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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ УКРАИНЫ

ТАВРИЧЕСКИЙ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ


В.И. ВЕРНАДСКОГО

Мележик К. А.

Курс современного профессионально-ориентированного


английского языка

(Учебное пособие для студентов 5 курса. Уровни С-1/С-2 –


Магистратура, английский язык как основной)

Симферополь – 2013
KARINA MELEZHIK

COMPREHENDING AND ANALYSING ESP TEXTS

English for special purposes


A manual for MA students specialising in English
Мележик Карина Алексеевна.
Comprehending and analysing ESP texts. Курс современного профессионально-
ориентированного английского языка. Уровни С-1/С-2 – Магистратура, английский
язык как основной. На английском языке. 20 п. л. Симферополь, 2013.

© Мележик К. А. 2013

Аннотация
Учебное пособие адресовано будущим магистрам по специальности «английский
язык», которым предстоит трудиться в области прикладного языкознания, межкультурной
коммуникации, перевода и преподавания иностранных языков. Учебное пособие
представляет собой комплексный курс профессионально-ориентированного английского
языка (ПОАЯ), направленный на развитие умений и навыков межкультурной, лексико-
грамматической, стилистической, и переводческой составляющих профессиональной
лингвистической компетенции. Курс предназначен как для аудиторного усвоения под
руководством преподавателя, так и для самостоятельного анализа и обработки
специальной литературы.
Пособие содержит специальные тексты, сопутствующие им упражнения и задания по
структурно-логическому и лингво-культурному анализу, углубленному развитию навыков
интенсивного и экстенсивного чтения, устной и письменной речи.
Первая часть учебного комплекса – это курс подготовки магистрантов по
интенсивному чтению текстов английского языка для специальных целей, состоящий из
четырех модулей: 1/ английский как контактный язык международной коммуникации –
лингва франка; 2/ ПОАЯ в межкультурной коммуникации; 3/ ПОАЯ в транснациональном
образовании; 4/ ПОАЯ как язык повседневного межнационального взаимодействия.
Каждый модуль содержит по 6 уроков, разделенных на 2 секции. Секция 1 каждого из 24
уроков первой части представлена оригинальным текстом соответствующей тематики,
заданиями по его анализу и упражнениями для закрепления умений и навыков работы со
специальной литературой. Секция 2 включает грамматический материал,
предусматривающий прагматический обзор морфо-синтаксических трудностей, с
которыми сталкиваются специалисты в устной и письменной профессиональной
коммуникации.
Вторая часть, также состоящая из четырех модулей, направлена на закрепление
умений и навыков, необходимых для экстенсивного чтения профессионально-
ориентированных текстов. В учебнике содержатся рекомендации по работе с научной
литературой, написанию научной статьи и критического обзора литературы, поиску
научной информации, составлению аннотаций, и т.п. В каждом из этих уроков имеются
задания по закреплению материала и упражнения для развития коммуникативных умений
и навыков. Учебное пособие рассчитано на 96 аудиторных часов и 180-200 часов
самостоятельной работы.

Печатается по решению
Подписано к печати
Объем
Таврический национальный университет им. В. И. Вернадского
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА
Цели и задачи совершенствования английского языка (АЯ) на заключительном,
магистерском, этапе университетского курса совпадают с целями и задачами
профессиональной подготовки и становления специалиста, т.е. АЯ постигается как форма,
в которую облекается специальное знание, в соответствии с условиями межнационального
общения.
Этот принцип положен в основу учебника, где демонстрируется переход от
стереотипов лингвостилистического анализа литературно-художественного текста к
контентно-языковому интегрированному изучению (Content and Language Integrated
Learning – CLIL) АЯ в профессионально-ориентированном коммуникативном контексте,
т.е. содержание учебника интегрируется в предметную сферу последующей
профессиональной деятельности.
Если для студентов любых других специальностей представление о
профессионально-ориентированном английском языке (ПОАЯ) заключается в том, что АЯ
интегрируется в предметную область определенной, достаточно четко очерченной
отрасли знания, то для студентов, специализирующихся в АЯ поле профессиональной
деятельности покрывает все возможные виды транснациональной коммуникации.
Предметной сферой для магистров, специализирующихся в английском языке,
является как общее, частное и прикладное языкознание, так и теория и практика
межкультурной коммуникации. Цель подготовки магистров данного направления –
осуществление профессиональной деятельности в области межкультурной
коммуникации и общественных связей – от преподавания АЯ и устного и письменного
перевода до международного туризма и обслуживания инфраструктуры бизнеса.
АЯ осуществляет функцию контактного языка, обеспечивающего потребности
межнациональной и межкультурной коммуникации, т.е. служит языком-посредником –
универсальным английским лингва франка (АЛФ) для людей, не имеющих общности
родного языка и национальной культуры. Именно АЛФ является тем профессионально-
ориентированным английским языком, посредством которого будущим магистрам
предстоит осуществлять свою профессиональную деятельность. С учетом многообразия
вариантов АЛФ, они должны не только владеть АЯ на самом высоком уровне – С1/С2
Международной классификации языковой компетенции, но и иметь представление о
диапазоне функционирования АЛФ, что обусловливает необходимость изучения
специфики коммуникативных контекстов, предусматривающих его постоянное
использование.
Предлагаемый учебный комплекс состоит из двух частей: Часть 1. The skills of
intensive reading и Часть 2. The skills of extensive reading. Весь курс разделен на четыре
модуля, в каждый из которых включены шесть уроков интенсивного чтения и шесть
уроков экстенсивного чтения.
Модуль 1 включает тексты, в которых обсуждаются общие предпосылки и
проблемы использования АЯ как контактного языка межнациональной коммуникации –
лингва франка. В Модуле 2 содержатся тексты по вопросам взаимосвязи культуры и
коммуникации; Модуль 3 основан на текстах, освещающих аспекты функционирования
АЯ в транснациональном образовании; в Модуле 4 приведены тексты, характеризующие
роль АЯ как языка повседневного межнационального взаимодействия.
Секция 1 уроков первой части представлена оригинальным текстом, отвечающим
направленности данного модуля, заданиями по анализу его содержания, упражнениями
для закрепления умений и навыков работы с профессионально-ориентированной
литературой. В первой секции совершенствуются навыки просмотрового,
ознакомительного и изучающего чтения, которые требуют различной полноты и
точности понимания текста.
Задания и упражнения, развивающие навыки интенсивного чтения, направлены на
ознакомление с тематикой, отраслевой отнесенностью и основными информационными
узлами текста и предполагают умение на основе извлеченной информации кратко
охарактеризовать текст с точки зрения поставленной проблемы. Ознакомительное чтение
характеризуется умением проследить развитие темы и общую линию аргументации
автора, понять, в целом, 4/5 специальной информации. Изучающее чтение предполагает
полное и точное понимание концептуального содержания текста, организационной
структуры, авторской позиции, и т.п..
В этом разделе учебника предусмотрено логически и методически обоснованное
введение специального материала, результатом которого должно стать свободное, зрелое
чтение и последующее использование информации в профессиональной практике. Это
обеспечивается последовательным формированием умений вычленять опорные
смысловые блоки текста, определять структурно-семантическое ядро, выделять основные
мысли и факты, находить логические связи, исключать избыточную информацию,
группировать и объединять выделенные положения по принципу общности, а также
формированием навыка языковой интуиции и прогнозирования поступающей
информации.
Полученные в этом разделе умения и навыки должны быть реализованы в процессе
самостоятельного экстенсивного чтения профильных текстов, которые магистрант может
найти во второй части.
Учебник содержит оригинальные тексты, отобранные из числа публикуемых в
свободном доступе Интернета англоязычных научных изданий, которые не налагают
ограничения авторского права. Тексты модифицированы и сокращены, но без какого-либо
упрощения АЯ. Именно поэтому во второй части курса предлагается самостоятельно
работать с текстами в области межкультурной и транснациональной коммуникации,
представляя индивидуальные отчеты преподавателю.
Кроме того, в первой секции каждого урока вводятся и закрепляются
коммуникативные стратегии, знание которых необходимо для устного и письменного
англоязычного профессионального общения, даются рекомендации по этапам обработки
специальной информации, составления аннотаций, и т.п. Рекомендации сопровождаются
инструкциями по изучению материала и заданиями для закрепления коммуникативных
умений и навыков
Секция 2 уроков 1-24 первой части содержит грамматический материал,
излагаемый не только в виде частных явлений, но и в системе, в форме обобщения и
обзора трудностей по морфологии и синтаксису английского языка, в соответствии с
принципами коммуникативной грамматики, принятыми в таких международных
стандартных тестах, как IELTS, TOEFL и др.
Наряду с самостоятельным изучением специальных текстов для экстенсивного
чтения, на протяжении второй половины курса магистранты получают коммуникативные
умения и навыки, необходимые для ведения научно-исследовательской работы и общения
с зарубежными коллегами. Обучение различным видам речевой компетенции на основе
интенсивного и экстенсивного чтения осуществляется в их совокупности и взаимосвязи, с
учетом содержательной специфики текста.
Учебное пособие рассчитано на 96 аудиторных часов и 180-200 часов
самостоятельной работы.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

PART 1. THE SKILLS OF INTENSIVE READING

MODULE 1-1. ENGLISH AS A CONTACT LANGUAGE OF


INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

Unit 1-1. Global demography and languages


Unit 1-2. English for global economy
Unit 1-3. English as a universal linguage
Unit 1-4. Receptive multilingualism
Unit 1-5. Language and diversity
Unit 1-6. English in European integration
Unit 1-6. English in European integration

MODULE 1-2. THE SKILLS OF CROSS-CULTURAL


COMMUNICATION

Unit 1-7. Cross-cultural communication – the new norm


Unit 1-8. Culture‘s components
Unit 1-9. Communication and culture
Unit 1-10. How to teach multicultural communication
Unit 1-11. Beyond cultural identity
Unit 1-12. Total quality diversity

MODULE 1-3. ESP IN TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION

Unit 1-13. The use of English in Europe


Unit 1-14. Teaching and learning Euro-English in Switzerland
Unit 1-15. Euro-English accents
Unit 1-16. Content and language integrated learning
Unit 1-17. CLIL teachers‘ target language competence
Unit 1-18. English in Finland

MODULE 1-4. ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA IN EVERYDAY


INTERNATIONAL INTERACTION

Unit 1-19. The use of English in international business


Unit 1-20. The use of ESP for the workplace
Unit 1-21. The use of ESP in business oral presentations
Unit 1-22. The use of ESP in European business
Unit 1-23. Interpretation of meaning in successful lingua franca interaction
Unit 1-24. Reality and paradox of Europe's lingua franca

PART 2. THE SKILLS OF EXTENSIVE READING

MODULE 2-1. ENGLISH AS A CONTACT LANGUAGE OF


INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

Unit 2-1. People on the move


Unit 2-2. The communications revolution
Unit 2-3. English as a universl linguage
Unit 2-4. Multilingualism
Unit 2-5. Languages beyond boundaries
Unit 2-6. English in European integration

MODULE 2-2. THE SKILLS OF CROSS-CULTURAL


COMMUNICATION

Unit 2-7. Cross-cultural communication – the new norm


Unit 2-8. Approaches to intercultural communication
Unit 2-9. A new approach to a theory of culture
Unit 2-10. Cultural identity in the globalized world
Unit 2-11. The concept of cultural identity
Unit 2-12. The multicultural person

MODULE 2-3. ESP IN TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION

Unit 2-13. English as the lingua franca of engineering education


Unit 2-14. Teaching and learning Euro-English in Switzerland
Unit 2-15. Teaching and learning Euro-English in Sweden
Unit 2-16. Content and language integrated learning
Unit 2-17. The iceberg model
Unit 2-18. A deeper understanding of ESP

MODULE 2-4. ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA IN EVERYDAY


INTERNATIONAL INTERACTION

Unit 2-19. The use of English in international business


Unit 2-20. English lingua franca in business communication
Unit 2-21. New technologies in teaching and learning ESP
Unit 2-22. Formulaic language in English lingua franca
Unit 2-23. Non-native/non-native lingua franca interaction
Unit 2-24. The use of English in Europe
INTRODUCTION

This Manual is a guide to the graduate instruction in English for Specific Purposes (ESP).
Step-by-step procedures are outlined for assessing students‘ needs, setting achievable goals, and
selecting appropriate materials and activities for the classroom. Out of the four language skills
the Manual describes three – reading, writing, and speaking, and provides suggestions for
employing these skills as well as grammar and analysis skills.
The Manual does focus on the special case in teaching English as a tool of transnational
communication: teaching English for Specific Purposes, and the particular ways by which
professional objectives should be structured for the mastering of ESP.
Being a graduate student of English you have had a four-year long previous experience
learning English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL), and your
first question on receiving your current assignment to learn ESP may be: "How is ESP different
from ESL?"

How is ESP different from English as a Second Language, or general English?


The major difference between ESP and ESL lies in the learners and their purposes for
learning English. ESP students are adults who already have familiarity with English and are
learning the language in order to communicate a set of professional skills and to perform
particular job-related functions. An ESP program is therefore built on an assessment of purposes
and needs and the functions for which English is required.
As a matter of fact, ESP is part of a shift from traditional concentration on teaching
grammar and language structures to an emphasis on language in context. ESP covers subjects
ranging from accounting or computer science to tourism and business management.
For students specializing in the English language and literature the field of professional
activity covers all kinds of transnational communication ranging from teaching ESL to
interpreting or translation in international tourism and business servicing. The ESP focus means
that English is not taught as a subject divorced from the students' future jobs; instead, it is
integrated into a subject matter area important to the learners.
Consequently, ESL and ESP diverge not only in the nature of the learner, but also in the
goals of instruction. In fact, as a general rule, while in ESL all four language skills; listening,
reading, speaking, and writing, are stressed equally, in ESP it is a needs analysis that determines
which language skills are most needed by the students, and the syllabus is designed accordingly.
The third point where EFL and ESP differ is in the emphasis on the skills to be
activated. Whereas in EFL/ESL all four language skills; listening, reading, speaking, and
writing, are stressed equally, in ESP a needs assessment determines which language skills are
most needed by the students, and the program is focused accordingly.
An ESP program might, for example, emphasize the development of reading skills in
students who are preparing for graduate work as analysts and translators in international
business; or it might promote the development of spoken skills in students who are studying
English in order to become tourist guides.
The students' interest in their prospective subject-matter fields, in turn, enhances their
ability to acquire English. The ESP class takes the meaningful context and shows students how
the same information is expressed in English. The teacher can exploit the students' knowledge of
the subject matter in helping them master English deeper and faster.
The graduate students approach the final period of their study of English through a field
that is already known and relevant to them. This means that they are able to use what they learn
in the ESP classroom right away in their work and studies. The ESP approach enhances the
relevance of what the students are learning and enables them to use the English they know to
learn even more English, since their interest in their field will motivate them to interact with
speakers and texts. ESP assesses needs and integrates motivation, subject matter and content for
the teaching of relevant skills.
What is the role of the learner and what is the task s/he faces?
The graduate students come to the ESP class with a specific interest for learning, subject
matter knowledge, and well-built adult learning strategies. They are in charge of developing
English language skills to reflect their native-language knowledge and skills. In this view, ESP is
a powerful means for creating opportunities in their professional work or further studies.
The more learners pay attention to the meaning of the language they read and analyze, the
more they are successful; and on the contrary, the more they have to focus on the linguistic input
or isolated language structures, the less they are motivated to attend their classes.
The ESP graduate students are particularly well disposed to focus on meaning in
authentic contexts and on the particular ways in which the language is used in functions that they
will need to perform in their fields of specialty or jobs.
Graduate students are generally aware of the purposes for which they will need to use
English. Having already oriented their education toward a specific field, they see their English
training as complementing this orientation. Knowledge of the subject area enables the students to
identify a real context for the vocabulary and structures of the ESP classroom.
Graduate students must work harder than they used to before, but the learning skills they
bring to the task permit them to learn more efficiently. The skills they have already developed in
using their English make the language learning abilities in the ESP classroom potentially
immense. They will be expanding vocabulary, becoming more fluent in their fields, and
adjusting their linguistic behaviour to new situations or new roles.
To summarize, students bring to ESP focus for learning, subject matter knowledge, adult
learning strategies. They can exploit these innate competencies in learning English because ESP
combines purpose, subject matter, motivation, context-relevant skills.
The teacher‘s role in the ESP classroom is to organize programs, set goals and objectives,
establish a positive learning environment, evaluate students' progress.

Assessing students‟ needs and skills


What language skills will the students need to develop in order to perform these tasks?
Will the receptive skills of reading and listening be most important, or the productive skills of
writing and speaking – or some other combination?
The Common European Framework (CEF) describes what a learner can do at six specific
levels: Basic User (A1 and A2); Independent User (B1 and B2); Proficient User (C1 and C2).
These levels match general concepts of basic, intermediate, and advanced and are often
referred to as the Global Scale.
The Global Scale is not language-specific. In other words, it can be used with virtually
any language and can be used to compare achievement and learning across languages. For
example, an A2 in Spanish is the same as an A2 in Japanese or English.
The Global Scale also helps teachers, academic coordinators, and course book writers to
decide on curriculum and syllabus content and to choose appropriate course books, etc.
The Global Scale is based on a set of statements that describe what a learner can do. The
―can do‖ statements are always positive: they describe what a learner is able to do, not what a
learner cannot do or does wrong. This helps all learners, even those at the lowest levels, see that
learning has value and that they can attain language goals.

Common Reference Levels - The Global Scale


Basic A1
• Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the
satisfaction of needs of a concrete type.
• Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details
such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things s/he has.
• Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared
to help.
Basic A2
• Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate
relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography,
employment).
• Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of
information on familiar and routine matters.
• Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and
matters in areas of immediate need.
Independent B1
• Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly
encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.
• Can deal with most situations likely to arise while travelling in an area where the language is
spoken.
• Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest.
• Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and
explanations for opinions and plans.
Independent B2
• Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including
technical discussions in his/her field of specialization.
• Can interact with a degree of fl uency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with
native speakers quite possible without strain for either party.
• Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a
topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
Proficient C1
• Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning.
• Can express him/herself fl uently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for
expressions.
• Can use language fl exibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes.
• Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use
of organizational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
Proficient C2
• Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read.
• Can summarize information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing
arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation.
• Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating fi ner shades
of meaning even in more complex situations.
A detailed description of Level C1 and Level C2 is given below because these are the ones
graduate students are expected to have closely approached. Consequently, the ESP classroom
students are recommended to start by finding where they are and identify personal objectives to
be achieved with the help of this Manual.

C1 C2
Listening I can understand extended speech even when it I have no difficulty in understanding any kind of
is not clearly structured and when relationships spoken language, whether live or broadcast, even
are only implied and not signalled explicitly. I when delivered at fast native speed, provided. I
can understand television programmes and have some time to get familiar with the accent.
films without too much effort.
Reading I can understand long and complex factual and I can read with ease virtually all forms of the
literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. written language, including abstract, structurally
I can understand specialised articles and longer or linguistically complex texts such as manuals,
technical instructions, even when they do not specialised articles and literary works.
relate to my field.
Speaking. I can express myself fluently and I can take part effortlessly in any conversation or
spontaneously without much obvious searching discussion and have a good familiarity with
Spoken for expressions. I can use language flexibly and idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms. I can
effectively for social and professional express myself fluently and convey finer shades
Interaction purposes. I can formulate ideas and opinions of meaning precisely. If I do have a problem I can
with precision and relate my contribution backtrack and restructure around the difficulty so
skilfully to those of other speakers. smoothly that other people are hardly aware of it.
Speaking. I can present clear, detailed descriptions of I can present a clear, smoothly-flowing
complex subjects integrating subthemes, description or argument in a style appropriate to
Spoken developing particular points and rounding off the context and with an effective logical structure
with an appropriate conclusion. which helps the recipient to notice and remember
Production significant points.
Writing I can express myself in clear, well-structured I can write clear, smoothly-flowing text in an
text, expressing points of view at some length. appropriate style. I can write complex letters,
I can write about complex subjects in a letter, reports or articles which present a case with an
an essay or a report, underlining what I effective logical structure which helps the
consider to be the salient issues. I can select a recipient to notice and remember significant
style appropriate to the reader in mind. points. I can write summaries and reviews of
professional or literary works.

Students should receive practice in reading for different purposes, such as finding main
ideas, finding specific information, or discovering the author's point of view. Students should
have a clear idea of the purpose of their reading before they begin. Background information is
very helpful in understanding texts. Students need advance guidelines for approaching each
assignment. Knowing the purpose of the assignment will help students get the most from their
reading effort. From the title, for instance, they can be asked to predict what the text is about. It
is also helpful to give students some questions to think about as they read. The way they
approach the reading task will depend on the purpose for which they are reading.
PART 1. THE SKILLS OF INTENSIVE READING

MODULE 1-1. ENGLISH AS A CONTACT LANGUAGE OF INTERNATIONAL


COMMUNICATION

Unit 1-1. GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY AND LANGUAGES

Section 1. Guidelines for intensive reading of ESP texts

Reading is the primary channel through which students will progress in English after the
ESP course is over. A good reading program provides instruction in the skills required at various
levels of reading, along with plenty of practice in this skill, which can only be developed through
intensive and continual practice.
Two types of skills are needed in reading: simple identification skills, (decoding) and
higher level cognitive skills such as analyzing, synthesizing, and predicting. The reading
program should work on two levels to develop both types of skill.
In order to do this, two types of reading tasks are incorporated in the Manual: intensive
and extensive.
Part 1 of the Manual is designed for intensive reading (analyzing, synthesizing, and
predicting) in the classroom through close analysis of shorter passages, and can be used to
develop vocabulary, grammar skills, and comprehension.
Part 2 of the Manual is designed for extensive reading (simple identification skills
or decoding) by way of faster individual reading of longer passages to develop understanding of
writers' organizational strategies, to improve reading speed, and to focus on main ideas.
Fluent reading depends primarily on knowledge of vocabulary and subject matter, and
secondarily on knowledge of grammatical structure and familiarity with the ways that writers
organize texts in English. Vocabulary development, then, is a vital aspect of reading (and
listening) development. Students will need to develop a good vocabulary in order to be efficient
ESP readers. They already know quite a lot of special vocabulary in English in their fields
though most certainly they will have to expand it and develop the additional vocabulary they
need for further study. Vocabulary should be learned only in context, never in word lists to be
memorized with dictionary definitions.
Grammar is best learned in connection with writing, but exercises related to the reading
passages the students have worked with can also help them to increase their reading
comprehension. Higher level cognitive skills necessary for good reading depend on knowledge
of the subject matter of the texts and knowledge of the way that information is organized in
writing.

Text 1-1. GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY AND LANGUAGES


(Based on David Graddol‟s English Next. Why global English may mean the end of
English as a Foreign Language)

1. The growth of the use of English as the world‘s primary language for international
communication has obviously been continuing for several decades. But even as the number of
English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language
may fade within the foreseeable future.
Complex international, economic, technological and cultural changes could start to
diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market, and UK interests
which enjoy advantage from the breadth of English usage would consequently face new
pressures. Although the world‘s population is still increasing fast, different countries – and
languages – are affected in very different ways. Some languages are ‗demographically
challenged‘ whilst others are rapidly acquiring new native speakers.
Demographic change is one of the most important factors affecting languages – and to a
much greater extent than other key trends affecting English – they can be predicted.
Much of the rapid change which we have witnessed in recent years – in economic, political
and social spheres – is related to population trends. As the developing world becomes more
populous whilst developed countries meet the challenges of an ageing population, the world
language system has been transformed.

2. Demography – who lives where – has been, along with scientific and technological
progress, the main driver of change in the world since the 18th century. The world population
then started rising fast.
Cities in Europe expanded, sustained first by the agrarian revolution, which allowed greater
food production with fewer workers, by the industrial revolution, which created new
employment opportunities in towns, and by improvements in healthcare, which reduced
mortality rates. This trend towards population increase, industrialisation and urbanisation is still
not completed in much of the world. By the 1990s, population increase in many developed
economies had slowed, but in less developed parts of the world it was still rising fast. The
reasons for this imbalance lie in a complex mix of material circumstances, life chances and
financial needs. In rural areas, children are important to family economies and as a future support
for parents. In urban, middle class families children become more of a financial and lifestyle
liability. This is one reason why populations grow more slowly as a country becomes more
urbanised, middle class, and wealthy.

3. Demographic trends are among of the most important factors affecting language spread,
language shift, and language change. As populations in the less developed countries rise, the
demographic balance between languages is changing. Languages differ remarkably in the age
structure of the population speaking them, which will affect the future destiny of languages in the
world but also the nature of educational services.
Despite increasing immigration controls in some of the preferred destination countries,
global migration is higher than ever before. Analysis of international travel movements suggests
that three-quarters of all travel is between non-English speaking countries. This suggests a large
demand for either foreign language learning or the increasing use of English as a lingua franca.

4. By the 1990s public concern had arisen in developed countries about what was perceived
as unsustainable population growth in the developing countries. In the 21st century, the focus of
debate has shifted to the economic and social problems caused by ageing populations in
developed nations: lack of skilled workers, problems in providing public services for the elderly
– especially health – and the ‗pension crisis‘.
However, the world‘s population overall is still young and numbers are growing. Yet
demographic projections suggest that the rate of increase in developing countries is also now
slowing and that the world population will stabilise at between 9–10 billion, possibly later this
century.

5. If we chart these demographic changes we get an ‗S-shaped‘ graph. The curve starts
gradually, rapidly gains speed, then begins to slow and level out as time passes. Such an S-
shaped graph is familiar to anyone analysing social change or the spread of innovation – whether
it be new mobile phone users, the diffusion of a sound change through the lexicon in a rural
English dialect, or the spread of a contagious disease.
Instead of thinking about the ‗population explosion‘ as a process which is out of control, it
may be more helpful to think of the world system as switching from one state to another: from a
population of around 500 million to a population of 10 billion. We are now in the middle of this
switch and many of the – at times bewildering – changes taking place in the economic, social and
political world are ultimately attributable to this.
6. Conventional wisdom suggests that the further ahead we look, the less accurately we can
predict. But we live in a transitional age where change is rapid, making it more difficult in some
cases to forecast year-to-year change than the general shape of things to come.
The future of languages in the world depends on people. Who lives where? What are their
basic needs? What kind of work will they be doing?
In order to understand some of the remarkable events and trends now taking place, we must
look beyond the next few years and try to envision the world of the future.
This suggests where destiny lies – even if the way there is strewn with surprises.
Recent population growth has been mainly in the less developed countries. The more
developed countries are experiencing a shrinking, ageing population. This, in turn, is changing
the relative size of the world‘s languages.
One consequence of the rapid population growth in the developing world is that the age
structure of countries varies considerably. In 2005, the median age in Italy was over 40 years,
and getting higher year by year. Italy‘s problem is faced, albeit to a lesser extent, by many other
countries in western Europe. In Uganda, on the other hand, the median age was under 15 years.
In many developing countries, the number of children needing primary education is rising
faster than governments can build new schools and train teachers.

7. It is not unusual to see age peaks and troughs in the age profile of a population as a ‗baby
boom‘ gives rise to a ‗baby boomlet‘ a generation later. Such waves make capacity management
at different educational levels tricky. On the whole, it is easier to increase the participation rate
and introduce major curriculum innovations when a demographic cohort is declining in size.
In Poland, for example, a demographic wave worked its way through the educational
system in the last decade or so, but declining numbers of young people are entering school.

8. Countries like Italy, facing declining numbers of young people in comparison with the
numbers of elderly, are likely to receive large numbers of migrant workers to support the
economy. This will in turn change the ethnic and linguistic profile of the country. On the other
hand, countries which have rising numbers of people of working age, such as Poland, may
experience high levels of emigration. Such migrant workers may acquire language skills which
they bring back to the country at a future date.
Demographic patterns have a profound impact on societies – affecting social structures,
educational systems, and economic futures.

9. This report draws on research data generated by a computer model of global


demographics created by The English Company (UK) Ltd. The model allows the visual
exploration of past and future population trends in different countries. The model also allows the
impact to be estimated of educational initiatives – such as the lowering of the age at which the
teaching of English begins.
The computer model allows similar projections to be produced for the populations of native
speakers of different languages.

OVERVIEW QUESTIONS: MAIN IDEA, MAIN TOPIC, AND MAIN PURPOSE OF


THE TEXT

Instruction: After almost every text, the first question you should ask is an overview
question about the main idea, main topic, or main purpose of the text. Main idea questions ask
you to identify the most important thought in the text, the main idea or topic of a passage.
There are two types of main idea questions: matching headings with paragraphs or
sections, and identifying which sections relate to certain topics. For both types of questions
you should use the skill of surveying the text, but because the strategies are slightly different
for each question type, we will look at them separately.
1. Matching headings with paragraphs
 Step 1. Survey the whole text.
 Step 2. Survey the paragraph to identify the topic. The topic sentence might be the
first one in a paragraph. Survey the rest of the paragraph to make sure.
 Step 3. Choose the correct wording of the main idea from the text.

Match the given 9 headings with the 9 paragraphs of the text:


Demography trends 1
Patterns of migration 2
The future world state 3
Modelling demographies 4
Demographic waves 5
Demography 6
Population growth as an ‗S‘ curve 7
An unstoppable growth? 8
Diversity of global changes 9

2. Identifying where to find information


 Step 1. Survey the text
 Step 2. Read the questions and statements to identify the idea, the topic, and the purpose,
underline the key words in the question, read one question or statement at a time.
a/ The main idea is what the author has in mind when s/he is writing a text. Which
one of the sentences given below most closely renders the main idea of the text?
1. Demographic change is one of the most important factors affecting languages – and to a
much greater extent than other key trends affecting English – they can be predicted.
2. Analysis of international travel movements suggests that three-quarters of all travel is
between non-English speaking countries.
3. The future of languages in the world depends on people.
4. There is a large demand for either foreign language learning or the increasing use of
English as a lingua franca.
5. Languages differ remarkably in the age structure of the population speaking them, which
will affect the future destiny of languages in the world but also the nature of educational
services.
b/ The topic is the subject area the author chooses to bring her/his idea to the
reader. Identify the main topic of the text.
1. Complex international, economic, technological and cultural changes that could start to
diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market.
2. The agrarian revolution, which allowed greater food production with fewer workers, and
the industrial revolution, which created new employment opportunities in towns, and
improvements in healthcare, which reduced mortality rates.
3. The future of languages in the world.
4. International travel movements between non-English speaking countries.
5. Demographic factors affecting language spread, language shift, and language change.
c/ The purpose of the text is what the author wants the reader to believe in. Does
the writer want you to believe that:
1. Demographic changes can affect the English language to a much greater extent but they
can be predicted?
2. Though English is ‗demographically challenged‘ in developing countries it is rapidly
acquiring new speakers in developed countries?
3. Large numbers of migrant workers support the economy without changing the ethnic and
linguistic profile of developed countries?
4. Current demographic changes are harming the English language?
5. The relative size of the world‘s languages depends on the age profile of population?
Section 2. GRAMMAR WORKOUT

Your best chance for refreshing your grammar in a short time is to skip through potential
errors, and therefore pull up your total level. Although a wide range of grammar points are
potentially vulnerable in EFL communication, there are certain points that appear again and
again, and you can master these points with the information and practice this Manual provides.
Grammar Section may seem less stressful for you because it is easier to do all the items if you
have learned how to.
Grammar sentences are generally about academic subjects: linguistics or the social sciences.
Any cultural references in the sentences are to the culture of nransnational interaction. Some
sentences contain references to people, places, and institutions that you will not be familiar with.
It's not necessary to know these references; you should simply concentrate on the grammar
structure of the sentences. It's also not necessary to understand all the vocabulary in a sentence;
you can often determine a grammar structure or form correctly without a complete understanding
of that sentence.
There are two possible approaches to grammar problems: an analytical approach and an
intuitive approach. A non-native speaker who uses the analytical approach quickly analyzes the
grammar of a sentence to see what element is missing or which element is incorrect. Someone
who uses the second approach simply chooses the answer that "sounds right" or the one that
"sounds wrong". Although the first approach is recommended to graduate students, the second can
be useful too, especially for ESP learners. If you aren't sure which approach works best for you,
keep in mind that you can combine the two approaches: if you get "stuck" using one method, you
switch to another.
A Tip: An excellent way to refresh your grammar is to write your own grammar pattern
items. Write several items for each of the units in this part of the book. There's no better way to
start thinking like a proficient EFL speaker.

Errors with articles


Errors with articles are very often hard to notice. There are some specific rules for using (or
not using) articles that you should be aware of.
An indefinite article can be used to mean "one." It is also used to mean "per":
a half, a quarter, a third, a tenth, a mile a minute (one mile per minute), an apple a day (one
apple per day)
A definite article is used when there is only one example of the thing or person, or when
the identity of the thing or person is clear: Thе Moon went behind some clouds. (There's only
one moon.) Please open the door. (You know which door I mean.)
A definite article is usually used before these expressions of time and position: the
morning, the afternoon, the evening; the front, the back, the center; the beginning, the middle, the
end; the past, the present, the future;. the bottom, the top.
No article is used in the expression "at night."
A definite article comes before a singular noun that is used as a representative of an
entire class of things. This is especially common with the names of animals, trees,
inventions, musical instruments, and parts of the body:
The tiger is the largest cat.
My favorite tree is the oak.
The Wright brothers invented the airplane.
The oboe is a woodwind instrument.
Тhе heart pumps blood.
A definite article is used before expressions with an ordinal number. No article is
used before expressions with cardinal numbers: the first, the fourth chapter, the seventh
volume; Part one, Chapter Four, Volume Seven.
A definite article is used before decades and centuries: the 1930s, the 1800s, the
fifties, the twenty-first century.
A definite article is usually used before superlative forms of adjectives:the widest
river, the most important decision.
A definite article is used in quantity expressions in this pattern: quantifier + of + the
+ noun: many of the textbooks, not much of the paper, some of the water, most of the
students, all of the people, a few of the photographs.
These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the: many textbooks, not
much paper, some water, most students, all people, a few photographs.
A definite article is used before the name of a group of people or a nationality. No
article is used before the name of a language: The Americans are proud of their ancestors,
the Pioneers. She learned to speak English when she lived in London.
A definite article is used when an adjective is used without a noun to mean "people
who are." Both the young and the old will enjoy this movie. The poor have many problems.
A definite article is used before an uncountable noun or a plural noun when it is
followed by a modifier. No article is used when these nouns appear alone.
The rice that I bought today is in the bag.
Rice is a staple in many countries.
Trees provide shade.
The trees in this park are mostly evergreens.
A definite article is used before the name of a field of study followed by an of-
phrase. If a field is used alone, or is preceded by an adjective, no article is used: the
European genetics of the twentieth century – European genetics; the economics of Ukraine
– Ukrainian economics.
Definite articles are used before the "formal" names of nations, states, and cities. (These
usually contain of-phrases.) No articles are used before the common names of nations, states, and
cities: the United States of America – America; the Republic of Ukraine – Ukraine; the city of
Simferopol – Simferopol.
Definite articles are used before most plural geographic names: the names of groups of
lakes, mountains, and islands. No article is used before the names of individual lakes, mountains,
and islands: the Great Lakes but Lake Baikal; the Crimean Mountains but Mount Chatyr Dag; the
Marshall Islands but Bird Island.
There are three main types of errors involving articles:
Incorrect article choice
A or an used in place of the, or the in place of a or an.
Angela Merkel was a first woman in the history of Germany to be elected Chancellor. In a
phrase with an ordinal number (such as first) the definite article the must be used.
It‘s a wrong choice. In a phrase with the words right and wrong the definite article the must be
used.
Incorrect omission or inclusion of articles
Sometimes an article is used when none is needed, or one is omitted when one is required.
EU management personnel consists of nationals of all member states who can rise to top of the
EU infrastructure.
The definite article the should not be omitted from the phrase the top of.
The most non-native English speakers in Finland are beyond the A1 level.
Definite articles are used only before quantity expressions that contain of phrases. (Most non-
native English speakers or Most of the non-native English speakers are both correct in this
sentence.)
Use of a definite article in place of a possessive pronoun
A definite article may be incorrectly used in place of a possessive word its, his, her, or their.
The Crimean Mountains of Ukraine are famous for the rugged beauty.
The should correctly be replaced with their because the sentence refers to the beauty belonging
to the definite mountains.
Find explanations for the use of no article, the indefinite article and the definite article
in the following sentences:
How is ESP different from English as a Second Language, or general English?
The major difference between ESP and ESL lies in the learners and their purposes for
learning English. ESP students are adults who already have familiarity with English and are
learning the language in order to communicate a set of professional skills and to perform
particular job-related functions. An ESP program is therefore built on an assessment of
purposes and needs and the functions for which English is required.
As a matter of fact, ESP is part of a shift from traditional concentration on teaching
grammar and language structures to an emphasis on language in context. ESP covers subjects
ranging from accounting or computer science to tourism and business management.
For students specializing in the English language and literature the field of professional
activity covers all kinds of transnational communication ranging from teaching ESL to
interpreting or translation in international tourism and business servicing. The ESP focus
means that English is not taught as a subject divorced from the students' future jobs; instead, it is
integrated into a subject matter area important to the learners.
Unit 1-2. ENGLISH FOR GLOBAL ECONOMY

Section 1. Guidelines for intensive reading of ESP texts

ESP students already bring their knowledge of the subject matter into the reading task,
and their backgrounds in their fields will help make the reading materials more comprehensible
to them. Students' higher level cognitive skills can be tapped by giving them advance
information about the texts they are asked to read, and by teaching them to preview texts before
beginning to read.
Previewing is a quick reading for general familiarity, in which students: a) read the
introductory paragraph; b) read the first sentence of each of the body paragraphs; and c) read the
entire concluding paragraph. This should take students only a few minutes, and will enhance
their reading comprehension.
The skills of skimming and scanning.
Skimming is quick reading to get the general drift of a passage. Students can be asked to
skim a text to discover the author's purpose. Scanning is a focused search for specific
information.

Text 1-2. GLOBAL ECONOMY


(Based on David Graddol‟s English Next. Why global English may mean the end of
English as a Foreign Language)

1. If asked why everyone seems interested in learning English, it is tempting to reply that
it‘s primarily because of the economy. This section describes the major trends in the global
economy now affecting the demand for English and other languages. Before the 19th century,
India and China were the world‘s economic superpowers. Thanks to their new economic rise,
they will soon regain their former status – and our perceptions of the relative importance of
world languages may also change.
Economic relationships between the developed countries and those of the ‗third world‘ are
changing. Indian and Chinese economies, especially, have been growing fast. According to the
OECD, China could overtake the USA and Germany to become the largest exporter in the world
in the next 5 years. In December 2005, China revised its estimations of economic growth,
showing that it had already overtaken Italy in GDP and was likely to become the world‘s fourth
largest, overtaking the UK, by the end of 2006. China‘s services sector was particularly
underestimated and probably already accounts for over 40% of its GDP.
Services are of linguistic interest since they often require much higher levels of
communication than manufacturing. Exported services – which include receiving international
students and tourists – often require international communication.

2. The world economy is experiencing the impact of two new economic superpowers
emerging simultaneously. But it is not just China and India whose economies are growing fast.
Together with Brazil and Russia they form a group referred to by economists as BRICs. An
analysis in 2003 by Goldman Sachs estimated what the combined impact would be on the world
economy of this emergent group:
If things go right, in less than 40 years, the BRICs economies together could be larger than
the G6 in US dollar terms. By 2025 they could account for over half the size of the G6. Currently
they are worth less than 15%. (Wilson & Purushothaman, 2003)
This prediction may even be conservative, given the recent revision upwards of China‘s
growth. In January 2006, The Economist reported:
Since their industrial revolutions in the 19th century, the rich countries of the „first world‟
have dominated the global economy. By one measure at least, that era may be over. According to
estimates by The Economist, in 2005 the combined output of emerging (or developing)
economies rose above half of the global total.

3. In January 2006, the Worldwatch Institute, a US think-tank, warned that India and China
are ‗planetary powers that are shaping the global biosphere‘ who, if they were to consume as
much per capita as Japan, would ‗require a full planet Earth to meet their needs‘ (State of the
World, 2006).
Many are fearful of the political consequences of such a global shift of economic power.
Others welcome the growth of both countries and the contribution to the global economy which
they will make. But whether the trend is welcome or not, a commentary in the Financial Times
by Martin Wolf captures the feeling of many economic analysts:
The economic rise of Asia‟s giants is . . . the most important story of our age. It heralds the
end, in the not too distant future, of as much as five centuries of domination by the Europeans
and their colonial offshoots.
China may play down any imperial ambitions, but it is a country with immense self-
confidence and sense of destiny and is able to play a long game. Chinese enterprises are quietly
acquiring a controlling interest in key global resources. Its concept of ‗peaceful rising‘ is the
answer to US ‗soft power‘ in Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Central Asia, weaving
together economic, diplomatic, political and cultural strategies. China‘s huge investment in
English, together with its promotion of Mandarin as a foreign language, must be seen in this
global context.

4. Many services are now outsourced, in the same way as the manufacture of computers or
t-shirts. Such business process outsourcing (BPO) and information technology outsourcing (ITO)
are not a new phenomenon. Many operations such as company payroll or specialist computer
data processing, have been subcontracted by companies to specialised bureaux since the 1960s.
What has changed is the huge range of services which are now affected, and the fact that cheap
communications allow many of them to be carried out in distant locations. The trend is now
clear: if there is any fraction of a service which can be separated from a physical location and
done more cheaply somewhere else, it will be outsourced (see panel, right).
Call centres, in which service calls from members of the public are picked up in a distant
country such as India, have attracted much public attention – and even led some companies to
advertise the fact they are relocating call centres ‗back home‘. However, call centres account for
a small percentage of the BPO market. According to the OECD, close to 20% of total
employment in the 15 pre-expansion EU countries, America, Canada and Australia, could
‗potentially be affected‘ by the international sourcing of services activities (Economist, 30 June
2005).

5. One of the most notable features of globalisation has been the outsourcing of services to
countries with cheaper labour costs. Global English has helped accelerate this phenomenon and
give India a competitive edge.
English is so desirable in the outsourcing business because most of the offshore contracts
come from English-speaking corporations. When customers in some branches of McDonald‘s
restaurants in the USA place orders for fast food, they speak to a call centre hundreds of miles
away, who pass back the order, together with a digital photo of the customer, to the kitchen. This
approach is marginally cheaper for the restaurant per transaction but it apparently can make the
process 30 seconds faster, allowing more burgers to be sold per hour, with fewer mistakes. (The
World is Flat, Friedman, 2005)
Each day at 4.30 am 20 well-educated Indians start work in their call centre in Kerala,
India. They provide one-to-one tutorial help in subjects such as maths and science to Californian
schoolchildren. One recent estimate suggests that over 20,000 American schoolchildren now
receive e-tutoring support from India, usually through US service providers. (Christian Science
Monitor, 23 May 2005)

6. Competitive advantage in the fast-moving BPO market is soon lost, forcing service
providers up the ‗value chain‘ towards work that requires greater skills and knowledge. This has
led to an educational ‗arms race‘.
Each country maintains its competitive advantage as a destination for outsourcing only for
a relatively short time.
As investment pours into the country, and demand for labour rises, so inevitably do wage
and property costs. Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong all used to be favourite places
for the manufacture of computer parts but much of the business has now shifted to mainland
China.
In January 2006 India confirmed its own aspirations to become a ‗global knowledge hub‘.
India is rapidly moving beyond call centres and back offices to provide services that involve
specialised knowledge which require research skills and the exercise of professional judgement.
Some analysts have named this development as ‗KPO‘ (knowledge process outsourcing). Where
BPO requires graduates, KPO employs PhDs. The new areas of high-value work in India include
medical and legal research, nanotechnology and space research, patent applications,
pharmaceutical clinical trials, medical tourism, film post-production, and financial and market
analysis.

