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INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS

Intravenous fluids or IV Therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. It can
be intermittent or continuous; continuous administration is called intravenous drip.

Compared with other routes of administration, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver
fluids and medications throughout the body.

PURPOSES

 To supply fluid when clients are unable to take in an adequate volume of fluids by mouth
 To provide salts and other electrolytes needed to maintain electrolyte imbalance
 To provide glucose (dextrose), the main fuel for metabolism
 To provide water-soluble vitamins and medications
 To establish a lifeline for rapidly needed medications.

Types of SOLUTIONS

1. ISOTONIC

a. Same osmolality as body fluids

b. Increase ECF volume

c. Do not enter the cells because no osmotic force exists to shift the fluids

2. HYPOTONIC

a. Are more dilute solutions and have a lower osmolality than body fluids

b. Cause the movement of water into cell by osmosis that causes the cell to Shrink

c. Should be administered slowly to prevent cellular edema

3. HYPERTONIC

a. Are more concentrated solutions and have a higher osmolality than body fluids

b. Cause the movement of water from cell by osmosis that causes the cell to Swell

OSMOSIS- force that draws the solvent from less concentrated solute into more concentrated
solute thus tends to equalize concentration of solvent

TYPES USES CONSIDERATIONS


PNSS(Isotonic)- 0.9% NaCl  Blood Transfusion -Do not use in patients with
in Water  Hyponatremia heart failure, edema, or
hypernatremia, because NSS
replaces extracellular fluid
and can lead to fluid
overload.
Lactated Ringer’s (Isotonic)  Burns - Has potassium therefore
 Bleeding and don’t use to patients with
Dehydration renal failure as it can cause
hyperkalemia
- Often seen with surgery
D5W (Isotonic)  Raises total fluid -Solution is isotonic initially
volume. and becomes hypotonic when
 Medication Dilution dextrose is metabolized.
D5LR (Hypertonic)  Burns -Contraindicated in patients
 Bleeding and with a known hypersensitivity
Dehydration to sodium lactate.
 Use with pt with no
DM
½ NS (Hypotonic)- 0.45%  Gastric fluid loss from -Use cautiously; may cause
NaCl in Water nasogastric suctioning cardiovascular collapse or
or vomiting. increase in intracranial
pressure.

IV FLUID COMPUTATION

IV DROP RATE

Formula

Gtts/min=Volume/Time x drop factor

Example:

1. Doctor’s order: Infuse 1500 ml of LR over 12hrs. DF of 15gtt/ml

1500ml x 1hr x 15gtts= 22,500 = 31.25 or 31gtts/ml


12hrs 60min ml 720

2. A health care provider prescribes 1unit of PRBC to infuse over 4 hrs. The unit of blood
contains 250ml. The drop factor is 10gtts/ml. The nurse prepares to set the flow rate at
how many drops per minute?