Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

China

Introduction
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign
state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of
around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometres
(3,700,000 sq. mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the
source consulted. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile
basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system
was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia
dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-
unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin unified core China and
established the first Chinese dynasty. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206
BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time,
including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and printing in the Tang dynasty (618–907) completed the Four
Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime Silk
Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in
1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when a republic replaced the Qing dynasty.

Location
 China is located in the eastern part of Asia on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean, which is
also in the Eastern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere.

Latitude
 39.913818

Longitude
116.363625

Neighbouring Countries
China together with Russia has the largest number of land borders with neighbouring
countries (14). They are (running anti-clockwise from the
East) : Korea(North), Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pa
kistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam.

Coastline
Coastline of China. China's coastline covers approximately 14,500 km (around 9,010 mi) from the
Bohai gulf in the north to the Gulf of Tonkin in the south. Most of the northern half is low lying,
although some of the mountains and hills of Northeast China and the Shandong Peninsula extend to
the coast.
Climate
China climate. The Chinese climate varies from region to region since the country is
massive! In the northeast the summers are hot and dry, and the winters are freezing cold.
The north and central regions have frequent bouts of rain coupled with hot summers and
cold winters.

Area
Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometres (3,700,000 sq. mi), it is the third- or
fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the source consulted.

Natural Resource
Of all commodities considered in this research, China is the leader in mining gold, zinc, lead,
molybdenum, iron ore, coal, tin, tungsten, rare earths, graphite, vanadium, antimony and
phosphate, and holds second place in mine production of copper, silver,
cobalt, bauxite/alumina and manganese.

Land
9,326,410 sq. km

Water
270,550 sq. km

Political Profile
Political System and Government
China has a complex political system very different to those we are used to in the West. The
Chinese Communist Party is the prime authority headed by its 370-person Central
Committee (full members about 200, the rest alternates), the CC’s Politburo of 25 people
and the seven-man Politburo Standing Committee
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state
organs:

1. the legislative branch, the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee


2. the presidency, including the President and the Vice-President
3. the executive branch, the State Council (constitutionally synonymous with the
"Central People's Government"), whose Premier is the head of government
4. the military branch, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and the People's Armed
Police (PAP), via the Central Military Commission, whose Chairman is
the Commander-in-chief
5. the supervisory branch, the National Supervisory Commission
6. the judicial branch, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's
Procuratorate
Administrative Divisions
Province Map. China has 34 provincial-level administrative units: 23 provinces, 4
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing), 5 autonomous regions (Guangxi,
Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang) and 2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong,
Macau).

Constitution
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law within the
People's Republic of China. The current version was adopted by the 5thNational People's
Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004 and 2018.

Executive Branch
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state
organs: the legislative branch, the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee.
the presidency, including the President and the Vice-President.

Legislative Branch
 The Legislative Branch of the People's Republic of China consists of the National People's
Congress, The National People's Congress' Standing Committee, the Central Military
Commission, and the Local People's Congresses and Local People's Government at various
levels.

Judicial Branch
The judicial branch is one of three branches of the government, not the state structure, in the
People's Republic of China, along with the executive and legislative branches. Strictly
speaking, it refers to the activities of the People's Court system.

Chief of State
The current President is Xi Jinping, who took office in March 2013. Since 1993, apart from
brief periods of transition, the top leader of China simultaneously serves as the President,
the leader of the party, and the commander-in-chief of the military (as Chairman of the
Central Military Commission).

Head Of Government
Xi Jinping

Demography Profile
Population
137.87 crores (2016)

Population Growth Rate


0.5% annual change (2016)
Religions
Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Protestantism, and Catholicism

Languages
Standard Mandarin (official language)

Literacy
97.3%

Male
87%

Female
68%

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Life Expectancy
75.99 years

Economic Profile
China Economy
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second
largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power
parity. Until 2015, China was the world's fastest-growing major economy, with growth rates
averaging 10% over 30 years.

 Gross Value Added (GVA) Composition by Sector


Service; 40.6%
Industry; 29.9
Agriculture; 29.5%

 Forex Reserves
US $3.51 trillion
 Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) at current Price
346440.80 CNY HML (Unit)
 Value of Exports
Around 216.74 billion US dollars in June 2018

 Export Partners
In 2016, China major trading partner countries for exports were United States, Hong
Kong, China, Japan, Korea, Rep. and Germany and for imports they were Korea,
Rep., Japan, Other Asia, United States and Unspecified.

 Currency
Renminbi
 Exchange Rate
1 Chinese Yuan equals = 0.15 United States Dollar
 Fiscal Year
1 October 2017 and will end on 30 September 2018
 Cumulative FDI Equity Inflow
Cumulative FDI equity inflows into India for the period April 2000 to December 2016
stood at USD 324.35 billion
 Share of Top Investing Countries FDI Equity Inflow
FDI in China, also known as RFDI (renminbi foreign direct investment), has increased
considerably in the last decade, reaching $19.1 billion in the first six months of 2012, making
China the largest recipient of foreign direct investment and topping the United States which
had $17.4 billion of FDI.

 Major Sector Attracting Highest FDI Equity Inflow

Top sectors that attracted FDI equity inflows (from April 2000 to September 2015),
from CHINA, are:
 Automobile Industry (60%)
 Metallurgical Industries (14%)
 Electrical Equipment (4%)
 Industrial Machinery (4%)
 Power (3%)

Оценить