7. When ABB – a Swiss–Swedish multinational company specialising in power


management and automation equipment – announced in September 2005 that it is setting up a
robotics division in Shanghai and shifting its high-end engineering research to Bangalore, it was
following a now familiar path. As national education systems create suitable employees,
transnational corporations (TNCs) are shifting their research and development centres to
developing countries. In the 1990s, the dominant model was for high-value activities such as
design and basic research to remain in developed countries, whilst product development and
manufacturing was located in lower wage areas. The new model shifts high value as well as
manufacturing to countries such as India and China bringing increased levels of foreign direct
investment (FDI).
R&D (Research and Development) is among the highest value-added activities undertaken
by firms. Its internationalization affects the allocation of knowledge and human resources across
countries and creates links between domestic actors and the R&D activities of TNCs. It deepens
technology transfer– from simply transferring the results of innovation to transferring the
innovation process itself. (UNCTAD – United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
2005)
Everywhere, in both developed and developing economies, there is a new urgency to
increase the educational level of the workforce to maintain a country‘s competitive advantage as
it loses advantage in less skilled areas to countries lower in the development chain. From
Norway to Singapore, governments are keen to enhance critical thinking and creativity in their
populations.

8. The economic dominance of western economies which has existed since the industrial
revolution is coming to an end.
The services sector, including BPO, will provide an increasing proportion of national
economies. English is of particular value, at present, in this sector, though the value of other
languages in outsourcing is growing.
As many countries enter an ‗educational arms race‘ in order to maintain international
competitiveness, high-value intellectual work – including basic science research – is beginning
to move to countries like India and China.
OVERVIEW QUESTIONS: MAIN IDEA, MAIN TOPIC, AND MAIN PURPOSE OF
THE TEXT

Instruction: The SQ3R technique is commonly used to help students get the most from
their reading. SQ3R means Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. Students are asked to
complete these five activities:
1) to survey; looking over headings, reading introductory and concluding paragraphs, and
identifying the core ideas of the passage.
2) to formulate questions from text headings.
3) to make a conscious effort to find the answers in the text as they read.
4) having read the first section, to look away from the book and try to recite the answers to their
questions, using their own words and trying to give an example.
5) to take notes, and, when they have finished reading, to review their notes.
Training in this procedure will help students to read more efficiently.

1. Matching headings with paragraphs


 Step 1. Survey the whole text.
 Step 2. Look over the 8 headings given in the table.
 Step 3. Skim each paragraph to identify the topic.
Match the given 8 headings with the 8 paragraphs of the text:
English in outsourcing of services 1
Research and development 2
Economy Trends 3
The BRICs 4
The rise of the ‗third world‘ 5
economic superpowers
A global shift of economic power 6
– threat or opportunity?
Outsourcing, ITO and BPO 7
The knowledge economy 8

2. Identifying where to find information


 Step 1. Survey introductory and concluding paragraphs, and identify the core ideas of
the passage.
 Step 2. Skim the rest of the passage to make sure.
 Step 3. Scan the text to find the correct wording of its main idea.
 Step 4. Read the questions and statements to identify the idea, the t opic, and the
purpose, underline the key words in the question, read one question or statement at a time.
a/ The main idea is what the author has in mind when s/he is writing a text. Which
one of the sentences given below most closely renders the main idea of the text?
1. Economic relationships between the developed countries and ‗third world‘ countries are
changing, which affects the demand for English.
2. New economic superpowers will dominate the global economy.
3 The economic rise of Asia‘s giants is the most important story of our age.
4. Cheap communications allow many services to be carried out in distant locations.
5. One of the most notable features of globalisation has been the outsourcing of services to
countries with cheaper labour costs.
b/ The topic is the subject area the author chooses to bring her/his idea to the
reader. Identify the main topic of the text.
1. The economic dominance of western economies.
2. Internationalization of knowledge and human resources.
3. The competitive advantage as a destination for outsourcing.
4. English in the outsourcing business.
5. China‘s controlling interest in key global resources.
c/ The purpose of the text is what the author wants the reader to believe in. Does
the writer want you to believe that:
1. India and China are ‗planetary powers that are shaping the global biosphere‘ and, if they
were to consume as much per capita as Japan, would ‗require a full planet Earth to meet their
needs?
2. China can overtake the USA and Germany to become the largest exporter in the world in
the next 5 years?
3. The economic dominance of western economies which has existed since the industrial
revolution is coming to an end?
4. Business process outsourcing (BPO) and information technology outsourcing (ITO) are a
new phenomenon?
5. Governments are keen to enhance critical thinking and creativity in their populations?

3. Reciting and reviewing the text.


 Step 1. Basing on the above formulated main idea, main topic, and main purpose of the
text take 2-3 minutes to recite it.
 Step 2. Select 5 key words out each paragraph making it 40 key words for the whole text.
 Step 3. Limit the number of selected key words down to 10.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Fill in the blanks with the right form of an article (no article – NA, the indefinite
article – IA, the definite article – DA) and check your choice against Paragraphs 5 and 6 of
the text.
One of (NA, IA, DA) most notable features of (NA, IA, DA) globalisation has been (NA,
IA, DA) outsourcing of services to (NA, IA, DA) countries with (NA, IA, DA) cheaper labour
costs. (NA, IA, DA) Global English has helped accelerate this phenomenon and give India (NA,
IA, DA) competitive edge. English is so desirable in (NA, IA, DA) outsourcing business because
most of (NA, IA, DA) offshore contracts come from (NA, IA, DA) English-speaking
corporations. When (NA, IA, DA) customers in some branches of (NA, IA, DA) McDonald‘s
restaurants in the USA place (NA, IA, DA) orders for (NA, IA, DA) fast food, they speak to
(NA, IA, DA) call centre hundreds of miles away, who pass back (NA, IA, DA) order, together
with (NA, IA, DA) digital photo of (NA, IA, DA) customer, to (NA, IA, DA) kitchen. This
approach is marginally cheaper for (NA, IA, DA) restaurant per (NA, IA, DA) transaction but it
apparently can make (NA, IA, DA) process 30 seconds faster, allowing more burgers to be sold
per (NA, IA, DA) hour, with (NA, IA, DA) fewer mistakes. Each day at 4.30 am (NA, IA, DA)
20 well-educated Indians start (NA, IA, DA) work in their call centre in Kerala, India. They
provide (NA, IA, DA) one-to-one tutorial help in (NA, IA, DA) subjects such as (NA, IA, DA)
maths and (NA, IA, DA) science to (NA, IA, DA) Californian schoolchildren. One recent
estimate suggests that over 20,000 American schoolchildren now receive (NA, IA, DA) e-
tutoring support from India, usually through (NA, IA, DA) US service providers.
Unit 1-3. ENGLISH AS A UNIVERSAL LINGUAGE

Section 1. Guidelines for intensive reading of ESP texts

Patterns of organization of texts. These include the following:


Description: Descriptions include physical descriptions of persons, places, or objects, or
descriptions of processes, such as step-by-step explanations of how something is done or
directions for doing something.
Comparison and Contrast: In this pattern the main idea is developed through comparison
and contrast with other things. Often examples are used to illustrate. Definitions and descriptions
are often included in this pattern.
Other patterns of organization of texts include:
Analysis: In this pattern, a topic is broken down into causes, effects, reasons, methods,
purposes, or other categories that support the main idea.
Analogy: In this pattern the main idea is implied by the use of analogy. This organizing
principle is often used to make complex concepts easier to understand by relating them to better
known ones.
Definition: The purpose of a text in this pattern is to define, explain, or clarify the meaning
of something. It may involve analysis, comparison or contrast, description, or even analogy.
Students become adept at recognizing implied and explicit definitions.

Text 1-3. ENGLISH AS A UNIVERSAL LINGUAGE


(Abridged from the Toolkit for transnational communication in Europe. Copenhagen
Studies in Bilingualism. University of Copenhagen, 2011)
1. A lingua franca is a shared means of intercultural communication between speakers
with different primary lingua-cultural backgrounds. In other words, a lingua franca comes to
use when people who do not have the same mother tongue need to communicate and thus opt for
an additional language resource. It is essentially a contact language emerging from linguistically
diverse environments and constitutes a common denominator of elements available in the
speakers' linguistic repertoires. Lingua francas (or linguae francae) are often perceived as
vehicular languages, i.e. languages for communication, rather than languages for identification.
The concept of lingua franca (literally 'the Frankish language') is often assumed to date
back to the Crusades during which a mixed vehicular language emerged which was then widely
used for purposes of commerce in the Mediterranean. It thus originates from times when the
concept of the national language had not been introduced and when linguistic fluidity and
multilingualism prevailed naturally.
2. Lingua francas are perceived to be potentially more neutral and democratic than
territorially-defined, i.e. regional or national, languages since they are not directly connected to
the primary lingua-culture of any fixed speech community. Originally, the concept involved a
mixed kind of language which drew on elements of diverse origin. This definition has shifted in
more recent days, however, when lingua francas based on pre-existing territorially-defined, i.e.
national or regional, language varieties, have come into use. These languages are then being
individually adjusted for intercultural purposes by their users in the lingua franca mode. On the
whole, lingua franca use is best viewed from a usage-oriented, rather than from a code-oriented,
perspective since functional issues strongly determine the forms emerging in this mode.
Historically, the most prominent lingua franca was Latin during the Roman Empire,
later the language of religion and science. Also French used to be crucial, especially as a
language of international diplomacy. In today's global communicative framework, English – in
its lingua franca realisation – has developed to play the most central role for intercultural
purposes (cf. English as a lingua franca, ELF).
Other manifestations of lingua francas are artificially constructed, 'planned' languages
which are exclusively and deliberately established for lingua franca purposes. Examples are
Volapük (a mixture of German, English, French, Italian, Spanish and Russian elements,
developed around 1880) or – the most prominent representative of this type – Esperanto (an
agglutinating language, largely based on Romanic, but also on Germanic and some Slavic
elements, first made public in 1887).
These types of lingua franca have been promoted for their high degree of neutrality (as
they are not directly related to a national language) and formal regularity (as they do not contain
idiosyncratic elements that characterise naturally emerging languages). Their level of uptake has
remained relatively low, however.

3. English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the currently most wide-spread and most
frequently used manifestation of the lingua franca mode. It is defined as the use of an English-
based resource as a shared means of intercultural communication between speakers with
different primary lingua-cultural backgrounds.
In its contemporary definition, it has shifted from the original conceptualisation of lingua
francas which developed as mixed and therefore relatively neutral vehicular languages (cf.
Lingua franca). This shift is grounded in the fact that in more recent days national languages
have come to serve as the basis of lingua francas which, through their activation in intercultural
communication, become modified and detached from their primary origins.
ELF is to be viewed as a flexible mode of communication rather than as a fixed code. It is
not defined as a set of formal features but as a flexible, dynamic resource: linguistic form is
driven by functional purposes. With mutual intelligibility between the participants as the overall
aim, considerations of correctness are overruled by notions of effectiveness.

4. Successful ELF talk, thus, does away with the opaque forms and 'unilateral
idiomaticity', i.e. non-transparent language based on convention, rather than on straightforward
form-meaning correspondences, that typically occurs in native-speaker language. It is
situationally negotiated with regard to different contexts, resource constellations and purposes,
and appropriated as to suit these purposes.
ELF is, thus, individually shaped by its users and, by implication, not 'the English
language'. Rather, it is a variable intercultural adaptation based on English, which is determined
by accommodative strategies between the speakers and which is typically characterised by
plurilingual elements. ELF in this definition does not represent a restricted language resource. It
can potentially take any form – from simplified to complex – and can potentially fulfill any
function – from a basic interaction to the most elaborate argument.
It is 'non-territorial' in the sense that it could take place everywhere, in any constellation.
It potentially integrates all speakers, also native speakers, of English who use it in an
intercultural mode. As non-native speakers largely outnumber native speakers, however, ELF
interactions most frequently take place between the former.

5. ELF is essentially a ‗contact language‘ for people of different first languages for whom
English is the chosen means of communication, including native speakers of English when they
engage in intercultural communication. However, ELF is emphatically not the English as a
property of its native speakers, but is democratized and universalized in the ‗exolingual‘ process
of being appropriated for international use.

6. While all of us are, in a sense, life-long learners of any language, including our mother
tongue (for instance when we extend our language use into new domains), there is still a
(traditional) distinction made between the concepts of 'language learner' and 'language user'.
With reference to this distinction, ELF speakers are not considered merely learners striving to
conform to native-speaker norms but primarily users of the language, where the main
consideration is not formal correctness but functional effectiveness. Of course using and learning
are related (you can learn while using), but the point is that with ELF the emphasis is on use and
the learning is incidental. This user language may certainly exhibit the same forms as learner
English, but the significance of the forms is a different one.

7. As we conceive of it, ELF is not bad or deficient English – it is just different in form
from native speaker English and serves different functions. It does not in principle lack the
potential to be effective for all the communicative purposes it is appropriated for. It can occur in
any kind of intercultural communication ranging from the most rudimentary utterances to highly
elaborate arguments. Proficiency in ELF, i.e. the ability to achieve mutual intelligibility in
intercultural exchanges, seems to be determined by aspects such as cooperation, accommodation,
lingua-cultural awareness and open-mindedness towards innovative linguistic forms rather than
formal linguistic criteria.

8. ELF relates to other languages in the sense that it is evolving within a multilingual
context. Influences of other languages are a natural and crucial characteristic of ELF at all
linguistic levels (phonological, lexicogrammatical and pragmatic). As a means of
communication, ELF is only one of several components of the multilingual repertoire of speakers
and often combines with other languages as appropriate to the intercultural communicative
situation. ELF is essentially a ‗partner language‘.

9. In line with our definition, any speaker using English for the purpose of intercultural
communication (i.e. with a speaker of a different L1), in principle, speaks ELF – unless they
(inappropriately) insist on speaking 'endolingually'. ELF is thus defined functionally by its use in
intercultural communication rather than formally by its reference to native speaker norms. The
crucial point is that speakers of whatever L1 can appropriate ELF for their own purposes without
over-deference to native-speaker norms. This counteracts a deficit view of lingua franca English
in that it implies equal communicative rights for all its users.

OVERVIEW QUESTIONS: MAIN IDEA, MAIN TOPIC, MAIN PURPOSE, AND


ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

Instruction: Patterns of organization of texts are commonly aimed at helping students


get the most from their reading. Patterns of organization comprise description, step-by-step
explanation, directions, comparison and contrast, analysis, analogy, and definition.
The main idea is implied by the use of analogy to make the complex concept of lingua
franca easier to understand.
Keep in mind that definitions and descriptions are often counterposed in compared and
contrasted pairs to develop the main idea.
Analysis will help break down the topic of the text into causes, effects, reasons, methods,
purposes, or other categories that support the main idea.
The purpose of the pattern of definition is to exectify, explain, or clarify the meaning of the
central concept. It may involve analysis, comparison or contrast, description, or even analogy.
Students become adept at recognizing implied and explicit definitions.

Students are asked to complete these five activities:


1) to survey; looking over headings, reading introductory and concluding paragraphs, and
identifying a definition of the lingua franca.
2) to formulate answers for the questions asked in the headings matching assignment.
3) to make a conscious effort to identify description, step-by-step explanation, directions,
comparison and contrast, analysis, analogy, and definition in the text as they read.
4) having read the second paragraph, to look away from the book and try to recite the
manifestations of lingua francas.
5) to take notes, characterising ELF.
1. Matching headings with paragraphs
 Step 1. Survey the whole text.
 Step 2. Look over the 8 headings given in the table.
 Step 3. Skim each paragraph to identify the topic.
Match the given 9 headings with the 9 paragraphs of the text:
Straightforward and variable 1
adaptation of English
What is ELF? 2
Do I speak ELF? 3
Lingua franca 4
Neutral and democratic lingua 5
francas
Is ELF ‗bad‘ English? 6
Does ELF exclude all use of 7
other languages?
Is ELF 'learner English'? 8
English as a lingua franca 9
(ELF)

2. Identifying where to find information


 Step 1. Survey introductory and concluding paragraphs, and identify the core ideas of
the passage.
 Step 2. Skim the rest of the passage to make sure.
 Step 3. Scan the text to find the correct wording of its main idea, the topic , and the
purpose, write out the key words from each paragraph.
 Step 4. Skim the text for examples of descriptions, step-by-step explanations,
directions, comparisons and contrasts, analyses, analogies, and definitions.
a/ The main idea is what the author has in mind when s/he is writing a text. Which one of
the sentences given below most closely renders the main idea of the text?
1. Lingua franca is a vehicular language, i.e. a language for communication.
2. Lingua franca is potentially more neutral than regional or national languages since they
are not directly connected to the primary lingua-culture of any fixed speech community.
3. ELF should be viewed as a flexible mode of communication rather than as a fixed code.
4. Being a variable intercultural adaptation based on English, ELF is determined by
accommodative strategies between the speakers.
5. ELF is not bad or deficient English – it is different in form from native speaker English
and serves different functions.
b/ The topic is the subject area the author chooses to bring her/his idea to the
reader. Identify the main topic of the text.
1. Intercultural communication.
2. Equal communicative rights for all English language users.
3. The intercultural communicative situation..
4. Accommodative strategies between the EFL speakers.
5. Historic development of the most prominent lingua francas.

c/ The purpose of the text is what the author wants the reader to believe in. Does
the writer want you to believe that:
1. ELF speakers are not merely learners striving to conform to native-speaker norms but
primarily users of the language?
2. Non-native speakers largely outnumber native speakers?
3. The Crusades used a mixed vehicular language?
4. Esperanto is an agglutinating language, largely based on Romanic, but also on Germanic
and some Slavic elements?
5. ELF is a ‗contact language‘ for people of different first languages for whom English is
the chosen means of communication?

3. Reciting and reviewing the text.


 Step 1. Basing on the above formulated main idea, main topic, and main purpose of the
text take 2-3 minutes to recite it.
 Step 2. Select 3 key words out each paragraph making it 27 key words for the whole text.
 Step 3. Limit the number of selected key words down to 10.

4. Identifying patterns of text organization.


Identify description, step-by-step explanation, directions, comparison and contrast,
analysis, analogy, and definition in the following paragraphs:
1. ELF is not bad or deficient English – it is just different in form from native speaker
English and serves different functions. It does not in principle lack the potential to be effective
for all the communicative purposes it is appropriated for. It can occur in any kind of intercultural
communication ranging from the most rudimentary utterances to highly elaborate arguments.
2. ELF is essentially a ‗contact language‘ for people of different first languages for whom
English is the chosen means of communication, including native speakers of English when they
engage in intercultural communication. However, ELF is emphatically not the English as a
property of its native speakers, but is democratized and universalized in the ‗exolingual‘ process
of being appropriated for international use.
3. ELF is individually shaped by its users and by implication not 'the English language'.
Rather, it is a variable intercultural adaptation based on English, ... ELF does not represent a
restricted language resource. It can potentially take any form - from simplified to complex – and
can potentially fulfill any function – from a basic interaction to the most elaborate argument. It is
'non-territorial' in the sense that it could take place everywhere, in any constellation. It
potentially integrates all speakers of English who use it in an intercultural mode.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Errors involving plural forms of numbers and measurement


Some errors involve numbers + measurements: They went for a 6-mile walk. They walked
6 miles. In the first sentence, the number + measurement is used as an adjective, and the
measurement is singular. In the second, the measurement is a noun, and is therefore plural.
Numbers like hundred, thousand, and million may be pluralized when they are used
indefinitely – in other words, when they do not follow other numbers:
Seven (many, a few, several) thousand acres – (many, a few, several) thousands of acres
five (many, a few, several) million dollars – (many, a few, several) millions of dollars
Example
The U.S. president serves a maximum of two four-years terms. Incorrect – When used before a
noun, a number + measurement is singular.
Thousand of antibiotics have been developed, but only about thirty are in common use today.
Incorrect – The plural form thousands should be used.
Some errors involve many + nouns: Many artists come here but Many an artist comes
here.

Verb errors involving tense


Most tense errors involve the Simple (Indefinite) Present Tense, the Simple Past Tense, and
the Present Perfect Tense.
The Simple Present Tense is a general-time tense. It usually indicates that a condition is
always true or that an action always occurs. It may also indicate that an action regularly occurs.
The Earth rotates round the Sun.
The atmosphere surrounds the Earth.
John often stays at this hotel.
Generally, the lectures of this professor are very interesting.
The Simple Past Tense indicates that an action took place at a specific time in the past.
They moved to Simferopol five years ago. This house was built in the 1990s. Dinosaurs lived
millions of years ago.
The Present Perfect Tense usually indicates that an action began at some time in the past
and continues to the present. It may also indicate that an action took place at an unspecified time
in the past.
Mr. Brandon has worked for this company since 1990. Mary hasn't been to a doctor for a
year. Nick has recently returned from the US.
For a Ukrainian/Russian speaker it is often difficult to see the difference between the Simple
(Indefinite) Tense and the Progressive (Continuous) Tense. Compare the following sentences:
John often stays at this hotel (in general). John is staying at this hotel (now, this week, this
summer).
John drives to his office (usually). John is driving to his office (now, today, in the immediate
future).
If you want to state a fact you will say: The Earth rotates round the Sun. If you want to
emphasize that it is an everlasting process you will say: The Earth is permanently rotating round
the Sun (with the adverbs always, constantly, ever, permanently).
If you want to state a fact you will say: She is beautiful. If you want to sound humorous or
critical about much effort she takes at the moment to try and look beautiful you will say: She is
being beatiful.
Unit 1-4. RECEPTIVE MULTILINGUALISM

Section 1. Guidelines for intensive reading of ESP texts

Context clues
Students often believe they must understand every word in order to read English. In fact,
good reading means the ability to process chunks of language larger than single words, so
striving for word-for-word recognition will actually slow students down and interfere with their
overall comprehension. Rather than reaching for the dictionary every time they do not recognize
a word, they should use the context of the passage to understand it.

Context clues include use of functional definitions, as in " Receptive Multilingualism


has a far-reaching potential for achieving congruent understanding in various multilingual
constellations, applied alone or in combination with other modes." where the meaning of
"congruent " (adequate, similar or fitting together well) can be inferred from the words ―a far-
reaching potential for achieving ...‖.

Context clues also include understanding the meaning of the other words in the sentence
and applying such understanding to infer the meaning of an unknown word or phrase. For
example, students can be taught to infer a negative meaning of the word " sloppy" in the sentence
"Codeswitching tends to be frowned upon as a sign of deterioration of the language, as a type of
sloppy speech."

Text 1-4. RECEPTIVE MULTILINGUALISM


(Abridged from the Toolkit for transnational communication in Europe.
Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism. University of Copenhagen, 2011)
1. The concept of Receptive Multilingualism, or 'Lingua Receptiva' (LaRa), focuses
upon understanding processes in intercultural and interlingual interactions in which the
participants use different languages/varieties as speakers or as listeners; the term is broadly
explained in Rehbein, ten Thije and Verschik (2010). Insights into cross-linguistic understanding
go back to the Russian semiotician Troubetzkoy and to Voegelin & Harris and were discussed
under the notions of intelligiblity of closely related languages, semicommunication,
intercompréhension, and, last but not least, receptive multilingualism (ten Thije & Zeevaert
2007).
In contrast to these previous approaches, the Lingua Receptiva lies emphasis on the
receptive component in cross-cultural and cross-linguistic communication, which also is crucial
to grasping the notions of understanding and misunderstanding. In LaRa, specific receptive
mechanisms in linguistic, mental, interactional as well as intercultural competencies are
looked at, which are creatively activated when interlocutors listen to linguistic actions in their
'passive' language or variety. In particular, speakers apply additional competencies, or
repertoires, in order to monitor the way hearers activate their 'passive knowledge' and thus
attempt to control the ongoing process of understanding.

2. In LaRa, one distinguishes between hearer's and speaker's competencies. The hearer's
component of LaRa consists of all processes that actualise and intensify the hearer's
competencies. These linguistic means comprise nonverbal signals that steer the speaker's
production, prosodic elements expressing the whole range from agreement to disagreement,
formulaic expressions (e.g. 'I don't understand', 'What do you mean?', 'What?'), echo questions,
and other linguistic elements).
On the other hand, the speaker's LaRa lists strategies such as reformulations, repairs,
recapitulations, rephrasings and other types of meta-discourse elements. Accommodation
processes, in particular, lead to lexical and morphological adaptations towards what speakers
imagine hearers would be able to better understand in their recipient language. In conclusion,
these creative verbal elements within LaRa are often the result of receptive multilingual
discourse, which is why their analysis will provide new insights into the emergence of contact
varieties, too.

3. All these elements mentioned above occur in communication under normal conditions
and can be observed on the surface of communication, both mono- and multilingual. LaRa seems
to be an effective mode in various multilingual constellations and thus has a potential for solving
communicative problems both by overcoming ideological asymmetries and establishing
discursive interculture(s). It also promotes the idea of cultural and linguistic diversity in
addressing two languages simultaneously: speakers of community languages (i.e. minority and
immigrant languages), for instance, maintain or even revitalise their first language and yet could
be integrated into 'dominant' society once LaRa become an accepted mode of communication.
Finally, LaRa has been compared to other multilingual modes, e.g., codeswitching, and it has
been concluded that this mode has a far-reaching potential for achieving congruent
understanding in various multilingual constellations, applied alone or in combination with other
modes.

4. Codeswitching is the use of two, sometimes more, languages in the same conversation.
This way of speaking is common in many bi- and multilingual communities the world over,
especially in informal settings. It comes in many different forms; the specific form it takes is
dependent on many factors, including how well the speaker knows the two languages, to what
degree the two languages involved resemble each other, how formal or informal the conversation
is, and what attitudes people in the community have about the two languages and about mixing
them.

5. The two main forms codeswitching takes are referred to as insertion and alternation
(see Muysken 2000). In insertion, the sentence is clearly in one of the two languages but one or
more of the words is from the other language. An English sentence with a French word in it is a
case of insertion. Most of the time, the inserted words will be a content word, i.e. a noun, verb or
adjective. This betrays one of the main reasons why people use this way of speaking: the words
from the other language name useful concepts that the base language has no word of its own for.
The grammar of the sentence, including the order of the words, and all the grammatical words
and parts of words, will be in the base language (see Myers-Scotton 2002).
Alternation, the other main form of codeswitching, takes place when parts of a
conversation are in one language and other parts in the other. Bilingual speech often shows a
pattern of regular alternation between the languages, often at the boundary between two
successive sentences. A French-English bilingual, say in Canada, may alternate between English
and French sentences, for example.

6. Whether insertion will dominate in bilingual speech or alternation is dependent on


many factors. One of the most important ones has proven to be proficiency. If a bilingual is
clearly dominant in one of the languages, codeswitching will often be of the insertion kind, with
the dominant language functioning as the base language. Balanced bilinguals, on the other hand,
tend to prefer alternation. That doesn't mean they won't use any insertion, though. The reason is
that insertion is motivated by factors that can always play a role, primarily the need to use the
best word available, le mot juste, for a particular concept one wants to say something about.
7. But there are various other factors that influence the kind of codeswitching one gets.
One is the degree to which the languages are different. If languages are closely related, such as
German and English, there are many more places within a sentence at which it is easy to switch,
and often this happens inadvertently: the languages resemble each other so much that many
words are shared between the two systems, and their use may well trigger a switch to the other
language than the one that was spoken up until that word.
This means that when closely related languages are mixed, the number of points within a
sentence at which you will find switches is much greater than when the languages are not related.
Insertional codeswitching of German words in a Turkish sentence, for example, in the speech of
Turkish immigrants in Germany, mainly involves nouns and verbs or larger chunks inserted into
particular places in the Turkish sentence. Often these words have relatively specific meaning,
which illustrates why they are used in the first place.

8. Another important factor is the nature of the conversation. Codeswitching is


particularly common in everyday informal conversation between bilingual friends. Though the
specifics are different for every community, the freedom to switch tends to be much smaller if
the conversation is formal, if not all participants are well-known to each other, and especially if
not all of them are judged to be good at both languages.
In addition, codeswitching tends to be frowned upon as a sign of deterioration of the
language, as a type of sloppy speech. When attitudes like that prevail, it will generally only be
found in informal speech. Also, it will often be flagged in a way, as if the speaker is apologizing.

OVERVIEW QUESTIONS: MAIN IDEA, MAIN TOPIC, MAIN PURPOSE,


ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT, AND CONTEXT CLUES

Instruction: A summary of Context clues includes: a) Numerical statements, b) Rhetorical


questions, c) Introductory summaries, d) Development of an idea, e) Transitions, f) Chronology
of ideas, g) Emphasis of ideas, h) Summary of ideas.
Students are asked to complete these five activities:
1) to survey; looking over headings, reading introductory and concluding paragraphs, and
identifying a definition of the LaRa and codeswitching;
2) to formulate answers for the questions asked in the headings matching assignment;
3) to make a conscious effort to identify description, step-by-step explanation, directions,
comparison and contrast, analysis, analogy, and definition in the text as they read;
4) having read the second section, to look away from the book and try to recite the
manifestations of lingua francas;
5) to take notes, characterising LaRa and codeswitching.

1. Matching headings with paragraphs.


 Step 1. Survey the whole text.
 Step 2. Look over the 8 headings given in the table.
 Step 3. Skim each paragraph to identify the topic.
Match the given 8 headings with the 8 paragraphs of the text:
Insertion and alternation 1
The nature of the conversation 2
A potential of LaRa 3
Insights into Lingua Receptiva 4
(LaRa)
The role of proficiency 5
Codeswitching 6
Strategies in LaRa 7
The degree of difference 8

2. Identifying where to find information.


 Step 1. Survey introductory and concluding paragraphs, and identify the core ideas of
the passage.
 Step 2. Skim the rest of the passage to make sure.
 Step 3. Scan the text to find the correct wording of its main idea, the topic , and the
purpose, write out the key words from each paragraph.
 Step 4. Skim the text for examples of descriptions, step-by-step explanations,
directions, comparisons and contrasts, analyses, analogies, and definitions.
a/ The main idea is what the author has in mind when s/he is writing a text. Which
one of the sentences given below most closely renders the main idea of the text?
1. Receptive Multilingualism activates understanding processes in intercultural and
interlingual interactions in which the participants use different languages/varieties as speakers or
as listeners.
2. LaRa has become an accepted mode of communication.
3. Creative verbal elements within LaRa result from receptive multilingual discourse.
4. LaRa has a potential for solving communicative problems both by overcoming
ideological asymmetries and establishing discursive interculture(s).
5. LaRa enhances the idea of cultural and linguistic diversity and helps immigrants be
integrated into 'dominant' society.
b/ The topic is the subject area the author chooses to bring her/his idea to the
reader. Identify the main topic of the text.
1. Alternation as a form of codeswitching.
2. Comparison of LaRa to other multilingual modes.
3. The intercultural communicative situation.
4. Receptive multilingual discourse.
5. Cross-cultural and cross-linguistic communication.
c/ The purpose of the text is what the author wants the reader to believe in. Does
the writer want you to believe that:
1. Turkish immigrants in Germany use insertional codeswitching?
2. LaRa promotes the idea of cultural and linguistic diversity by addressing two languages
simultaneously?
3. Codeswitching is common in many bi- and multilingual communities the world over?
4. The two main forms of codeswitching are insertion and alternation?
5. In LaRa speakers apply additional competencies, or repertoires, in order to monitor the
way hearers activate their 'passive knowledge' and understanding?

3. Identifying the key words of the text.


 Step 1. Select 3 key words out each paragraph making it 24 key words for the whole text.
 Step 2. Limit the number of selected key words and word combinations down to 5.

4. Identifying patterns of text organization.


Identify description, step-by-step explanation, directions, comparison and contrast,
analysis, analogy, and definition in the following paragraphs:
1. In LaRa, one distinguishes between hearer's and speaker's competencies. The hearer's
component of LaRa consists of all processes that actualise and intensify the hearer's
competencies. These linguistic means comprise nonverbal signals that steer the speaker's
production, prosodic elements expressing the whole range from agreement to disagreement,
formulaic expressions.
2. On the other hand, the speaker's LaRa lists strategies such as reformulations, repairs,
recapitulations, rephrasings and other types of meta-discourse elements. Accommodation
processes, in particular, lead to lexical and morphological adaptations towards what speakers
imagine hearers would be able to better understand in their recipient language.

3. The two main forms codeswitching takes are referred to as insertion and alternation. In
insertion, the sentence is clearly in one of the two languages but one or more of the words is
from the other language. An English sentence with a French word in it is a case of insertion.
Most of the time, the inserted words will be a content word, i.e. a noun, verb or adjective. This
betrays one of the main reasons why people use this way of speaking: the words from the other
language name useful concepts that the base language has no word of its own for.

Find in the text at least one example per each pattern of text organization:
description, step-by-step explanation, directions, comparison and contrast, analysis,
analogy, and definition.

5. Reviewing and reciting the text.


Take 5-6 minutes to review and recite the text with the help of the following context
clues:
a) Numerical statements, such as "There are two reasons ...".
b) Rhetorical questions.
c) Introductory summaries: "Let me first explain..."; "The topic which I intend to discuss is
interesting because...".
d) Development of an idea, signalled by statements such as: "Another reason..."; "On the one
hand..."; "Therefore..."; "Since..."; "In addition..."; etc.
e) Transitions, such as "Let us turn our attention to..."; "If these facts are true, then..."; etc.
f) Chronology of ideas, signalled by "First... "; "The next..."; "Finally...,"; etc.
g) Emphasis of ideas, such as "This is important because..."; "The significant results were...";
"Let me repeat..."; etc.
h) Summary of ideas, signalled by "In conclusion...; As I have shown... "; etc.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Common verbs that take verbal objects


Verbs used with Gerunds: admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, finish, justify, quit, recommend, suggest,
understand.
Verbs used with infinitives: agree, allow, arrange, attempt, cause, choose, decide, enable,
hope, instruct, know (how), learn (how), permit, persuade, require, seem, teach (how), tell, use,
warn.
Infinitives are used with have, and bare infinitives are used with let and make: I have to do my
research paper by next Monday. The professor won‘t let us waste time on this experiment. Necessity
makes you look for options.
Gerunds, by their meaning, are verbal nouns and, as such, are generally used as subjects or
objects of verbs or as objects of prepositions. Infinitives can also be subjects and objects.
Playing (to play) cards is enjoyable, (gerund as subject of a verb).
He enjoys going to good restaurants, (gerund as object of a verb).
He avoids eating junk food, (gerund as object of a verb).
He passes the time by playing cards, (gerund as object of a preposition).
You can solve this problem by using a computer, (gerund as object of a preposition).
Note: All two- and three-word verb phrases that can be followed by verbals are used with
gerunds, not infinitives. This is true even when the verb phrase ends with the word to.
I am looking forward to visiting with you next summer.
I cannot agree to going to New Orleans.
My partner is opposed to our participating in this deal.
Identify and correct errors involving verbs and verbals
Moisture regularly (have entered/is entering/entered/enters) the atmosphere through the
evaporation of water. The warm air rises (to quickly condense/ quickly condensing/ quickly
condensed) into rain. Rain falls when the microscopic water droplets in clouds(are colliding/have
collided/collide/will collide). If the temperature outside drops to the dew point, relative humidity
(has become/ becomes/will become/became) 100 per cent and fog is likely to form. At air
temperature above about 4 °C (39 °F), ice crystals in clouds (will melt/have melted/melt/are
melting).
By uneven (heating/heat/heats) of land and water surfaces along coastlines local winds are
created. In thunderstorms, the motion of the air also causes electric charges (built/building/to
build) up inside the cloud, producing lightning. Flashes of lightning heat the surrounding air,
(causing/to cause) the air to expand violently.
Weak fronts, where the two air masses are close in temperature, often pass (unnotice/to
unnotice/unnoticed /unnoticing). Generally moving from west to east fronts follow (to
curve/curved/curving) paths. A front may be warm or cold, (depending/to depend/depends) upon
which air mass is pushing the air ahead of it.
In the United States, weather forecasts(are giving/have given/gave/give) barometric pressure
in inches. The temperature-humidity index (THI) sometimes (mentioning/mentioned/to mention/is
mentioned) in forecasts was once called the discomfort index. Some parts of the weather forecast
seem easy enough (understood/to understand/understading/understand).
Problems with verbals
Any of these verbals – gerund, or infinitive – may be incorrectly used when another one of
them is required, depending on the meaning. Take, for example, two sentences:
 I stopped to talk with my friend. The infinitive expresses purpose – I stopped
because I wanted to talk with my friend.
 I stopped talking with my friend. The gerund is an object – I stopped this action
because I was pressed for time and had to go.
Unit 1-5. LANGUAGE AND DIVERSITY

Section 1. Guidelines for intensive reading of ESP texts

The author‟s tone and attitude


Identifying the author‘s tone and attitude is often required for an overall understanding of
the passage. Tone questions ask you to determine the author's feelings about the topic by the
language that he or she uses in writing the passage. Attitude questions are very similar to tone
questions. Again, you must understand the author's opinion. The language that the author uses
will tell you what his or her position is.
You should keep in mind that, in ESP texts, most reading passages have a neutral tone, but
sometimes an author may take a position for or against some point. However, answer choices that
indicate strong emotion – amused, angry, outraged, pleased, and so forth – will seldom be correct.

Text 1-5. LANGUAGE AND SUPERDIVERSITY


(After J. Normann Jørgensen‟s and Kasper Juffermans‟ sections in the Toolkit for
Transnational Communication in Europe. Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism. University of
Copenhagen, 2011)

1.‗Superdiversity‘ is the term introduced by Vertovec (2007) to describe the new forms of
sociocultural diversity that has emerged after the end of the Cold War, and has altered the face of
large urban centers in the West and elsewhere. It is characterized by two parallel developments:
(1) a range of new forms of migration across the world, leading to ‗diversity within diversity‘ in
about every society, and, in particular, in large urban centers in the West and elsewhere; (2) the
escalation of online cultural and social phenomena since the advent of the internet, leading to
new forms of identity performance, new forms of global popular culture and new forms of
community formation. All these developments are shot through with new sociolinguistic
phenomena of tremendous complexity, defying current ways of understanding and description.
The struggle to come to terms with these developments has led to a flurry of terminological
innovation, including terms such as ‗languaging‘, ‗polylingual languaging‘, ‗metrolingualism‘,
‗transidiomaticity‘ and so forth. Superdiversity is a term for the vastly increased range of
resources, linguistic, religious, ethnic, cultural in the widest sense, that characterize late modern
societies. The term has been coined by Vertovec (2006) in a review of demographic and socio-
economic changes in post-Cold War Britain: "Super-diversity underscores the fact that the new
conjunctions and interactions of variables, that have arisen over the past decade, surpass the
ways – in public discourse, policy debates and academic literature – that we usually understand
diversity in Britain".
2. Superdiversity should be understood as diversification of diversity, as diversity that
cannot be understood in terms of multiculturalism (the presence of multiple cultures in one
society) alone. At the basis of this paradigm shift are two sets of developments that can be
observed in Europe and world-wide. One is the changing patterns and itineraries of migration
from the outside into Europe and continued migration by the same people inside Europe: "more
people are now moving from more places, through more places, to more places" (Vertovec
2010). In effect, people bring with them continuously more different resources and experiences
from a variety of places in their everyday interactions and encounters with others and
institutions.
A second factor is the technological developments which have made new social media of
communication accessible to the masses, with mobile phones and the Internet (e.g., social
network sites). These developments mean that the individual in superdiversity is likely to meet a
much wider range of resources than was characteristic of Europe just a few decades ago.
3. A consequence of this superdiversity is an increasingly important lack of predictability.
A few decades ago it would be possible to predict with some degree of certainty what a 14-year
old grade school student in, for instance, Berlin would be like – looks, mother tongue, religious
affiliation, cultural preferences, musical taste, and in other ways. The range of resources
available to and employed by 14-year old grade school students in Germany was limited
compared to what we observe today – none of this can today be predicted with any substantial
degreee of certainty. Blommaert (2010) oberves that "the presuppositions of common integration
policies – that we know who the immigrants are, and that they have a shared language and
culture – can no longer be upheld".
Fanshawe & Sriskandarajah (2010) take the observation a step further and criticize the
routine reference to "protected strands" (gender, race, disability, sexuality, faith and belief, age)
in efforts to eliminate discrimination and inequality – there is no longer any single dimension
along which to work with these concepts, or with "identities". Their argument is that in the
context of superdiversity, we need a new politics of identity: people can't be put in a box
anymore.

4. The superdiverse conditions call for a revisiting and reinventing of our theoretical
toolkit to analyse and understand phenomena of language and communication (see Blommaert
and Rampton 2011). For instance, it makes concepts such as "speech community", "ethnic
groups", "minority" very difficult to maintain in any sense. It requires us to study rather than
assume relations between ethnicity, citizenship, residence, origin, profession, legal status, class,
religion and language. A superdiversity perspective on society problematises the countability and
representability of cultures, languages and identities (see also our languaging lemma here),
which is why superdiversity can be understood as post-multiculturalism (Vertovec 2010).
The concept of superdiversity has been theorised primarily in relation to the UK and, by
extension, contemporary Europe. It is, however, evident that other societies have experienced
and still experience superdiversity, and that superdiversity may be a much older condition in
other places, India and Africa being obvious examples which include societies of long-standing
superdiversity, although not necessarily late modern.

5. Humankind is a languaging species. Human beings use language to achieve their goals,
and with a few exceptions by using language to other human beings. It is a widely held view that
language as a human phenomenon can be separated into different ―languages‖, such as
―Russian‖, ―Latin‖, and ―Greenlandic‖. This idea is based on the recently developed
sociolinguistic understanding that this view of language cannot be upheld on the basis of
linguistic criteria. ―Languages‖ are sociocultural, or ideological, abstractions which match real-
life use of language poorly. This means that sociolinguistics must apply another level of analysis
with observed language use. Languaging is the unique human capacity to change the world
through communication with others by means of language, i.e. systematically organized arbitrary
signs. This capacity enables people to acquire (or develop) a complex system of symbols, and to
use this system for creating and negotiating meanings and intentions and transferring them across
time and space.
All human beings language, and they do so to achieve their goals. Languaging is
individual and unique in the sense that every single person possesses her or his own combination
of competences and knowledge with respect to language. No two persons share exactly the same
vocabulary, pronunciation, etc. More importantly, however, language is social in the sense that
every aspect of language is shared among several individuals, and that it is exclusively acquired
and practiced in interaction with other individuals.

6. Traditionally the language sciences deal with 'languages'. Languages are thought of as
sets of features, i.e. conventions which are believed to somehow belong together. Over the past
decade sociolinguistics has come to the conclusion that languages are ideologically constructed
abstract concepts which do not represent real life language use: 'languages do not exist as real
entities in the world and neither do they emerge from or represent real environments; they are, by
contrast, the inventions of social, cultural and political movements' (Makoni and Pennycook,
2007). Languages in the plural exist only as sociocultural inventions: 'Languages are conceived
and languaging is practiced' (Mignolo, 1996).
The making of languages in Europe is intertwined with the nation-building projects that
emerged in the wake of the Renaissance and reached its high point in the nationalist and
romanticist nineteenth century. The compartmentalised vision of language as separate bounded
linguistic systems is a modernist, Renaissance vision on language. Italian is the product of the
creation of an Italian nation-state, while French is the product of the creation of a French nation-
state, thereby absorbing, erasing or marginalising the linguistic diversity in their territories.
Likewise, the boundary between Dutch and German is the same as the border between the
Netherlands and Germany and does not in any meaningful way precede the history of the
respective nation-states.

