy Steels and Mic…
(each) 0.05%, other specified elements (except C, S, P, N) 0.05%.
Ion Beam Etching
Nanoscale Etching in Inductively C oupled Low Alloy Steels
Plasmas
Various attempts have been made to distinguish ‘low’ and ‘high’ alloy steels, but the
definitions vary between countries and between standard-setting organisations. As a general
Site Sponsors indication, low alloy steel can be regarded as alloy steels (by the ISO definition) containing
between 1% and less than 5% of elements deliberately added for the purpose of modifying
properties.

Micro-Alloyed Steels

A micro-alloyed steel can be defined as a carbon-manganese steel containing deliberately


added alloying elements totalling only 0.05 to 0.10%. Alloying elements which are effective in
modifying steel properties when present in such small amounts include boron, vanadium and
niobium and boron in even lesser amounts (0.005% /0.003%).

Micro-alloyed steels are manufactured in Large tonnages for high pressure pipelines in the
petroleum industry and automotive forgings.

A major advantage of these steels is that in the case of forgings, careful control of forge
processing temperatures can eliminate subsequent heat treatment. This is a major cost
advantage particularly with certain automotive components. Mechanical properties developed
by controlled hot working conditions are similar to those developed by conventional hardening
and tempering treatments for components where strength and toughness are required.

Source: Abstracted from “IMMA Handbook of Engineering Materials, 5th Edition”.

For more information on this source please visit The Institute of Materials Engineering
Australiasia.

Date Added: Jun 24, 2004

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