7. A languaging perspective regards boundaries between languages as arbitrary and


historically contingent, as the result of particular histories of standardisation and regulation.
Standardizing language means compartmentalizing the free and unbounded languaging of a
particular geographical area and class of people as the language for that particular geographical
area and its people and freezing its evolution. Standardizing language also means enregistering
particular linguistic features as normative: selecting particular phonemes, morphemes, words,
syntax, etc. as normal, as the norms for the language while designating all variation to those
norms as sub-standard, dialect, or even deficit language.
Languaging is the use of language, not of "a language". The analytical perspective
pointed to by the concept is that of the feature. Linguistic features appear in the shape of units
and regularities. Individual features are routinely ascribed a range of associations. Features are
typically (but not always) associated with one or more sociocultural constructions called
"languages". The unit (word) Durchschnittsgeschwindigkeit, for example, is generally
associated with "German". Features are also associated with values, meanings, speakers, places,
etc. (Jørgensen 2010). Learning language in real life means learning new features, including
some or all of these associations.
A languaging perspective sees language in actual practice not as bounded, countable
entities that are given in the natural world, but as dynamic, creative potential to speak. It
emphasises that people do not primarily use 'a language', or 'some languages', but use language,
linguistic resources. Bilinguals are not seen as 'speaking two languages', but as languagers
making use of resources that are recognized by the speakers or others as belonging to two sets of
resources. A languaging perspective conceptualizes language as a verb (as practice or behavior),
rather than as a noun (a thing or object) and places the activity and the agents (languagers) in
focus rather than the linguistic system ('languages').
As a theoretical notion, languaging therefore reflects 'a human turn' in sociolinguistics,
i.e., a move away from languages (in plural) as stable linguistic systems ('codes' or 'varieties')
that are used by people, toward language or languaging as a dynamic sociolinguistic system that
is constructed and performed by people. The question students of languaging ask themselves is
therefore not 'who speaks (or writes) what language (or what language variety) to whom, when
and to what end', as Fishman defined the field sociolinguistics forty years ago, but 'who
languages how and what is being languaged under what circumstances in a particular place and
time' (for futher discussion, see Møller and Jørgensen, 2009; and Juffermans, 2011).

OVERVIEW QUESTIONS: MAIN IDEA, MAIN TOPIC, MAIN PURPOSE,


ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT, CONTEXT CLUES, CIRCUMSTANCIAL EVIDENCE, TONE
AND ATTITUDE
Instruction: When analyzing each paragraph of the text you mostly rely on circumstantial
evidence. Circumstantial evidence is evidence not drawn from the direct observation of a fact. If,
for example, ―Standardizing language means compartmentalizing the free and unbounded
languaging of a particular geographical area and class of people as the language for that
particular geographical area and its people and freezing its evolution‖, then there is
circumstantial evidence that the author is a supporter of languaging. Circumstantial evidence is
collected by asking and answering overview questions.

1. Matching headings with paragraphs.


 Step 1. Survey the whole text.
 Step 2. Look over the 7 headings given in the table.
 Step 3. Skim each paragraph to identify the topic.
Match the given 7 headings with the 7 paragraphs of the text:
Consequences of superdiversity 1
Languaging perspectives 2
Tradition and modernity in 3
language visions
Languaging is human 4
A superdiversity perspective 5
Factors of superdiversity 6
The term ‗Superdiversity‘ 7

2. Identifying where to find information.


 Step 1. Survey introductory and concluding paragraphs, and identify the core ideas of
the passage.
 Step 2. Skim the rest of the passage to make sure.
 Step 3. Scan the text to find the correct wording of its main idea, the topic , and the
purpose, write out the key words from each paragraph.
 Step 4. Skim the text for examples of descriptions, step-by-step explanations,
directions, comparisons and contrasts, analyses, analogies, and definitions.
a/ The main idea is what the author has in mind when s/he is writing a text. Which
one of the sentences given below most closely renders the main idea of the text?
1. Superdiversity is the new sociocultural diversity characterized by new forms of
migration across the world, and the new forms of community formation.
2. Superdiversity means the presence of multiple cultures in one society.
3. Superdiversity eliminates discrimination and inequality.
4. Superdiversity is primarily charactetristic of the UK and, by extension, contemporary
Europe.
5. Languages are sociocultural, or ideological, abstractions which match real-life use of
language perfectly well.
b/ The topic is the subject area the author chooses to bring her/his idea to the
reader. Identify the main topic of the text.
1. The making of languages in Europe.
2. A human turn in sociolinguistics.
3. Learning language in real life.
4. The new forms of sociocultural diversity and language practice.
5. Standardisation and regulation of language.
c/ The purpose of the text is what the author wants the reader to believe in. Does
the writer want you to believe that:
1. Traditional language sciences don‘t deal with languaging?
2. Boundaries between languages result from particular histories of standardisation and
regulation?
3. Superdiverse conditions call for a new analysis and understanding of the phenomena of
language and communication?
4. Humankind is a languaging species?
5. The concept of language exists only as a sociocultural invention?

3. Identifying the key words of the text.


 Step 1. Select 3 key words out each paragraph making it 21 key words for the whole text.
 Step 2. Limit the number of selected key words and word combinations down to 5.

4. Identifying patterns of text organization.


Identify description, step-by-step explanation, directions, comparison and contrast,
analysis, analogy, and definition in the following paragraphs:
1. A languaging perspective regards boundaries between languages as arbitrary and
historically contingent, as the result of particular histories of standardisation and regulation.
Standardizing language means compartmentalizing the free and unbounded languaging ....
Standardizing language also means enregistering particular linguistic features as normative....
2. Languages in the plural exist only as sociocultural inventions: 'Languages are conceived
and languaging is practiced'.
3. Superdiversity should be understood as diversification of diversity, as diversity that
cannot be understood in terms of multiculturalism (the presence of multiple cultures in one
society) alone. At the basis of this paradigm shift are two sets of developments that can be
observed in Europe and world-wide. One is the changing patterns ... . A second factor is the
technological developments... .
Find in the text as many patterns of text organization as you can.

5. Reviewing and reciting the text.


Take 5-6 minutes to review and recite the text with the help of the following context
clues:
a) Numerical statements, such as "There are two reasons ...".
b) Rhetorical questions.
c) Introductory summaries: "Let me first explain..."; "The topic which I intend to discuss is
interesting because...".
d) Development of an idea, signalled by statements such as: "Another reason..."; "On the one
hand..."; "Therefore..."; "Since..."; "In addition..."; etc.
e) Transitions, such as "Let us turn our attention to..."; "If these facts are true, then..."; etc.
f) Chronology of ideas, signalled by "First... "; "The next..."; "Finally...,"; etc.
g) Emphasis of ideas, such as "This is important because..."; "The significant results were...";
"Let me repeat..."; etc.
h) Summary of ideas, signalled by "In conclusion...; As I have shown... "; etc.

6. What circumstantial evidence can be inferred from the following paragraph:


A few decades ago it would be possible to predict with some degree of certainty what a 14-
year old grade school student in, for instance, Berlin would be like – looks, mother tongue,
religious affiliation, cultural preferences, musical taste, and in other ways. The range of
resources available to and employed by 14-year old grade school students in Germany was
limited compared to what we observe today - none of this can today be predicted with any
substantial degreee of certainty.

7. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?


The organization of the passage is: (A) too specific; (B) too general; (C) incorrect, (D)
irrelevant; (C) correct.
8. The tone of the passage could best be described as: (A) objective; (B) optimistic; (C)
angry; (D) humorous.
9. What is the author's attitude toward superdiversity and languaging? Answer
choices:
The author's opinion of superdiversity and languaging is best described as (positive,
favorable, optimistic, amused, pleased; negative, respectful; critical, outraged, worried, unfavorable,
angry, defiant; neutral, objective, impersonal, humorous.
The author's attitude toward superdiversity and languaging could best be described
as one of (a researcher interest, a p p r o v a l , i n d i f f e r e n c e , c u r i o s i t y ,
etc.)

Section 2. Grammar workout

Incorrect verb forms


Some of the verb errors are errors in form. Most verb form problems involve main verb
forms: An -ing form may be used in place of a past participle, a past participle in place of a past
tense form, a simple form in place of an -ing form, etc. Some involve irregular verbs that have
different forms for the past tense and the past participle—took and taken—for example. The
following information may help you choose the correct form of the main verb.
The bare infinitive follows all modal verbs.
might be can remember should study
must know could go may follow
(Certain similar modal verbs and word combinations require infinitives.)
ought to attend used to play have to hurry
The past participle is used after a form of have in all perfect forms of the verb,
has done had called should have said
have run will have read could have made
The -ing form is used after a form of be in all progressive forms of the verb.
is sleeping has been writing should have been wearing
was working had been painting will be waiting
The past participle is used after a form of be in all passive forms of the verb.
is worn has been shown would have been lost
is being considered had been promised might have been canceled
were told will have been missed
Verb form problems may also involve auxiliary verbs: has may be used in place of did, is in
place of does, and so on.

Problems involving subject-verb agreement. Underline the form that correctly completes
each sentence. Then circle the subject with which the underlined verb agrees. The first one is
done as an example.
The first bridge to be built with electric lights (was/were) the Brooklyn Bridge. .
Ethics (is/are) the study of moral duties, principles, and values
There (is/are) two types of calculus, differential and integral.
George Gershwin, together with his brother Ira, (was/were) the creator of the first musical
comedy to win a Pulitzer Prize.
In a chess game, the player with the white pieces always (moves/move) first.
The Earth and Pluto (is/are) the only two planets believed to have a single moon.
A number of special conditions (is/are) necessary for the formation of a geyser.
Each of the Ice Ages (was/were) more than a million years long.
The battery, along with the alternator and starter, (makes/make) up the electrical system of
a car.
Teeth (is/are) covered with a hard substance called enamel.
The more-or-less rhythmic succession of economic booms and busts (is/are) referred to as the
business cycle.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (varies/vary) from element to element.
All trees, except for the tree fern, (is/are) seed-bearing plants.
Fifteen hundred dollars a year (was/were) the per capita income in the United States in
1950.
Everyone who (goes/go) into the woods should recognize common poisonous plants such as
poison ivy and poison oak.

Different forms of the same verb.


From the context of the sentence stem, you'll have to decide which form works best in the
sentence. Used alone, an infinitive, gerund, or participle cannot be a main verb.
The verb is active, but it should be passive, or it is passive but it should be active.
If the subject of the sentence performs the action, the verb must be in the active voice. If
the subject of the sentence receives the action, the verb must be in the passive.
 The architect designed the building, (active verb).
 The building was designed by the architect, (passive verb).
The verb does not agree with its subject. Singular subjects require singular verbs; plural
subjects require plural verbs.
The verb is not in the right tense. According to the time words or ideas in the sentence,
the appropriate tense must be used.
An unnecessary element comes before the verb. Personal pronouns {he, she, it), relative
pronouns {who, which, that, and so on), or conjunctions (and, but, and so on) may be used
unnecessarily before verbs in some sentences.
Example
Before the late eighteenth century, most textiles _____ at home.
(A) produced
(B) was produced
(C) producing
(D) were produced
Choice (D) is the best answer. (A) can be considered either an active verb in the past tense or a
past participle; both are incorrect. An active verb is incorrect because a passive verb is needed; a past
participle is incorrect because a past participle cannot serve as a main verb. (B) is incorrect because
the plural subject textiles requires a plural verb, were. (C) is incorrect because, by itself, an -ing
form can never be a main verb.
Unit 1-6. ENGLISH IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

Section 1. Guidelines for intensive reading of ESP texts

Facts and details. ESP discourse often abounds in explicit facts and details given in the
passage. If you are not sure to have grasped all of them from your first reading, use scanning
techniques.
The author usually resorts to facts and details to enhance, support and facilitate her/his idea,
purpose or attitude. You have to locate and identify the factual information that requires you to
make inferences. It means that the answers to your questions are not directly provided in the
passage – you must "read between the lines." In other words, you must make conclusions based
indirectly on information in the passage. Many text-readers find it difficult to identify the clues
inferred by facts and details.
You should keep in mind that, in ESP texts, most reading passages have a neutral tone, but
sometimes an author may take a position for or against some point by providing negative or
positive details. Details and inferences are important for the analysis of the text given below
because R. Phillipson is an ardent proponent of the theory of English language imperialism.

Text 1-6. ENGLISH IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND GLOBALISATION

(After Robert Phillipson‟s Lingua franca or lingua frankensteinia? In World Englishes,


27/2, 250-284, 2008)

1. Reference to English as a lingua franca generally seems to imply that the language is a
neutral instrument for ‗international‘ communication between speakers who do not share a
mother tongue. The fact that English is used for a wide range of purposes, nationally and
internationally, may mislead one into believing that lingua franca English is disconnected from
the many ‗special purposes‘ it serves in key societal domains. English might be more accurately
described as a lingua economica (in business and advertising, the language of corporate
neoliberalism), a lingua emotiva (the imaginary of Hollywood, popular music, consumerism and
hedonism), a lingua academica (in research publications, at international conferences, and as a
medium for content learning in higher education), or a lingua cultura (rooted in the literary texts
of English-speaking nations that school foreign language education traditionally aims at, and
integrates with language learning as one element of general education). English is definitely the
lingua bellica of wars between states (aggression by the US and its loyal acolytes in Afghanistan
and Iraq, building on the presence of US bases in hundreds of countries worldwide). The
worldwide presence of English as a lingua americana is due to the massive economic, cultural
and military impact of the USA. Labelling English as a lingua franca, if this is understood as a
culturally neutral medium that puts everyone on an equal footing, entails not merely ideological
dangers, it is simply false. The history, aetiology and misuse of the concept will be explored
below.

2. While English manifestly opens doors for many worldwide, it also closes them for
others, as recounted by an Indian with experience of the language being seen as a lingua divina
(Chamaar 2007), for which he had rather more empirical justification than the hopefully
apocryphal story of the American head teacher informing immigrants that if English was good
enough for Jesus, it was good enough for them.
It wasn‘t until he was 18 that Kanchedia Chamaar realized that God spoke and understood
English and nothing else. Because unfamiliarity with the lingua divina was a matter of intense
shame at Delhi School of Economics in the 1970s, he started learning English on the sly, and
continues to be consumed by the process to this day.
In India, as in many former colonies, English is the language of elite formation, social
inclusion and exclusion. Are there then grounds for referring to English as a lingua
frankensteinia? We need to recall that Frankenstein in Mary Shelley‘s novel refers to the person
who created the monster rather than to the monster itself. This is a useful reminder that any
language can serve good or evil purposes, whether humane or monstrous ones. English tends to
be marketed as though it serves exclusively laudable purposes (a language of international
understanding, human rights, development, progress etc, Phillipson 1992).
But the elimination of national languages from certain domains can threaten social
cohesion and the vitality of a language. The experience of ethnocide and linguicide is traumatic,
which people of First (Indian) Nations origins in North America are only too aware of.
Amos Key, of the Six (Indian) Nations of the Grand River, Ontario, Canada is committed
to the Indian languages being revived, even if few in the younger generation speak anything
other than English or French. Amos tells the story of encountering scepticism when expressing a
wish for the First Nations to recover their languages. What‘s the point? To which he replies,
well, when I die and go to heaven, I shall want to communicate with my ancestors, my
grandfathers and grandmothers. To which the sceptic replies, but what happens if you have been
evil and end up in the other place? No problem, because I know English. For Amos Key, English
has been a lingua diabolica rather than a lingua divina, even if, like Caliban in Shakespeare‘s
The Tempest, he has become proficient in the language. English, like other colonising languages,
has functioned as a lingua frankensteinia throughout the history of the occupation by Europeans
of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand.

3. The elimination of linguistic diversity has been an explicit goal of states attempting to
impose monolingualism within their borders: linguicist policies favour the lingua frankensteinia
and lead to linguicide. This was the case in the internal colonisation of the British Isles, with the
attempted extermination of Welsh and Gaelic, and in North America and Hawaii at the expense
of First Nations languages. Skutnabb-Kangas (2000) avoids seemingly innocuous terms like
‗language death‘ and ‗language spread‘, concepts that obscure agency, by referring to killer
languages, language murder, and linguistic genocide, basing this term on definitions in
international human rights law and the historical evidence of government policies. Swales
(1996), after a lifetime of work on scientific English, is so concerned about other languages of
scholarship being on the way to extinction that he labels English a lingua tyrannosaura.
The widespread concern in political and academic circles in Scandinavian countries with
domain loss signifies a perception that segments of the national language are at risk from the
English monster, hence the national policy to ensure that Danish, Norwegian and Swedish
remain fully operational in all domains. This is a gradual, long-term process, and generally
unobtrusive, but sometimes the underlying agenda can be seen in operation. Thus the language
policies connected to the Bologna process, the creation of a single European higher education
and research ‗area‘, are largely covert, but policy statements imply that ‗internationalisation‘
means ‗English-medium higher education‘ (Phillipson 2006a). This is also the way government
ministers understand the process (e.g. in Norway, Ljosland 2005).

4. In other words, universities should no longer be seen as a public good but should be run
like businesses, should privatise, and let industry set the agenda. The new buzzwords are that
degrees must be ‗certified‘ in terms of the ‗employability‘ of graduates. ‗Accountability‘ no
longer refers to intellectual quality or truth-seeking but means acceptability to corporate-driven
neoliberalism. The recommendation that there should be more ‗student-centred learning‘
probably implies more e-learning rather than a more dialogic, open-ended syllabus. Before
European integration has taken on any viable forms, universities are being told to think and act
globally rather than remain narrowly European. This is insulting to higher education in general
and to all universities that have been internationally oriented for decades.
What therefore needs further analysis is whether English is a cuckoo in the European
higher education nest of languages, a lingua cucula. Cuckoos substitute their own eggs for those
in place, and induce other species to take on the feeding and learning processes. Higher
education authorities in the Nordic countries are increasingly addressing the question of
cohabitation between the local language and English. The current strategy is to aim at ‗parallel
competence‘ in the two languages. The Nordic Declaration of Language Policy, signed by
Ministers from five countries, endorses this goal. Quite what parallel competence means in
practice, for an individual or for institutions, remains obscure.

5. What is the relevance of this for Europe? Surely the languages that have been
consolidated in independent states over the past two centuries cannot be at risk? Isn‘t the
commitment of the EU to maintaining and respecting linguistic diversity a guarantee of equality
and fair treatment for European languages? In fact, the position is far from clear, not least
because language policy tends to be left to nationalist and market forces, and there is a fuzzy
dividing-line between language policy as the prerogative of each member state, and language as
an EU concern (Phillipson 2003).
One of the most visible causal factors is cultural globalisation in the media, which utilise
the original language in the north of Europe: 70-80% of all TV fiction shown on European TV is
American. […] American movies, American TV and the American lifestyle for the populations
of the world and Europe at large have become the lingua franca of globalization, the closest we
get to a visual world culture. (Bondebjerg 2003)
By contrast in the USA the market share of films of foreign origin is 1%. The cultural
insularity of the US and the UK is also clear from the figures for translation: 2% of books
published in the UK, and 3% in the USA are translations from other languages, whereas the
corresponding figures for Italy are 27%, for Denmark 41%, and Slovenia 70% (from a survey for
International PEN). There is therefore a massive asymmetry in how globalisation impacts on
national cultures. There is no doubt that this is a direct result of US policies, which have become
more visibly aggressive as the neoconservatives behind the Project for the New American
Century, the Cheney-Wolfowitz-Rumsfeld doctrine, have been in power under Bush II.

6. The plan is for the United States to rule the world. The overt theme is unilateralism, but
it is ultimately a story of domination. It calls for the United States to maintain its overwhelming
military superiority and prevent new rivals from rising up to challenge it on the world stage. It
calls for dominion over friends and enemies alike. It says not that the United States must be more
powerful, or most powerful, but that it must be absolutely powerful.
The rhetoric of global ‗leadership‘ is warmly embraced by Tony Blair: Globalisation begets
interdependence, and interdependence begets the necessity of a common value system. History
the age-old battle between progress and reaction, between those who embrace the modern world
and those who reject its existence. Century upon century it has been the destiny of Britain to lead
other nations. That should not be a destiny that is part of our history. It should be part of our
future. We are a leader of nations or nothing.
Blair‘s belief system is based on a vision of progress that religious belief entitles him and
US neoconservatives to impose worldwide (Gray 2007). The project of establishing English as
the language of power, globally and locally, is central to this empire. It is in the economic and
political interest of the United States to ensure that if the world is moving toward a common
language, it be English; that if the world is moving toward common telecommunications, safety,
and quality standards, they be American; and that if common values are being developed, they be
values with which Americans are comfortable. These are not idle aspirations. English is linking
the world.
US colonisation policies externally were comparable to practices in European colonial
empires. The policies were not as actively linguicidal as in the home country, but rather installed
a hierarchy of languages, a diglossic division of linguistic labour. Language policy in former
colonies is well documented. What is not so well known is that the urge to establish English was
not limited to parts of the world that were under European or American control.
7. Science cannot be advanced without the English language and textbooks and students
will make better progress in the sciences by taking the English textbooks and learning the
English to boot than they will by giving exclusive attention to their own language and textbooks
in our field and the same is true of any field where the Gospel is preached to intelligent beings.
We need disciplined and educated men. (Greenwood 2003) This rationale was written in 1847 by
Cyrus Hamlyn, an American missionary who spent a lifetime in Istanbul and founded a school,
Robert College, named after an American ‗philanthropist‘.
In recent years the issue has been hotly debated at the annual conferences of TESOL
(Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), not least since much of this activity is
engaged in covertly by US citizens, while otherwise employed as teachers of English in the
Middle East, China and the former Soviet Union. A British website reports: ‗as missionaries are
still banned from China, it represents one of the most effective ways to support Christians in
China through the sending of teachers of English from overseas.‘
Isn‘t this precisely what globalisation expects of us in the privileged world? That we should
not be concerned about what happens in the Asian sweatshops that produce our cotton and
electronic goods, nor about unfair, unsustainable trade policies which mean that food subsidies to
producers in the rich world undermine the livelihood of growers in poor countries? Are these the
values that unite the Americans and the EU, the ‗deep ties of kinship‘ stressed by José Manuel
Barroso, President of the European Commission, when endorsing the ‗Transatlantic Economic
Integration Plan‘ agreed on at the 2007 EU-US summit?
In EU-US negotiations, English is the sole language involved. This is in conflict with the
declared policy that in the EU‘s international relations, the multilingualism that characterises its
internal affairs should also apply. This is a clear case of English as the lingua cucula. Externally
the EU has become monolingual.

OVERVIEW QUESTIONS: MAIN IDEA, MAIN TOPIC, MAIN PURPOSE,


ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT, CONTEXT CLUES, CIRCUMSTANCIAL EVIDENCE, TONE
AND ATTITUDE, FACTS AND DETAILS, INFERENCES AND INDIRECT INFORMATION

Instruction: The order of facts or details in a passage almost always follows the order in
which ideas are presented by the author. In other words, the information you need to identify the
first detail will usually come near the beginning of the passage; the information for the second
will follow that, and so on. Knowing this should help you locate the information you need.
There are text analysis items that require you to make inferences. The explanations to these
items are not directly provided in the passage – you must "read between the lines." In other
words, you must make conclusions based indirectly on information in the passage. You may ask
why the author of a passage mentions some piece of information, or includes a quote from a
person or a study, or uses some particular word or phrase.
Sample answers:
It can be inferred from the passage that . . .; The author implies that . . .; The author suggests that
. . .; It is probable that ... .

1. Matching headings with paragraphs.


 Step 1. Survey the whole text.
 Step 2. Look over the 7 headings given in the table.
 Step 3. Skim each paragraph to identify the topic.

Match the given 7 headings with the 7 paragraphs of the text:


English in science 1
Domain loss leads to death 2
of languages
English in the European 3
higher education
Domination of the United 4
States
The many faces of English 5
Europeanisation as a variant 6
of global Americanisation
English: lingua divina or 7
diabolica?

2. Identifying where to find indirect information.


 Step 1. Survey introductory and concluding paragraphs, and identify the core ideas of
the passage.
 Step 2. Skim the rest of the passage to make sure.
 Step 3. Scan the text to find the correct wording of its main idea, the topic, and the
purpose, write out the key words from each paragraph.
 Step 4. Skim the text for examples of descriptions, step-by-step explanations,
directions, comparisons and contrasts, analyses, analogies, and definitions.
a/ The main idea is what the author has in mind when s/he is writing a text. Which
one of the sentences given below most closely renders the main idea of the text?
1. English as a lingua franca is a neutral instrument for international communication.
2. Labelling English as a lingua franca, if this is understood as a culturally neutral medium
that puts everyone on an equal footing, entails not merely ideological dangers, it is simply false.
3. The world is moving toward a common language – English.
4. The elimination of national languages from certain domains can threaten social cohesion
and the vitality of a language.
5. Science cannot be advanced without the English language.
b/ The topic is the subject area the author chooses to bring her/his idea to the
reader. Identify the main topic of the text.
1. The making of languages in Europe.
2. The history, aetiology and misuse of the concept of ELF.
3. US colonisation policies.
4. Language death and language spread concepts.
5. EU language policy.
c/ The purpose of the text is what the author wants the reader to believe in. Does
the writer want you to believe that:
1. English is a cuckoo in the European higher education nest of languages?
2. English has been a lingua diabolica rather than a lingua divina?
3. Globalisation begets interdependence, and interdependence begets the necessity of a
common value system?
4. Language policy as the prerogative of each state?
5. God spoke and understood English and nothing else?

3. Identifying the key words of the text.


 Step 1. Select 3 key words out each paragraph making it 21 key words for the whole text.
 Step 2. Limit the number of selected key words and word combinations down to 5.

4. Identifying patterns of text organization.


Identify description, step-by-step explanation, directions, comparison and contrast,
analysis, analogy, and definition in the following paragraphs:
1. The fact that English is used for a wide range of purposes, nationally and internationally,
may mislead one into believing that lingua franca English is disconnected from the many
‗special purposes‘ it serves in key societal domains. English might be more accurately described
as a lingua economica ..., a lingua emotiva ... , a lingua academica ... , or a lingua cultura ..., a
lingua bellica ... , a lingua americana ... .
2. One of the most visible causal factors is cultural globalisation in the media, which utilise
the original language in the north of Europe: 70-80% of all TV fiction shown on European TV is
American. ... By contrast in the USA the market share of films of foreign origin is 1%.
3. What therefore needs further analysis is whether English is a cuckoo in the European
higher education nest of languages, a lingua cucula. Cuckoos substitute their own eggs for those
in place, and induce other species to take on the feeding and learning processes. Higher
education authorities in the Nordic countries are increasingly addressing the question of
cohabitation between the local language and English..
Find in the text as many patterns of text organization as you can.

5. Reviewing and reciting the text.


Take 5-6 minutes to review and recite the text with the help of the following context
clues:
a) Numerical statements, such as "There are two reasons ...".
b) Rhetorical questions.
c) Introductory summaries: "Let me first explain..."; "The topic which I intend to discuss
is interesting because...".
d) Development of an idea, signalled by statements such as: "Another reason..."; "On the
one hand..."; "Therefore..."; "Since..."; "In addition..."; etc.
e) Transitions, such as "Let us turn our attention to..."; "If these facts are true, then..."; etc.
f) Chronology of ideas, signalled by "First... "; "The next..."; "Finally...,"; etc.
g) Emphasis of ideas, such as "This is important because..."; "The significant results
were..."; "Let me repeat..."; etc.
h) Summary of ideas, signalled by "In conclusion...; As I have shown... "; etc.

6. What circumstantial evidence can be inferred from the following paragraph:


While English manifestly opens doors for many worldwide, it also closes them for others,
as recounted by an Indian with experience of the language being seen as a lingua divina
(Chamaar 2007), for which he had rather more empirical justification than the hopefully
apocryphal story of the American head teacher informing immigrants that if English was good
enough for Jesus, it was good enough for them.

7. The tone of the passage could best be described as: (A) objective; (B) optimistic; (C)
angry; (D) humorous.

8. What is the author's attitude toward the English language in science and
education expressed in the following paragraph?
Science cannot be advanced without the English language and textbooks and students will
make better progress in the sciences by taking the English textbooks and learning the English
(stet.) to boot than they will by giving exclusive attention to their own language and textbooks in
our field and the same is true of any field where the Gospel is preached to intelligent beings.
Answer choices:
The author's opinion of the English language in science and education is best
described as (positive, favorable, optimistic, amused, pleased; negative, respectful; critical,
outraged, worried, unfavorable, angry, defiant; neutral, objective, impersonal, humorous.
The author's attitude toward the English language in science and education could
best be described as one of (a researcher interest, a p p r o v a l , i n d i f f e r e n c e ,
curiosity, etc.)

9. Make valid inferences based on the questions:


 Why does the author mention English lingua divina?
 Why does the author refer to Modern English as lingua frankensteinia?
 Why does the author mention English lingua cucula?
 Why does the author use the phrase ―History the age-old battle between progress and
reaction, between those who embrace the modern world and those who reject its existence.‖?
 Why does the author describe the seemingly innocuous terms like ‗language death‘ and
‗language spread‘ as concepts that obscure agency?
Sample Answer Choices:
The author refers to / The author describes / The author uses the phrase / The phrase
___proves that /The phrase ___is mentioned to illustrate that (to indicate that; to strengthen the
argument that; to provide an example of; to challenge the idea that; to contradict; to support the
proposal to; to illustrate the effect of; to make it easy for the reader to understand how; etc.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Identify and correct errors involving verbs and verbals


As national education systems (create/are creating/are created/will create/have created)
suitable employees, transnational corporations (shift/are shifting/are shifted/will shift/have
shifted) their research and development centres to developing countries
The wind (are carried/carry/carries/is carried) pollen spores in Earth's upper atmosphere.
These problems may (to create/create/creating/ will create) an increase in human diseases.
They may also lead to (dwindle/dwindling/dwindled) supplies of food, (put/putting/to put)
greater strains on governments.
Humanity (destroy/ destroyed/is destroying) the natural systems upon which it
(depending/depend/depends). Improvements in medicine (propels/propel/has propelled)
population growth by enabling people to live longer. Economic development is the key to
(slow/slowing/how to slow) down population growth.
The demographic transition has helped (reducing/reduce/to reduce) the growth of
population. One of the problems (to have/having/of having) an increasing world population is the
difficulty (to feed/feeding/of feeding) everyone.
Unfortunately, a rapidly expanding population can by itself (preventing/prevent/to prevent)
a developing nation from (improve/to improve/improving/improving of) its economy.
Loss of farmlands (are, were, is, was) a major cause of the decline in agricultural
production. Usable farmland (lost/is lost/will lost) for many reasons, but erosion and salinization
(are, were, is, was) the major cause. Modern agricultural techniques (do/make) it possible
(producing/to produce/produce) the same amount of food (to use/ using/by using) the labor of
fewer people.
3 percent (are, were, is, was) insignificant for population growth difference between
advanced and poor nations.

Errors with parallel structures


Structures that are often involved in parallelism are nouns, adjectives, verbs, prepositional
phrases, gerunds, and infinitives.
Some problems with parallelism are actually word form problems similar to previously
discussed: As a young man, George Washington liked boating, to hunt, and fishing. In general,
errors involving parallelism are easy to identify.
Identify and correct errors involving parallelism. If the underlined form is parallel to
other forms in the sentence, mark the sentence C (Correct). If the underlined form is not parallel,
mark the sentence I (Incorrect), and write a correction for the underlined form in the blank at the
end of the sentence. A languaging perspective regards boundaries between languages as (1)
arbitrary and historically contingent, as the result of particular histories of (2) standard and
regulation. (3) Standardizing language means compartmentalization the free and unbounded
languaging of a particular geographical area and class of people as the language for that
particular geographical area and its people and freezing its evolution. (4) Standardizing language
also means enregister particular linguistic features as normative: selecting particular phonemes,
morphemes, words, syntax, etc. as normal, as the norms for the language while designating all
variation to those norms as (5) sub-standard, dialect, or even deficit language.
MODULE 1-2. THE SKILLS OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Unit 1-7. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION – THE NEW NORM

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on cross-cultural communication

Teaching culture in the ESP reading classes should not be separated from teaching ESP
organisation and language content, and consequently, ESP text analysis should also include
understanding skills of the cross-cultural communication. Success in intercultural
communication depends greatly on operational expertise. This module emphasizes the
importance of learning target culture, as well as introduces the analysis of culture texts in
English. Understanding cultural differences will benefit and facilitate cross-cultural com-
munication under diverse circumstances. Thereby, this issue is relevant to ESP reading classes
focusing on the improvement of both students‘ language and cultural skills.

Text 1-7. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION – THE NEW NORM


(After Michelle LeBaron‟s Cross-Cultural Communication. Beyond Intractability)

“We didn't all come over on the same ship, but we're all in the same boat."
– Bernard Baruch, American financier and statesman.
It's no secret that today's workplace is rapidly becoming vast, as the business environment
expands to include various geographic locations and span numerous cultures. What can be
difficult, however, is understanding how to communicate effectively with individuals who speak
another language, or who rely on different means to reach a common goal.

1. The Internet and modern technology have opened up new marketplaces that allow us to
promote our businesses to new geographic locations and cultures. And given that it can now be as easy
to work with people remotely as it is to work face-to-face, cross-cultural communication is increasingly
the new norm.
After all, if communication is electronic, it's as easy to work with someone in another
country as it is to work with someone in the next town.
And why limit yourself to working with people within convenient driving distance when,
just as conveniently, you can work with the most knowledgeable people in the entire world?
For those of us who are native English-speakers, it is fortunate that English seems to be the
language that people use if they want to reach the widest possible audience. However, even for
native English speakers, cross-cultural communication can be an issue: Just witness the mutual
incomprehension that can sometimes arise between people from different English-speaking
countries.
In this new world, good cross-cultural communication is a must.

2. Given different cultural contexts, this brings new communication challenges to the workplace.
Even when employees located in different locations or offices speak the same language (for instance,
correspondences between English-speakers in the U.S. and English-speakers in the UK), there are some
cultural differences that should be considered in an effort to optimize communications between the two
parties.
In such cases, an effective communication strategy begins with the understanding that the
sender of the message and the receiver of the message are from different cultures and
backgrounds. Of course, this introduces a certain amount of uncertainty, making communications
even more complex.
Without getting into cultures and sub-cultures, it is perhaps most important for people to
realize that a basic understanding of cultural diversity is the key to effective cross-cultural
communications. Without necessarily studying individual cultures and languages in detail, we
must all learn how to better communicate with individuals and groups whose first language, or
language of choice, does not match our own.

3. However, some learning the basics about culture and at least something about the language of
communication in different countries is important. This is necessary even for the basic level of
understanding required to engage in appropriate greetings and physical contact, which can be a tricky
area inter-culturally. For instance, kissing a business associate is not considered an appropriate business
practice in the U.S., but in Paris, one peck on each cheek is an acceptable greeting. And, the firm
handshake that is widely accepted in the U.S. is not recognized in all other cultures.
While many companies now offer training in the different cultures where the company
conducts business, it is important that employees communicating across cultures practice
patience and work to increase their knowledge and understanding of these cultures. This requires
the ability to see that a person's own behaviors and reactions are oftentimes culturally driven and
that while they may not match our own, they are culturally appropriate.
If a leader or manager of a team that is working across cultures or incorporates individuals
who speak different languages, practice different religions, or are members of a society that
requires a new understanding, he or she needs to work to convey this.
Consider any special needs the individuals on your team may have. For instance, they may
observe different holidays, or even have different hours of operation. Be mindful of time zone
differences and work to keep everyone involved aware and respectful of such differences.
Generally speaking, patience, courtesy and a bit of curiosity go a long way. And, if you are
unsure of any differences that may exist, simply ask team members. Again, this may best be
done in a one-on-one setting so that no one feels "put on the spot" or self-conscious, perhaps
even embarrassed, about discussing their own needs or differences or needs.

4. Next, cultivate and demand understanding and tolerance. In doing this, a little education will
usually do the trick. Explain to team members that the part of the team that works out of the Australia
office, for example, will be working in a different time zone, so electronic communications and/or
return phone calls will experience a delay. And, members of the India office will also observe different
holidays (such as Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday, observed on October 2).
Most people will appreciate the information and will work hard to understand different
needs and different means used to reach common goals. However, when this is not the case, lead
by example and make it clear that you expect to be followed down a path of open-mindedness,
acceptance and tolerance.
Tip: Tolerance is essential. However, you need to maintain standards of acceptable
behavior. The following "rules of thumb" seem universal:
 Team members should contribute to and not hinder the team's mission or harm the
delivery to the team's customer.
 Team members should not damage the cohesion of the team or prevent it from becoming
more effective.
 Team members should not unnecessarily harm the interests of other team members.
Other factors (such as national law) are obviously important.
When dealing with people in a different culture, courtesy and goodwill can also go a long
way in ensuring successful communication. Again, this should be insisted on.
If your starting point in solving problems is to assume why communication has failed,
you'll find that many problems are quickly resolved.

5. When you communicate, keep in mind that even though English is considered the
international language of business, it is a mistake to assume that every businessperson speaks good
English. In fact, only about half of the 800 million people who speak English learned it as a first
language. And, those who speak it as a second language are often more limited than native speakers.
When you communicate cross-culturally, make particular efforts to keeping your
communication clear, simple and unambiguous.
And (sadly) avoid humor until you know that the person you're communicating with "gets
it" and isn't offended by it. Humor is notoriously culture-specific: Many things that pass for
humor in one culture can be seen as grossly offensive in another.

6. Finally, if language barriers present themselves, it may be in every one's best interest to
employ a reliable, experienced translator. Because English is not the first language of many
international business people, their use of the language may be peppered with culture-specific or non-
standard English phrases, which can hamper the communication process. Again, having a translator on
hand (even if just during the initial phases of work) may be the best solution here. The translator can
help everyone involved to recognize cultural and communication differences and ensure that all parties,
regardless of geographic location and background, come together and stay together through successful
project completion.

UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT ORGANIZATION: SUBHEADINGS, KEY WORDS,


REFERENTS, LINKING WORDS

Instruction: While in class, you do not have time to read every word carefully. Remember that
your starting task is not to understand all of the text. It is often only necessary to read a small part
of the text carefully to find some specific information.
In most well-written English texts, every paragraph deals with a specific aspect of a topic.
The first sentence of a paragraph usually tells the reader what the rest of the paragraph is about so
when you are trying to identify the main idea of a paragraph, you should read the first sentence
carefully. Then, keeping the idea of the first sentence in mind, you should quickly check the rest of
the paragraph, picking up only some of the words.
This is skim reading or skimming. Using this technique you will have a general idea of what
the writer is saying about the topic. Surveying the text tells you about the topic or subject of the
text. It may also tell you something about how the text is organized (subheadings are
especially useful). Surveying may also tell you something about the writer's purpose—
whether the intention is to give instructions, to compare, to give information, and so on.

Step 1 – Survey the text


Surveying has already been discussed several times in this book. Can you remember what
to look at when you survey? A list of headings can give you some useful information to help you
quickly understand what each part of the text will be about.
Step 2 – Skim read each paragraph
Every paragraph deals with a specific aspect of a topic. The first sentence of a paragraph will
most probably tell the you what the rest of the paragraph is about so when you are trying to identify
the main idea of a paragraph, you should read the first sentence carefully. Using this technique you
will have a general idea of what the writer is saying in each paragraph.
Step 3 – Determine which heading is the best match for each of the paragraphs marked by
the numbers.
(Note that you are trying to identify topics only.) This will help you know where (in which
paragraph or section) to scan later for the answer to a question. If the text has a lot of subheadings,
it is much easier to identify text organization.
And Get Help if You Need It 1
Collaborative Efforts – a Must! 2
Demand Tolerance 3
Developing Awareness of Individual Cultures 4
Keep it Simple 5
Understanding Cultural Diversity 6

Of course, when you skim-read a text you cannot get as much information from the text as
when you read it all carefully, but by skimming you can quickly get enough information to help
you get context clues. Remember that efficient use of time is one of the most important skills.
You will have to adjust the speed of your skimming according to how easy the text is for you to
understand. If a paragraph does not have a first sentence which gives the topic of the paragraph
clearly, you have to skim more carefully. But don't forget that you should not read every word –
reading every word will waste too much time.
To remind: the best way to find details quickly is to use scanning. Scanning is searching for key
words or synonyms by looking quickly through the text. For example, you scan when you look for a
word in a dictionary. You do not read every word as you search for the word(s) you want.
Scanning paragraphs for key words
The best way to find key words is to use scanning by looking quickly through the text.
Your eyes move across and down through the text without reading it in your normal way.
Also, another source which tells you how to find key words is the subject or the
source of the text. Look at the text CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION – THE
NEW NORM. This title can help you understand that key words must concern any kinds of
norms or be connected with norms.
E.g.: in paragraph 1 it is possible to point out the following key words: cross-cultural
communication, norm, to work, distance.
Task: Find 4-5 key words in each paragraph
Follow the three-step strategy to make finding the answer easier.
Step 1 – Survey the text:
Look at any parts of the text that stand out:
the title, section headings or subheadings,
any words in special print (bold, italics, CAPITALS or underlined).
Step 2 – Make sure you know what you are looking for:
scan for key words or synonyms by looking over the text,
do not read every word.
Step 3 – Select 5-10 key words for the whole text:

Reference words
Reference words are nouns (called the referents), pronouns or some expressions referred
to. The correct reference is NOT always the noun that is closest to the pronoun in the passage.
The correct choices are usually other nouns that appear in the passage. If you are unable to
decide immediately which referent is correct, substitute the possible choices for the word that is
being asked about.
E.g.: Structurally, the word combination the cohesion of the team should be the referent for
the pronoun it in the following sentence: Team members should not damage the cohesion of the
team or prevent it from becoming more effective. However the author makes a logical mistake
because of the two nouns the cohesion can be damaged but the team can be prevented from
becoming more effective.
Task: What is the referent for the following italicized phrase?
In the sentence: However, some learning the basics about culture and at least something
about the language of communication in different countries is important.
What is important? learning (the basics and something) is important or something (about
the language) is important?

Linking Words
Knowing the meaning and the purpose of linking words in sentences can be very
useful for academic reading. For example, in the following passage there are two linking
words:
Because English is not the first language of many international business people, their use
of the language may be peppered with culture-specific or non-standard English phrases, which
can hamper the communication process. Both Because and which give: consequence – which,
between clauses, and reason – Because, between sentences.
The more common linking words can be divided into six main groups according to
their purpose.
1. Showing sequence, e.g., finally, firstly, secondly, then, next, after this.
Finally, if language barriers present themselves, it may be in every one's best interest to
employ a reliable, experienced translator.
2. Giving additional information, e.g., as well, even, in addition, also, besides this, as well as, and.
Be mindful of time zone differences and work to keep everyone involved aware and
respectful of such differences.
3. Giving examples, e.g., for example, such as, for instance, be illustrated by.
For instance, they may observe different holidays, or even have different hours of
operation.
4. Giving reasons or causes, e.g., the cause, be the result of, because of this, due to this, be
caused by this, because, result from.
Because English is not the first language of many international business people ...
5. Showing contrast, e.g., but, however, though, although, while, despite, even though, whereas,
on the other hand.
… We didn't all come over on the same ship, but we're all in the same boat.
Note: Even though the above linking words may be in one group, in sentences, they are
often used in different ways.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Errors with prepositions


Errors with prepositions are among the most difficult errors to catch. Preposition use in
English is very complex. For every rule, there seems to be an exception. There are many errors
involving prepositions, and they are more difficult to spot.
Prepositions are used in the following ways:
In adverbial phrases that show time, place, and other relationships: in the morning, on
Central Avenue, to the park, by a student
After certain nouns: a cause of, a reason for, a solution to.
After certain adjectives and participles: different from, aware of, disappointed in.
After certain verbs: combine with, rely on, refer to.
In phrasal prepositions (two- or three-word prepositions): according to, together with,
instead of.
In certain set expressions: by far, by and large (in general), at large, on occasion, on and off,
at last, to boot, from now on, etc..
There are two main types of preposition errors that you may come across:
Errors in preposition choice
Such errors take place when the wrong preposition is used according to the context of the
sentence.
Some of the rules for choosing the correct prepositions are given below, but you will never
be able to memorize all the rules for preposition use in English. The more you practice, though,
the more you will develop a "feel" for determining which preposition is correct in any given
situation.
There are two particular situations involving preposition choice:
Errors with from (here) to (eternity) and between (Scylla) and (Charybdis).
Both these expressions are used to give the starting time/point and ending time/point. They
can also be used to show relationships of place and various other relationships. E.g.:
 He lived in Seattle from 1992 to 1997.
 He lived in Seattle between 1992 and 1997.
 Route 66 ran from Chicago to Los Angeles.
 Route 66 ran between Chicago and Los Angeles.
It will be a mistake to say: The highway runs between Simferopol to the port of Yalta, a
distance of 60 miles.
The correct pattern is from…to.
Errors usually involve an incorrect pairing of those words, or the incorrect use of other
prepositions. E.g.::
between A to В from X and Y
between A with В since X to Y
Errors with since, for, and in
Since is used before a point in time with the present perfect tense—but never with the past
tense. For is used before a period of time with the present perfect and other tenses. In is used
before certain moments in time (years, centuries, decades) with the past tense and other tenses—
but never with the present perfect tense. E.g.:
 He's lived here since 1995.
 He's lived here for two years.
 He moved here in 1995.
Errors involve the use of one of these prepositions for another. E.g.:
He's lived here in 1995.
He's lived here since two years.
He moved here since 1995.
Corn was the population‘s main item of food since at least 2,000 years.
Before a period of time (2,000 years) the preposition for should be used.

Errors with on
The pitch of a tuning fork depends of the size and shape of its arms.
The correct preposition after the verb depend is on, not of.
Incorrect inclusion or omission of prepositions
A preposition is often used when one is not needed, or not used when one is needed.
According many critics, Mark Twain's novel Huckleberry Finn is his greatest work and is
one of the greatest American novels ever written.
The preposition to has been omitted from the phrase according to.
Some of the most of spectacular caves are found in the Crimean mountains.
The preposition of should not be used in this phrase. (When most means "majority," it can be
used in the phrase most of the. "Most of the people agree...," for example. However, in this sentence,
most is part of the superlative form of the adjective spectacular, and so cannot be used with of.
Identify correct and incorrect preposition choice. Underline the prepositions that
correctly complete the sentences below.
Wage rates depend (in/on) part (from/on) the general prosperity (of/for) the economy.
(For/To) an injection to be effective (on/against) tetanus, it must be administered (by/within)
72 hours (of/for) the injury.
The invention (of/for) the hand-cranked freezer opened the door (for/to) commercial ice-
cream production, and (for/since) then, the ice-cream industry has grown (in/into) a four-billion-
dollar-a-year industry.
(At/On) the time (of/in) the Revolutionary War, the North American colonies were merely a
long string (with/of) settlements (along/among) the Atlantic Coast (between/from) Maine and
Georgia.
The probability (of/for) two people (in/on) a group (of/for) ten people having birthdays
(in/on) the same day is about one (in/of) twenty.
Showboats were floating theaters that tied up (at/to) towns (in/on) the Ohio and Mississippi
Rivers to bring entertainment and culture (to/at) the people (on/in) the frontier.
.Scrimshaw, the practice (of/for) carving ornate designs (in/on) ivory, was first practiced
(by/of) sailors working (by/with) sail needles while (in/on) long sea voyages.
Bird Island, (off/of) the coast (off/of) the Crimea, is famous (for/to) its flocks (of/with) wild
geese.
(In/On) order (for/to) an object to be visible, light must travel (from/for) that object (at/to) a
person's eves.
Identify and correct errors involving prepositions
Chemical pollutants produced by human activity are destroying the protective layer of
ozone between Earth's surface to upper atmosphere.
Ozone concentrations above the United States decreased by 5 to 6 per cent from 1990 and
2000.
Ultraviolet radiation causes a range of health problems – between skin cancer with
blindness.
United Nations scientists reported ozone losses since 1991 to 2001 above temperate areas
of Earth between the tropics to the poles.
NASA scientists announce that levels of chlorine monoxide resulting from the breakdown
of CFC's have been at record levels since 10 years.
24 nations, including the United States, signed an agreement since September 1987
planning to limit the production of CFC's.
They promised to limit the production of CFC's since at least 20 years.
This agreement has been validated in 1991.
Depending of their measurements a 40 per cent reduction in ozone concentrations over
Antarctica took place between the mid-1970's to 1984.
On March 1974, scientists first proposed about the idea that manufactured chemicals could
threaten to the ozone layer.
Unit 1-8. CULTURE‟S COMPONENTS

Section 1. Guidelines for cross-cultural communication

ESP students already bring their knowledge of the subject matter into the reading task, and
their backgrounds in their fields will help make the reading materials more comprehensible to
them. Students' higher level cognitive skills can be tapped by giving them advance information
about the texts they are asked to read, and by teaching them to preview texts before beginning to
read.
Previewing is a quick reading for general familiarity, in which students: a) read the
introductory paragraph; b) read the first sentence of each of the body paragraphs; and c) read the
entire concluding paragraph. This should take students only a few minutes, and will enhance
their reading comprehension.
Skimming and scanning.
To remind: Skimming is quick reading to get the general drift of a passage. Students can be
asked to skim a text to discover the author's purpose. Scanning is a focused search for specific
information.

Text 1-8. CULTURE‟S COMPONENTS


(Based on Intercultural Communication: A Reader by Larry A. Samovar, Richard E.
Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel)

A. Major Characteristics Of Culture


While there are many explanations of what culture is and does, there is general agreement
on what constitutes its major characteristics. An examination of these characteristics will provide
increased understanding of the abstract, multifaceted concept and also offer insight into how
communication is influenced by culture.
1. Culture Is Learned. At birth, we have no knowledge of the many societal rules needed
to function effectively in our culture, but we quickly begin to internalize this information.
Through interactions, observations, and imitation, the proper ways of thinking, feeling, and
behaving are communicated to us.
Being taught to eat with a fork, a pair of chopsticks or even one‘s fingers is learning
cultural behavior. Attending a Catholic mass on Sunday or praying at a Jewish Synagogue on
Saturday is learning cultural behaviors and values. Celebrating Christmas, Kwanzaa, Ramadan,
or Yom Kippur is learning cultural traditions. Culture is also acquired from art, proverbs,
folklore, history, religion, and a variety of other sources. This learning, often referred to as
enculturation, is both conscious and subconscious, and has the objective of teaching us how to
function properly within our cultural milieu.
2. Culture Is Transmitted Intergenerationally. Spanish philosopher George Santayana
wrote, ―Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.‖ He was certainly not
referring to culture, which exists only if it is remembered and repeated by people.
You learned your culture from family members, teachers, peers, books, personal
observations, and a host of media sources. The appropriate way to act, what to say, and things to
value were all communicated to the members of your generation by these many sources. You are
also a source for passing these cultural expectations, usually with little or no variation, to
succeeding generations. Culture represents our link to the past and, through future generations,
hope for the future. The critical factor in this equation is communication.
3. Culture Is Symbolic. Words, gestures, and images are merely symbols used to convey
meaning. It is our ability to use these symbols that allows us to engage in the many forms of
social intercourse used to construct and convey culture. Our symbol-making ability facilitates
learning and enables transmission of meaning from one person to another, group to group, and
generation to generation. In addition to transmitting meaning, the portability of symbols creates
the ability to store information, which allows cultures to preserve what is considered important
and to create a history. The preservation of culture provides each new generation with a road
map to follow and a reference library to consult when unknown situations are encountered.
Succeeding generations may modify established behaviors or values, or construct new ones, but
the accumulation of past traditions is what we know as culture.
4. Culture Is Dynamic. Despite its historical nature, culture is never static. Within a
culture, new ideas, inventions, and exposure to other cultures create change. Discoveries such as
the stirrup, gunpowder, the nautical compass, penicillin, and nuclear power are demonstrations of
culture‘s susceptibility to innovation and new ideas. More recently, advances made by minority
groups, the women‘s movement, and gay rights advocates have significantly altered the fabric of
contemporary U.S. society. Invention of the computer chip and the Internet and the discovery of
DNA have brought profound changes not only to U.S. culture but also to the rest of the world.
Diffusion, or cultural borrowing, is also a source of change. Think about how common
pizza (Italian), sushi (Japanese), tacos (Mexican), and tandoori chicken and naan bread (India)
now are in the U.S. American diet. The Internet has accelerated cultural diffusion by making new
knowledge and insights easily accessible. Immigrants bring their own cultural practices,
traditions, and artifacts, some of which become incorporated into the culture of their new world.
These perceptions are strongly influenced by culture. In other words, we see, hear, feel, taste,
and even smell the world through the criteria that culture has placed on our perceptions. Thus,
one‘s idea of beauty, attitude toward the elderly, concept of self in relation to others—even one‘s
perception of what tastes good or bad – are culturally influenced and can vary among social
groups. For example, Vegemite is a yeast extract spread used on toast and sandwiches that is
sometimes referred to as the ―national food‖ of Australia. Yet, few people other than those from
Australia or New Zealand like the taste, or even the smell, of this salty, dark paste.
As you would expect, perception is an important aspect of intercultural communication,
because people from dissimilar cultures frequently perceive the world differently. Thus, it is
important to be aware of the more relevant socio-cultural elements that have a significant and
direct influence on the meanings we assign to stimuli. These elements represent our belief, value,
and attitude systems and our worldview.

B. Constructs Of Culture: Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes


5. Beliefs can be defined as individually held subjective ideas about the nature of an object
or event. These subjective ideas are, in large part, a product of culture, and they directly
influence our behaviors. Bullfighting is thought to be cruel and inhumane by most people in the
United States, but certainly not by the many people in Spain and Mexico who love the sport. A
strict adherent of Judaism or Islam would probably find the thought of eating a ham sandwich
repulsive. Regarding religion, many people believe that there is only one god but others pay
homage to multiple deities.
6. Values represent those things we hold important in life, such as morality, ethics, and
aesthetics. We use values to distinguish between the desirable and the undesirable. Each person
has a set of unique, personal values and a set of shared, cultural values. The latter are a reflection
of the rules a culture has established to reduce uncertainty, lessen the likelihood of conflict, help
in decision making, and provide structure to social organization and interactions.
Cultural values are a motivating force behind our behaviors. Someone from a culture that
places a high value on harmonious social relations, such as Japan, will likely employ an indirect
communication style. In contrast, a U.S. American can be expected to use a more direct style,
because frankness, honesty, and openness are valued.
7. Attitudes. Our beliefs and values push us to hold certain attitudes, which are learned
tendencies to act or respond in a specific way to events, objects, people, or orientations.
Culturally instilled beliefs and values exert a strong influence on our attitudes. Thus, people tend
to embrace what is liked and avoid what is disliked. Someone from a culture that considers cows
sacred will take a negative attitude toward your invitation to have a Big Mac for lunch.
8. Worldview. Although quite abstract, the concept of worldview is among the most
important elements of the perceptual attributes influencing intercultural communication. Stated
simply, worldview is what forms people‘s orientation toward such philosophical concepts as
deities, the universe, nature, and the like.
Normally, worldview is deeply imbedded in one‘s psyche and operates on a subconscious
level. This can be problematic in an intercultural situation, where conflicting worldviews can
come into play. As an example, many Asian and Native North American cultures hold a
worldview that people should have a harmonious, symbiotic relationship with nature. In contrast,
Euro-Americans are instilled with the concept that people must conquer and mold nature to
conform to personal needs and desires. Individuals from nations possessing these two contrasting
worldviews could well encounter difficulties when working to develop an international
environmental protection plan. The concept of democracy, with everyone having an equal voice
in government, is an integral part of the U.S. worldview. Contrast this with Afghanistan and
parts of Africa, where worldviews hold that one‘s tribe takes precedence over the central
government.

C. Cognitive Patterns Of Culture


Another important consideration in intercultural communication is the influence of culture
on cognitive thinking patterns, which include reasoning and approaches to problem solving. In
some cultures male friends may engage in a bear hug and kiss each other on both cheeks. People
from Japan and India traditionally bow to greet each other. Japanese men will place their hands
at the side of the body and bow from the waist, with the lower-ranking person bowing first and
dipping lower than the other person.
Indians will perform the namaste, which entails holding the hands together in a prayer-like
fashion at mid-chest while slightly bowing the head and shoulders.
Eye contact is another important culturally influenced nonverbal communication behavior.
For U.S. Americans, direct eye contact is an important part of making a good impression during
an interview. However, in some cultures, direct eye contact is considered rude or threatening.
Among some Native Americans, children are taught to show adults respect by avoiding eye
contact. When giving a presentation in Japan, it is common to see people in the audience with
their eyes shut, because this is thought to facilitate listening. (Try it – you may be surprised)
How a person dresses also sends a strong nonverbal message. What are your thoughts when you
see an elderly woman wearing a hijab, a Jewish boy with a yarmulke, or a young black man in a
colorful dashiki? Nonverbal facial and body expressions, like language, form a coding system
for constructing and expressing meaning, and these expressions are culture bound. Through
culture, we learn which nonverbal behavior is proper for different social interactions.
But what is appropriate and polite in one culture may be disrespectful or even insulting in
another culture. People engaging in intercultural communication, therefore, should try to
maintain a continual awareness of how body behaviors may influence an interaction.

D. Contextual Influences Or Rules In Culture


We have defined culture as a set of rules established and used by a group of people to
conduct social interaction. These rules determine what is considered correct communicative
behavior, including both verbal and nonverbal elements, for both physical and social (situational)
contexts. For example, you would not normally attend a funeral wearing shorts and tennis shoes
or talk on your cell phone during the service. Your culture has taught you that these behaviors
are contextually inappropriate (i.e., disrespectful).
Context is also an important consideration in intercultural communication interactions,
where the rules for specific situations usually vary. What is appropriate in one culture is not
necessarily correct in another. As an example, among most White U.S. Americans, church
services are relatively serious occasions, but among African American congregations, services
are traditionally more demonstrative, energetic gatherings.
In a restaurant in Germany, the atmosphere is usually somewhat subdued, with customers
engaging in quiet conversation. In Spain, however, the conversation is much louder and more
animated. In U.S. universities, students are expected to interactively engage the instructor, but in
Japan the expectation is that the instructor will simply lecture, with very little or no interaction.
In these examples, we see the importance of having an awareness of the cultural rules
governing the context of an intercultural communication exchange. Unless all parties in the
exchange are sensitive to how culture affects the contextual aspects of communication,
difficulties will most certainly arise and could negate effective interaction.

UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT ORGANIZATION: LOGISTICS, SUBHEADINGS,


CONTEXT, KEY WORDS, SPECIFIC WORDS

Instruction: Discovering text organization through its logistics. The detailed


organization and implementation of text essentials is discovered by using the techniques of
surveying, scanning and skim reading which help you find information about the topic of the
whole text and its parts. These techniques will also tell you something about how the text is
organized. While you are reading, you will probably find some ambiguous words or word
combinations. However, this does not have to be a problem. Firstly, you should decide
whether the word is important for you. Understanding the word may not be necessary to
understand the text. If you think a word is important, there are some strategies given below
you can use to help guess the meaning of the word.

Guessing the Meaning of Words


Supposing you find words you do not understand, it won‘t be a problem if you get used
to follow some regular strategies offered below:
Look at the context
Often you can guess the meaning of a word from the other words around it. E.g.: ...
many people believe that there is only one god but others pay homage to multiple deities. It is
obvious that deities is equivalent to gods.
Check the part of speech of a word
Knowing whether the word is a noun (singular or plural), a verb, an adjective or an
adverb can help you decide on its meaning within the context. E.g.: What are your thoughts
when you see an elderly woman wearing a hijab, a Jewish boy with a yarmulke, or a young black
man in a colorful dashiki? You can guess that these nouns denote nationally/religiously
identifying articles of clothing.
Also, you may already know one form of the word (e.g. the noun contamination) but not
the others (e.g. the noun enculturation, the noun culture, or the verb to enculturate), so you
should look closely at the root word to give you a clue.
Use your previous knowledge of English
You may have seen the word in a different context. You can use your previous
knowledge and the new context to work out the meaning. Or you may know the separate
parts of a word, but may be unfamiliar with the word as a whole. You can use this knowledge
to help you work out the meaning.
Check if there is a definition
Sometimes there will be a definition, explanation or example of a vaguely understood
word, e.g., Diffusion, or cultural borrowing. These can be introduced by a variety of words – is,
means, refers to, in other words, and i.e..
Look for any linking words or discourse markers
Linking words or discourse markers – such as however, but, therefore, for example, so
that, finally, stated simply – may help to indicate the meaning of a particular word. E.g.: ... the
concept of worldview is among the most important elements of the perceptual attributes
influencing intercultural communication. Stated simply, worldview is what forms people‟s
orientation toward such philosophical concepts as deities, the universe, nature, and the like.

Text organisation. Headings and subheadings clearly delineate the logistics of the
text. Sections A, B, C, and D identify 4 main constructs of culture.
Answer the following questions:
What are the four major characteristics of culture?
What are the four major constructs of culture?
What is meant by the cognitive patterns of culture?
What is meant by the contextual rules of culture?
You should skim a paragraph or section before choosing the correct answer from the
text. Remember that it is more efficient to skim the long piece of text first and get the idea of
the whole text. Then you can look through the alternative headings very quickly.
Step 1. Survey the text. The headings will give you some clues to help you quickly
understand what each part of the text is about.
Step 2. Skim-read each paragraph. Every paragraph deals with a specific aspect of a topic.
The first sentence of a paragraph may tell you what the rest of the paragraph is about. Therefore
while trying to identify the main idea of a paragraph, you should read the first sentence and skim the
rest of the paragraph.
Scan the text for key words.
This title Culture‟s components can help you understand that key words must concern
any kinds of constructs, or be connected with effects, of culture.
Follow the three-step strategy to make finding key words easier.
Step 1. Make sure you know what you are looking for.
Step 2. Scan each paragraph for 4-5 key words. Do not read every word.
Step 3. Select 5-10 key words for the whole text.
Write a 10-line abstract of the text basing on the key words. Make sure to mention all
characteristics, constructs, cognitive patterns and contextual rules of culture.
Collect specific information by pointing out groups of synonyms, semantic and thematic
groups. Keep it in mind that vocabulary in context includes both single words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs). and two- or three-word phrases.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Preposition use
It is important that you be familiar with the correct usage of prepositions and practice these
prepositions in sentences:
Adjectives/Participles + Prepositions (1)
acceptable to, accustomed to, adequate for, afraid of, aware of, based on, capable of,
characteristic of, close to, composed of, contrary to, dependent on, different from, disappointed
in/with, eligible for equipped with equal to essential to/for familiar with famous for.
Adjectives/Participles + Prepositions (2)
free of next to related to
independent of opposed to relevant to
inferior to opposite of satisfied with
married to perfect for suitable for
native to possible for surprised at/by
necessary for/to preferable to typical of
Opposite of is used for words or concepts that are completely different, such as "large" and
"small." When opposite means "across from," it is not used with of. "The bank is opposite the
post office on Cedar Street."
Nouns + Prepositions
approach to exception to origin of
attention to experience with price of
because of expert on probability of
contribution to form of quality of
component of group of reason for
cure for improvement in reliance on
increase in increase in result of
demand for influence on solution to
effect of/on* interest in supply of
example of native of
*effect + of + cause
effect + on + thing or person affected (The effect o/heat on rocks...)
Verbs + Prepositions
account for compete with insist on
adjust to concentrate on interfere with
agree with/on* consist of plan on
attach to contribute to participate in
attribute to cooperate with refer to
begin with deal with rely on
believe in depend on result in
belong to devote to search for
combine with engage in
*agree with is used with people
agree on is used with an issue, plan, etc. (I agreed with Mary on that issue.)
Phrasal Prepositions
according to due to on account of
ahead of except for prior to
along with in favor of regardless of
because of in spite of thanks to
bу means of instead of together with
In, On, and At (1)
Expressions of time
+ century (in the eighteenth century) + decade (in the 1990s)
+ year (in 1975) in
+ season (in the summer)
+ month (in July)
+ parts of the day (in the morning, in the evening, in the afternoon)
+ days of the week (on Wednesday) + dates (on October 7)
+ time of day (at 6pm; at noon)
+ night
Expressions of place
+ continent (in Africa)
+ country (in Mexico)
+ state (in Pennsylvania)
+ city (in Los Angeles)
+ building (in the bank)
+ room (in the auditorium)
+ in the world
+ street (on Maxwell Street)
on + floor of a building (on the fourth floor)
+ on Earth
at + address (at 123 Commonwealth Avenue)
In, On, and At, (2)
The prepositions in, on, and at are also used in a number of set expressions:
in a book/magazine/newspaper on a bus/train/etc. at best/worst
in charge (o0 on fire at first/last
in common (with) on the other hand at once
in danger (of) on purpose at the peak (of)
in detail on radio/television at present
in existence on the whole at the moment
in the front/middle/back at birth
in general at death
in practice at random
in the past/future
in a row
in style
in theory
Other Prepositions
By is often used with forms of communication and transportation: by car, by plane, by
phone, by express mail (Note: if the noun is plural or is preceded by a determiner, the
prepositions in or on must be used: in cars, on a boat, on the telephone, in a taxi).
By is also used with gerunds to show how an action happened:
How did you get an appointment with the President? By calling his secretary.
With is used to indicate the idea of accompaniment or possession:
Melanie came to the party with her friend. He wanted a house with a garage.
Without indicates the opposite relationship:
Melanie came to the party without her friend. He bought a house without a garage.
With also indicates that an instrument was used to perform an action:
He opened the door with a key. Without indicates the opposite relationship:
He opened the door without a key.
By and for are also used in the following expressions:
by chance for example
by far for free
by hand for now
For is sometimes used to show purpose; it means "to get."
She went to the store for toothpaste and shampoo.
Unit 1-9. COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE

Section 1. Guidelines for cross-cultural communication

A study of intercultural communication brings together two important kinds of insights:


the cultural shaping of communication practices, and the interactional dynamics that occur
among culturally shaped communication practices. Cultural analysis raises the general question:
how is communication shaped as a cultural practice When people are engaged in communication,
what significance and meaning does it have for them?
These general research questions, about the cultural nature and the meanings of
communication, are based upon the view that communication both presumes and constitutes
social realities; and further, that as people communicate, so they engage in a meta-cultural
commentary, that is, they say things explicitly and implicitly about who they are, how they are
related to each other, how they feel, what they are doing, and how they are situated in the nature
of things. These concerns about identity, relationships, emotions, and actions are in an excerpt
from the book by L. Samovar et al, given below.

Text 1-9. THE FRAMEWORK OF COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE


(Based on Intercultural Communication: A Reader by Larry A. Samovar, Richard E.
Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel)

1. A definition of communication
What exactly is communication? What happens when we communicate? In answering
those questions, we will first define and then explain the phenomenon.
Communication has been defined variously, and each definition is usually a reflection of
the author‘s objective or of a specific context. Often the definition is long and rather abstract,
because the author is trying to incorporate as many aspects of communication as possible. In
some instances, the definition is narrow and precise, designed to explain a specific type or
instance of communication.
When studying the union of culture and communication, however, a succinct, easily
understandable definition is in everyone‘s best interest. Thus, for us, communication is the
management of messages with the objective of creating meaning (Griffin, 2005).
This definition is somewhat broad, yet is precise in specifying what occurs in every
communicative episode. It does not attempt to establish what constitutes successful or
unsuccessful communication, which is actually determined by the involved participants, can vary
from one person to another, and is frequently scenario dependent. The only qualifiers we place
on communication are intentionality and interaction. In other words, if communication is
considered to be purposeful – to persuade, inform, or entertain – then we communicate with an
intention, and we achieve our objective only by interacting with someone.

2. Major structural components


Employing the definition of communication as the management of messages with the
objective of creating meaning, let‘s now examine the eight major structural components used to
manage messages and create meaning. The first and most obvious is (A) the sender – the person
or group originating the message. A sender is someone with a need or desire, be it social, work,
or public service, to communicate with others. In completing this desire, the sender formulates
and transmits the message via a channel to the receiver(s).
(B) The message consists of the information the sender desires to have understood—the
data used to create meaning. Messages, which can be verbal or nonverbal, are encoded and
transmitted via (C) a channel to the receiver. The channel is any means that provides a path for
moving the message from the sender to the receiver. For example, an oral message may be sent
directly when in the immediate presence of the receiver or mediated through a cell phone, a
conference call, or a YouTube video. A visual, or nonverbal, message can be transmitted
directly, such as by smiling to indicate pleasure, or mediated through a photograph or text.
Today, websites such as YouTube, Facebook, and MySpace provide channels that offer senders a
means to reach millions of receivers through mediated messages.
(D) The receiver(s) is the intended recipient of the message and the location where
meaning is created. Because the receiver interprets the message and assigns a meaning, which
may or may not be what the receiver intended, communication is often characterized as receiver
based. You may send a friend a text message, but for a variety of reasons, such as lack of
nonverbal cues or insufficient context, the receiver may (mis)interpret the message and feel
offended.
After interpreting the message and assigning a meaning, the receiver may prepare (E) a
response. This is any action taken by the receiver as a result of the meaning he or she assigns to
the message. A response can be benign, such as simply ignoring a provocative remark, or, at the
other extreme, a physically aggressive act of violence.
(F) The feedback component of communication is related to, yet separate from, the
response. Feedback helps us to evaluate the effectiveness of a message. Perhaps the receiver
smiles, or frowns, after decoding your message. This offers a clue as to the meaning the receiver
assigned to the message and helps you adjust to the developing situation. Depending on the
feedback, you may rephrase or amplify the message to provide greater clarity, ask whether the
message was understood, or perhaps even retract the statement.
Every communicative interaction takes place within (G) a physical and contextual
environment. The physical environment refers to the location where the communication occurs,
such as a classroom, coffee shop, business office, or airplane cabin. The contextual, or social,
environment is more abstract and exerts a strong influence on the style of communication
employed. Think about the different styles of communication you use when participating in an
interview, applying for a student loan, asking a stranger for directions, visiting your professor‘s
office, or apologizing when late to meet a friend. We alter our communicative style in response
to the occasion and the receiver – the contextual environment.
(H) Noise, the last component of communication, concerns the different types of
interference or distractions that plague every communication event. Physical noise is separate
from the communication participants and can take many forms, such as two people talking in the
back of the classroom during a lecture, someone talking loudly on the subway, the sounds of
traffic coming through the window of an apartment, or static on your cell phone.
Noise that is inherent to the people participating in the communication episode can take a
variety of forms. Suppose that during a Friday afternoon class you find yourself concentrating
more on plans for a spring break trip than on the lecture. Perhaps you are in a funk after learning
your car needs an expensive brake job, or are worried about a term paper due the next week.
These are examples of psychological noise that can reduce your understanding of the classroom
communication. Physiological noise relates to the physical well-being of the people engaged in
the communication activity. Coming to class with too little sleep, dealing with a head cold, or
simply feeling too hot or cold in the room will interfere with your ability to comprehend fully the
classroom activity.
The final type of noise often occurs during intercultural communication and can easily
produce misunderstandings. For effective communication in an intercultural interaction,
participants must rely on a common language, which usually means that one or more individuals
will not be using their native tongue. Native fluency in a second language is very difficult,
especially when nonverbal behaviors are considered. People who use another language will often
have an accent or might misuse a word or phrase, which can adversely influence the receiver‘s
understanding of the message. This type of distraction, referred to as semantic noise, also
encompasses jargon, slang, and specialized professional terminology.
Collectively, these eight components provide an overview of factors that can facilitate,
shape, or hamper communication encounters. But there is also another influential factor that
normally plays a role in communicative interactions. Our culture provides each of us with a set
of standards that govern how, when, what, and even why we communicate. However, you must
first understand the concept of culture itself in order to appreciate how it influences
communication.

3. What is culture?
Culture is an extremely popular and increasingly overused term in contemporary society.
Expressions such as cultural differences, cultural diversity, multiculturalism, corporate culture,
cross-culture, and other variations continually appear in the popular media.
Culture has been linked to such fields as corporate management, health care, psychology,
education, public relations, marketing, and advertising. We often hear about U.S. forces
operating in Afghanistan with insufficient knowledge and understanding of the local culture. The
pervasive use of the term culture attests to the increased awareness of the role it plays in our
everyday activities. Seldom, however, are we given a definition of just what constitutes culture
or exactly what culture does. This section will provide that information.

4. Explaining Culture
As with communication, the term culture has been the subject of numerous and often
complex, abstract definitions. What is frequently counted as one of the earliest and easily
understandable definitions of culture, and one still used today, was written in 1871 by British
anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, who said culture is ―that complex whole which
includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society‖ (―Sir Edward,‖ 2010).
Ruth Benedict offered a more succinct definition when she wrote, ―What really binds men
together is their culture – the ideas and the standards they have in common‖ (1959). A more
complex explanation was provided by Clifford Geertz, who said culture was ―a historically
transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions
expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop
their knowledge about and attitudes toward life‖ (1973). Contemporary definitions of culture
commonly mention shared values, attitudes, beliefs, American, or Russian American. Cultural
identity can become especially prominent during interactions between people from different
cultural groups, such as a Pakistani Muslim and an Indian Hindu, who have been taught varied
values, beliefs, and different sets of rules for social interaction. Thus, cultural identity can be a
significant factor in the practice of intercultural communication.

REVISION: MAIN IDEA, MAIN TOPIC AND SUBTOPICS, SPECIFIC WORDS,


EXPLICATION OF SPECIFIC INFORMATION

Instruction: These are revision assignments in which you should combine all skills you
have employed in the preceding eight units. You will have to start with identifying the main idea,
the main topic, or the main purpose of the text. Then follows the task of: matching headings
with paragraphs or sections, and identifying which sections relate to certain topics. Basing on
circumstantial evidence, inferences and vocabulary-in context you will have to look into specific
information given in the text.

Task: Answer the following questions:


 What is the main topic of the passage?
(1) The different styles of communication.
(2) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of the culture.
(3) The union of culture and communication.
(4) Cultural identity can be a significant factor in the practice of intercultural
communication.
 What is the author's attitude toward different definitions of communication?
 Where in the four sentences does the author discuss the best definition of culture?
(A) Culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law,
custom.
(B) Culture is the ideas and the standards people have in common.
(C) Culture is a historically transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbols, a system
of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate,
perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life.
(D) Culture is commonly shared values, attitudes, beliefs.

Read the passage: Physical noise is separate from the communication participants and can
take many forms, such as two people talking in the back of the classroom during a lecture,
someone talking loudly on the subway, the sounds of traffic coming through the window of an
apartment, or static on your cell phone. Noise that is inherent to the people participating in the
communication episode can take a variety of forms. Suppose that during a Friday afternoon class
you find yourself concentrating more on plans for a spring break trip than on the lecture. Perhaps
you are in a funk after learning your car needs an expensive brake job, or are worried about a
term paper due the next week. These are examples of psychological noise that can reduce your
understanding of the classroom communication. Physiological noise relates to the physical well-
being of the people engaged in the communication activity. Coming to class with too little sleep,
dealing with a head cold, or simply feeling too hot or cold in the room will interfere with your
ability to comprehend fully the classroom activity.
Which of the following can be inferred about physical noise?
(A) Both physical noise and the communication participants can take many forms.
(B) During your spring break trip you will have to learn how to repair your car brake.
(C) Psychological noise interferes with your understanding of the classroom
communication.
(D) Physiological noise is useful for the physical well-being of the people engaged in the
communication activity.

Making a list of key words.


Step 1. Survey the text and make a list of headings and subheadings
A list of headings will give you some clues to help single out main points of the text.
Step 2. Skim read each paragraph
Every paragraph deals with a specific aspect of a topic. The first sentence of a paragraph may
tell you what the rest of the paragraph is about. Therefore while trying to identify the main idea of a
paragraph, you should read the first sentence and skim the rest of the paragraphs.
Follow the three-step strategy to make finding key words easier.
Step 1. Make sure you know what you are looking for.
Step 2. Scan each paragraph for 5-10 key words. Do not read every word.
Step 3. Select 5-10 key words for the whole text.

Use your general background knowledge and knowledge of the general context.
Your knowledge and experience about what is logical or illogical can help you guess the
meaning of some words. Let us take, for instance, the second section of the text. This passage
logically connects and explains how the eight major structural components interact in
communication:
(A) The sender – the person or group originating the message.
(B) The message consists of the information the sender desires to have understood ...
(C) The channel – messages, which can be verbal or nonverbal, are encoded and
transmitted via a channel to the receiver.
(D) The receiver(s) is the intended recipient of the message ...
Basing on these definitions you can build a logical chain: the sender – the message – the
channel – the receiver. This logical chain presents the communication part of the main idea of
the whole text. Add the other four components to this logical chain.

Collect specific information by pointing out groups of synonyms, semantic and thematic
groups. Keep it in mind that vocabulary in context includes both single words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs). and two- or three-word phrases.
 It is claimed in paragraph 1 that the definition communication is the management of
messages with the objective of creating meaning is ―somewhat broad‖. Why is it
broad?
 Find a synonym for the words spreading widely throughout an area or a group of
people in paragraph 3.
 Find a synonym for the word certify in paragraph 3.
 Skim read each paragraph and collect a word nest for the noun culture and a
thematic group of expressions with the word culture.

What is the referent word for the word combination This type of distraction in the
paragraph below?
―People who use another language will often have an accent or might misuse a word or
phrase, which can adversely influence the receiver‘s understanding of the message. This type of
distraction, referred to as semantic noise, also encompasses jargon, slang, and specialized
professional terminology.‖

Section 2. Grammar workout

Missing conjunctions
Conjunctions are connecting words; they join parts of a sentence. Coordinate
conjunctions are used to join equal sentence parts: single words, phrases, and independent clauses.
When two full clauses are joined, they are usually separated by a comma. The coordinate
conjunctions you will most often see are listed in below.
And (addition), or (choice, possibility), but (contrast), nor (opposition)
 Hereford cows are brown and white.
 He washed his car and cleaned up the garage.
 This plant can be grown in a house or in a garden. Her action was very brave or very
foolish.
 Charlie brought his wallet but forgot his checkbook. The book discussed some
interesting ideas but it wasn't very well written.
 He's never taken a class in sociology, nor does he intend to. 1 didn't have breakfast
nor lunch.
(The conjunction so is used to join only clauses—not single words or phrases.)
Conjunctive adverbs (moreover, therefore, however, nevertheless, and so on) are also used
to join clauses: It was a bright day, so she put on her sunglasses. (negation effect)
Correlative conjunctions are two-part conjunctions. Like coordinate conjunctions, they are
used to join clauses, phrases, and words:
Both…and, not only…but also (addition) Both wolves and coyotes are members of the dog
family. Dominic studied not only mathematics but also computer science.
Either…or (choice, possibility), neither…nor (negation) We need either a nail nor a screw
to hang up this picture. Neither the television nor the stereo had been turned off.
Errors with correlative conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions are two-part adjectives. Errors usually involve an incorrect
combination of their parts, such as neither . . . or or not only . . . and. Anytime you see a
sentence containing correlative conjunctions you should be on the lookout for this type of
error. This is an easy error to spot!
Another error is the use of both . . . and to join three elements. E.g.: The air that surrounds
the plant is both odorless, colorless, and invisible. Both…and can be used to join two elements.
In this sentence the word both must be eliminated.
Identify errors involving conjunctions. If the underlined form is correct, mark the
sentence C. If the underlined form is incorrect, mark the sentence I, and write a correction for
the underlined form at the end of the sentence.
 Model airplanes can be guided both by control wires or by radio transmitters.
 Information in a computer can be lost because it is no longer stored or because it is
stored but cannot be retrieved.
 Martin Luther was not only a religious leader and also a social reformer.
 Although fish can hear, they have neither external ears or eardrums.
 In all animals, whether simple and complex, enzymes aid in the digestion of food.
 The two most common methods florists use to tint flowers are the spray method or
the absorption method.
 Beekeepers can sell either the honey and the beeswax that their bees produce.
 The alloys brass and bronze both contain copper as their principle metals.
 The human brain is often compared to a computer, and such an analogy can be
misleading.
 Rust both corrodes the surface of metal but also weakens its structure.
Choose the correct conjunction
Some people are smart in music, (and/or/but/nor) they are not so smart in mathematics,
(and/or/but/nor) are they smart in computer science.
Many people cannot fix their cars (however/or/so/nor) they have to ask car repair
workers.
(However/Or/So/Nor) car mechanics cannot teach languages, (however/or/so/nor) can
they bake bread.
John can memorize everything in a book, (moreover/therefore/however/nevertheless) he
can be a good student.(But/ Or/So/Nor) he is not.
Everybody was exhausted after a day-long walking tour,
(moreover/therefore/nor/nevertheless) no one wanted to go to bed.
When you realize what you‘re good at, you can figure out the best way to study,
(moreover/therefore/however/nevertheless) you can help others to study.
Unit 1-10. HOW TO TEACH MULTICULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Section 1. Guidelines for cross-cultural communication

Intercultural understanding is both an approach and an outcome of the learning process. It


promotes critical sensitivity to cultural differences among peoples within nations as well as
across nations. This approach promotes equal value in all human life and serves for preparation
for membership in a diverse and pluralistic global community. Students are encouraged to
develop the knowledge and skills required to negotiate and flourish in a diverse, transnational
environment and to continue their engagement in critical analysis of cultural relationships both
across and within nations. They are to achieve goals that promote intercultural understanding:
· Disposition towards lifelong learning that includes a critical engagement with cultures.
· Recognition and value for one‘s own cultures as well as the cultures of others.
· Knowledge of cultural differences among peoples within nations as well as across
nations.
· Development of global citizens and preparation for active membership in a diverse and
pluralistic global community.
· Development of skills to negotiate and flourish in a culturally diverse environment.

Text 1-10. HOW TO TEACH MULTICULTURAL COMMUNICATION


(After B. Saint-Jacques‟ Worldview in Intercultural Communication. A Religio-
Cosmological Approach. In L. Samovar, R. Porter, E. McDaniel, (Eds.), Intercultural
Communication. A Reader)

1. New approach to intercultural understanding.


Multicultural or intercultural communication cannot be learned without intercultural
understanding, which is based on the knowledge of culture. The word ―culture‖ has four different
meanings:
(1) High culture, the achievements of a society in terms of the most esteemed forms of
literature, art, music.
(2) Culture as behavior, the ways people agree to behave, act, and respond.
(3) Culture as ways of thinking: modes of perception, beliefs and values.
(4) Culture as language, the close link between language and culture.
The second meaning of culture, that is, culture as behavior, is related to clothing, food,
architecture, transportation, appearance and so on, it is usually called ―overt culture‖ or, in the
―iceberg model of culture‖, what is above the waterline and therefore easily observable.
Culture as behavior is subject to constant changes and is easily learned. The third meaning
of culture, modes of perception, beliefs and values, is not easily observable and is often out of
our own and others‘ awareness, it is called ―covert culture‖ and, in the ―iceberg model of
culture,‖ what is below the waterline. In our search of how to teach and learn intercultural
understanding and communication, we shall be dealing with meanings three and four of culture.

2. Culture as Ways of Thinking, Beliefs and Values


Culture is, first of all, perceptions concerning our system of values, our ways of thinking,
our beliefs, our psychological orientations. Intercultural understanding is therefore the ability to
understand the perceptions concerning one‘s own culture and the perceptions of the people who
belong to another culture, and the capacity to negotiate between the two.
The Greek philosopher Socrates had chosen for himself the following maxim: ―gnôthi
seauton,‖ ―Know Thyself.‖ The same is true for intercultural understanding. The first step for
intercultural understanding is to have a clear idea about one‘s own culture and about our personal
perceptions of this culture. This is not an easy task, however. Perceptions about one‘s culture are
mostly unconscious. When asked to describe one‘s culture, a person might have very vague
answers or often provide certain social generalizations which are stereotypes about one‘s culture.
There are two important facts concerning perceptions of one‘s culture:
First, nations are not culturally homogeneous, individuals in a nation might have different
perceptions about their culture. These perceptions will vary according to social class, age,
education, gender, experiences in life and many other factors.
Second, cultures are not static, they change constantly. These two facts are true for all
cultures. Does this mean that it is practically impossible to find out the perceptions a person has
about her or his own culture or the perceptions a person of a different culture holds about her or
his own culture?
No, it is quite possible through questioning, debates, discussions, reflective writing about
one single cultural aspect, thus allowing the person to reflect about her or his own perception
about one cultural aspect, often linked to other aspects of the culture.
Thus, the door to one‘s perception of one‘s culture has been opened. The types of questions
and discussions in this approach will vary according to the age and background of students. Let‘s
say that we are dealing with university students. If a student or a person of another culture is
present, this is an ideal situation because that person can also answer the same question and then
a lively discussion can take place. When it is not possible, however, answers for a question can
be found in books dealing with a variety of cultures. Here are some examples of questions that
students have to answer, and statements they have to qualify: 1/ strongly agree, 2/ agree, 3/ no
opinion, 4/ disagree, or 5/ strongly disagree:
 Men in my country usually expect women to prepare and serve food. __________
 A married man should help around the house, doing cleaning, ironing and cooking.
__________
 In my country, it is common for a man to give up his seat to a woman on public
transport. __________
 In my country, it is not typical for women to speak their minds and contradict men.
__________
 Should both husband and wife contribute to the household income? ___________
 Is it normal ―going Dutch‖ (when each pays half of the costs) when a man and a
woman go out? __________
 If a man and a woman are having dinner together, is it OK for the woman to pay the
bill? __________
 Is it OK for a man to give a woman a pat on the backside to show he likes her?
__________
 Is it proper for a man to hold a door open for a woman? __________
 Whenever a mixed group of people (male/female) come together the men always sit
together. __________
 If you are a student at school and you received a mark that seemed not to reflect
your knowledge, is it proper to talk to the teacher about it? __________. Is it proper
in your country?
 If children do well at school, parents should reward them with a present or pocket
money. __________
 Students treat what the teachers and textbooks teach as something final and
unquestionable. __________. Do they in your country?
 Faithfulness is the most important factor for a successful marriage. __________
 In English, the terms stewardess (or steward for men) have been replaced with the
gender-neutral term ―flight attendant.‖ ____________. Can you give examples of
such changes in your language?
These are only a few examples. Statements and questions could be prepared dealing with
all aspects of life, but only one cultural aspect at a given time. After discussions, students can be
asked to do some reflective writing, for instance, describe what YOU think of marriage. It is
quite possible that students of the same culture have different perceptions about several cultural
aspects. Pictures and videos showing daily life scenes of people (for instance, ways of greeting
between two men, two women or between a man and a woman) from one‘s country and other
countries are also excellent indirect ways to start fascinating discussions about differences in
cultures and students‘ reactions about these differences. This approach is the first step to the
understanding of one‘s perception about one‘s culture and absolutely essential for apprehending
the perceptions of a person of another culture, that is, intercultural understanding and
communication.

3. Culture as Language: The Close Link Between Language and Culture


It is quite evident that the teaching and learning of a second language could be an excellent
way to access another culture and therefore to improve intercultural understanding and
communication. This, however, is possible only if this learning and teaching begin with the idea
that language and culture learning are fundamentally interrelated and that this interrelationship
constitutes the centre of the teaching and learning processes. A language is a window into the
culture of people speaking this language. For instance, the teaching of personal pronouns I and
You in languages like French, German, Spanish, and Japanese is an excellent opportunity to
enter various aspects of the cultures of these languages, such as the social relations between two
persons talking together: How well do they know each other? Is one superior to the other because
of age, sex, position, or the social group to which one belongs?
In these languages, there are choices of personal pronouns which have to be selected
according to the reference points mentioned earlier. In French, for You, tu or vous, in German,
du or Sie, in Spanish, tu or usted.
In Japanese, for I, (to mention only a few) ore, boku, watakushi, watashi, for You, omae,
kimi, anata (Saint-Jacques, 1971). In the English language, the speaker does not have to worry
about these various points of reference: the personal pronouns I, and You are the only pronouns.
However, in these other languages, the teaching of these pronouns provides a unique opportunity
to observe language as an essential and closely integrated element of social behavior. In these
languages, the wrong choice of pronouns can have disastrous effects for the speaker. Recently, a
German driver who was arrested for speeding was so mad that he forgot the basic rules of
pronouns in his mother tongue: the pronoun du is not to be used with people who are not close
friends. He was fined for using du to the officer who arrested him!
Intercultural learning involves developing an understanding of one‘s own language and
culture in relation to an additional language and culture. Traditional language teaching and
learning with the sole emphasis on phonetics and syntax cannot produce speakers who have
acquired some understanding of one‘s own language and culture in relation to an additional
language and culture— necessary conditions for intercultural understanding and communication.
Moreover, there is also another important reason to link the teaching and learning of a
language together with the culture of the people speaking this language. To learn a language,
whether it is a first or second language, two basic conditions are essential: motivation and the
opportunity to use this language.
These two facts are closely related to each other, if there is no opportunity to use a
language, motivation also ceases to exist, that is, the learner‘s motivation to learn the language
will become weaker and eventually disappear. The opportunity or necessity to use a language is a
fundamental law of language learning. A language which is not used for frequent communication
will slowly disappear, first on the active level, speaking and writing, and eventually on the
passive level, listening and reading. Does it mean that the teaching and learning of a second
language is a waste of time?
The various benefits of second language learning usually identified in the defense of
language education fall into two categories: (1) the practical and tangible benefits of being able
to communicate in a second language, and (2) the broader benefits of expanding one‘s
intellectual experience, the improvement of cross-cultural awareness and a better understanding
of other cultures. A language is like a window to the world of another culture (Saint-Jacques,
2006). Even if a person loses the active and even the passive knowledge of a second language,
the learning of this language is a very enriching and beneficial process.
Sakuragi (2006), in a recent paper, gives the example of second language teaching in the
United States: ―While the practical benefits of language learning in the United States are
sometimes questioned due to the increasing dominance of English in international
communication, the argument that language study helps students develop a sense of being a
‗world citizen‘ remains cogent‖. There are many second language learners who will never
become fluent in their second language because of the lack of opportunity to use the language for
communication. Even for them, in the cultural perspective, the study of languages is very
beneficial.
There are many countries in the world where a great majority of citizens does not have the
necessity or opportunity to use another language for communication.
The learning of languages, however, is part of the curriculum in schools and universities
because it can provide students with a better understanding of other cultures as well as their own
culture.

REVISION: MAIN TOPIC AND SUBTOPICS, TEXT ORGANIZATION, MAKING


INFERENCES, EXPLICATION OF SPECIFIC INFORMATION

Instruction: This is another revision unit in which you should combine all skills you have
mastered in the preceding nine units. You will have to start with identifying the main idea, the
main topic, or the main purpose of the text. Then follows the task of deciding if headings match
with paragraphs or sections, and identifying if sections relate to definite topics. Basing on
circumstantial evidence, inferences and vocabulary in context you will have to look into specific
information given in the text.
Step 1. Survey the text. The list of headings will give you some clues to help you quickly
understand what each part of the text is about. Step 2. Skim-read each paragraph. Every
paragraph deals with a specific aspect of a topic. The first sentence of a paragraph may tell you
what the rest of the paragraph is about. Therefore while trying to identify the main idea of a
paragraph, you should read the first sentence and skim the rest of the paragraph.

Task: Scan the text for key words


This title How to teach multicultural communication can help you realise that key
words must concern intercultural communication which cannot be learned without intercultural
understanding. E.g., in paragraph 3 it is possible to point out the following key words: learning
languages, understanding cultures, cultural perspective. Follow the three-step strategy to make
finding key words easier.
Step 1. Make sure you know what you are looking for.
Step 2. Scan each paragraph for 5-10 key words. Do not read every word.
Step 3. Select 5-10 key words for the whole text.

Task:
 Basing on paragraph 1 give a definition of intercultural understanding.
 Basing on paragraph 1 explain why the ―overt culture‖ is easily observable in the
―iceberg model of culture‖.
 Basing on paragraph 1 explain why the ―covert culture‖ is below the waterline in the
―iceberg model of culture‖.
 Basing on paragraph 2 explain why Socrates‘ maxim: ―Know Thyself.‖ is true for
intercultural understanding.
Answer the following questions:
 What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) Different meanings of cultures.
(B) Intercultural learning involves developing an understanding of one‘s own language
and culture in relation to an additional language and culture.
(C) The door to one‘s perception of one‘s culture.
(D) A better understanding of cultures.
 What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) New approach to intercultural understanding.
(B) Intercultural understanding, which is based on the knowledge of culture.
(C) The cultural perspective of the study of languages.
(D) Lack of opportunity to use the language for communication.
 What is the author's attitude toward the opinion that it is practically impossible to find
out the perceptions a person has about her or his own culture?
(A) He shares this position.
(B) He strongly disagrees.
(C) He tries to be objective.
(D) He doesn‘t care.
 Where in the four sentences does the author discuss culture as ways of thinking: modes
of perception, beliefs and values?
(A) When asked to describe one‘s culture, a person might have very vague answers or often
provide certain social generalizations which are stereotypes about one‘s culture.
(B) Cultures are not static, they change constantly.
(C) Even if a person loses the active and even the passive knowledge of a second language,
the learning of this language is a very enriching and beneficial process.
(D) Nations are not culturally homogeneous, individuals in a nation might have different
ideas about their culture.

Collect specific information by pointing out groups of synonyms, semantic and thematic
groups. Keep it in mind that vocabulary in context includes both single words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) and two- or three-word phrases.

Read the passage: ―Perceptions about one‘s culture are mostly unconscious. When asked
to describe one‘s culture, a person might have very vague answers or often provide certain social
generalizations which are stereotypes about one‘s culture. There are two important facts
concerning perceptions of one‘s culture:
First, nations are not culturally homogeneous, individuals in a nation might have different
perceptions about their culture. These perceptions will vary according to social class, age,
education, gender, experiences in life and many other factors.
Second, cultures are not static, they change constantly.
These two facts are true for all cultures. Does this mean that it is practically impossible to
find out the perceptions a person has about her or his own culture or the perceptions a person of a
different culture holds about her or his own culture?
No, it is quite possible through questioning, debates, discussions, reflective writing about
one single cultural aspect, thus allowing the person to reflect about her or his own perception
about one cultural aspect, often linked to other aspects of the culture. Thus, the door to one‘s
perception of one‘s culture has been opened..‖
This passage is marked for semantically coupled expressionsn characterising perceptions:
Unconscious – vague; generalizations – stereotypes; not homogeneous – different (they vary);
are not static – change; it is practically impossible – it is quite possible.
How do these expressions illustrate the author‟s idea that the door the perception of
culture has been opened?
Qualify the following questions and statements by marking that you 1/ strongly agree, 2/
agree, 3/ have no opinion, 4/ disagree, or 5/ strongly disagree:
 Men in my country usually expect women to prepare and serve food. __________
 A married man should help around the house, doing cleaning, ironing and cooking.
__________
 In my country, it is common for a man to give up his seat to a woman on public
transport. __________
 In my country, it is not typical for women to speak their minds and contradict men.
__________
 Should both husband and wife contribute to the household income? ___________
 Is it normal ―going Dutch‖ (when each pays half of the costs) when a man and a
woman go out? __________
 If a man and a woman are having dinner together, is it OK for the woman to pay the
bill? __________
 Is it OK for a man to give a woman a pat on the backside to show he likes her?
__________
 Is it proper for a man to hold a door open for a woman? __________
 Whenever a mixed group of people (male/female) come together the men always sit
together. __________
 If you are a student at school and you received a mark that seemed not to reflect
your knowledge, is it proper to talk to the teacher about it? __________. Is it proper
in your country?
 If children do well at school, parents should reward them with a present or pocket
money. __________
 Students treat what the teachers and textbooks teach as something final and
unquestionable. __________. Do they follow this stereotype in your country?
 Faithfulness is the most important factor for a successful marriage. __________
 In English, the terms stewardess (or steward for men) have been replaced with the
gender-neutral term ―flight attendant.‖ ____________. Can you give examples of
such changes in your language?
How do your answers qualify Ukrainaians‟ ways of thinking, beliefs and values?

Answer the following questions basing on Paragraph 3:


 Does a great majority of Ukrainian citizens have the necessity or opportunity to use
English for communication?
 If there is no opportunity to use a language, will the learner‘s motivation to learn
the language become weaker and eventually disappear?
 Will a language which is not used for frequent communication slowly disappear?
 Does it mean that the teaching and learning of a second language in Ukraine is a
waste of time?

Section 2. Grammar workout

Wrong word choice


Word choice errors involve the incorrect use of one word in place of another. The two words
may have related forms (other and another, for example) or they may be completely different (do
and make, for example).
Descriptions of some of the most common word choice errors are given below:
Wrong choice of make or do
The verb to do is often used in place of to make, and to make in place of to do. In its basic
sense, make means to produce, to create, to construct, while to do means to perform, to act, to
accomplish, these verbs are also used in a number of set expressions:
Set expressions with Make:
make advances, make an attempt, make a comparison, make a contribution, make a decision,
make a distinction, make a forecast, make a law, make a point, be made of (= be composed of),
make up (= compose), make an investment, make a plan, make a prediction, make a profit, make a
promise, make an offer, make a suggestion.
To make is also used in this pattern: make + someone +adjective (The gift made her happy.)
Common Expressions with Do:
do an assignment, do business with, do one's duty, do someone a favor, do a job (errand,
chore) do research, do one's work.
The auxiliary verb do is used rather than repeat main verbs: (My computer doesn't operate as
fast as theirs does.)
Wrong choice of like or alike and like or as
The word alike is incorrectly used in place of like, or like is used in place of alike. These
words are used correctly in the following patterns:
Like А, В ... Like birds, mammals are warm-blooded.
A, like B, ... Birds, like mammals, are warm-blooded.
A is like В ... Birds are like mammals in that they are both warm-blooded.
A and В are alike ... Birds and mammals are alike in that they are both warm-blooded.
The word like is also sometimes confused with the word as. When like is used in a
comparison, it is followed by a noun or pronoun. When as is used in a comparison, it is followed
by a clause containing a subject and a verb.
I did my experiment just as Paul did. My results were much like Paul's.
The word as is also used before nouns when it means in place of or in the role of. This is
particularly common after certain verbs: serve, function, and use, among others.
The vice-president served as president when the president was sick
Wrong choice of other or another
Another means "one more, an additional one." It can be used as an adjective before a
singular noun or alone as a pronoun.
He needs another piece of paper.
I have one class in that building and another in the building across the quadrangle.
An understudy is an actor who can substitute for another actor in case of an emergency.
Other is used as an adjective before a plural noun. It is also used as an adjective before a
singular noun when preceded by a determiner such as the, some, any, one, no, etc. It can also be
used alone as a pronoun when preceded by a determiner.
There are other matters I'd like to discuss with you.
One of the books was a novel; the other was a collection of essays.
There's no other place I'd rather visit.
Wrong choice of because/because of, despite/inspite of or although, when/while or
during
Certain expressions, such as because, are adverb clause markers and are used only before
clauses, other expressions, such as because of, are prepositions and are used before noun phrases
or pronouns.
Adverb-clause Markers Prepositions
(Used with clauses) (Used with noun phrases)
because because of
although despite, in spite of
when, while during
Because of migration to the suburbs, the population of many large American cities declined
between 1950 and 1960.
Although most people consider the tomato a vegetable, botanists classify it as a fruit.
Wrong choice of much and many and similar expressions
Certain expressions can only be used in phrases with plural nouns (many, few, a few, fewer,
the fewest, number); others can be used in expressions with uncountable nouns (much, little, a
little, less, the least, amount).
Pearls are found in many colors, including cream, blue, lavender, and black.
Even during economic booms, there is a small amount of unemployment.
Wrong choice of negative words
The answer choices for this type of item are negative expressions, such as the ones listed
below:
no (adjective) not any
none (pronoun) not one
nothing (pronoun) not anything
no one (pronoun) not anyone
nor (conjunction) and . . . not
without (preposition) not having
never (adverb) at no time
There was no milk in the refrigerator.
They took a lot of pictures, but almost none of them turned out.
There was nothing in his briefcase. No one arrived at the meeting on time.
He's never been fishing, nor does he plan to go.
She likes her coffee without milk or sugar.
I've never been to Alaska.
The negative word not is used to make almost any kind of word or phrase negative: verbs,
prepositional phrases, infinitives, adjectives, etc.
Both no and not can be used before nouns, depending on meaning:
There is no coffee in the pot. (It's empty.) This is not coffee. (It's tea.)
The adjective no is also used before the word longer to mean "not anymore": I no longer
read the afternoon paper.
Note: without + -ing is an adverbial modifier of cause; not + -ing is an adverbial modifier
of condition:
You cannot write a good diploma paper without reading a lot of works in your field. (You
won‘t write ... because you haven‘t read ...)
You cannot write a good diploma paper not reading a lot of works in your field. (If you
want to write ... you will have to read ...)
Unit 1-11. BEYOND CULTURAL IDENTITY

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on cross-cultural communication

Does our culture impact upon our daily lives and the way we communicate with others? Do
we need to learn the art of intercultural communication in a multi-racial and multi-cultural
society?
In a world where globalization is increasingly becoming a way of life, cultural
intercommunication is taking on increasing importance. Cross-cultural communication is defined
as a transitional, symbolic process involving the attribution of meaning between people of
different cultures. Having an understanding of people from other cultures, and appreciating their
value is expected to be an essential part of the framework needed to provide for a harmonious
multi-cultural society. Communication in this sense is not strictly referring to speech but includes
the attitude we take, our preconceptions, reactions and understanding of diverse cultures and
traditions. We need to learn how to communicate with other cultures and, even in language this
is not easy. It is a learning process. In speech as well as with actions, one has to learn that what is
considered norm and acceptable in some cultures may be seen as the opposite in others.

Text 1-11. WHAT MAKES A SCHOOL MULTICULTURAL?


(After Caleb Rosado, Eastern University, Philadelphia, PA)

1. It is an axiom of our times that our world is rapidly changing. With change comes not
only a different view of the world, but also changes in language to name that new world. Old
words take on new meanings and new words enter the vocabulary, resulting in another way of
"seeing."
It was not too long ago that as a nation we moved from an Agrarian Society concerned with
conformity, through an Industrial Society concerned with nationalism and uniformity, to our
present Information Society concerned with diversity within a global context, on our way to the
Global Society of the 21st century with a planetary worldview. Such cultural and political
upheavals have given rise to knowledgeable players in the game of social change, while leaving
most people as confused bystanders, desperately hanging on to a past which in part is
dysfunctional to the present and in many ways irrelevant to the future.
The needs of the 21st century demand a citizenry that is culturally sensitive and
internationally focused, with an orientation toward the future rather than the past.
Multiculturalism, as the new paradigm for education for the 21st century, is a political
ping-pong term greatly misused and highly misunderstood. Since for many it is also a value-
ladened concept, it has come under fire from diverse segments of the population, who due to
their social position view the world differently. The fact that where you stand determines what
you see is a reality in most situations, and it is especially true for the concept of multiculturalism.
The purpose of this article is to provide an operational definition of multiculturalism as a
basis for understanding the changes coming to our society, and to propose a model for what
makes a school multicultural.

2. The concept of multiculturalism embodies a new orientation toward the future.


Unfortunately, in all the heated discussion around the term no clear definition of the concept has
yet emerged. People are thus left to read into the term whatever their biases and self-interests
dictate. Let me put forth an operational definition of multiculturalism as a starting point to better
clarify our human interactions.
Multiculturalism is a system of beliefs and behaviors that recognizes and respects the
presence of all diverse groups in an organization or society, acknowledges and values their
socio-cultural differences, and encourages and enables their continued contribution within an
inclusive cultural context which empowers all within the organization or society.
Let's take it apart. There are the four pairs of action phrases that give substance to the
definition: "beliefs and behaviors," "recognizes and respects," "acknowledges and values,"
"encourages and enables," and a fifth one, "empowers." Multiculturalism is a system, a set of
interrelated parts, in this case, beliefs and behaviors, which make up the whole of how humans
experience today's world. It includes what people believe about others, their basic paradigms,
and how these impact, and are impacted by, behavior. The outcome of this framework of
beliefs/behaviors are seven important actions.

3. The first is recognition of the rich diversity in a given society or organization. For the
longest time racial/ethnic minorities, the physically disabled, and women have not been given the
same recognition as others. The one-sided approach to history and education has been a
testimony to that fact.
With recognition should also come respect. Respect and recognition are not the same, since
recognizing the existence of a group does not necessarily elicit respect for the group. In a slave
economy, for example, the presence of slaves was recognized but their humanity was not
respected.

4. Multiculturalism also entails acknowledging the validity of the cultural expressions and
contributions of the various groups. This is not to imply that all cultural contributions are of
equal value and social worth, or that all should be tolerated. Some cultural practices are better
than others for the overall betterment of society. These cultural expressions and contributions
that differ from those of the dominant group in society are usually only acknowledged when
there is an economic market for them, such as music for African American, native Indian dances
for tourism or Mexican cuisine. When the business sector wants our money, the advertising
industry pictures people of color in a positive light. But in most other cases the entertainment
media simply caricatures minority stereotypes, such as women usually in supportive roles.
Multiculturalism thus means valuing what people have to offer, and not rejecting or belittling it
simply because it differs from what the majority, or those in power, regard as important and of
value.

5. Multiculturalism will also encourage and enable the contribution of the various groups
to society or an organization. Women and persons of color, for example, often experience
discouragement because what they bring to the "table" for discussion is often regarded as of little
value or worth. Not everything can be utilized, however, nor is of the same worth and value. But
it does have value, even if for no other reason than the effort invested in bringing it forward.
Such efforts must be encouraged, for who knows from where the next great idea may come from
a youth, from an elderly person, from an African American, from a single parent, from a lesbian,
from a high school drop out, from a business executive, etc.? The word enable here is important,
because what lies behind it is the concept of empowerment – the process of enabling people to be
self-critical of their own biases so as to strengthen themselves and others to achieve and deploy
their maximum potential. People's sense of self-worth, value and dignity is most often
determined not only by the kind of support and encouragement they receive from others, but also
from how willing they are to self-examine negative behaviors in their own life and in their
cultural group. If I or my group is practicing self-destructive action, all the external help will go
for naught.

6. The essence of multiculturalism, the undergirding concept of multicultural education, is


the ability to celebrate with the other in a manner that transcends all barriers and brings about a
unity in diversity. Multiculturalism enables us to look upon the Other, especially the Other that
society has taught us to regard with distrust and suspicion, and to be taken advantage of, not as a
"potential predator, but as a profitable partner."
The last part of this definition of multiculturalism "within an inclusive cultural context" is
most important, because it is here where many people get off and refuse to go along with an
inclusive approach to society or to education. Many people fear multiculturalism will bring in
"foreign" concepts and ideas which will deviate the nation from its historic course and transform
the United States into something different from what it has been. We need to realize that
America has always been a multicultural society, whether or not many have been willing to
admit it.
Along with the ever-present threat of nuclear annihilation and environmental destruction,
one of the principal problems confronting world society today is the problem of racial/ethnic
hostility and cultural insensitivity.

7. A new age demands new methods and new structures, for the ferment of change cannot
be contained in the old structures, but will burst these. It is the old problem of "new wine in old
wineskins." This age-old truism of Jesus Christ is so clear that one wonders how people
throughout the ages can continue making the same old mistakes in the face of inevitable change.
Yet Jesus Himself gave us the reason why people continue making the same perennial mistake.
In the very next breath, He declared, "No one after drinking old wine desires new; for he says,
'The old is better'" (vs. 39). What He is telling us here is that even in the face of inevitable
change, no one really wants to change; people still prefer the old. Thus those who have the most
invested in the old structures are the most reluctant to change, since they stand the most to loose
in the new order of things. The bigots would prefer spillage rather than change their self-
preserved, sacro-sanct, social structures. They may woof, woof all they want, however, but the
caravan of change moves on. When change is inevitable, they desire that change which will not
necessarily change the old structures. The result is a lot of fine rhetoric that is slow to change,
because the concern is with reformation not revolution.

8. What's the solution? It is found in managing diversity! Managing diversity is nothing


new. In fact, historic colonizing empires like Spain, Portugal and England, and modern nations
like the United States, South Africa, Japan, Germany, and now newly emerged nations with their
"ethnic cleansing" efforts, have managed diversity most effectively, but for purposes of
exclusion, at both the individual and institutional dimensions.
Various institutions in society, such as schools, churches, businesses, corporations, as well
as communities have also managed diversity well, but again, for purposes of exclusion. In part
this is because as Audre Lorde tells us, "we have no patterns for relating across our human
differences as equals." Without such patterns or models, the prevailing attitude and behavior
toward persons of color and others with biological, physical and socio-cultural differences has
been one of exclusion and control. Today, to reach our potential as organizations and society,
that attitude has to shift to one of inclusion.
Managing diversity is an on-going process that unleashes the various talents and
capabilities which a diverse population bring to an organization, community or society, so as to
create a wholesome, inclusive environment, that is "safe for differences," enables people to
"reject rejection," celebrates diversity, and maximizes the full potential of all, in a cultural
context where everyone benefits. Multiculturalism, as the art of managing diversity, is an
inclusive process where no one is left out. Diversity, in its essence, then is a safeguard against
idolatry, the making of one group as the norm for all groups.

9. Therefore, one of the dangers that must be avoided in grasping a proper understanding of
multiculturalism is bashism. Bashism is the tendency to verbally and/or physically attack another
person or group based solely on the negative meaning given to group membership‹due to
biological, cultural, political or socioeconomic differences (such as gender, age, race/ethnicity,
political party, class, education, values, religious affiliation or sexual orientation)‹without regard
for the individual. The motivating factor for bashism is fear, arising out of ignorance of the other.
One of the backwashes of a narrow view of multiculturalism, especially as espoused by
some women and persons of color, is what I call "white maleism." White Maleism is the
tendency of minority groups to blame white males for most of the social evil in the world today,
especially as it relates to sexism and racism, and view them as selfish, ruthless, unrepentant and
unredeemable, and, as a consequence, refuse to recognize and accept the contribution that many
white males have made, continue to make, and desire to make, to remove oppression.
While much of oppression today has been the historical by-product of the abuse of power
by white males, not much is gained in terms of creating an inclusive, caring, compassionate
educational system and society, by reversing the process and excluding many white males who
have been instrumental in creating the "house of abundance" and structures of inclusion. Some of
us, persons of color, would not be where we are today if it were not for culturally, politically and
morally concerned white males who opened institutional doors, made decisions, implemented
policies, and stood in the breach to bridge the gulf of intolerance. The effective management of
diversity includes, empowers and benefits all persons concerned, whites included.
In an age of cultural pluralism, multiculturalism is needed to manage diversity effectively.
In essence, then, multiculturalism is nothing more than the art of managing diversity in a total
quality manner. It is the only option open to educators, leaders and administrators in an ever-
increasing culturally pluralistic environment. In schools the process of multiculturalism is best
maintained through Multicultural Education, an intrinsic approach to education and curriculum
construction that acknowledges and respects the contributions which the various racial/ethnic
groups have made to society, and incorporates these contributions in an overall program of
instruction which meets the needs of an ever-changing society and is sensitive to the personal
and social development of all persons concerned.
Today's diverse student populations and workforce are simply not going to go away, but
increase. This is the direction of the future – multicultural, multiethnic, multilingual
communities. And effective leaders, concerned with the bottom line – the maximizing of profit,
whether material or nonmaterial – are recognizing this new direction.
The art of managing diversity is thus of great concern to all persons charged with the
responsibility of overseeing the work of others. Organizations, however, that try to force today‘s
reality into yesterday's management styles will seriously jeopardize the viability of their
enterprise. Beyond the challenge of creating a humane educational environment where students
and staff of diverse backgrounds and experiences learn to appreciate each other, lies the
additional one of changing the structural arrangements.

REVISION: THE TOPIC, THE PURPOSE, THE IDEA, TEXT STRUCTURE AND
ORGANIZATION, CLUES IN THE TEXT, MAKING INFERENCES, EXPLICATION OF
SPECIFIC INFORMATION

Instruction: We are not all born equal with regards to communication skills. It‘s obvious
some people find communication easier than others and this is the same in cross-cultural
communication. No matter what your natural skill level is in communication, you can always
work on developing stronger cross-cultural skills. Of course, international experience and
exposure to different cultures plays an important role, but there‘s a lot of work you can do to
help you acquire stronger cross-cultural skills faster. In the analysis of this text, make sure to
take steps you have mastered in the preceding ten units. You will have to start with matching
headings with paragraphs or sections, and identifying which sections relate to which topics.
Then follows the task of identifying the main topic, or the main purpose of the author, the main
idea of the text. Basing on circumstantial evidence, inferences and vocabulary in context you will
have to look into clues for specific information given in the text.
Matching headings with paragraphs
Step 1. Survey the text. A list of headings can give you some useful information to help you
quickly understand what each part of the text will be about.
Step 2. Skim-read each paragraph. This technique gives you a general idea of what the writer
is saying in each paragraph.
Step 3. Determine which heading is the best match for each of the paragraphs marked by
the numbers.
Empowerment of diversity 1
Recognition of diversity 2
Acknowledgement of diversity 3
Partnership in diversity 4
The ferment of change 5
New names for the new world 6
Managing Diversity 7
Ignorance of the other 8
What Is Multiculturalism? 9

Answer the following questions:


 What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) Multiculturalism as an outgrowth of the complexities of the twentieth century.
(B) The identity of a multicultural person.
(C) One‘s culture as the door to one‘s perception.
(D) An operational definition of multiculturalism.
 What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) New approach to intercultural understanding.
(B) Intercultural understanding, which is based on the knowledge of culture.
(C) Essential similarities between people.
(D) The concept of multiculturalism.
 What is the author's attitude toward the opinion that the dangers must be avoided in
grasping a proper understanding of multiculturalism?
(A) He shares this position.
(B) He strongly disagrees.
(C) He tries to be objective.
(D) He doesn‘t care.
 Where in the four sentences does the author discuss the multicultural person as, at once,
both old and new?
(A) The fact that where you stand determines what you see is a reality in most situations,
and it is especially true for the concept of multiculturalism.
(B) Even in the face of inevitable change, no one really wants to change; people still prefer
the old.
(C) Many people fear multiculturalism will bring in "foreign" concepts and ideas which
will deviate the nation from its historic course.
(D) A new age demands new methods and new structures, for the ferment of change
cannot be contained in the old structures.
 What is the main idea advanced by the author in the text?
(A) Multiculturalism is the basis for understanding the changes coming to our society.
(B) We may now be on the threshold of a new kind of person, a person who is socially and
psychologically a product of the interweaving of cultures in the twenty first century.
(C) A new type of person is developing from the complex of social, political, economic,
and educational interactions of our time.
(D) An understanding of the new kind of person must be predicated on a clear
understanding of cultural identity.

Collect specific information by pointing out groups of synonyms, semantic and thematic
groups. Keep it in mind that vocabulary in context includes both single words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) and two- or three-word phrases.

Read the passage: ―In an age of cultural pluralism, multiculturalism is needed to manage
diversity effectively. In essence, then, multiculturalism is nothing more than the art of managing
diversity in a total quality manner. It is the only option open to educators, leaders and
administrators in an ever-increasing culturally pluralistic environment. In schools the process of
multiculturalism is best maintained through Multicultural Education, an intrinsic approach to
education and curriculum construction that acknowledges and respects the contributions which
the various racial/ethnic groups have made to society, and incorporates these contributions in an
overall program of instruction which meets the needs of an ever-changing society and is
sensitive to the personal and social development of all persons concerned.
Today's diverse student populations and workforce is simply not going to go away, but
increase. This is the direction of the future – multicultural, multiethnic, multilingual
communities. And effective leaders, concerned with the bottom line – the maximizing of profit,
whether material or nonmaterial – are recognizing this new direction.
The art of managing diversity is thus of great concern to all persons charged with the
responsibility of overseeing the work of others. Organizations, however, that try to force today‘s
reality into yesterday's management styles will seriously jeopardize the viability of their
enterprise. Beyond the challenge of creating a humane educational environment where students
and staff of diverse backgrounds and experiences learn to appreciate each other, lies the
additional one of changing the structural arrangements. ‖
 What is inferred in the sentence: ... ―multiculturalism is nothing more than the art
of managing diversity in a total quality manner.‖
 What is inferred in the sentence: ―Beyond the challenge of creating a humane
educational environment where students and staff of diverse backgrounds and
experiences learn to appreciate each other, lies the additional one of changing the
structural arrangements.‖
 What is inferred in the sentence: ―Organizations that try to force today‟s reality
into yesterday's management styles will seriously jeopardize the viability of their
enterprise.‖
How do these words and expressions: Multicultural Education, multiculturalism
multicultural, multiethnic, multilingual, cultural pluralism, culturally pluralistic, diversity,
diverse, various illustrate the author‟s idea that multiculturalism is the basis for
understanding the changes coming to our society?

Qualify the following questions and statements by marking that you 1/ strongly agree, 2/
agree, 3/ have no opinion, 4/ disagree, or 5/ strongly disagree:
 "No one after drinking old wine desires new; for he says, 'The old is better'".
__________
 One of the backwashes of a narrow view of multiculturalism, especially as espoused
by some women is what I call "maleism. __________
 In my country, one of the dangers that must be avoided in grasping a proper
understanding of multiculturalism is bashism. __________.
 In my country, not much is gained in terms of creating a European educational
system and society. __________
 White Maleism is the tendency of minority groups to blame white males for most of
the social evil in the world today, especially as it relates to sexism and racism.
___________
 Does it happen in your country that educators try to force today‘s reality into
yesterday's management styles? __________
 People's sense of self-worth, value and dignity is most often determined not only by
the kind of support and encouragement they receive from others, but also from how
willing they are to self-examine negative behaviors in their own life and in their
cultural group. __________

How do you qualify the sentences?


The bigots would prefer spillage rather than change their self-preserved, sacro-sanct,
social structures. They may woof, woof all they want, however, but the caravan of change moves
on.
Various institutions in society, such as schools, churches, businesses, corporations, as well
as communities have also managed diversity well, but again, for purposes of exclusion.

What ideas of the author can be applied to contemporary Ukrainian society:


 Does a great majority of Ukrainian citizens have the necessity or opportunity to use
multiculturalism?
 Is there any need to promote multicultural education in Ukraine?
 Will multiculturalism bring in "foreign" concepts and ideas which will deviate the
nation from its historic course and transform Ukraine into something different from
what it has been?

Section 2. Grammar workout

Identify and correct errors involving the wrong word choice


If you are making a research in your field, you will have to do a contribution of an article
to academic and professional journals at some point.
To make a good job of a literature review for a paper you are writing, it is essential that
you understand what you are reading.
Your instructor may ask you to make another assignment or even ask you to write a
critique of an article.
Whatever the reason, do an attempt and find ways to render the content in your own
words.
Research articles can be complex, especially to beginners, therefore if you have no
experience reading or writing this type of paper do a plan for utilizing a few simple tactics that
can make this process much easier.
Choose the right word
Write down important points, (alike/like/as) terminology or concepts that you do not
understand.
You look (alike/like/as) you have seen a ghost.
Did you read the entire article, (alike/like/as) you are supposed to have done?
The twins are so much (alike/like/as) that even their mother sometimes takes one for
(other/another/the other).
Who did I see coming back home? No (other/another/the other) than Little Dorrit.
It‘s neither (either/neither/or/nor) expected (either/neither/or/nor) necessary to read every
word of the text (when/while/during) preparing to answer at the exam.
(Despite/In spite of/Although) the articles in these journals are written by the people who
did the studies or by experts who have studied a topic for decades, they are not always very
informative.
You only have to read the best information about your subject (because/because of)
primary sources are considered the best place to gather academic research.
There wasn‘t (many/much/none) useful information in this article.
Government websites (no/never/not/never) longer publish confidential information.
You cannot write a good literature review (without/never/not having) addressing these
sources.
(Much/Many/A great amount) of information can be found in academic magazines.
Your teachers probably (not/no/never) mind if you used secondary sources in your
research projects.
Now, though, they are (not/no/never) more acceptable.
You may use their lists of references to find (any amount of/much/many) names of the
scholarly journals that you should use for your research.
Unit 1-12. TOTAL QUALITY DIVERSITY

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on cross-cultural communication

Cultural diversity, in the context of Caleb Rosado‘s text below, covers gender, age,
language, ethnicity, cultural background, sexual orientation, religious belief and family
responsibilities. Cultural diversity also refers to the other ways in which people are different,
such as educational level, life experience, work experience, socio-economic background,
personality and marital status. Cultural diversity in a multicultural society envolves recognising
the value of individual differences and managing them in the workplace.
It has been proved in the previous units that a multicultural society can be defined as a
society or group of people from various backgrounds and ethics. In determining whether a
multicultural society has more advantages or disadvantages, both sides of the argument need to
be examined. These arguments include tolerance and respect and cultural exchange. A
multicultural society may promote an exchange of culture, and this inevitably enriches a person
as new approaches and conducts to experience may be garnered. The various approaches and
conduct towards a method, problem or experience can help a student make a better decision as
well as open mind to the different ways available to conduct, or commence, a problem, or even
way of life. It can be seen that in this instance, a multicultural society is an advantage and not a
disadvantage.

Text 1-12. A MODEL OF STRUCTURAL CHANGE – TOTAL QUALITY


DIVERSITY (After Caleb Rosado, Eastern University, Philadelphia, PA)

1. Diversity has two dimensions, the primary (mainly biological, usually visible: age,
gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disabilities), and the secondary (sociocultural, usually
invisible: language, education, values occupation, culture, learning sty, etc.). These various
differences, that inhibit inclusion at both the individual and institutional dimensions, need to be
examined in light of the goal of schools and communities to begin ―living diversity.‖ This is an
approach to education and communal life that views multiculturalism as integral to the very
fabric of our culture, as a basic value undergirding all that is done.
Managing diversity should be a comprehensive, holistic process for developing an
environment that works for all concerned. This holistic model of managing diversity is called
Total Quality Diversity. The Total Quality Diversity model shows how exclusion, as the model
of the past, has been replaced by inclusion, the coming together at the center of the vision-
values-mission of the organization in Cultural Inclusion. Total Quality Diversity (TQD) is a
holistic model of managing diversity that operates on two levels: The Horizontal – the individual
interactional change dimension (embracing and valuing diversity); and The Vertical – the
institutional structural change dimension (harnessing and empowering diversity). Both factors
are driven by the bottom line profit motive, to help businesses deliver a quality product –
employees prepared to meet human needs in a competitive global economy.

2. Of these two dimensions to a holistic model of managing diversity – horizontal and


vertical, the first, focused on the individual, is concerned with the horizontal dimension of
embracing and valuing differences. This area is of tremendous importance, since individual
students and staff that do not get along, nor understand each other, are not able to maximize their
greatest potential for optimal excellence. Here is where workshops on prejudice, cultural
awareness, cross-cultural communication and conflict resolution are most helpful. However, if
this is all that is done such efforts will come to naught, for the individual interactional dimension
is only one dimension of change. This dimension must be evaluated by the urgent question of
"Valuing diversity for what?"
The purpose of valuing diversity and appreciating differences is not simply to make people
feel good about each other. Schools have a specific purpose for existing, to implement their
mission through whatever product or service they provide. Thus, bringing interactional change at
the individual level is only half the process. Christine Sleeter reminds us that, ―A major problem
with most university staff development programs for multicultural education is that the unit of
change on which they focus is the individual rather than the institution as an organization." Such
change must be paralleled by a change in the culture and structure of the school, the vertical
dimension, since it is here where the root problems at the horizontal level often reside.

3. The second dimension, focused on the institution, is the vertical dimension concerned
with harnessing and empowering diversity, the area that deals not only with corporate culture
and structure, the way tasks are divided to accomplish the mission of the company, but also with
thinking systems. This dimension holds the key to effecting the greatest change in a school or
company, for it is here where exclusion finds its most comfortable home. But change must be
more than merely cosmetic, such as adding a diverse-looking population to the university or
business. It must also examine in what ways the vision, values, mission and structure of the
school contribute or undermine effective utilization of the assets all persons bring to a work
environment. Change at both of these dimensions results in Cultural Inclusion at the center,
where ―living diversity‖ takes place.
Included in TQD is TQR—Total Quality Respect. Total Quality Respect is an integral part
of Total Quality Diversity, in that the proper management of today‘s diverse business world is
not possible without respect for human beings. TQR is the process whereby the Other is treated
with deference, courtesy and compassion in an endeavor to safeguard the integrity, dignity, value
and social worth of the individual. It means treating people the way they should to be treated. It
is a lack of respect for others, no matter their position or the differences they bring to an
institution, which gives rise to most of the conflicts in organizations.
The key dynamic in diversity management then is to maintain the two dimensions of unity
and diversity in balanced tension, without erring to either side. Erring on the side of unity results
in uniformity and sameness at the expense of our human uniqueness and distinctiveness. Erring
on the side of diversity magnifies differences and separation at the expense of our common,
shared humanity. Unity is not synonymous with uniformity, neither is diversity synonymous with
separation. The solution to the tension is to respect and value diversity while working for unity,
otherwise exclusion is the result. Thus the strength of a nation or organization lies in unity in
diversity.

4. So how does this Total Quality Diversity Model work out in "real life"? The answer to
this question lies in examining what makes a school or organization multicultural. Many schools
and organizations regard themselves as "multicultural" simply on the basis of the ethnic diversity
present in their midst. But is this what makes an organization multicultural? And if not, what
does and what are the implications for effective schools in the 21st century?
The mere presence of an ethnically and racially diverse student population, due to legal,
moral or social imperatives, does not make a school multicultural. This is merely being
concerned with affirmative action. This was the main accomplishment of the 1960s and 70s,
giving people access to the system. In the 1980s the concern was with "valuing differences." In
the 1990s the push was for "managing diversity." But in the 21st century the focus of schools and
corporations needs to be on "living diversity".
Many schools and organizations, however, have begun to go back on affirmative action,
instead of going on to living diversity. What this means is that the number of ethnically diverse
students sitting in the classrooms does not make a school multicultural. All that this may simply
represent is that students have gained access to the school – they've gotten through the front
door. But if all a school does is to give access, then students may leave just as quickly out the
back door.
Neither is it merely a concern for understanding, respecting, valuing and celebrating the
differences among the various groups represented in the school. Valuing diversity is important,
as it may engender an awareness of and a sensitivity to differences, but it does not necessarily
translate into structural changes.

5. What makes a school multicultural is whether or not its "Five Ps": Perspectives; Policies;
Programs; Personnel; Practices implement the following Four Imperatives:
(A) Reflect the heterogeneity of the school – the dynamic of Affirmative Action;
(B) Be sensitive to the needs of the various groups comprising the student population
– the dynamic of Valuing Differences;
(C) Incorporate their contributions to the overall mission of the school – the dynamic
of Managing Diversity;
(D) Create a cultural and social ambiance that is inclusive and empowers all groups in
the school – the dynamic of Living Diversity.
These four imperatives form the basis of multicultural education. This is an approach to
education and curriculum construction that acknowledges and respects the contributions which
the various racial/ethnic groups have made to society, and incorporates these contributions in an
overall program of instruction which meets the needs of an ever-changing society and is sensitive
to the personal and social development of all persons concerned.
In other words, at the heart of what makes a school multicultural lies managing diversity –
the proper management of the diversity in a school for the empowerment of all groups, which
includes changing mindsets as well as the underlying culture of a school, especially if this culture
is what is impeding change, in order for the school to begin living diversity so as to more
effectively accomplish its mission. This is what makes a school multicultural. The point behind
this is that unity in diversity needs to be the basic premise of all that is done in education.
This is where the five "Ps" come into play, because the rapid changes taking place in
society are forcing schools to move away from a lethargic business-as-usual, reactive mindset, to
a proactive one that anticipates and implements change.
Perspectives refers to the vision without which education as well as schools perish. What
is "vision"? Vision is the bifocal ability to see what lies ahead (farsightedness), as well as the
various impediments in the present (nearsightedness), and how to avoid them in order to arrive at
the future. It must be bifocal, for focus on the future at the expense of the present, or vice versa,
will result in loss and in a detour in the mission of the school.
A sense of vision and mission, will lead to appropriate Policies, the guarantees that make
known the intents of the school. Policies give rise to Programs that put in action what education
is all about. But effective programs cannot be run without the right Personnel, reflective of the
diversity in the school. The last one is Practices, the actual conduct of the school, its staff and
administration.
Of these five Ps, the most important one is the last one, "practices." A school may have the
best perspectives, policies, programs, and personnel, but these are only cosmetic until practiced.
And it only takes a small number of personnel who in their practice refuse to go along with a
program or fail to implement policy, for an otherwise well designed plan to be sabotaged. As the
saying goes in Spanish, Podemos destruir con nuestros pies lo que construimos con nuestras
manos; "we can destroy with our feet what we build with our hands."
These five "Ps" have to alter present school structures and cultures, especially if these are
exclusive and do not benefit everyone in the school. Why? Karl Mannheim, the renowned
German sociologist, gives us the reason. "To live consistently, in the light of Christian brotherly
love, in a society which is not organized on the same principle is impossible. The individual in
his personal conduct is always compelled – in so far as he does not resort to breaking up the
existing social structure – to fall short of his own nobler motives." This is why structural change
– a new paradigm of inclusion – is necessary.
What is at issue in multiculturalism is not just sensitivity to other cultures and racial/ethnic
groups that are marginal to the dominant culture, nor a transference of power, but an entire
paradigm shift – a different mindset – which gives rise to a whole new way of seeing the world,
as inclusive; and brings a change in institutional and societal structures, so as to create an
environment (local, national and global) which is inclusive of all groups, is safe for differences
and where everyone benefits. The basic measure of how well we are managing diversity is this:
"If when all is said and done, you look around and notice that everyone looks like you, you have
done it wrong!"

6. But some are threatened by this inclusive process, and begin to woof, woof. Why?
Because they see multiculturalism as having to give up power in order to make room on the stage
of life for new characters in the play. Yes, power will have to be shared. Unfortunately, the
beaches of time are strewn with wreckage from the many ships of people that set sail for ports
unknown in search of power and unwilling to share it, but who ran into the gale winds of greed
and the coral reefs of corruption, and ended their journey drowning in seas of racial despair. Life
is a journey we as humans have to take. The going may not be smooth, the set course will not
always take us through sunny, tropical waters; and once in a while the storms at sea may deviate
us from our desired destination into the 21st century. But how one runs the good ship of
education – how one treats the crew (faculty/staff), how one develops the product
(curriculum/students), and how one maintains the course (vision, values, mission) – will
determine a successful docking at the port of the 21st century, or a shipwreck on the beaches of
time in the 2000's.
Multiculturalism, then, may very well be part of an on-going process which enables
administrators, teachers and their students to become world citizens – persons who are able to
transcend their own racial/ethnic, gender, cultural and socio-political reality and identify with
humankind throughout the world, at all levels of human need. They are thus a transcending
people who know no boundaries, and whose operating life-principle is compassion. This is the
principle that should be modeled in our schools by the faculty, students, staff and administrators,
in the process of living diversity. The challenge is great but so is the reward.

7. This second area of change, focused on the institutions, deals with school culture and
structure, the way tasks are divided to accomplish the mission of the school. This dimension
holds the key to effecting the greatest change in a school, for it is here where exclusion finds its
most comfortable home. It must also examine in what ways the vision, values, mission and
structure of the school contribute or undermine effective utilization of the assets all persons bring
to a school.
It is important to note that organizations are unlikely to embark on change initiatives unless
they either are experiencing pain regarding diversity issues, or lack a vision of the challenges
before them. Both factors are driven by the bottom line profit motive, to help organizations
deliver a quality product or service that meets human needs in a competitive society. The main
objective of the holistic model of managing diversity is to accomplish this motive. The end result
of this Total Quality Diversity process of management is a lean, competitive organization, with a
multicultural, truly diverse student body/workforce, where creativity, imagination, and
intelligence operate in a democratic classroom, workplace and environment.
Two extremes must be avoided. The first is similarities where no differences between
humans and cultures are recognized. This is the direction of McWorld resulting in uniformity.
But at whose expense? In the end it ends up being exclusive. The other extreme is differences,
where, because of sociocultural differences, the different groups are regarded as having nothing
in common. This is the direction of Jihad, resulting in separation. But like the other, this one is
also exclusive. The solution lies in the center, focused on unity while valuing and respecting
diversity. The result is inclusion.
REVISION: THE TOPIC, THE PURPOSE, THE IDEA, TEXT STRUCTURE AND
ORGANIZATION, CLUES IN THE TEXT, MAKING INFERENCES, EXPLICATION OF
SPECIFIC INFORMATION

Instruction: It has been emphasised that this course‘s primary focus is multicultural
education and/or a directly related topic (multiculturalism, cultural diversity in education,
intercultural education), in other words it is a general foundations course with a partial focus on
educational equity. As the course is offered in a graduate education program, it aims at
developing sensitivity to and understanding of the values, beliefs, lifestyles, and attitudes of
individuals and groups; developing skills and knowledge necessary for communication with
people from other cultures and co-cultures. In this module revision unit you are expected to
deploy skills acquired in the preceding eleven units. You will have to start with matching
headings with paragraphs, and identifying the topic, the purpose of the author, the main idea of
the text. Make inferences, discover clues for specific information given in the text.

Matching headings with paragraphs


Step 1. Survey the text. A list of headings can give you some useful information to help you
quickly understand what each part of the text will be about.
Step 2. Skim-read each paragraph. This technique gives you a general idea of what the writer
is saying in each paragraph.
Step 3. Determine which heading is the best match for each of the paragraphs marked by
the numbers.
Becoming World Citizens 1
What Makes a School Multicultural? 2
Horizontal dimension 3
The Perspectives and the Imperatives 4
Two dimensions of managing diversity 5
Becoming World Institutions 6
Vertical dimension 7

Answer the following questions:


 What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) Various differences that inhibit inclusion at both the individual and institutional
dimensions.
(B) A new way of seeing the world.
(C) Two dimensions of managing diversity.
(D) An operational definition of diversity.
 What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) New approach to diversity.
(B) Managing diversity as a comprehensive, holistic process for developing an
environment that works for both individuals and institutions.
(C) Perspectives of diversity.
(D) The concept of diversity.
 What is the author's attitude toward the opinion of Karl Mannheim, that the individual is
always compelled to fall short of his own nobler motives?
(A) He shares this opinion.
(B) He strongly disagrees.
(C) He tries to be objective.
(D) He doesn‘t care.
 Where in the four sentences does the author discuss the horizointal dimension of
diversity?
(A) What makes a school multicultural is the proper management of the diversity in a
school for the empowerment of all groups, which includes changing mindsets as well as the
underlying culture of a school, in order for the school to begin living diversity so as to more
effectively accomplish its mission.
(B) Even in the face of inevitable change, no one really wants to change; people still prefer
the old.
(C) Organizations are unlikely to embark on change initiatives unless they either are
experiencing pain regarding diversity issues, or lack a vision of the challenges before them.
(D) The mere presence of an ethnically and racially diverse student population, due to
legal, moral or social imperatives, does not make a school multicultural.
 What is the main idea advanced by the author in the text?
(A) The new approach to education needs examine both the individual and institutional
dimensions in light of the goal of schools and communities to begin ―living diversity.‖
(B) Multiculturalism is not just sensitivity to other cultures and racial/ethnic groups that are
marginal to the dominant culture, nor a transference of power, but an entire paradigm shift – a
different mindset – which gives rise to a whole new way of seeing the world.
(C) Organizations are unlikely to embark on change initiatives unless they either are
experiencing pain regarding diversity issues, or lack a vision of the challenges before them.
(D) Life is a journey we as humans have to take.

Collect specific information by pointing out groups of synonyms, semantic and thematic
groups. Keep it in mind that vocabulary in context includes both single words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) and two- or three-word phrases.

Read the passage: ―Two extremes must be avoided. The first is similarities where no
differences between humans and cultures are recognized. This is the direction of McWorld
resulting in uniformity. But at whose expense? In the end it ends up being exclusive. The other
extreme is differences, where, because of sociocultural differences, the different groups are
regarded as having nothing in common. This is the direction of Jihad, resulting in separation.
But like the other, this one is also exclusive. The solution lies in the center, focused on unity
while valuing and respecting diversity. The result is inclusion.―
 What is inferred in the sentence: ―This is the direction of McWorld resulting in
uniformity.‖
 What is inferred in the sentence: ―This is the direction of Jihad, resulting in
separation.‖
 What is inferred in the sentence: ―The first is similarities where no differences
between humans and cultures are recognized. ... The other extreme is differences,
where, ..., the different groups are regarded as having nothing in common.‖
 How do these words and expressions: “Perspectives, policies, programs,
personnel, practices; Perspectives, vision, farsightedness – impediments,
nearsightedness; Reflect – be sensitive – incorporate – create; Inclusive –
exclusive‖ illustrate the author‟s concept of the two dimensions of diversity?

Qualify the following questions and statements by marking that you 1/ strongly agree, 2/
agree, 3/ have no opinion, 4/ disagree, or 5/ strongly disagree:
 Treat people the way they should to be treated. __________.
 "The individual in his personal conduct is always compelled – in so far as he does
not resort to breaking up the existing social structure – to fall short of his own
nobler motives." __________
 Podemos destruir con nuestros pies lo que construimos con nuestras manos; "we
can destroy with our feet what we build with our hands. ___________
 If when all is said and done, you look around and notice that everyone looks like
you, you have done it wrong! __________
 How one runs the good ship of education – how one treats the crew (faculty/staff),
how one develops the product (curriculum/students), and how one maintains the
course (vision, values, mission) – will determine a successful docking at the port of
the 21st century, or a shipwreck on the beaches of time in the 2000's. __________

What ideas of the author can be applied to contemporary Ukrainian society:


 The basic approach to education and communal life must view multiculturalism as
integral to the very fabric of our culture, as a basic value undergirding all that is done.
 Managing diversity enables administrators, teachers and their students to become world
citizens – persons who are able to transcend their own racial/ethnic, gender, cultural and
socio-political reality and identify with humankind throughout the world, at all levels of
human need.
 Multiculturalism doesn‘t mean a transference of power, but an entire paradigm shift – a
different mindset – which gives rise to a whole new way of seeing the world, as
inclusive; and brings a change in institutional and societal structures, so as to create an
environment (local, national and global) which is inclusive of all groups.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Identify and correct errors involving sentence structure


(There is only/Only you have/You have only/You only have) to read the best information.
These are the journals and books (what you expect/these you are expected/that you are
expected/which expect you) to use for academic research.
They (usual quotation/usually have been quoted/have usual quoting of/usually quote) the
scholarly journals or books that published the information originally.
You may use their lists of references (in finding scholarly journals name/for to find a
scholarly journals names/to find the names of the scholarly journals/for finding scholarly
journal‟s names) that you should use for your research, but you don't have to use them at all.
(By choosing your school carefully/When choosing your school carefully/If you choose
your school carefully/Although you will choose your school carefully), though, you'll have an
online library that gives students free access to several databases.
Happily, most scholarly journals and popular magazines (can find/can have found/can be
finding/can be found) online.
You will be able to search articles and (have read abstracts for free/can read abstracts
for free/read abstracts for free/to be reading abstracts freely), but (without an affiliation with a
university library/having not affiliation with a university library/not to have affiliation with a
university library/not to be affiliated with a university library), you may have to pay to read the
articles (what you choose to use/when you will choose to use/you choose to use/you are using to
choose) in your paper.
The horizontal dimension is of tremendous importance, (since/when/although/however)
individual students and staff (that/ which/what/because) do not get along, nor understand each
other, are not able to maximize their greatest potential for optimal excellence.
Here is (because/why/when/where) workshops on prejudice, cultural awareness, cross-
cultural communication and conflict resolution are most helpful.
However, if this is all (that/ which/what/because) is done such efforts will come to
naught, (because/why/for/since) the individual interactional dimension is only one dimension of
change.
Schools have a specific purpose for existing, (very much to implement/to implement
that/not much to implement that/ to implement) their mission through whatever product or
service they provide.
MODULE 1-3. ESP IN TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION

Unit 1-13. THE USE OF ENGLISH IN EUROPE

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of English in European education

Why is it that English is now so popular and other major European languages (German,
French, Spanish) are losing ground to it like never before? The answer is globalization, and the
European Union certainly is part of it. In fact, from a European point of view, the most direct and
obvious sign that we now live in a wider, more internationalized world than a few decades ago is
the EU. Borders were scrapped, national currencies merged, and people can look for work in
anywhere in the single market area without worrying about visa or work permit. Because
Europeans are travelling and migrating more, getting in touch and working with a greater
number of other Europeans with different native languages, it is only natural that a single
common language of communication should arise.
In the global debates on English as international lingua franca or as ‗killer language‘, the
adoption of English as medium of instruction in Higher Education is raising increasing concern.
Plurilingualism and multilingualism are embedded in the official policies of the European Union
and Council of Europe, and the Bologna Process for harmonizing Higher Education promises
‗proper provision for linguistic diversity‘. But even enthusiasts acknowledge the problems of
implementing such policies in the face of an inexorable increase in the use of English.
Claude Truchot‘s survey draws on the most recent and sometimes disparate sources in an
attempt to paint a comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the spread of English-medium
teaching in Europe‘s universities. The article sets the changes in the context of accelerating
globalization and marketization, and analyses the forces which are driving the adoption of
English, and some of the problems which accelerating ‗Englishization‘ of European Higher
Education might create.

Text 1-13. KEY ASPECTS OF THE USE OF ENGLISH IN EUROPE


(After Professor Claude Truchot, Marc Bloch University, Strasbourg)

English in education
While the teaching of English in continental Europe can be traced back to the 16th century,
it remained restricted until the 19th century mainly to places that traded with Great Britain, and
was more common outside school in professional circles (van Essen, 1997). True competition
with French and German in secondary education started in the 1880s. In certain parts of
Germany the teaching of English began to take preference over that of French from the 1920s
onwards.
Until the Second World War, English was still little taught in central and Eastern Europe,
where German and French were firmly established. After the war differences in trends developed
between Western Europe and what were then called the East European countries.
In Western Europe English supplanted German and French from the 1950s onwards as the
first foreign language taught in the Scandinavian countries and from the 1960s in the
Netherlands. It was also during this period that the teaching of English in France started clearly
to outstrip that of German. The swing from French to English occurred in the late 1970s and
early 1980s in Spain, and a little later in Portugal and Italy. In eastern Europe the teaching of
Russian became compulsory after the Second World War and remained so until the end of the
1980s.
At the end of the Stalinist period English was re-introduced alongside German, which as
the language of the German Democratic Republic was still taught, particularly in Hungary,
Poland and Czechoslovakia, and alongside French, which was still taught in Romania and
Bulgaria. Its importance grew progressively until the end of the 1980s (Fodor and Peluau, 2001).
In Eastern Europe the requirement that Russian be taught was abandoned in the 1990s and
languages were allowed to compete. This greatly benefited English, which began to be taught
much more widely. Nevertheless, in countries like Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic it is
in competition with German. In Romania English and French are both widely taught, the strong
presence maintained by the latter being due to its recognised social and historical status (Truchot,
2001). Almost everywhere, English has become the first modern language taught, and the
proportions of pupils learning it are fast approaching those found in the European Union.

Widespread introduction of English, longer courses


In Western Europe the teaching of English has become the general rule, and all pupils now
learn English. This situation has come about at different rates depending on the country and its
specific circumstances and first made its appearance in the countries of Northern Europe, the
Netherlands and the German-speaking countries. The trend spread to France and then to all the
Southern European countries.
According to a Eurydice study covering 29 countries (the 15 Member States and the
applicant countries), nine of them, including the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden, and several
German Länder, have made the learning of English compulsory.

Note: The Eurydice [juri‘disi] network supports and facilitates European cooperation in
the field of lifelong learning by providing information on education systems and policies in 36
countries and by producing studies on issues common to European education systems. It consists
of 40 national units based in all 36 countries participating in the EU Lifelong Learning
programme (27 Member States, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland,
Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and a coordinating unit
based in the EU Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency in Brussels. Since 1980,
the Eurydice network has been one of the strategic mechanisms established by the European
Commission and Member States to support European cooperation in the field of education. Since
2007, Eurydice has been included in the EU Action Programme in the field of Lifelong
Learningin which, as part of the transversal programme, it helps to support the development of
policies as well as cooperation at European level.

In the others, the obligation to learn a foreign language, in conjunction with the widespread
introduction of English teaching, gives English a quasi-compulsory status, albeit one that differs
on the political and cultural front. English courses are getting longer in nearly all countries.
Language learning in primary school (children under 11) is an ancient tradition in central and
Eastern Europe. Northern European countries have organised it on a large scale since the 1970s.
It became the general rule in all non-English-speaking countries of the European Union in
the 1990s. In all cases it has been or is about to be made compulsory, with learning starting
between seven and ten years of age. The early learning of languages has benefited English
almost exclusively. The only other language taught to any significant degree is French but even
here only 4% of the school population is reached. The share of the other languages is too small to
appear in the statistics.

English and other languages


While English and other languages are still competing in central and eastern Europe, such
competition has virtually ceased in western Europe. The other languages are taught when the
curricula include a second or third foreign language (FL-2) but their place is much smaller than
that of English. The teaching of two languages is very far from universal.
During the 1990s the proportion of the school population learning French remained at 32%
to 33% (including the English-speaking countries, where it is the first foreign language), while
the proportion learning German – confined mainly to the northern European countries –
amounted to between 18% and 19%. The learning of Spanish is largely limited to France and
Luxembourg, although it is tending to increase elsewhere from a very small base. Where other
languages are taught they are chosen only by marginal percentages of the school population.
(Sources: Eurydice)
Membership of the European Union has undoubtedly acted as a spur. When they joined in
1995, Austria, Finland and Sweden decided to diversify their strongly English-oriented language
teaching. In Sweden the proposition of the school population learning French rose from 3% to
20% and German from 20% to 40%. Spain, which was the last European Union country to teach
only one foreign language, decided to introduce a second language as from 1997, at least outside
the autonomous communities, which have more than one official language. The applicant
countries have also expanded their range of languages.

English as a teaching language


The use of English as a teaching language in primary and secondary education is still quite
limited in Western Europe, except in the international schools. It is much more frequent in
central and Eastern Europe, where it is to be found in highly selective bilingual courses which
admit pupils on the basis of competitive examinations. Such courses also exist for other
languages (French, German, Italian) but those involving English are generally the most sought
after.
This function of English is developing particularly in higher education. We have the
example of institutions which issue higher-level qualifications of international repute (eg the
European University Institute, Florence) and of others specialising in commerce and business
(among them those delivering the Master of Business Administration (MBA) qualification).
These bodies want to attract foreign students willing to pay large sums for such training and to
persuade them not to prefer American or British universities.
In northern European countries, the Netherlands and more recently Germany, university
courses open to foreign students make broader use of English as a teaching language. These
courses compete not only with those of American and British universities and those offered by
on-line education, a sector dominated by the American electronic campuses, but also with those
provided by European universities which use the more widely spoken languages. This is
particularly the case in the exchange programmes.
The universities taking part in the European Union's Socrates programme like their students
to be able to acquire additional training abroad but as those programmes take place on a basis of
reciprocity they turn to English when they consider that their language forms a barrier to
attracting foreign students.
We are witnessing a general process of internationalisation of higher education. In a
context of competition, English represents a selling point, an inducement. This trend will
probably become more pronounced with the creation of a common European higher education
area – the Bologna process, which has been embraced by a number of European governments.
Common diplomas will be introduced under this process. Users of English will probably be
more highly prized than those using the national language as they will be considered better
adapted to the globalisation context. Universities may consequently fear that by making an effort
to make the usual teaching language accessible to foreign students they will appear outdated and
backward-looking.
The laws of the market also encourage the use of English for publishing textbooks and
other books used in universities. The major international groups which control the sector are
tending to abandon uneconomic linguistic markets.
In the countries concerned the only works available in a number of educational fields are in
English. This is another factor that increases inequalities between linguistic communities.

English in the sciences


Scientific research is the field whose linguistic practices have been the most thoroughly
studied. It has been the subject of several sociolinguistic studies (particularly Skudlik 1990,
Truchot 1990, Ammon 1998 and 2001) and numerous symposia. Official reports record the
languages used in publications and databases. All the analyses show clearly the factors that have
led to the large-scale use of English.
After the Second World War much of the world's scientific potential became concentrated
in the United States. One of the consequences was the leading position acquired by that country
in scientific publishing and in the storage and dissemination of scientific and technical
information (STI). The design, production and dissemination of knowledge then became
internationalised and globalised, especially in the fields with the greatest economic implications.
However, American research remained at the centre of the process and the United States has
always been strongly involved for strategic reasons (East-West relations, US business interests).
Observers (Confland, in Cassen, 1990) have shown that, of some 100,000 scientific
journals published worldwide, 50% were in English but that what counts is the "hard core" of
world scientific publishing, composed of about 4,000 to 5,000 journals. The latter publish
articles which serve as references. It is these journals that receive priority indexing in
computerised files, i.e. in databases set up for the collection and circulation of scientific
information. They belong to a very small number of international publishing houses and appear
for the most part entirely in English.
Moreover, the United States has the greatest concentration of databases, as well as the most
influential ones, such as the Science Citation Index (SCI) of the Institute for Scientific
Information in Philadelphia. Over 90% of the information in these US databases is extracted
from articles in English taken mostly from English-language journals. In European databases the
position given to other languages is hardly any greater and references in English predominate.
Initially established in the publication of papers, the primacy of English subsequently
spread to other fundamental language practices in scientific activity. It has become the main
language for access to scientific information because researchers tend to look first of all in the
"hard core" for information, which is increasingly sent over the Internet. With the
internationalisation of science, English is tending to become the dominant, and often the sole,
language used for discussions in symposia, congresses and similar events. Its use extends to
exchanges of work in scientific laboratories where there are foreign researchers, especially if
they are in countries whose languages are localised and little taught.
The organisation of research at a European level also tends to promote the use of English in
academic circles and in publications, networks, programmes and institutions. The European
Union's scientific programmes, for example, are managed entirely in English, from invitations to
tender to completion.
Most journals of repute published in other languages have considered it necessary to resort
to English if they are to secure an international audience.
Examples are Les Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, Psychologische Forschung, Physikalische
Zeitung and Nuovo Cimento. Languages unable to act as a transmitter of scientific results
become devalued. The devaluation process extends even to users of those languages. This is
particularly the case with researcher-assessment procedures, which routinely credit work in
English.
Ammon (1998) reports a comparative test in which the English versions of the same
articles were systematically assessed more favourably than those in Dutch or the Scandinavian
languages.
Languages marginalised as regards the transmission of scientific results tend also to be
excluded from the field of university research. In Sweden the practice of writing doctoral theses
in English is now common to most disciplines. A study performed at Uppsala University in
1993-94 (Gunnarson, 2001) shows that nearly 100% of theses in the exact sciences, engineering
and medicine, 75% in the arts and 66% in the social sciences are written in English. In
Switzerland, English is increasingly chosen even though it is a country where the more widely
spoken languages are used. In 1975, 8% of theses were in English, reaching 20% in 1991.
English made rapid strides in the 1990s, especially in the German-speaking universities. In
1996, 61% of theses in the natural sciences at Zurich University were in English, compared with
39% at Lausanne University (Murray, Dingwall 2001). In Germany doctoral theses may be in
English as well as German. Ammon (1998) shows that English is widely used. In the majority of
theses the use of English is combined with that of German, and for a smaller but not insignificant
number English alone is used.
Not all languages are necessarily abandoned for the purposes of transmitting scientific and
technical knowledge. Studies and summaries used by researchers when they wish to take stock of
their discipline as a whole as it relates to their particular specialisation or to obtain information
about other disciplines are published in the more widely used languages. In French this is the
case with the journals Médecine-Sciences and Comptes-rendus de l'Académie des Sciences or,
for a wider public, the monthly review La Recherche. However, suchopportunities to transmit
scientific information are rarer in the less widely used languages. One consequence is the
increasing shortage of terminology which afflicts them and causes them to be further devalued.
The use of English is nowadays seen as unquestioned. Yet this has not always been so. In a
book on languages of scientific communication in the 1970s (The Foreign Language Barrier,
1983), J.A.Large noted that part of world research was published at that time in languages other
than English and advised English-speaking scientists to learn foreign languages. (To be
continued in Unit 2-13)

SUMMARY WRITING. READING STRATEGIES FOR EXPLICATION OF KEY


FACTS AND IDEAS GIVEN IN THE TEXT

Instruction: Writing a good summary of the text requires practice and skills. Below are
recommendations for students, abridged after Christine Bauer-Ramazani, Consultant for
Integrating Technology into Online and On-campus Learning and Teaching, Saint Michael's
College, Colchester, Vermont. The recommendations are published in the Internet and free of
copyright limitations. You are to read, understand, and work at Claude Truchot‘s study with the
purpose of acquiring summary preparation strategies to employ in your prospective professional
activity. There are a few preparatory steps you can learn now to avoid the worry before you‘re in
the heat of the moment. Give these proven study tips a try and see how much better you feel
while doing your real assignment.

Before writing the summary – read, mark, and annotate the original:
 highlight the topic sentence;
 highlight key points/key words/phrases;
 highlight the concluding sentence;
 outline each paragraph in the margin;
Take notes on the following:
 the source (author – first/last name, title, date of publication, volume number, place
of publication, publisher, URL, etc.);
 the main idea of the original (paraphrased);
 the major supporting points (in outline form);
 major supporting explanations (e.g. reasons/causes or effects);
Preparing to Write: To write a good summary it is important to thoroughly understand the
material you are working with. Here are some preliminary steps in writing a summary.
 Skim the text, noting in your mind the subheadings. If there are no subheadings, try to
divide the text into sections. Consider why you have been assigned the text. Try to determine
what type of text you are dealing with. This can help you identify important information.
 Read the text, highlighting important information and taking notes.
 In your own words, write down the main points of each section.
 Write down the key support points for the main topic, but do not include minor detail.
 Go through the process again, making changes as appropriate.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Errors with other types of clauses


Clauses with there and it. Some clauses begin with the introductory words there or it
rather than with the subject of the sentence. These introductory words are sometimes called
expletives.
The expletive there shows that someone or something exists, usually at a particular time or
place, these sentences generally follow the pattern there + verb to be + subject:
There are languages marginalised as regards the transmission of scientific results.
The expletive it is used in a number of different situations and patterns:
It is rarer for the less widely used languages to transmit scientific information, (with the
verb to be + adjective + infinitive).
It takes a long time to learn a language, (with the verb to take + time phrase + infinitive).
It takes two to make a quarrel, (with the verb to take + numeral phrase + infinitive).
It is these journals that receive priority indexing in computerised files, i.e. in databases set
up for the collection and circulation of scientific information., (with the verb to be + noun +
relative clause).
Incomplete adjective clauses
Adjective clauses – also called relative clauses – are a way of joining two sentences. In the
joined sentence, the adjective clause modifies (describes) a noun (called the head noun) in
another clause of the sentence. It begins with an adjective clause marker:
Example: I wanted the book. The book had already been checked out. The book that I
wanted had already been checked out.
The adjective clause in this example begins with the marker that and modifies the head
noun book. Adjective clause markers are relative pronouns such as who, that, or which or the
relative adverbs when or where.
Examples:
A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in the nervous system.
This is the patient whom the doctor treated.
Mr. Collins is the man whose house I rented.
That is a topic which interests me. (which as subject)
That is the topic on which I will write, (which as object of preposition)
Art that is in public places can be enjoyed by everyone. (that as subject)
The painting that Ms. Wallace bought was very expensive. (that as object)
Here is the site where the bank plans to build its new headquarters.
This is the hour when the children usually go to bed.
Like all clauses, adjective clauses must have a subject and a verb. In some cases the
adjective-clause marker itself is the subject; in some cases, there is another subject.
Examples:
The painting was very expensive. Ms. Wallace bought it. The painting which Ms. Wallace
bought was very expensive.
The adjective-clause marker in the joined sentence replaces it, the object of the verb
bought. In the joined sentence, the adjective clause keeps the subject—Ms. Wallace—that it had
in the original sentence.
This is a topic. It interests me. This is a topic that interests me.
The adjective-clause marker in the joined sentence replaces it, the subject of the second
original sentence. In the joined sentence, the marker itself is the subject of the adjective clause.
Notice that the inclusion of the pronoun it in the joined sentences above would be an error
Incorrect: The painting which Ms. Wallace bought it was very expensive. This is a topic
which it interests me. This type of mistake is sometimes seen in distractors.

When the markers which, that, and whom are used as objects in relative clauses, they can
correctly be omitted. Example: The painting Ms. Wallace bought is very expensive, (which is
omitted).
The adjective-clause markers which and whom can also be used as objects of prepositions:
Example: That is the topic. I will write on it. That is the topic on which I will write.
You may also see sentences with adjective clauses used in this pattern: quantity word + of +
relative clause.
Examples:
He met with two advisers. He had known both of them for years. He met with two
advisers, both of whom he had known for years.
I read a number of articles. Most of them were very useful. I read a number of articles, most
of which were very useful.
Any part of a relative clause can be missing from the stem, but most often, the marker and
the subject (if there is one) and the verb are missing. Any word or phrase from another clause—
usually the head noun—may also be missing from the stem.
Example:
Cable cars are moved by cables ______underground and are powered by a stationary
engine.
(A) they run
(B) that they run
(C) run
(D) that run
Choice (A) is incorrect because the pronoun they cannot be used to join two clauses.
Choice (B) is not appropriate because the subject they is not needed in the adjective clause;
the marker that serves as the subject of the clause. Choice (C) is incorrect because there is
no marker to join the adjective clause to the main clause.
Identify and correct errors involving types of clauses
(By growing the body of literature/There is a growing body of literature/With a growing
body of literature/It is a growing body of literature), (having suggested/that suggests/by
suggesting/to suggest) that languages (who marginalize publications/ marginalizing/whose
publications are marginalized/which publications are marginalized) are negatively stereotyped
and discriminated against.
Researchers asked undergraduate students to fill out questionnaires (describing English
lingua franca/to describe English lingua franca /that describes English lingua franca /for to
describing English lingua franca), (that is replacing German and French/who was replacing
German and French/which was replacing German and French/whom was replacing German and
French) both in education and business.
Unit 1-14. TEACHING AND LEARNING EURO-ENGLISH IN SWITZERLAND

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of English in European education

It is part of the EU‘s multilingualism policy to encourage all citizens to learn and speak
more languages, in order to improve mutual understanding and communication. Multilingualism
is regarded as a form of empowerment, which, however, includes the appropriation of English to
a degree that may eventually give rise to a European variety of English.
The education systems in Europe, particularly at the university level, are in the process of
becoming more mutually compatible, with the result that English is becoming more prevalent not
only as the lingua franca of research but also of instruction. It should therefore surprise no one
that EU research programmes are administered completely in English.
What might a European variety English be like? Projects aimed at collecting and analyzing
samples of intra-European English have been launched in the last few years, but a linguistic
description still lies some distance in the future. The term Euro-English was first used to denote
the particular register of English spoken by bureaucrats in multinational discussions in Brussels,
but is also used to denote the emerging variety of English spoken as a lingua franca by EU
residents. If Euro-English were one day to become a recognized, standardizing variety of World
English, would it be a target language to be taught in European schools? And, if this were the
case, how might English teaching have to change? These are among the questions that arise as
work on the description of Euro-English progresses. Some of these questionss are discussed in
the article by an American teacher Mercia Mcneil who lived in Swtzerland and taught English
for two years at a Swiss German university

Text 1-14. TEACHING AND LEARNING EURO-ENGLISH IN SWITZERLAND: A


BRIEF ANALYSIS AND SOME IDEAS FOR TEACHING
(After Merica Mcneil)

My Swiss connection:
I taught English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for two years in Switzerland at the
University of Applied Sciences in Winterthur, which is a mere 20-minute express train ride from
Zurich, the country‘s largest city. My job title was English Teaching Assistant. I usually took
half of the class, while the other half stayed with their Swiss English teacher. I worked with a
variety of teachers and classes and so I led class with each group of students every other week.
I usually had a good deal of freedom to do what I wanted with the students in class.
Sometimes I was asked to give students extra practice using specified vocabulary or grammar.
Other times I was able to create lessons on topics of choice, for example about current events,
communication strategies, cultural topics, sometimes American, such as Martin Luther King, Jr.,
sometimes Swiss, such as controversial issues in current events. I had half the class at a time and
the emphasis was on improving communicative competency. Sometimes students talked in pairs
or small groups, and sometimes they gave oral presentations.
My class offered students the opportunity to practice speaking and listening to each other
and with a native speaker in English and to learn about each other‘s countries, cultures, and
educational topics of interest, such as comparing and contrasting the Swiss and American
education systems. Also, I‘m pretty sure their motivation to speak English was increased because
I‘m a native speaker, was close to their age, I tried to provide interesting material, and my class
was more relaxed because it was not in my job description to give grades or tests. Most of the
classes were pretty much a monolingual groups with the majority being Swiss German, although
there were a few other L1s represented.
I worked with students at a variety of levels from low intermediate to advanced. The
students were taking English because it was a required course for them. Their motivations varied.
Not surprisingly, oftentimes, some of the more advanced students had already spent some time
abroad in an English speaking country. Some of them had gone to study abroad for a few months
in Australia, England, Ireland, or the U.S., while some went on vacation to one of these
countries. For these students, they were motivated to communicate with native speakers of
English or non-native speakers in those countries.
For the advanced students, some of them already had work experience using
English talking to native speakers and/or using English as a lingua franca. Some of the
students accepted the challenge of writing their thesis in English, some of which I helped
revise. All students had to provide an abstract of their senior project in English. Sometimes
this proved challenging for me because there was technical jargon with which I was
unfamiliar. Some professors in our department met with students who needed help in this
challenging task.
I taught some Swiss students also in an English as a Second Language (ESL)
environment at Global Village, a language school in Honolulu. When I taught Business
English there, a majority of my students were Swiss German. Many of them needed English
for their jobs in Switzerland to be able to communicate with native speakers of English
sometimes, and also with non-native speakers of English.
Many of the mistakes students make is due to L1 influence. Because I have studied
German, Swiss German, and French extensively, I was able to use these skills to understand
Swiss students and, in helping them, say what they wanted to express, although sometimes it
was easier to express in a way that would not be familiar or natural sounding to another native
speaker of English. When such things came up in speaking class in exercises, conversation or
student presentations, I would sometimes explain this point to students for future reference,
however, I usually emphasized communicative competence and thus was not a stickler for
requiring students to conform to traditional native speaker norms. Now that I look back on it,
this seems to match Euro-English ideals as it was appropriate in expressing their ―underlying
cultural context‖ (Modiano 2003), i.e. Modiano mentions an example of a metaphor Swedes
might use in English ―blue-eyed‖ to mean naïve. Similar to Swedish, this expression is also in
German ―blau augig‖ and means the same. In Switzerland, where speakers from different L1s
are increasingly using English as a lingua franca, some misunderstanding can occur when a
speaker uses expressions unique to their L1. For example, in a survey that Heather Murray
conducted of English teachers in Switzerland results from the questionnaire show that the
majority of teachers (58.8%) from the French-speaking part rejected the term handy (a cell
phone), a term, a typical false loanword from German (Murray 2003).
A new model for English language teaching:
The idealized variety of English that is taught in schools in Europe is usually British or
American English. Traditionally, if students deviate from the native speaker norm, they are
considered incorrect, even though if they are understood. Wouldn‘t it be better instead to
focus on communicative competence? Changing tradition and standards would take a lot of
struggle. Some linguists are fighting for change and want to revolutionize English language
teaching and learning to introduce Euro-English as a new model for English language
teaching and learning in Europe. That would entail a total readjustment in our goals of
English language teaching and learning and would thus necessitate new materials and
assessment to match this new ideology. In this paper, I will draw on my own experience
teaching English in Switzerland and present research discussing several pros and cons of
Euro-English as a new model for English language teaching. In the end, I will offer some
considerations and ideas for English language teaching.

Why I chose this topic:


I chose this topic because I have dealt with the questions of standards in language teaching
and learning when I was teaching English abroad as students and teachers often asked me
questions on correct or appropriate language in my native speaker opinion. Additionally, these
topics are becoming increasingly more visible in the English Language Teaching (ELT) realm.
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), which is also called English as an International Language
(EIL), and Euro-English have received a great deal of attention in the last decade. I will briefly
explain the terms ELF and Euro-English later. Much is being researched in this area, such as the
VOICE corpus project in Austria, which is the first large-scale corpus of its kind documenting
spoken samples of non-native speakers. Due to the overwhelmingly wide scope I am going to
focus on the situation in Switzerland because it is of particular interest to me and I can provide
insider information because I lived and taught English there for two years at a Swiss German
university
In this paper I will first briefly discuss the growing importance of English in Switzerland.
Next, we will examine whether we should continue to uphold traditional standards of British
English or American English as the target language. Then we will discuss whether Euro-English
should be taken into account as a model and look at pros and cons. This decision should match
what we do in the classroom as it affects teachers consider what acceptable English is. We
should also think about teaching materials to match our mindset. Are they already available or do
we as teachers need to create them? Will publishers be willing to provide such materials in the
future? If we adjust our model of English and our goals using it, we must reconsider how to
correct and assess students.

The growing importance of English in Switzerland:


Most of the students were pretty motivated to learn English because they believed it to be
important not only for their future jobs, but also for international traveling purposes. For
example, if they go to Ticino, the Italian speaking part of Switzerland, they would probably use
English as a Lingua Franca. In Switzerland, they are required to study another national language,
for example Swiss Germans have to study French, and French Swiss have to study German.
However, my Swiss friends told me that many Swiss would prefer to speak in English together
because then it is a foreign language for both people. In this way, English is increasingly being
used as a lingua franca in Switzerland.
Another reason for this is that although the French Swiss study High German, German-
speaking Swiss actually speak Swiss German dialects, which are quite different than High
German, although they do use High German in writing, in school, and in formal situations.
Therefore, although Swiss French speakers may study years of German in school, they most
likely would not be able to understand a normal conversation between two German-speaking
Swiss because they would most likely be speaking their Swiss German dialect. Actually, I‘ve
heard that many German-speaking Swiss do not really like or feel comfortable speaking High
German, but that is another topic.
A Survey of Swiss English Teachers
A survey of a representative sample of 253 English teachers in Switzerland was conducted
by Heather Murray to gather information about their attitudes toward Euro-English. I would like
to point out the results of a relevant question relating to teaching materials. Teachers used a five
point scale ranging from ‗strongly agree‘ to ‗don‘t know‘ to ‗strongly disagree.‘ Here is the
relevant statement and the results:
Most of the situations in my course book assume that my learners will later be speaking
English with native speakers; I think there should be more situations showing non-native
speakers communicating with each other. (Murray 2003)
This question was to take a poll of whether teachers think Euro-English situations should
be shown in course books. At the moment, lingua franca English is almost never represented in
course books. The responses were different from native and non-native English speaking English
teachers; native speakers showed weak agreement while non-native speakers showed weak
disagreement. When comparing age groups taught, a similar difference appeared, where 60% of
teachers of adults agreed while 66% of teachers of teens disagreed, which could lead one to
believe that a native speaker model is deemed more important in teaching English to teens than
to adults (Murray 2003).
So why do people still insist that we still look to the native speaker of English as the
official authority? Many are unhappy with this tradition and are trying to change things. When
English is used as a lingua franca in a certain geographical area, over time, some differences
emerge. There is thus an immersion of Englishes. There is not one standard monolithic English,
but many different emerging Englishes around the world. For example in the English in India or
in Switzerland is very different than where I‘m from in the U.S. in terms of accent,
pronunciation, and surely there are different words that are unique to each. But they are using
English as a lingua franca in order to communicate meaning. Actually, the differences between
Swiss-English and British English or American English aren‘t that big of a deal. There is mostly
mutual intelligibility. And in my opinion, that is the most important for communication in the
real world. However, if one has to pass a standardized test in English, that is another thing all
together. Perhaps the tests need to be changed? I don‘t think the big (money-making) industries
of Cambridge and ETS are going to change very easily.
(To be continued in Unit 2-14)

GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A SUMMARY

Instruction: The purpose of a summary is to give the reader, in about 1/3 of the original
length of an article/paper, a clear, objective picture of the original paper or article. Most
importantly, the summary restates only the main points of a text without giving examples or
details, such as dates, numbers or statistics.
There are quite a few skills to be practiced in summary wreiting: note-taking, paraphrasing
(using your own words and sentence structure), condensing, etc. Below are some important tips
for writing a summary.

Tips for writing a summary


1. First, read the text or article to get a general idea of the subject matter as well as the
author's attitude.
2. Then read through a second time to identify the main points – either paragraph by
paragraph, or heading by heading / sub-heading.
Identify the topic sentences. These are usually the first sentences of each paragraph. They
give the main idea for the paragraph (with the following sentences supporting this main idea).
Also look for the concluding sentence in the paragraph, as this often summarises the paragraph.
3. Now write the main idea of each paragraph (or section) in one sentence. Use your own
words, rather than the author's words. This is important: if you copy what the author has written,
you risk writing too much!
4. Start pulling out key facts or findings from the text which support the author's main idea
(or ideas). You may need to either summarise these (if there are a lot of them) or decide which
are the most important or relevant.
However, if you are summarising a number of texts or articles, start to look for common
themes running through all the texts. Are the texts broadly in agreement, or do they have
different points of view or findings? Choose only a few supporting details to illustrate similarity
or contrast.
5. When you have written all your sentences, you should be able to get a good overview of
the whole text. This overview can be your introduction to your summary. In your introduction,
you'll also need to give the author's name and the title of the text you are summarising.
Your summary should now look like this: text/author information; your overview (the
introduction); the single sentences summarising the main ideas, with the key facts or figures that
support the ideas.
6. At this point, you'll need to organise all the information in the most logical way. You
might also have repeated ideas or details that you'll need to delete.
7. Don't forget to include linking words so your reader can easily follow your thoughts.
This will help your summary flow better, and help you avoid writing short sentences without any
connection between them.
Important points to remember
Don't copy the article. Instead, paraphrase. While paraphrasing, use verbs of saying and
reporting, e.g.: ―the author argues, claims, maintains, states, suggests, etc.‖
If you quote directly from the original text, use quotation marks. (Minimise how often you do
this.)
Don't give your opinion.
Edit what you write. Check your English grammar, spelling and punctuation mistakes.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Adverb clauses
An adverb clause consists of a connecting word, called an adverb clause marker (or
subordinate conjunction), and at least a subject and a verb. An adverb clause can precede the main
clause or follow it. When the adverb clause comes first, it is separated from the main clause by a
comma.
Example:
The demand for economical cars increases when gasoline becomes more expensive.
When gasoline becomes more expensive, the demand for economical cars increases.
In this example, the adverb clause marker when joins the adverb clause to the main clause.
The verb clause contains a subject (gasoline) and a verb (becomes).
The following markers are commonly used:
Examples:
Time: Your heart rate increases when you exercise.
Time: Some people like to listen to music while they are studying.
Time: Some people arrived in taxis while others took the subway.
Time: One train was arriving as another was departing.
Time: We haven't seen Professor Hill since she returned from her trip.
Time: Don't put off going to the dentist until you have a problem.
Time: Once the dean arrives, the meeting can begin.
Time: Before he left the country, he bought some traveler's checks.
Time: She will give a short speech after she is presented with the award.
Cause: Because the speaker was sick, the program was canceled.
Opposition (contrary cause): Since credit cards are so convenient, many people use them.
Contrast: Although he earns a good salary, he never saves any money.
Contrast: Even though she was tired, she stayed up late.
Condition: If the automobile had not been invented, what would people use for basic
transportation?
Condition: I won't go unless you do.
In structure items, any part of a full adverb clause – the marker, the subject, the verb, and so
on – can be missing from the stem.
Clause markers with ever: Words that end with -ever are sometimes used as adverb clause
markers: whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, however. In some sentences, these
words are actually noun-clause markers.
Examples:
Put that box wherever you can find room for it.
They stay at that hotel whenever they're in Boston.
No matter how/ Wqhatever way/However you solve the problem, you'll get the same
answer.
Reduced adverb clauses
When the subject of the main clause and the subject of the adverb clause are the same
person or thing, the adverb clause can be reduced (shortened). Reduced adverb clauses do not
contain a main verb or a subject. They consist of a marker and a participle (either a present or a
past participle) or a marker and an adjective.
Examples:
When linguists are studying a minority language, they don't neglect its social functions, (full
adverb clause).
When studying a minority language, linguists don't neglect its social functions, (reduced
clause with present participle).
Although it had been limited, the regional language was still operational, (full adverb
clause).
Although limited, the regional language was still operational, (reduced clause with a past
participle).
Although he was nervous, the lecturer gave a wonderful speech, (full adverb clause)
Although nervous, the lecturer gave a wonderful speech, (reduced clause with an adjective).
You will most often see reduced adverb clauses with the markers although, while, if, when,
before, after, and until. Reduced adverb clauses are NEVER used after because.
Identify and correct errors involving adverb clauses

(When human rights are the equal rights of everyone/Even though human rights are the
equal rights of everyone/If human rights are the equal rights of everyone/Because human rights
are the equal rights of everyone) , I don‘ think criminals and terrorists can be included.

No one has less or more rights (if the next person does/than the next person does/because
the next person does/when the next person does).

It‘s not (when someone committed a crime/because someone committed a crime/though


someone committed a crime/if someone committed a crime) (who are allowed to take away/when
we are allowed to take away/that we are allowed to take away/which we are allowed to take
away) his or her rights, to torture, to silence, to indoctrinate.

But all of the rights (to have/which all of us have/because of all of us have/when of all of us
have) (though limited/when limited/if limited/because limited) to some extent and in some
circumstances belong to criminals as well.

We have freedom of movement (although it does not/when does not/that it does not/if it
does not) entail the right to enter the private property (because it belongs/that belongs/if it who
belongs/that belongs) to our neighbors.

So the fact (when criminals‟ rights are limited/of criminals‟ rights are limited/that
criminals‟ rights are limited/as criminals‟ rights are limited) does not set them apart from
ordinary citizens.

It does not mean (whose human rights/which human rights/that human rights/more than
human rights) are not equal anymore.
Human rights are equal (as soon as they are/with the purpose that they are/because they
are/if they are) the unconditional property of us all.

We do not have to fulfil certain conditions – such as respect (because we must have for the
law/though we must have for the law/as we must have for the law/we must have for the law) –
(wherever we have them/since that we have them/in order that we have them/because we have
them).
Unit 1-15. EURO-ENGLISH ACCENTS

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of English in European education

By virtue of the considerable number of speakers English has in the world, and also due to
the rich variety of its variants, English is more likely to be subjected to accented speech than any
other language. The speech of non-native English speakers may exhibit pronunciation
characteristics that result from such speakers imperfectly learning the pronunciation of English,
either by transferring the phonological rules from their mother tongue into their English speech
("interference") or through implementing strategies similar to those used in primary language
acquisition. They may also create innovative pronunciations for English sounds not found in the
speaker's first language.
The text below looks at attitudes towards accents, with particular interest in the solidarity
dimension (i.e. how much a person identifies with an accent) and status dimension (i.e. how
much prestige is assigned to an accent).
A person‘s identity is determined not only by personal but also by social identity. Social
identity includes ethnic identity and originates from group membership which is established by
self-categorisation. Accent and language are considered to be major determinants of social
identity, and there has been a lot of research on the expression of social identity through people‘s
accents and their attitudes towards other accents. Below is an account of a research of a Swedish
teacher Britta Larson Bergstedt on attitudes of non-native speakers (NNS) of English towards
their own (ingroup) accent and other (outgroup) accents of English.

Text 1-15. EURO-ENGLISH ACCENTS


(After Britta Larson Bergstedt, Lund University, Department of Linguistics)

Research Interest
Like many other mammals, human beings are complex social animals that are
fundamentally built to rely on the group for survival while still possessing the skills to endure
alone. Although our metacognition skills may distinguish humans from other groups of
mammals, our lack of, among other things, sufficient fur, has left us at a disadvantage in the
natural environment and thereby even more dependent on a well-structured and effective social
network. Individuals are fundamentally aware of the social hierarchy surrounding them and of
their place in it. It is no wonder then, that upon meeting unknown people, we both consciously
and subconsciously listen and look for clues displaying rank so that we know how to behave
(Trudgill, 2000).
A person‘s language often serves as a sort of index, or ―scent marker‖ if you will, of one‘s
life by displaying geographical and social origin, as well as some of one‘s ideas and opinions. It
is apparent in the animal kingdom that scent markers, vocalizations, and similar cues incite a
response in the listener and help to determine whether a stranger is friend or foe. As territorial
animals, what kind of reactions do strange and different accents provoke within us, the listeners?
Is our response based on previous contact with a particular group and the stereotypes associated
with them? Does the amount of time we‘ve spent abroad in general affect our reply? And without
the sensitive olfactory organs of other mammals, how accurately can we actually identify these
vocal ―scent markers‖?
Are we able to discriminate between them, and most importantly, do we truly recognize our
own? As the world continues to contract, we have the opportunity to interact with more and more
people outside of our own flock than ever before. How do we react to them and how will they
react to us?

Purpose
The main aim of this study is to investigate the response of non-native English speakers,
specifically, Swedish female students, towards European (female) foreign accents in spoken
English. Are there differences between the attitudes towards different accents? In that case, is the
difference in perceived Power, Solidarity, or Competence? What kind of hierarchy is created?
How capable are Swedish high school students of correctly identifying a particular accent as
coming from a particular country including their own? And does spending time in a foreign
country affect the attitudes and judgements made?

Across the world


It is difficult to pinpoint the exact start of the English language‘s rise to its current status of
fame and fortune, but historians and linguists often link it to coincide with the start of the British
Empire and colonization of parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas. English is the mother tongue
of Great Britain, the United States of America, Ireland and many countries formerly gathered
under the British crown. English is not, however, the world language with the most native
speakers, but rather the one with the most total speakers (Svartvik, 1999). The global spread of
English has quickly surpassed that of former power languages such as French and Latin.
English is not only the language of Shakespeare and Mark Twain; it is the language used
around the world in air traffic control, travel, movies, music, business, science and technology.
English is being used more and more frequently in the inter-communication between two, three
or more non-native speakers; that is to say, the world is using English to communicate with each
other, not just with America, England, and other countries where English is native (Smith, 1983).
Although English continues to be the cultural language of native speakers, it has lost its cultural
baggage abroad. It is commonplace to discuss politics in English without regard to the British or
American standpoint and possible to protest, in English, against the influence of English upon
one‘s native tongue.

In Europe
While large portions of the globe came under the influence of English between the 16th and
19th century, this was not really the case in Europe. Not until after World War II did English
truly begin to flourish, sweeping across Europe at an uneven pace, starting in the west and
spreading eastward after the fall of the Iron Curtain. It was also around 1945 that American
English began to exert a stronger influence than its predecessor from the British Isles. Since that
time American English has dominated the European and world scene primarily through influence
of media, technology and power while British English has predominated the educational systems.
Internationalization and increased mobility have also played their part and as Cenoz & Jessner
noted ―It requires little linguistic sensitivity to note the omnipresence of English in Europe
today‖(2000). Currently English is one of more than 20 official languages of the European Union
yet enjoys a privileged status as one of three working languages and as the unofficial status quo.
Surveys financed by the EU have shown that it is the most used and most learned language with
an entire 31% knowing English well enough to hold a conversation (Europa website, 2004).
Despite current and probable future opposition, English will undoubtedly continue to play
an important role in Europe and in European cooperation.

In Sweden
In comparison with the rest of Europe, Sweden has long had an advantage concerning
English. As some of the first countries in Europe to require English as the first second language
learned, Sweden and other Scandinavian countries are well known for their proficiency. With
ready access to quality educational material, British English was the standard taught for many
years. This requirement has since been revoked and though still largely British-influenced,
schools now teach American and other varieties of English as well. English is used daily in
business, in higher education and even in many parts of public life.
Language and Identity
The English language is often considered a cultural byproduct and export of England and
America – a language, like others, inseparable from its literature and history. In many
universities and other institutions, the demand and desire exists that learners of a second
language should try to produce as near-native pronunciation as possible. This has been supported
by studies that have shown that native listeners respond more positively to lightly or
unnoticeably accented speech. For the majority of learners, this task is impossible and therefore,
the feasibility and need for this goal, at least in English, is being reevaluated (Dalton-Puffer, et
al.,1997).
English today functions as an international language, a ―free agent‖ in society. Released
from cultural constraints, many non-native speakers agree it is no longer necessary to imitate the
pronunciation (or other language features) of the standard varieties but instead have begun to
mark English as their own. Accordingly, English in Europe is losing its foreignness and
becoming nativized. This does not, however, deter from that fact that English still must be
understandable, pertinent, and accepted by the community (Smith, 1983).
In Europe widespread use is leading to one or more non-native varieties dubbed ―Euro-
English‖ or European English (Modiano 1996, Crystal 1995 in Cenoz & Jessner, 2000) which
differ from standard native varieties of English. These new varieties of Euro-English are similar
to other ―New Englishes‖ in that they are not the result of a pidgin but rather education and
exposure. As Crystal (2003) mentioned, it is a divergent variety of English that appears when
different nationalities communicate in English. They will adapt and modify their speech while
still exhibiting features (i.e. interference) from their native tongues. If these speakers are
European, the result is an original variety of Euro-English..
What makes these new varieties different from standard English varieties is the mother
tongue interference normally called ―errors‖ by native speakers and English teachers.
Interference is not a limitation, a distraction, or a hindrance. Instead, these ―errors‖ become
standardized, regular and accepted as part of a nativised European English .
Another explanation for the appearance of ―Euro-English‖ is the fact that language is the
primary vehicle for a culture; it is the wisdom of centuries passed on and preserved generation to
generation. When a language meets with death it is not replaced by a new linguistic culture but
rather compromises between the old language and the new one, creating a new variety that is
neither one nor the other (Kramsch, 1998). Certainly this is somewhat the case with the Euro-
English varieties; in a similar fashion speakers move their language features and accent over into
spoken English in order to stamp themselves as belonging to that particular group (and not a
native English one) thus creating a new variety that is neither English nor their mother tongue - it
is Euro-English.

Personal and group ídentity


Contradictory results like those above are not uncommon. They can be at least partially
explained by the social identity theory which states that people will exhibit a preference for the
variety of language that is associated with their most salient in-group. (from Lambert, 1967 cited
in Bresnahan, et al., 2002). Both of these studies reflect the importance of one‘s social network
and of one‘s personal and group identity. Identity is a term borrowed from the realm of social
psychology and is defined as ―a person‘s mental representation of who he or she is‖ (Bernstein,
et al, 1994). A person‘s identity results from a basic tension between the necessity to be similar
to those around us, group identity, and a simultaneous desire to feel unique, personal identity. A
group is characterized by two or more people with not only physical but also functional
interaction.
Groups are also important in establishing values and norms and therein impose a social
impact on the individual depending on the strength, immediacy, and number of the group. Both
personal and group identities differ along lines of gender and culture.
Group identity may be based on any of several possible factors; among the most salient
factors are ethnicity, nationality, and religion. Trudgill (2000) expressed the point that people
have a much easier time identifying themselves as Jewish or Black rather than Lower Middle
Class. Language, however, ―may be or may not be included in the group‘s cultural bag.
According to the subjective view, group members more or less consciously choose to associate
ethnicity with language‖ (Appel & Muysken, 1987).

Connection between identity and language


In the general society, there is commonly believed to be a natural connection between the
language spoken by members of a social group and that group‘s identity, e.g. Italians speak
Italian. Indeed even an accent may be more important than speaking the language itself as seen
in the comment of a boy participating a study on Breton. He was asked whether being able to
speak Breton was a necessary part of being a Breton. He replied, No, it‟s much more important to
have the accent, that way you know straight away that someone is Breton. (Hoare, 2001).
Through their accent and other features of their dialect, speakers identify themselves and are
identified as members of this or that speech/discourse community. Crystal wrote „If you wish to
tell everyone what part of a country you are from, you can wave a flag, wear a label on your
coat, or (the most convenient solution, because it is always with you, even in the dark and
around corners) speak with a distinctive accent and dialect. Similarly, on the world stage, if you
wish to tell everyone what country you belong to, an immediate and direct way of doing it is to
speak in a distinctive way‟ (2003).
By using accents in speaking English, people bridge the gap between intelligibility and
identity. They retain their group identity while communicating with the world at large. This
group membership gives them also ‗personal strength and pride, as well as a sense of social
importance and historical continuity from using the same language as the group they belong to‘
(Kramsch, 1998). Kramsch also stated that group identity is created through highlighting or
blurring the lines of race, nationality, ethnicity, language, and so forth. This is even the case even
for a minority language, regional or social, that may be highly valued by its speakers for any
number of reasons. This close tie between the language and the social identity of ethnolinguistic
groups is not to be overlooked though it is important also to keep in mind the following: „there is
not a one-to-one relation between identity and language. A distinct social, cultural, or ethnic
identity does not always have a distinct language as counterpart, while groups with distinct
languages may have largely overlapping identities. Furthermore, identities and languages are
not monolithic wholes but are clearly differentiated, heterogeneous and variable. This makes
their relation in specific situations even more intricate‟ (Appel & Muysken, 1987).

Consequences
The strong social group identity created by language and other factors is not only important
in social interaction and in identifying others as ―the same‖ but it also forms our judgements of
others as ―different‖. This ultimately leads to a division of in-group and outgroup, in layman‘s
terms: ―us‖ against ―them‖. Not only does our social identity shape our evaluations of someone
in an out-group, they will also affect our evaluation of our ingroup (Cargile & Giles, 1997). But
how to determine and define which group someone belongs to? Human beings do not react on
the basis of stimulus and sensory input alone but rather we interpret what we perceive and then
react (Edwards, 1999). Perception is a cultural screen window in the mind through which all
things filter. ―What we perceive about a person‘s culture and language is what we have been
conditioned by our own culture to see, and the stereotypical models already built around our
own‖ (Kramsch, 1998). We do not create our own attitudes; our attitudes are passed on to us by
the generations before us and the society around us. These stereotypes are learned behavior, and
persist; although they may or may not reflect the social reality, they are obligatory for our
survival (Ladegaard, 1998). (To be continued in Unit 2-15)
UNDERSTANDING THE SUMMARY ORGANIZATION AND EXPLICATION OF KEY
FACTS AND IDEAS

Instruction: Getting ready to write a summary keep in mind that the first sentence or
paragraph often is an opening or a general definition. It may be safe to assume that your reader is
already familiar with the subject matter; thus you do not have to include it in your summary.
This can save time and effort for you. But remember that the classification of the
principles, concepts and facts is mportant. Ignore specific details about the different principles.
Remember that many terms are self-explanatory. Include a description of the problem
surrounding correct identification of a particular accent. Provide some support/explanation for
the problem, but not all the details. Describe other problems associated with differing speaking
modes of ethnically different students. Provide some explanation, but not all the details. Describe
the action taken by the author to solve the problem.

More tips for summary writing


1. A summary begins with an introductory sentence that states the article's title and author.
2. A summary must contain the main thesis or standpoint of the text, restated in your own
words. (To do this, first find the thesis statement in the original text.)
3. A summary is written in your own words. It contains few or no quotes.
4. A summary is always shorter than the original text, often about 1/3 as long as the
original. It is the ultimate fat-free writing. An article or paper may be summarized in a few
sentences or a couple of paragraphs. A book may be summarized in an article or a short paper. A
very large book may be summarized in a smaller book.
5. A summary should contain all the major points of the original text, and should ignore
most of the fine details, examples, illustrations or explanations.
6. The backbone of any summary is formed by crucial details (key names, dates, events,
words and numbers). A summary must never rely on vague generalities.
7. If you quote anything from the original text, even an unusual word or a catchy phrase,
you need to put whatever you quote in quotation marks ("...").
8. A summary must contain only the ideas of the original text. Do not insert any of your
own opinions, interpretations, deductions or comments into a summary.
9. A summary, like any other writing, has to have a specific audience and purpose, and you
must carefully write it to serve that audience and fulfill that specific purpose.
(After Christine Bauer-Ramazani)

Section 2. Grammar workout

Incomplete noun clauses


Noun clauses are the third type of subordinate clause. They begin with noun-clause
markers. Noun clauses that are formed from statements begin with the noun-clause marker that.
Noun clauses formed from yes/no questions begin with the noun-clause markers whether or if.
Those formed from information questions begin with wh- words: what, where, when, and so on.
Examples:
Dr. Hopkins' office is in this building, (statement).
I'm sure that Dr. Hopkins' office is in this building.
Is Dr. Hopkins' office on this floor? (yes/no question).
I don't know if (whether) Dr. Hopkins' office is on this floor.
Where is Dr. Hopkins' office? (information question).
Please tell me where Dr. Hopkins' office is.
Notice that the word order in direct questions is not the same as it is in noun clauses. The
noun clause follows statement word order (subject + verb), not question word order (auxiliary +
subject + main verb). Often one of the distractors for noun-clause items will incorrectly follow
question word order.
Examples:
I don't know what is her name, (incorrect use of question word order). I don't know what
her name is, (correct word order)
She called him to ask what time did his party start, (incorrect use of question word order).
She called him to ask what time his party started, (correct word order).
Noun clauses function exactly as nouns do: as subjects, as direct objects, or after the verb
to be.
Examples:
When the meeting will be held has not been decided, (noun clause as subject).
The weather announcer said that there will be thunderstorms, (noun clause as direct
object).
This is what you need, (noun clause after to be).
Notice that when the noun clause is the subject of a sentence the verb in the main clause
does not have a noun or pronoun subject.
In structure items, the noun-clause marker, along with any other part of the noun clause –
subject, verb, and so on – may be missing from the stem, or the whole noun clause may be
missing.
Identify and correct errors involving noun clauses:
One basic question psycholinguists have tried to answer is (children acquire
language/how do children acquire language/that children acquire language/how children
acquire language).
(Language policy in the European Union is/If language policy in the European Union
is/When language policy in the European Union is/That language policy in the European Union
is) both ineffective and hypocritical, doesn‘t help to promote ideas of linguistic equality and
multilingualism in Europe.
(Why has English become a lingua franca/Why English has become a lingua franca/If
English has become a lingua franca/By what causes has English become a lingua franca) is
obvious and clear.
The traditionally superior position of French in Europe explains (what the French cannot
accept in the decline/that the French cannot accept the decline/how the French cannot accept the
decline/whether the French cannot accept the decline) of their own linguistic power.
(There is the politically-correct ideologies/It is the politically-correct ideologies/What are
the politically-correct ideologies/The politically-correct ideologies) of some sociolinguists,
(constantly fuel opposition against/that constantly fuel opposition against/what if constantly fuel
opposition against/because they constantly fuel opposition against) the idea of English as a
European lingua franca.
Unit 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of English in European education

CLIL stands for Content and Language Integrated Learning. It refers to teaching subjects
such as science, history and geography to students through a foreign language. This can be done
by the English teacher using cross-curricular content or by the subject teacher using English as
the language of instruction. Both methods result in the simultaneous learning of content and
English. Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a term created in 1994 by David
Marsh and Anne Maljers as a methodology similar to but distinct from language immersion and
content-based instruction.
It's an approach for learning content through an additional language (foreign or second),
thus teaching both the subject and the language. The idea of its proponents was to create an
"umbrella term" which encompasses different forms of using language as medium of instruction.
CLIL is fundamentally based on methodological principles established by research on "language
immersion".
This kind of approach has been identified as very important by the European Commission
because: "It can provide effective opportunities for pupils to use their new language skills now,
rather than learn them now for use later. It opens doors on languages for a broader range of
learners, nurturing self-confidence in young learners and those who have not responded well to
formal language instruction in general education. It provides exposure to the language without
requiring extra time in the curriculum, which can be of particular interest in vocational settings."
The European Commission has therefore decided to promote the training of teachers to
"..enhance the language competences in general, in order to promote the teaching of non-
linguistic subjects in foreign languages".

Text 1-16. CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING


(Based on http://ec.europa.eu/languages/language-teaching/content-and-language-
integrated-learning_en.htm)

According to the recent research, one of the most effective methods of ESL instruction is
the content-based approach, where language instruction is integrated with the content areas.
Rather than developing an ESL program that is focused on the language needed for social
interactions or the structure of language, this method incorporates language into the context of
academic content. The core curriculum is the basis for teaching language. Instructors focus on
the key principles and concepts and use visuals, hands-on activities, simpler language, adapted
readings, graphic organizers, and so forth to help make the most important academic content
comprehensible. Thus, language skills develop as students work on their special subjects: math,
social studies, science or language arts at their appropriate levels.
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) involves teaching a curricular
subject through the medium of a language other than that normally used. The subject can be
entirely unrelated to language learning, such as history lessons being taught in English in a
school in Spain. CLIL is taking place and has been found to be effective in all sectors of
education from primary through adult and higher education. Its success has been growing over
the past 10 years and continues to do so.
Teachers working with CLIL are specialists in their own discipline rather than traditional
language teachers. They are usually fluent speakers of the target language, bilingual or native
speakers. In many institutions language teachers work in partnership with other departments to
offer CLIL in various subjects. The key issue is that the learner is gaining new knowledge about
the 'non-language' subject while encountering, using and learning the foreign language. The
methodologies and approaches used are often linked to the subject area with the content leading
the activities.
If you teach EMI (English as a Medium of Instruction), LAC (Language Across the
Curriculum), CBI (Content-based Instruction) or CBLT (Content-based Language Teaching; if
you work in Bilingual Education; if you‘re a subject teacher working through the medium of a
foreign language, or a language teacher bringing in content into your English lesson, you work
within the area of Content and Language Integrated Learning.
“CLIL refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a
foreign language with dual-focused aims, namely the learning of content, and the
simultaneous learning of a foreign language”. “It [CLIL] provides exposure to the language
without requiring extra time in the curriculum“. (Marsh, D. 2002. Content and Language
Integrated Learning: The European Dimension – Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential).
This would seem a good reason as any to promote an approach with a twin set of
objectives. One of these objectives is clearly educational (to learn subject content and a foreign
language) and the other is administrative. Since educational and administrative needs often fight
for space, this seems a good way to promote peace between them. We were told in the European
Council Resolution in 1995 that, ―...all EU citizens, by the time they leave compulsory
schooling, should be able to speak two languages other than the mother tongue‖.
Curricula attempting to achieve this aim have been getting more and more desperate in
their attempts to find timetabling space. What is the possible answer to this problem? Why,
CLIL, of course. Instead of studying Geography in the majority language, do it in a foreign
language. As long as it works, the pupils learn the same subject concepts and skills, but increase
contact time with the foreign language – crucial consideration in the improvement of attainment
levels.
“…an approach to bilingual education in which both curriculum content (such as
science or geography) and English are taught together. It differs from simple English-
medium education in that the learner is not necessarily expected to have the English
proficiency required to cope with the subject before beginning to study“. (Graddol D. English
Next, British Council Publications, 2006)
Graddol suggests that a powerful element of CLIL is its role in the improvement of
language skills, and that pupils do not necessarily need a particularly high level of foreign
language attainment to do their ‗CLIL-ing‘. Now this sounds quite radical. Why? Because the
teachers would have to adjust their methodology to ensure that the students were understanding
the content.
Teachers would not be able to simply ‗transmit‘ the content, assuming that their audience
understood. They would have to think of other means (group work, tasks, etc) which would
result in an increase of the skill-based focus of the learning.
The educational materials (textbooks) would also have to reflect this approach.
The pupils would be learning language that was more clearly focused on, and related to, the
subject matter that they needed to learn.
CLIL is not confined to higher-achieving students. It is not an approach for the elite. It fits
in perfectly with a mixed-ability philosophy. Ensuring that students understand the content,
reducing teacher-talk, increasing the focus on skills, influencing publishers to do likewise and
getting students to learn language items that are always contextualised, always functionally
necessary in the classroom – sound good at any level of curricular discourse. What is CLIL?
Well already it looks as if it is something like ‗good practice‘, and if we take Graddol at his
word, it can be applied across the ability range.
Finally, another quote that extends the scope of CLIL still further: “CLIL is about using
languages to learn… It is about installing a „hunger to learn‟ in the student. It gives
opportunity for him/her to think about and develop how s/he communicates in general,
even in the first language”. (Marsh, Marsland & Stenberg, 2001)
We can see from the first part of the underlined sections that CLIL views language as a
‗vehicle‘, not simply as an entity in itself. This is a central component of the CLIL package.
David Graddol said something similar too in his book English Next, when he talked about the
world now viewing English not so much as a language but as a core skill. This is a crucial
observation, and it lies at the heart of the educational and social change that has taken place since
the development of the Internet and the parallel growth of globalisation. As English becomes an
essential add-on to any curricular programme around the world, it is moving into a position
where it becomes a subject that pupils learn in order to do something else.
CLIL, with its ‗dual-focused‘ aims, encapsulates perfectly this post-modern, utilitarian
view of the English language. Liberal educationalists may not agree with it, but for the time
being it is here to stay. In its defence, CLIL also seems to contribute to the buzz-concept of our
times – namely ‗motivation‘. Teachers‘ forums talk about it endlessly, as do the blurbs on the
back of scholastic textbooks and the opening lines of ministerial declarations. Does CLIL install
a ‗hunger to learn‘ as Marsh et al. claim? If this is true, then we need to know exactly why. We
can examine this in subsequent articles, but for now, why should CLIL motivate more than other
conventional approaches?
Could it be because:
It provides reasons for learning and improving the foreign language level, because the
understanding of the subject contentis compulsory.
It focuses on and assesses the subject content, so the learner is not being assessed on his/her
mastery of the Past Simple (for example) but rather his/her ability to use it in the appropriate
places.
It gives students a feeling of real achievement. They are coping with, and talking and
writing about, complex material in the foreign language.
They are not being asked to discuss ‗vox-pop‘ content as in standard language learning
textbooks (Pop Stars, Global Warming, My Favourite Auntie) – where the content is used as a
slave to illustrate a certain language structure – but because the content is important in itself. In
CLIL there is a chance that they are being asked their opinions because the expression of
opinions (for example) is a key competence in the syllabus content. This method includes
learning situations that provide for the following critical factors:
 Comprehensible input
 Low anxiety for the students
 Many opportunities for interaction and language use
 Meaningful communication and natural language
 Language-learning situations that are fun and motivational
 Development of higher-order thinking skills

UNDERSTANDING THE SUMMARY ORGANIZATION AND EXPLICATION OF KEY


FACTS AND IDEAS

Instruction: When writing a summary of the article ―Content and language integrated learning‖
keep in mind that there are four main requirements to be met:
1. The summary should cover the original as a whole.
2. The material should be presented in a neutral fashion.
3. The summary should be a condensed version of the material, presented in your own
words.
4. Do not include anything that does not appear in the original (do not include your own
comments or evaluation.) and be sure to identify your source.

Steps for writing your summary:


1. Organize your notes into an outline which includes main ideas and supporting points but
no examples or details (dates, numbers, statistics).
2. Write an introductory paragraph that begins with a frame, including an in-text citation
of the source and the author as well as a reporting verb to introduce the main idea.
 ARTICLE: The title
In his/her article (or paper) "____________________,‖ ______(year)
(title, first letter capitalized) (author's last name) __________________
argues/claims/reports/contends/maintains/states that ____________________________.
(main idea/argument; S /subect/ + V /verb/ + C /complement/)
Example: In her article " Euro-english accents", Researcher Britta Larson Bergstedt
(2005) investigates the response of non-native English speakers, specifically, Swedish female
students, towards European (female) foreign accents in spoken English..
 BOOK:
In his book ―Key aspects of the use of English in Europe” Claude Truchot (2011)
illustrates the evolution of language situation and English lingua franca in the countries of the
European Union.
 INTERVIEW:
In his interview with the magazine World Englishes (May, 2008) Professor Robert
Phillipson (first name, last name) argues that the English language plays the role of the killer of
national languages
Reporting Verbs:
Strong Counter
Neutral Suggestion Criticism
argument argument
refute the
argue state suggest criticize
claim
argue recommen
claim report
against d
contend explain
maintain discuss
insist illustrate
posit

Other examples of frames:


 According to ___________________ (year),
________________________________________.
(author's last name) (main idea; S + V + C)
 ___________'s article on ______________ (year) discusses the ____________________.
(author's last name) (topic) (main idea; Noun Phrase)
 __________________, in his/her article, "________________" argues that
_______________________.
(author's last name, year) (title of article) (main idea; S + V + C)
3. The main idea or argument needs to be included in this first sentence. Then mention the
major aspects/factors/reasons that are discussed in the article/lecture. Give a full reference for
this citation at the end of the summary.
For a one-paragraph summary, discuss each supporting point in a separate sentence. Give
1-2 explanations for each supporting point, summarizing the information from the original.
For a multi-paragraph summary, discuss each supporting point in a separate paragraph.
Introduce it in the first sentence (topic sentence).
Example: According to the recent research, one of the most effective methods of ESL
instruction is the content-based approach, where language instruction is integrated with the
content areas.
Support your topic sentence with the necessary reasons or arguments raised by the
author/lecturer but omit all references to details, such as dates or statistics.
4. Use discourse markers that reflect the organization and controlling idea of the original,
for example cause-effect, comparison-contrast, classification, process, chronological order,
persuasive argument, etc.
5. In a longer summary, remind your reader that you are paraphrasing by using "reminder
phrases," such as
o The author goes on to say that ...
o The article (author) further states that ...
o (Author's last name) also states/maintains/argues that ...
o (Author's last name) also believes that ...
o (Author's last name) concludes that
6. Restate the article‘s/paper‘s conclusion in one sentence.
7. Give a full reference for the citation (see the example below for the in-text citations in
#2). For citing electronic sources, please see Citation of Electronic Resources.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Incomplete participial phrases


Participial phrases generally occur after nouns. They are actually reduced (shortened)
relative clauses. Present participles (which always end in -ing) are used to reduce adjective
clauses that contain active verbs.
Example:
The Crimea, which joined Ukraine in 1954, became a Ukrainian oblast, (adjective clause
with active verb) The Crimea, joining Ukraine in 1954, became a Ukrainian oblast, (participial
phrase with a present participle).
Past participles are used to reduce adjective clauses with passive verbs.
Example:
Tavrida National University, which was founded in 1918, is the oldest university in the
Crimea, (adjective clause with a passive verb).
Tavrida National University, founded in 1918, is the oldest university in the Crimea,
(participial phrase with a past participle)
Participial phrases can also come before the subject of a sentence.
Examples:
Joining Ukraine in 1954, The Crimea became a Ukrainian oblast.
Founded in 1918, Tavrida National University is the oldest university in the Crimea,
Incomplete appositives
An appositive is a noun phrase that explains or rephrases another noun phrase. It usually
comes after the noun that it rephrases. It may also come before the subject of a sentence.
Example:
Yuri Nikulin, a famous actor and clown, operated his own Circus Show, (appositive
following a noun).
A famous actor and clown, Yuri Nikulin operated his own Circus Show, (appositive before
the subject).
Appositives are actually reduced adjective clauses that contain the verb to be. However,
unlike adjective clauses, they do not contain a marker or a verb.
Example:
Oak, which is one of the most durable hard woods, is often used to make furniture,
(adjective clause).
Oak, one of the most durable hard woods, is often used to make furniture, (appositive).
Appositives are usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas, but short
appositives (usually names) are not.
Example:
Economist Paul Samuelson won a Nobel Prize in 1970.
Unit 1-17. CLIL TEACHERS‟ TARGET LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of English in European education

Due to its practical nature and flexibility CLIL can be incorporated in many ways, with
different subjects, languages, types of schools and learners of different age. For example, it
might involve university students having 2-3 periods of „language showers― per week, in which
they learn as much as half or more of all their assignments in the other language.
In Europe over half of the countries with a minority/regional language community resort to
partial immersion as the preferred way of teaching both the minority and the state language. In
the 1970s, a number of central and eastern European countries established a parallel system of
bilingual schools aimed at pupils exhibiting high attainment. During the 1990s this system was
made available to all pupils in the general education system. In the same period, several
European Union countries launched initiatives involving CLIL.
CLIL involves teaching a curricular subject through the medium of a language other than
that normally used. The subject can be entirely unrelated to language learning, such as computer
technology being taught in English in a school in Sweden. CLIL is taking place and has been
found to be effective in all sectors of education from primary through to adult and higher
education. Its success has been growing over the past years and continues to do so.
Teachers working with CLIL are specialists in their own discipline rather than traditional
language teachers. They are usually fluent speakers of the target language, bilingual or native
speakers. In many institutions language teachers work in partnership with other departments to
offer CLIL in various subjects. The key issue is that the learner is gaining new knowledge about
the 'non-language' subject while encountering, using and learning the foreign language. The
methodologies and approaches used are often linked to the subject area with the content leading
the activities.

Text 1-17. CLIL TEACHERS‟ TARGET LANGUAGE COMPETENCE


(Based on http://clilingmesoftly.wordpress.com/clil-teachers-tl-competence/)

Why thinking CEFR may distract from the real language issues in CLIL.
According to a recent OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)
study (2009) teacher quality is one of the most important schooling factors influencing student
achievement. The difference between having an effective versus an ineffective teacher is
estimated to be equivalent to a full year‘s difference in learning growth for students. Moreover,
the impact of differences in teacher quality outweighs the impact of other educational
investments, such as reductions in class size. This raises an important question in CLIL training
and research: In which respects can the CLIL teacher‟s foreign language competence be
seen as a quality indicator of his or her teaching?
The starting point for reflections on the issue of language competence for CLIL teachers
was the request for a review of a Spanish research project which investigated into the language
competence of CLIL teachers in the Madrid region. The outcome appeared straightforward and
clear. Train non-language teachers to pass a CEFR (The Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages) level – mostly B2 or C1 – and half the CLIL battle would be won
easily. However, given the linguistic complexity of any CLIL incident, this can lead to
frustration and quality loss.
According to available resources (Eurydice) the following tentative (not comprehensive)
picture for official language requirements for CLIL in Europe emerges:
 Several countries such as Germany, Austria and Norway state that teachers have
generally studied two subjects during their education. If they study a foreign language and a non-
language subject, they are thus competent in the two types of subject targeted by CLIL.
According to the Eurydice country report on Austria, school heads themselves decide whether
teachers may teach their subject(s) in a language other than the normal language of instruction
(German). In so doing, they may consider the following:
 is the teacher also a teacher of the CLIL target language?
 has (s)he spent a certain period of time in a country in which the CLIL target
language is spoken, for example, studying or working there?
 has (s)he had any specific linguistic and/or methodological in-service training in
the field of CLIL?
 is the teacher a native speaker of the CLIL target language?
 has (s)he taken a proficiency examination in the CLIL target language?
 is (s)he married to a native speaker of the CLIL target language?
However, only Hungary requires certified evidence of these two specific areas of
specialisation. If teachers have no initial language qualification, they have to possess a B2-C1
level certificate. (Eurydice)
 Poland has introduced teacher training standards where graduates have to master a
foreign language and reach a level of B2 or B2+. If they choose the combination ‗non-language
subject plus foreign language‘, they have to reach level C2 of the Common European
Framework of Reference for Languages, in the case of the language subject. (Eurydice)
 Italian CLIL teachers‘ competence is B1/B2, according to Ludbrook, and in providing
implications for CLIL content teacher training, she somehow vaguely states that CLIL teachers
should have a level of general language proficiency that allows independent teaching.
 France: CLIL is typically carried out within the SELO system (Sections europeennes et
da langue orientale) with teachers being subject teachers rather than language teachers. In the
first years of experimentation, the CLIL teacher was a subject teacher whose foreign language
competence was certified by the regional inspector for the language concerned. Generally, this
competence corresponded to a B2 level in the European Framework, although some activities
were considered as needing a C1 level. In 2004, the Ministry set up a national certificate for
teaching in a SELO, the certification complémentaire. Every year, the regional authorities, the
Rectorat, organize a regional session open to all qualified teachers, and to initial trainees
qualifying at the end of the year. Candidates must submit a paper giving their qualifications and
motivations, and then take an oral exam before a jury composed of subject and language
specialists. This certification is valid all over the country. (Bertaux).
 The Netherlands: The Dutch education authorities recommend at least a B2 level.
Schools introducing CLIL usually do so with their regular Dutch staff. Interested teachers are
selected and trained during a two year period of in-service training courses. Most schools offer
teachers‘ courses ranging from classroom English to advanced English language programmes.
Training is usually supported in-school by the English teachers. In addition, there are several
institutions in the Netherlands that offer training for content and language integrated teaching,
focusing mainly on the development of teachers‘ language proficiency. (de Graaf et al)
 Belgium: The requirements for CLIL teachers comprise a basic (sic) qualification
obtained in the target language and/or certificate of upper secondary education obtained in the
target language.
 Spain: Sacramento Jaimez and Ana M. Lopez Morillas (2011), as proponents of the
Andalusian plurilingual program in primary and secondary education, report that B-2 has been
set as the minimum level a content teacher must have in order to apply for a definite bilingual
post.
Following the Eurydice survey 2006 four main language criteria for the prospective CLIL
teachers evolve. They should either:
1) be native speakers of the target language,
2) have completed a course or studied in the target language,
3) be undergoing in-service training on CLIL type provision, and
4) have taken a language test or examination.
Strategies associated with the last two categories are developed specifically for recruiting
teachers. Those associated with the first two are ways of ensuring less directly that appropriate
teachers will be selected for CLIL. In most countries, all such strategies are adopted on a
voluntary basis. (Eurydice, 2006)
Needless to say that most of these language requirements for CLIL or any preparatory
courses for CLIL go hand-in-hand with carefully elaborated and detailed statements on the
methodology of CLIL, often suggesting various CLIL models and principles. Interestingly, some
proponents would even go so far as to compensate foreign language deficits with more advanced
methodological skills. Jaimez and Lopez Morillas (2011) consider methodological updating
essential in the Andalusian bilingual education model ―in order to compensate for the lack of
confidence and competence in the use of the foreign language‖. Metaphorically speaking, this
could be compared to the idea of who is the best football coach? Someone with a personal
international career or someone who spent the same time reading a lot about the ―beautiful
game‖ and all the psychological and sociological aspects connected to it?
Furthermore, CLIL pedagogies have been highly influenced by language acquisition
theories which favour language teaching perspectives may also play an important role in the
animated discussion on CLIL teachers‘ language competence.
Summing the data up the following picture emerges. The diversity of opinions, the lack of
authentic teacher data, and the linguistic complexity of any CLIL event seem to make an
approach whose language requirements are (almost) exclusively based on CEFR scales strongly
questionable.

Why the L4C Model may be more helpful.


A more elaborated model covers the linguistic multiplicity of CLIL and through this may
allow better planning, preparation, and teaching of any CLIL incident.
The L4C model (languages four/for CLIL):
This model consists of four ―languages‖ that merge to create an appropriate linguistic CLIL
event.
1. General language: This comprises advanced general everyday language competence as
covered by the CEFR scales, also comparable to Cummins BICS.
2. Academic language: This is language mostly reserved for schooling or academic
purposes. Basically, this is language that will be used across various subjects or domains
that are ―school-focussed‖. For example, words such as ―analyse, evaluate, grid, pie chart,
column, etc‖. As for English it essentially embraces the academic word list as provided by
Averil Coxhead – http://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/resources/academicwordlist/.
3. Subject/Domain Specific Language: This is language that almost exclusively appears in
relatively restricted areas/domains, such as ―hibernation‖ in biology or ―precipitation‖ in
geography. Some researchers also use the word ―technical terms‖ (Nation, 2001).
Various measures could be taken to ensure a satisfactory training in this language area.
a) Experienced subject teachers together with their language colleagues put up a bank or
an inventory of domain specific key-vocabulary.
b) Shadowing of mother tongue teachers in the respective subject. For example, an
Austrian history/CLIL teacher attends lessons in an English teacher‘s history class doing
intensive linguistic and action research.
c) Dialogic learning, which is teaching that centres around conversations with other
teachers focusing on teaching and learning issues during which teachers examine their own
beliefs and practices and engage in collaborative planning, problem solving and decision making.
d) Using and linguistically analysing information technology data to gather relevant
subject specific language data.
4. Classroom language, or language to learn. This is language that is used for Cognitive
development most popularly linked with Bloom‘s taxonomy of thinking skills, strategy
training (literacy skills, presentation skills etc), CLIL supporting learning styles such as
collaborative learning, discovery learning, team-teaching, etc.
So at the end of the day this raises the need for some serious subject specific linguistic
soul-searching, or in other words, collecting and evaluating data from CLIL teachers in action.

Second language proficiency and learning theory


Bilingual and English as a Second Language (ESL) educators commonly refer to two
types of English language proficiency: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). These terms were coined by Jim Cummins
(1980). Cummins found that while most students learned sufficient English to engage in social
communication in about two years, they typically needed five to seven years to acquire the type
of language skills needed for successful participation in content classrooms. Limited English
proficient (LEP) students‟ language skills are often informally assessed upon the ability of the
student to comprehend and respond to conversational language. However, children who are
proficient in social situations may not be prepared for the academic, context-reduced, and
literacy demands of mainstream classrooms. Judging students‟ language proficiency based on
oral and/or social language assessments becomes problematic when the students perform well in
social conversations but do poorly on academic tasks. The students may be incorrectly tagged
as having learning deficits or may even be referred for testing as learning disabled.
The terms BICS and CALP tend to be imprecise, value-laden, simplified, and misused to
stereotype English language learners (Baker, 1993). Cummins (1984) addressed this problem
through a theoretical framework which embeds the CALP language proficiency concept within a
larger theory of Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP). The three terms are discussed below.

REVISION OF SUMMARY WRITING

Instruction: Writing a good summary demonstrates that you clearly understand a text and
that you can communicate this understanding to your readers. Sometimes you are asked to write
a summary of a paper/article which abounds in factual information. Such a summary can be
tricky to write at first because it‘s tempting to include too much or too little information. But by
following our easy 8-step method, you will be able to summarize texts quickly and successfully
for any class or subject.

1) Divide…and conquer. First off, skim the text you are going to summarize and divide it
into sections. Focus on any headings and subheadings. Also look at any bold-faced terms and
make sure you understand them before you read.
2) Read. Now that you‘ve prepared, go ahead and read the selection. Read straight through.
At this point, you don‘t need to stop to look up anything that gives you trouble—just get a feel
for the author‘s tone, style, and main idea.
3) Reread. Rereading should be active reading. Underline topic sentences and key facts.
Label areas that you want to refer to as you write your summary. Also label areas that should be
avoided because the details – though they may be interesting – are too specific. Identify areas
that you do not understand and try to clarify those points.
4) One sentence at a time. You should now have a firm grasp on the text you will be
summarizing. In steps 1-3, you have divided the piece into sections and located the author‘s main
ideas and points. Now write down the main idea of each section in one well-developed sentence.
Make sure that what you include in your sentences are key points, not minor details.
5) Write a thesis statement. This is the key to any well-written summary. Review the
sentences you wrote in step 4. From them, you should be able to create a thesis statement that
clearly communicates what the entire text was trying to achieve. If you find that you are not able
to do this step, then you should go back and make sure your sentences actually addressed key
points.
6) Ready to write. At this point, your first draft is virtually done. You can use the thesis
statement as the introductory sentence of your summary, and your other sentences can make up
the body. Make sure that they are in order. Add some transition words (then, however, also,
moreover) that help with the overall structure and flow of the summary. And once you are
actually putting pen to paper (or fingers to keys!), remember these tips:
 Write in the present tense.
 Make sure to include the author and title of the work.
 Be concise: a summary should not be equal in length to the original text.
 If you must use the words of the author, cite them.
 Don't put your own opinions, ideas, or interpretations into the summary. The purpose of
writing a summary is to accurately represent what the author wanted to say, not to provide a
critique.
7) Check for accuracy. Reread your summary and make certain that you have accurately
represented the author‘s ideas and key points. Make sure that you have correctly cited anything
directly quoted from the text. Also check to make sure that your text does not contain your own
commentary on the piece.
8) Revise. Once you are certain that your summary is accurate, you should (as with any
piece of writing) revise it for style, grammar, and punctuation. If you have time, give your
summary to someone else to read. This person should be able to understand the main text based
on your summary alone. If he or she does not, you may have focused too much on one area of the
piece and not enough on the author‘s main idea.
(After John Swales and Christine Feat. Academic Writing for Graduate
Students,Essential Tasks and Skills, 1994)

Section 2. Grammar workout

Incomplete/missing prepositional phrase


A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition (in, at, with, for, until, and so on)
followed by a noun or a pronoun, which is called the prepositional object. Prepositional
phrases often describe time and location, among others.
Examples:
In autumn maple leaves turn red.
Gaitshill is one of the most famous neighborhoods in Boston.
After that, there won't be any more problems.
The house was built by John's grandfather.
Prepositional phrases come at the beginning of sentences, but they may appear in other parts
as well.
Remember, the preposition cannot correctly be the subject of a sentence, as in these
examples:
In autumn is my favorite season.
Without a pencil is no way to come to a test.
Prepositional phrases with the same meaning as adverb clauses
There are also certain prepositions that have essentially the same meaning as adverb-clause
markers but are used before noun phrases or pronouns, not with clauses.
Examples:
He chose that university because of its fine reputation. (because/since it has fine reputation).
The accident was due to mechanical failure. (because/since there was mechanical falure).
Visibility is poor today on account of air pollution. (because/since there is air pollution).
He enjoys motorcycle riding in spite of the danger. (although/even though it is dangerous).
Despite its loss, the team is still in first place. (although/even though it has lost).
Her father lived in England during the war. (when/while there was the war).
Identify and correct errors involving incomplete phrases
(Despite powerful translators' lobbies fight/Fghting powerful translators' lobbies/Powerful
translators' lobbies are fighting/Powerful translators' lobbies fighting) in the name of the high
ideal of linguistic equality, a time-consuming, and expensive translation machinery is maintained
(that is doing its best/it is doing its best/even though it is doing its best/doing its best) to translate
the illusion of equality into illusions of multilingualism.
The translations (what are produced in the world's largest translation bureau/produced in
the world's largest translation bureau/producing in the world's largest translation bureau/while
produced in the world's largest translation bureau) are taken as tokens for equality.
No one can tell (that the process of translation counts more/though the process of
translation counts more/why the process of translation counts more/why counts more the process
of translation) than ability to read the more reliable English and French originals.
(The supposed linguistic equality/Although the supposed linguistic equality/Because the
supposed linguistic equality/Linguistic equality as supposed) in the EU is a relative one: some
languages are (clearly more equal than others/clearly more equal before others/more clearly
equal as others/more clearly than others equal).
Minority languages (to use inside the member states/inside the member states/are used
inside the member states/there are inside the member states) do not count at all.
(Though easily accessible for an Internet user/Although it is easily accessible for an
Internet user/Despite easily accessible for an Internet user/Even though it easily accessible
for an Internet user) these articles do not contain any valuable information.
No one knows what race the Incas were (because of/because that/it is
because/because) no one of these people has survived.
John Glenn, (he was the first American astronaut/who was the first American astronaut/the
first American astronaut/being the first American astronaut), became a national hero
immediately after his flight.
Unit 1-18. ENGLISH IN FINLAND

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of English in European education

People from Scandinavian countries like Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland speak
English more fluently compared to people from, say, France, Italy or Czech Republic.
What are the secrets or those nations' fluent English? Is it because the children at school
learn English at a younger age, as compared to the rest of Europe? Do they have better English
education systems at schools?
Finns are amongst the best English speakers in Europe. If you are travelling to Finland and
do not speak Finnish, you'll have no problems getting help if you need it in English. Everyone
but the old and very young can at least understand English, if not speak it. Even though English
is a foreign language here, it is widely taught at schools and thus most people speak and
understand English. About 90% of Finns think that the importance of English will increase in the
next 20 years and almost half (47%) of them are of the opinion that in the future everyone must
know English.
Many Finns think that the lack of English proficiency leads to marginalization in certain
areas of life. When they were asked to indicate the areas in which this is a danger, the most
common answer to this (86%) was that Finns with no English skills will be excluded from
international interaction. At the same time, nearly half of the Finns (44%) indicated that
marginalization is not really a serious threat because, in their view, up-to-date information will
be available also in Finnish in the future.

Text 1-18. ENGLISH IN FINLAND


(Based on Ella Hujala‟s study “English as a lingua franca in the workplace: one-size-
fits-all?”)
English in Scandinavia has an extremely high profile and can be said to be almost like a
‗second language‘ at least for the younger generation. It worries some of us that the number of
students learning other languages at school is decreasing. The utility factor of English is high, i.e.
it has high value in so many domains that it spreads faster than other languages.
Meierkord (2004) investigated the use of English as an international lingua franca among
students from outer and inner circle countries. She studied their informal spoken data. 95 per
cent of all productions observed with competent speakers of English from the countries in the
expanding circle can be said to be regular (i.e. following native speaker norms). Conformity to
native norms is thus overwhelming. Generally, younger generations of Finns can be said to be
quite proficient in English. According to Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European
Communities (2009), in fourteen of the twenty one Member States for which data were available,
English was the most commonly spoken foreign language among adults aged 25 to 64 years.
99.8% of students in upper secondary education in Finland in 2007 studied two or more foreign
languages and the most studied foreign language was English. In 2007, the highest shares of the
population aged 25 to 64 who perceived they spoke two or more foreign languages were found in
Slovenia (72%), Finland and Slovakia (both 68%). In Finland, the best known foreign language
among this age group was English.
However, being able to speak or understand one variety of English is not enough. One must
be able to understand the countless varieties of English in order to be able to succeed in working
life etc. A lot of Finns have to communicate with people from all over the world on a daily basis
in business life. The English classroom in Finland rarely offers the students a chance to hear all
these varieties. Nor have they been included in the recorded teaching material. This is, however,
changing at least in the Business English teaching materials and for a good reason. Nevertheless,
it is likely to take some time before the attitude change reaches schools and all the teachers. The
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages does not have much of the ELF
perspective either. This is discussed more thoroughly in Hynninen‘s (2007) Master‘s thesis.
English is actively sought out by people in Finland and all over the world (Brutt-Griffler
2002). But is there a notably Finnish variety of English developing? Is English adapted to reflect
our own cultural norms or is it just a communicative tool? Do people in any way show their
identities through their English? Also, is there a difference when Finns are using ELF
intranationally or internationally? These are all questions that interest me. In Finland the majority
of learners are normally taught by local teachers. In their professional lives, a great number of
people are using English as a lingua franca intranationally and internationally.
Kirkpatrick (2006) argues that this state of the matters provides a process that leads to new
varieties of English. In my study I am interested in the subjects‘ experiences of their own
‗Finnish English‘ as well as how it relates to other varieties in their workplace. Schell (2008)
says ‗The low internal colingual level among anglophones within their respective countries
means that new national varieties are not being created in Northern Europe despite the
abundance of communication in English there.‖ I think the internal colingual level among Finns
working in companies where English is the language of business must be quite high. Perhaps this
communication does not have a high enough status for its speakers for it to be perceived as a
variety of its own. In my study I seek to find out whether the respondents think they speak the
Finnish English variety or a kind of interlanguage. Schell asks if the community‘s internal
colingual level is a good theoretical measure of the pace of norm generation. It will also be
interesting to hear if the participants in this study think there is a specific CompanyA variety.
I will now have a look at an increasingly common phenomenon in the world and in
Finland, namely that of having English as the official language of corporations. This is also the
context for my interview study.

English as the official corporate language in Finland


The ideology of English as the language of corporate enterprise has strengthened the
perception of English as the lingua franca of international business. The importance of English as
the language of global commerce has led many non-English companies, including a few in
Finland, to adopt English as their official operating language (Louhiala-Salminen 1999).
Translations from a language to another bring extra costs and take a lot of time: this is one of the
reasons why English prevails in business world. The fact that English is the global lingua franca
is commonplace. Global business communication most often takes place in English or more
correctly, ELF or international English. In many sectors, the professional terminology is in
English anyway, making the language the natural choice for everyday written communication.
Emails are often written in English from the beginning to make it possible to involve colleagues
or partners in other countries, and annual reports are published in English for international
readability. English is attractive also because of its international pervasiveness, and its
(suggested) grammatical simplicity. It has been suggested that there is a linguistic inter-culture
created by the interlocutors in communities of practice of this kind. (Meierkord 1996, Firth
1996.)
However, having a common corporate language that is not one‘s own L1 is not without
problems. Welch et al. (2001) studied how peoples‘ perceptions of language alter information
flow in intercultural situations. The findings showed that adopting a common corporate language
might hinder or change information flows and communication within companies, because the
employees have to face the challenge of using a non-native language in internal communication.
This is one of the interests in my present study.
Several studies have been carried out in Finland about the Finns‘ use of English at their
work or at their studies (e.g. Bergroth 2007). In general, non-native speakers working for
multinational companies with English as the official language are not opposed to the choice of
language. However, they still seem to struggle to some extent with motivation and attitude
problems, proficiency problems and some specific linguistic problems. It will be interesting to
hear how the English as a lingua franca approach fits in this context and whether these people
can be said to have an ELF speaker identity
Most often, these people work through the medium of a language which is still being
learned, under construction so to say. In Alan Firth‘s (2008) words they ‗learn as they go‘.
Speaking focuses on ‗fluency‘, not always grammatical accuracy. Learners develop this fluency
by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes. It is more like language acquisition,
not enforced learning. Perhaps we should ask whether the focus is on understanding, clarity and
mutual intelligibility partly because other goals are too hard to reach? There must be situations in
business negotiations, for example, when the NNSs would actually benefit from greater fluency
in English to be fully able to participate in discussions. This might be a challenging issue to
study as it is difficult to see the signifance of something one does not have.
The linguistic exchanges in business context often have certain common features. These
speech events can be said to normally provide the speakers with a lot of contextual information,
the speakers often have the same frame of reference, and they know what they are going to talk
about (cf. Björkman 2008). All this lowers the risk of miscommunication or other disturbance in
communication.
According to Vollstedt (2002) difficulties in language use can have several consequences.
First of all, there are the financial costs caused by the impaired flow of information, which can
mean delayed, incorrect or inexact information, misunderstandings and poor cooperation among
co-workers. Second, establishing social relationships among the employees suffers if one does
not have a good command of the language. Third, Vollstedt argues that employees who are
forced to use a foreign language at work are often unsure of themselves because ―they are
lacking those verbal tools of expression available to native speakers‖.
As for the situation in Finland, it could be claimed that ELF, as spoken here, is just ―The
English dictionary meets the Finnish grammar‖, or a window to the Finnish mind – in English. A
Finn recognizes a Finn even in English, as they have a common knowledge of what they sound
like in English and the L1 almost always makes its imprints on their English as well. For a
foreigner, however, the Finnishness might not be that clear. It may sound as any ELF.
Hülmbauer (2007:6) claims, quite surprisingly, that:
What differentiates ELF from EFL (English as a foreign language) so substantially is that
its users neither aim at communicating with, nor like NSs of the language, or only to a very
limited extent.
I find it hard to apply this to the Finnish context, at least. Most Finnish ELF users today
have a history of being learners of English (EFL learners) at school and, most probably, thought
they were going to speak English with NSs as well as with NNSs, probably even more so with
NSs. Some even aspire to speak like them. This raises the question of whether the ELF speaker
concept includes all types of speakers of lingua franca English, or is a certain kind of language
learning history required? My question is: With a background of being an EFL learner (in
Finland), can one really become an ELF speaker in one‘s own mind (in the sense the ELF
scholars use it)? As argued before, ELF and EFL are said to be far from each other: ―ELF is not
the same as EFL, nor is it failed ENL‖ (Jenkins 2006).
At first glance, it seems obvious that a lot of everyone‘s energy would be saved if the
Finnish speaker of English could be told not to worry too much about the native-like intonation
or other ‗non-core‘ features of the NS accent. They could then spend the extra energy on
accurate and content-rich language or on more attentive listening. It sometimes seems that those
with a lesser language learning background find it easier to accept a more relaxed attitude. They
focus on getting their message through and are happy if they succeed. However, those with a
deeper knowledge of the language easily hesitate and feel self-conscious about their
pronunciation – without any need to do so if ELF scholars are to be believed. ―Painting is easy
when you don‘t know how, but very difficult when you do‖, said Edgar Degas a long time ago.
This issue was brought up by Hülmbauer (2007):
Irrespective of their explicit claims about its usefulness, the speakers share the opinion that
the kind of English they produce is ‗flat‘ and thus deficient in nature. This attitude seems
symptomatic.
Jenkins (2007) describes this phenomenon as ‗linguistic schizophrenia‘ and explains that
although the learners‘ rational mind says yes to ELF and the appropriation of English for their
own purposes, they keep searching for arguments to hold on to ENL.

Corporate English training


Today most of the on-the-job language training in Finland is conducted by Finnish business
language schools. The pedagogical contents and proficiency targets of those schools vary widely.
Moreover, diagnostic tests are not always carried out or they are not very advanced. However,
studies have shown that businesses want training that is individually targeted and accurate. The
language trainers should thus be professionals and able to adjust teaching in various contexts.
There is a need for highly specialized teachers who can teach advanced students. Professional
vocabulary as well as getting to know different genres of speech have been mentioned among the
most needed skills. Also, the teachers must be able to motivate and make the student experience
feelings of success. (Sajavaara and Salo 2007).
ELF research is a response to the new, more global context of English. If ELF awareness
can help learners by increasing motivation, would it not be time to give this information to the
ELF speakers in the corporate setting as well? The present tendency in corporate English
training, at least in Finland, is that the local NNSE teachers teach the grammar and the basics and
NSE teachers are often demanded by the customers to do the rest of the work.

REVISION OF SUMMARY WRITING

Instruction: Write a summary of the text ―English in Finland‖ based on Ella Hujala‘s
study ―English as a lingua franca in the workplace: one-size-fits-all?‖
Remember that an effective summary must follow the rules given below. An effecvtive
summary:

Begins with an introductory sentence that states the article's title and author and restates
its thesis or focus;
Includes all of the article's main points and major supporting details;
Deletes minor and irrelevant details;
Combines/chunks similar ideas;
Paraphrases accurately and preserves the article's meaning;
Uses student's own wording and sentence style;
Uses quotation marks when using phrasing directly from the article or source;
Includes only the article's ideas; excludes personal opinion;
Reflects article's emphasis and purpose;
Recognizes article's organization;
Stays within appropriate length; is shorter than the original;
Achieves transition through use of author's name and present-tense verb;
Has few or no mechanical errors.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Errors in word order


Most word order errors consist of two words in reverse order. Some of the most common
examples of this type of error are given below.
Examples:
Visitors to Vancouver often comment on how beautiful is its setting and on how clean. The
correct word order is subject + verb: how beautiful and clean its setting is.
A special type of word order problem involves inversions. This type of sentence
uses question word order even though the sentence is not a question. When are
inversions used?
When the negative words listed below are placed at the beginning of a cla use for
emphasis. E.g.:
not only, not until, not once, at no time, by no means, nowhere
never, seldom, rarely scarcely, no sooner
Examples:
Not only do trees provide shade and beauty, but they also reduce carbon dioxide.
Not once was he on time.
Seldom have I heard such beautiful music.
Not only did the company lose profits, but it also had to lay off workers.
When the following expressions beginning with only occur at the beginning of a
sentence (with these expressions, the subject and verb in that clause are inverted):
only in (on, at, by, etc.), only once, only recently
Examples:
Only in an emergency should you use this exit.
Only recently did she return from abroad.
When the following expressions beginning with only occur at the beginning of a sentence
(with these expressions, the subject and verb of the second clause are inverted):
only if, only when, only because, only after, only until
Examples:
Only if you have a serious problem should you call Mr. Franklin at home.
Only when you are satisfied is the sale considered final.
When clauses beginning with the word so + an adjective or participle occur at the beginning
of a sentence
Examples:
So rare is this coin that it belongs in a museum.
So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions.
When clauses beginning with expressions of place or order occur at the beginning of a
sentence (in these cases, the subject and main verb are inverted since auxiliary verbs are not used
as they would be in most questions)
Examples:
In front of the museum is a statue.
Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands.
First came a police car, then came an ambulance.
MODULE 4. ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA IN EVERYDAY
INTERNATIONAL INTERACTION

Unit 1-19. THE USE OF ENGLISH IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of international English in European
business

With the continuing globalisation of markets and internationalisation of trade, professionals


in a wide range of organisations, from large multinational corporations to small to medium size
enterprises, are increasingly coming together to do business in the international workplace,
frequently adopting a common language of communication. More often than not, this lingua
franca is English. While English for International Business (EIB) has an essential function as a
lingua franca in multilingual settings, it can also present challenges both linguistically and
culturally, particularly as more and more interactions are between speakers whose first language
is not English.
P. Rogerson-Revell‘s paper reports on preliminary research which forms part of a larger
scale study investigating the use of English as a lingua franca in international business meetings.
The paper summarises the findings of a questionnaire exploring the use of EIB by a particular
European business organisation.
P. Rogerson-Revell‘s limited findings can help shed light on some of the language issues
that may be present in such international contexts and the possible communications difficulties
and frustrations that can result. A positive result is that, as well as uncovering some of these
challenges, the analysis also shows an awareness by many participants of some of the strategies
that can be used to overcome them.

Text 1-19. USING ENGLISH FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: A EUROPEAN


CASE STUDY
(After P. Rogerson-Revell‟s article in English for Specific Purposes, #26, 2007)

Introduction
This extract from an article in the ‗New York Times‘ newspaper, reinforces what is now
beyond dispute, regardless of any ideological objections, that the use of English for international
business is firmly established in Europe:
... As European banks and corporations burst national boundaries and go global, many are
making English the official corporate language.
Two years ago, when France, Germany and Spain merged their aerospace industries into
one company, they not only gave it an English name – the European Aeronautic Defense and
Space Company, or EADS – they also made English its language. In Germany, the national
postal service, Deutsche Post World Net, increasingly uses English as its working language.
Smaller companies are doing likewise. In Finland, the elevator maker Kone adopted English in
the 1970s; in Italy, Merloni Elettrodomestici, a midsize home appliance maker, did so in the mid-
1990s. Management meetings at big banks like Deutsche Bank in Germany and Credit Suisse in
Switzerland are routinely in English. „„I can‟t give percentages, but now many executives are not
Italian – French, English, Danish, Russian and so on‟‟, said Andrea Prandi, Merloni‟s
spokesman. „„We consider ourselves a European group. For Europe, the official language is
English‟‟.
While there are a number of reasons for the current spread of English both internationally
and within Europe, many of these are founded on what Brutt-Griffler terms ‗econcultural‘
grounds, i.e., they are the product of the development of a world market and global
developments in the fields of science, technology, culture and media (Brutt-Griffler, 2002).
Many languages have been used around the world as contact languages for international
trade and communication. Within Europe itself, there have been several lingua francas since
Roman times, including Greek, Latin, French, German and English. The latter three are currently
widely used in parts of Europe, and make up what Graddol refers to as the ‗Big Languages‘ in
Europe (Graddol, 2000). Nevertheless they are not the only languages used for international
communication in Europe with, for example, Russian being used in the newer eastern European
nations and the pidgin, or hybrid blend of several Scandinavian languages, ‗Scandinaviska‘, used
in several northern European countries (Louhiala-Salminen, Charles, & Kankaanranta, 2005).
Historically, the development of any language as a lingua franca or pidgin to facilitate
communication between speakers of different languages has often been initiated by international
commerce or trade. In fact the word ‗pidgin‘ is said to be derived from the Chinese
pronunciation of the English word business and Pidgin English was the name given to a
Chinese–English–Portuguese pidgin used for commerce in Canton during the 18th and 19th
centuries.
Indeed, in its strictest sense, the term ‗lingua franca‘ seems to be equated with a pidgin
being a language with no native speakers. The term English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) is
generally used in this way to refer exclusively to the use of English between speakers whose
mother tongue is not English (Firth, 1996; Seidlhofer, 2001). The term BELF (Business ELF) is
also used by some (Louhiala-Salminen et al., 2005) to refer to the use of English for business
purposes between speakers whose mother tongue is not English.
However, both of these terms exclude a substantial body of communicative events where
English is used as a common language both between ELF speakers and between ELF and
English as a mother tongue (EMT) speakers. Broader terms such as ‗English as an International
Language‘ (EIL), along with ‗Global English‘ and ‗International English‘, seem open to this
more flexible and liberal interpretation. Consequently, in this study, the term English for
International Business (EIB) is used to refer to the use of English as a common language in
business contexts where both EMT and ELF speakers could be present.
This study focuses on one such context, where English is used for international meetings in
a particular European professional organization, presenting and discussing some of the
communication difficulties reported by the meeting participants. This preliminary study will
form part of a broader discourse analytic study investigating the linguistic and sociocultural
issues involved in using EIB. The initial study will not only inform this second stage of research
but also hopefully make a small contribution to the growing body of knowledge on the use of
English in Europe and particularly in European business.

The use of English in Europe


The complexity of the use of English, as mother tongue, second language and international
language in Europe has been recognized and suggestions for modifying Kachru‘s concentric
circles framework of world English use to accommodate this complexity have been suggested to
take into account the various, dynamic roles of English in different European countries. For
instance, Berns (1995) claims that in Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, although
English is not an official language, it serves various social, commercial, educational and cultural
functions which justify categorizing these countries as belonging to both Kachru‘s ‗expanding‘
and ‗outer‘ circles. It could similarly be argued that Sweden and Denmark could increasingly be
seen as straddling these two circles. Furthermore, the recent accession of ten more countries to
the EU in 2004 has increased the number of countries in the ‗expanding circle‘. The mobility of
Europe‘s boundaries and people within them, together with growing opportunities for cross-
border trade, adds to the complexity of language use across Europe and doubtless encourages the
development of an international language or languages.

EIB in Europe
Within Europe, there is growing evidence that English has become the biggest business
lingua franca. A study conducted by the Danish Council of Trade and Industry estimated that
Danish companies conducted 80% of their international business in English (cited in Firth,
1996). Similarly, Crystal (1997) claims that according to a recent yearbook of international
organizations 99% of European organizations use English as a working language (cited in
Graddol, 2000). However, while English may well be the most widely used business language in
Europe, a survey of language use in European businesses (Hagen, 1998) found, for instance, that
German is increasingly being used in central and Eastern Europe, especially with the accession
of new Eastern European states into the EU. Hagen also claims that in order to do cross-border
business successfully, companies need to be able to communicate in all three of Europe‘s ‗Big
Languages‘, namely English, German and French (Hagen, 1998). Although, as Graddol (2000)
points out, this is a target which many British companies find hard to meet, as illustrated in a
further survey of European executives‘ language skills which found that while in the EU as a
whole, 70% of businesses have executives with foreign language abilities (rising to over 90% in
Sweden, Greece, Spain and the Netherlands), only 39% of UK businesses had executives
proficient in more than one language. These figures also reflect the findings of similar surveys.
For instance, Labrie and Quell‘s study of foreign language knowledge across the EU showed that
although British people‘s knowledge of French and German is increasing, particularly in the
younger generation (i.e., 15–24-year old), they still lag behind many European nations in that
only 47% can speak any foreign language (Labrie & Quell, 1997).
The multifunctional role of English in Europe is not only restricted to its use within specific
countries but can also be illustrated within international organizations where it may be used as a
mother tongue (EMT) by native English speaking employees but also as a lingua franca (ELF)
between non-native English speakers and as an international language between ELF and EMT
speakers. In the current study, all three types of users are represented.

A European „language problem‟


The spread of English is commonly seen as a ‗language problem‘ threatening to engulf and
replace indigenous European languages, as reflected in European policy statements such as: If
democratic citizenship in Europe is to be internationally based, it is crucial to ensure
diversification in language teaching so that citizens in Europe can interact in their own
languages, rather than through English as a lingua franca.
At the same time, Seidlhofer and other researchers are questioning the belief that English is
creating a ‗language problem‘ in Europe and the assumption that Europeans have to choose
between their own native language and English. As Spichtinger argues, ‗one can speak German
as one‘s national language and English as one‘s European language‘ (2001).

„Linguistic imperialism‟ vs. „functional realism‟


Spichtinger (2001) suggests that we can learn from the countries of Kachru‘s Outer Circle,
i.e. former British colonies, to appropriate English for our own European purposes. He argues
that the plurilingualism of the EU countries bears some similarities with former colonial
countries such as India and Nigeria, where English was retained not because of postcolonial
imperialism, as argued by Phillipson (1992) and others, but because it would fulfil a useful
function. Seidlhofer elaborates on this pragmatic motivation for using English as an international
language, seeing it both as utilitarian, i.e. important for international business, and idealistic, i.e.
facilitating cross-border communication and mutual understanding (Seidlhofer, 2003). This view
of the appropriation of English for international communication and trade, rather than as a
symbol of national supremacy, is supported increasingly not only by European and North
American scholars, such as Jenkins (2000), McKay (2002), Seidlhofer (2001) and Brutt-Griffler
(2002) but also by researchers in Outer Circle countries, such as Chew in Singapore (1999) and
Bisong (1995) in Nigeria. Seidlhofer argues that this shift represents a new era in studies of the
global functions of English where the concept of ‗functional realism‘ increasingly seems to be
replacing the earlier era of ‗linguistic imperialism‘ as posited by Phillipson (1992), Pennycook
(1998) and Canagarajah (1999).
As Seidlhofer comments: ELF speakers are. . . not primarily concerned with emulating the
way native speakers use their mother tongue within their own communities, nor with socio-
psychological and ideological issues. Instead, the central concerns for this domain are
efficiency, relevance and economy in language learning and language use.
The reasons why the linguistic imperialism school has had little impact on mainstream ELT
are rather obvious: people need and want to learn English whatever the ideological baggage that
comes with it, a fact acknowledged even in Canagarajah‘s (1999) ‗Resisting Linguistic
Imperialism in English Teaching‘ (Siedlhofer, 2000).
This pragmatic view is frequently reflected in business and management. For instance,
commenting on the choice of English, as corporate language in the multinational engineering and
telecoms firm Siemens AG of Germany, Bernhard Welschke, head of European policy at the
Federation of German, stated that ‗‗German companies are very pragmatic. . . They value a
single language for business, even if it is not their own‟‟.
Similarly, supporting the view that the use of English by businesses is generally pragmatic
rather than ideological, Professor Rangan of Insead suggests that the corporate use of English
represents ‗‗only shallow integration‘‘ while providing an essential communication tool, ‗‗much
the way we use mathematics and numbers‘‘.
The significance of English in European and indeed in international business has long been
recognized in the business world and is evidenced in the quantity and expenditure on business
English language and culture training. The importance of effective international communication
is highlighted in much of the international management literature. As Victor (1992) suggests: It
is probably better to have mediocre technical skills and excellent international business
communication skills than to have excellent technical skills and poor international business
communication skills (Victor, 1992).
Underpinning this concern is a realisation that communication and information flow are
central features of organisations and businesses and that there is a fundamental relationship
between effective communication and business outcomes: Good communication creates good
relationships, high morale, increased productivity and profit. Bad communication, on the other
hand, can lead to inefficiency, waste and loss of profit (Mead, 1990).
There has also been some recognition that EIB represents an emerging form or variety of
English which is distinct from standard British or American varieties. For instance, Jussi
Itavuori, the Finnish group vice president for human resources at EADS, describes it as: ‗‗...
neither English nor American ... It is some sort of operating language. It loses quite a lot of
nuance‘‘.
Within the field of business language training there have also been attempts, albeit limited,
to describe and teach some form of ‗international English‘ for business learners. One example of
this is ‗Offshore English‘, a term coined by the Canning training company to describe the type of
English which they suggest native English speakers need to use to be more readily
understandable by non-native English users. Similarly, Hollqvist (1984) reports how the Swedish
telecoms giant, Ericsson, tried to create its own version of international English, referred to as
‗Ericsson English‘, which aimed to provide a restricted range of vocabulary and language
structures without loss of accuracy. There are of course other examples of restricted varieties of
English which have been created for very specific international purposes, such as ‗Airspeak‘ (for
Air Traffic Control) and ‗Policespeak‘ (for binational police and emergency service cooperation
at the Channel Tunnel) but these were created to serve very limited communicative purposes
unlike the breadth and flexibility of functions required of a business lingua franca or
international language.
Within linguistics, there has also been increasing interest in the role of language and culture
in international business communication and specifically in European business. However, despite
the range of uses of English across Europe and its undisputable spread in particular for
international business purposes, there seems, as Seidlhofer (2004) states, little corpus-based
analysis of how English is actually used for international business communication in Europe.
Nor is there much information on how business Europeans feel about its use. It is with these
issues in mind that the current research study is framed, aiming to shed further light on the use of
English as a common language of international business in Europe. (To be continued in Unit 2-
19)
READING STRATEGIES FOR EXPLICATION OF KEY FACTS AND IDEAS GIVEN
IN THE TEXT, SELECTING KEY WORDS, SUMMARY WRITING, ABSTRACT WRITING

Instruction: You have already invested much time and effort into mastering skills for
intensive reading and ESP text analysis. While skimming, surveying and scanning the fourth
module texts, you are expected to deploy skills acquired in Units 1-12. You will have to start
with understanding the text organization, identifying the topic, the purpose, the tone and attitude
of the author, the main idea of the text, making inferences, discovering context clues and
circumstancial evidence for specific information given in the text. All these facts and details will help
you write a good summary following effective summary rules given in Units 13-18.
Preparing to write a good summary make sure you understand the material you are working
with perfectly well. Go through indispensable preliminary steps:
 Skim the text, noting in your mind the subheadings dividing the text into sections. Try to
determine what problems P. Rogerson-Revell‘s paper is dealing with. This can help you identify
important information.
 Read the text, highlighting important information and taking notes.
 In your own words, write down the main points of each section.
 Write down the key support points for the main topic, but do not include minor detail.
Go through the process again, making changes as appropriate.
One more stage in the ESP text analysis will be learning how to write a valid abstract of the
text.

Abstract writing
An abstract is a condensed version of a longer piece of writing that highlights the major
points covered, concisely describes the content and scope of the writing, and reviews the
writing's contents in abbreviated form.
Abstracts are short statements that briefly summarize an article or scholarly document.
Abstracts are like the blurbs on the back covers of novels. They entice someone to read further.
With an abstract, you have to prove why reading your work is worthwhile.

Two types of abstracts are generally used:


Descriptive Abstracts:
- tell readers what information the report, article, or paper contains;
- include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paper;
- do not provide results, conclusions, or recommendations;
- are always very short, usually under 100 words;
- introduce the subject to readers, who must then read the report, article, or paper to find
out the author's results, conclusions, or recommendations.
Informative Abstracts:
- communicate specific information from the report, article, or paper;
- include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paper;
- provide the report, article, or paper's results, conclusions, and recommendations;
- are short – from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the original
work being abstracted. Usually informative abstracts are 10% or less of the length of the original
piece.
- allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report, article, or paper.
All abstracts include:
- a full citation of the source, preceding the abstract;
- the most important information first;
- the same type and style of language found in the original, including technical language;
- key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work;
- clear, concise, and powerful language.
Tips and Warnings
 Embed keywords into the first 20 words of your abstract.
 Emphasize the information, not the author, unless the author has noteworthy
credentials.
 Never introduce new information in the abstract. Reveal what's in the article.
 Read it aloud to yourself.
 Make sure it sounds natural and coherent.
 Keep it short – stick to one or two solid paragraphs.

Answer the following questions:


 Do you agree with the definition given above? Or would you like to add or take out
anything?
 What are the generally used types of abstracts?
 How can you characterize the type of abstract you are going to write for P. Rogerson-
Revell‘s paper?
 Why are abstracts so important?
 What do abstracts include?

Prepare a 2 minute story about the guidelines of writing a good abstract.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Identify and correct errors involving word order


It is said that (from the Pacific the first refugees of climate change will come/the first
refugees of climate change from the Pacific will come/the first will come refugees of climate
change from the Pacific/the first refugees of climate change will come from the Pacific).
In the midst of this ocean's tropical regions (far away from/away so far from/from so far
away/away from so far) populated continents (small 50,000 islands are scattered/are scattered
50,000 small islands/50,000 small islands are scattered/scattered are 50,000 small islands),
8,000 of them inhabited.
(Particularly vulnerable they are/Particularly vulnerable are they/They are particularly
vulnerable/Vulnerable they are particularly) to the impacts of global warming.
(With the objective of understanding the processes/To objectively understand the
processes/Understanding the processes with the objective of /Should they understand the
processes objectively) of the use of English, as mother tongue, second language and international
language in Europe the linguists have modified Kachru‘s concentric circles framework of world
English use (as the model suggested/as the model suggesting/like the model suggested/as the
suggested model) to take into account the various, dynamic roles of English in different
European countries.
(However democratic citizenship in Europe is to be internationally based/ Since
democratic citizenship in Europe is to be internationally based/ If democratic citizenship in
Europe is to be internationally based/ Although democratic citizenship in Europe is to be
internationally based), it is crucial to ensure diversification in language teaching so that citizens
in Europe can interact in their own languages, rather than through English as a lingua franca.
Items involving parallel structures
In certain structure items, the correct use of parallel structures is tested. Parallel structures
have: the same grammatical form and function. Look at the following sentences:
She spends her leisure time hiking, camping, and fishing.
He changed the oil, checked the tire pressure, and filled the tank with gas.
Nancy plans to either study sociology or major in sociolinguistics.
Nancy plans to study either medicine or biology.
All of the structures in italics are parallel. In the first, three gerunds are parallel; in the
second, three main verbs; in the third, two simple forms; and in the fourth, two nouns. Many
other structures may be parallel in certain sentences: adjectives, adverbs, infinitives, prepositional
phrases, noun clauses, and others.
The most common situation in which parallel structures are required is in a sequence in
the first two sentences above. Parallel structures are also required with correlative conjunctions
such as either...or, not only...but also, both ...and, as well ...as.
Examples:
Yalta has not only a pleasant climate, (but also exciting scenery/ but also has exciting
scenery/ but also the scenery is exciting/but the scenery is also exciting), and many
fascinating neighborhoods.
Until recently, most of the research on intercultural communication has focussed on native
/non-native speaker interaction (both in the context of immigration and minorities and/either in
the context of immigration and minorities or/not only in the context of immigration minorities but
also) in intercultural politics and business..
Unit 1-20. THE USE OF ESP FOR THE WORKPLACE

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of international English in European
business

Business English as a lingua franca (BELF) has come to dominate as the shared code used
to ―get work done‖ in international business. In this article, Evan Frendo explores
internationally operating business professionals‘, teachers‘ and trainers‘ perceptions of BELF
communication and its ―success‖ at work, based on selected data from surveys and in-depth
studies conducted in European multinational companies. The findings show that BELF can be
characterized as a simplified, hybridized, and highly dynamic communication code. BELF
competence calls for clarity and accuracy of content (rather than linguistic correctness) and
knowledge of business-specific vocabulary and genre conventions (rather than only ―general‖
English). In addition, because BELF interactions take place with nonnative speakers (NNSs)
from a variety of cultural backgrounds, the relational orientation is perceived as integral for
BELF competence. In sum, BELF competence can be considered an essential component of
business knowledge required in today‘s global business environment.

Text. 1-20. ENGLISH FOR THE WORKPLACE: SHARING THOUGHTS WITH


TEACHERS AND TRAINERS OF BUSINESS ENGLISH AND ESP
(Based on Evan Frendo‟s presentation in BELF101)

Over the last couple of years BELF (Business English as a Lingua Franca) has been gaining
prominence, with articles appearing in various publications. Last year the Journal of Business
Communication devoted an entire issue to it. And Vicki Hollett has invited several prominent
speakers to discuss the issue in the next BESIG webinar. What I would like to do in this post is
to introduce the idea of BELF and discuss some its implications for us as teachers and trainers of
business English.
Note: BESIG, the Business English Special Interest Group of International Association of
Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), is a truly professional body representing
the interests and serving the needs of the international business English teaching community.

First of all, what is ELF?


English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) has been around (and hotly debated) for a while now.
(See the Wikipedia page for a useful list of references). Research by people like Jennifer Jenkins
and Barbara Seidlhofer have worked on looking at various features, but there is still a lot of
discussion about just how useful ELF is to teachers and trainers. For example, Jenkins (2007)
says that ―ELF emphasizes the role of English in communication between speakers from
different L1s, i.e. the primary reason for learning English today.‖ On the other hand Swan
(2009), argues that ―In a pedagogic context, … there is little justification for its use: it is both
redundant and confusing, and we would do better to avoid it.‖
The crux of the issue seems to revolve around how we define ELF. For ELF researchers it
seems to be a way of talking about how English is used between people who do not have English
as their own native tongue. They are not suggesting that ELF is a specific variety of English,
although there have been some attempts to try and describe its general characteristics, or
―common core‖. Indeed for some researchers (Firth, 2009; Jenkins, 2007) ELF is about a new
attitude to English as a language – it should not be seen as a sort of incorrect or deficient type of
English, which non native speakers (NNS) use in their communication with each other, but rather
as a language in its own right. In ELF it is the end result that matters, not whether interactions
contain ―mistakes‖ when measured against some standard variety of English. The problem is that
as teachers and trainers we have become used to providing a model (normally our own variety of
English) for our learners to aim at – this is difficult with an ELF approach, where there is no
easily identifiable model. As Seidlhofer points out, ―spontaneous ELF communication always
has an element of adhoc negotiation of relevant norms, because speakers‘ systemic/linguistic and
schematic/cultural backgrounds vary from case to case, by definition‖(2006)

And what about BELF?


This article explores the role of English and other languages as perceived by members of
upper management in a family-owned German multinational corporation in the technology
sector. The findings show that, in the 21st century, English has become an indispensable ―must‖
in the company and that there is a general understanding that staff at all levels develop their
language skills as they see appropriate for their roles within the company. What needs to be
learned, however, is not English as a native language but communicative effectiveness in English
as a business lingua franca, which – as an international contact language – brings together
nonnative as well as native Englishes from various linguacultural backgrounds spoken with
varying degrees of proficiency. Learning to cope with the challenges of such diversity, in the
context of business communication, seems to happen most effectively in business ―communities
of practice‖ rather than in traditional English training. The study also shows that, despite the
dominance of English, other languages are not disappearing from the scene but are, indeed, used
as a pragmatic or strategic resource. In particular, German, as the headquarters‘ language,
maintains an important role among individuals and within the organization.

Should English be the lingua franca in international companies?


Professor Maury Peiperl: Yes!
International companies and international commerce generally imply a fundamental need
for people to communicate across the globe, at least at a basic verbal and written level.
Translation and multi-lingual communication are important, but unless there is one common
language everyone doing global business can speak, the complexity these imply (which increases
as the square of the number of languages used) makes it unwieldy for cross-border businesses to
function. Multi-lingual firms will always find it difficult to compete with those who use a single
cross-border language, as will those who use something other than the de facto global language,
for both will pay higher transaction costs.

Should English be the lingua franca in international companies?


Research FellowKarsten Jonsen: No!
Non-native English speakers and companies should not be language-submissive. Linguistic
diversity is worth fighting for. English as a common business language is an easy choice, and
much like most doctrines celebrating homogeneity, the one-company/one-people/one-language-
fits-all cultural mentality is deceptively easy. Economical reasoning predicts that this will happen
increasingly in multinational companies. While a common language facilitates socialization
processes, communication and team building, social identity theory speaks to how language
barriers set boundaries with many people.
To give you an idea of what some people think about BELF, here are some recent quotes
from researchers who are active in the field.
―BELF refers to English used as a neutral and shared communication code. BELF is
neutral in the sense that none of the speakers can claim it as her/his mother tongue; it is shared in
the sense that it is used for conducting business within the global business discourse community,
whose members are BELF users and communicators in their own right – not non-native
speakers or learners.‖ (Louhiala-Salminen, Charles & Kanraanranta, 2005)
―Rather than focusing on language proficiency … the findings of such research could then
drive teaching and training materials to focus more efficiently on those areas that are likely
to cause a problem.‖ (Gerritsen and Nickerson, 2009)
―BELF … implies a starting point where the code of communication is investigated in its
own right, not as “English” in the traditional sense of the word.‖ (Rogerson-Revell and
Salminon, 2010)
―Our findings suggest that English in today‘s global business environment is ―simply
work‖ and its use is highly contextual. Thus, knowledge of the specific business context, the
particular genres used in the particular business area, and overall business communication
strategies are tightly intertwined with proficiency in English, which impacts upon teaching."
(Kankaanranta and Louhiala-Salminen, 2010)
"For our conceptualization of BELF, the “B” is of utmost importance." (Kankaanranta
and Louhiala-Salminen, 2010)
― … the concept of language competence, which has traditionally been gauged against the
yardstick of a native speaker‘s skills, has to be reevaluated in the light of recent (B)ELF
research.‖ (Ehrenreich, 2010)
"BELF competence calls for clarity and accuracy of content (rather than linguistic
correctness) and knowledge of business-specific vocabulary and genre conventions (rather
than only ―general‖ English). In addition, because BELF interactions take place with nonnative
speakers (NNSs) from a variety of cultural backgrounds, the relational orientation is perceived
as integral for BELF competence." (Kankaanranta and Planken, 2010)
It seems that BELF is very much about adapting English to specific contexts and specific
users so that the business is successful. If we look at business English an a continuum, then at
one end we have what might be called ―General Business English‖, where we do not know very
much about the target context, or where learners have less defined aims, and at the other end we
have BELF, which is a quite specific use of language which depends on the context and the
speakers. The key is that this specific use of English can only be measured against its own rules
for successful communication, not against a ―norm‖ imposed by outsiders. As Hanford (2010)
argues, ―the most important issue in business is not language ability, but the experience and
ability to dynamically manoeuvre within the communities of practice which business people
inhabit.‖

What does it mean to us as trainers?


The answer to this lies in our learners – what is it that they actually want from us? Is our
primary role to help our learners learn English in the traditional sense, or is it to help them
communicate in their business context? Clearly one of our tasks is to help our learners decide
what is appropriate in any given context, and what isn‘t, but this is too simplistic. For an ELF
teacher BELF research suggests a pedagogic approach which has:
1. A much greater emphasis on needs analysis. People who use BELF work in very specific
contexts and use very specific lexis, genres etc. Understanding this is key.
2. More listening to / analyzing of real BELF conversations, ideally with the learner as one
of the interlocutors.
3. Materials which focus on relevant spoken genres (e.g. meetings, small talk) and written
genres (e.g. emails / contracts etc), and not interviews or articles from newspapers and the
internet. And content which resembles BELF interaction, not native speaker (NS) interaction,
and is based on BELF corpora, not NS.
4. Tasks which do not focus so much on lexis and structures and more on why particular
interactions are effective or ineffective, and strategies to deal with such situations.
5. Less focus on the trainer as the provider of the ―model‖ and the arbiter as to what might
be successful communication, and more focus on input from the target community of practice
and other BELF users.
6. Tests which do not focus on form but on effectiveness.
Seidlhofer, Breiteneder, and Pitzl (2006) finish their discussion on ELF in Europe and the
associated challenges for applied linguistics with this comment: ―Uncoupling any language from
its native speakers is, of course, a challenging idea that will require a considerable effort of
adjustment of attitudes and long-established concepts of just what a language is.‖
Perhaps this is the crux of what BELF is really about.

EXPLICATION OF KEY FACTS AND IDEAS GIVEN IN THE TEXT, SELECTING


KEY WORDS, ABSTRACT WRITING

Instruction: Below are the guidelines for abstract writing continued. This is an adaptation
of several texts placed in the Internet without copyright limitations. You are sure to realize that
to write a good abstract you will have to gain experience of using all steps recommended in this
unit. Your abstract must be in the right format to meet necessary requirements. On following the
given steps and writing a good abstract your purpose is not only to acquire the standard
guidelines along which an abstract is written but also to get ready to discuss abstract writing
skills in class.

The steps for writing a good abstract


Skim Evan Frendo‘s presentation with the goal of abstracting in mind.
Make notes of key facts and ideas given in the text, selecting key words.
Outline its main themes and highlights to use for your abstract.
Look specifically for the main parts of Evan Frendo‘s article: purpose, methods, scope,
results, conclusions, and recommendation, etc.
Scan the article and try to pinpoint any concepts you could use as keywords for an
Internet search. Headings, titles or table of contents are usually good sources of keywords.
Use the headings, outline heads as a guide to writing your abstract.
As you're writing an abstract about another person's paper, the introduction and the
summary are good places to begin. These areas generally cover what the article emphasizes.
Write a rough draft. After you've finished rereading the article, write a rough draft
without looking back at what you're abstracting.
Summarize the article using new words.
Don't copy and paste from the original! This rough draft should be longer than your
finished product so you can delete unnecessary words. Let yourself brainstorm while you edit.
Write an introductory sentence. This will be a statement of purpose for your article. It
should introduce your central concept.
Write the body. This will be a brief description of the subject matter, roughly one or two
paragraphs.
Embed keywords into the first 20 words of the body. Make them inconspicuous so they
don't break the reader's concentration.
Write a one- or two-sentence conclusion. This should entice someone to read more.
Edit and revise your abstract as needed. It is best to let a day pass before you return to it
with fresh eyes. Edit unnecessary words. Be sure you clearly present your main points.
Don't merely copy key sentences from the article: you'll put in too much or too little
information.
Don't rely on the way the material was phrased in the article: summarize information in
a new way.
Revise your rough draft to correct weaknesses in organization:
improve transitions from point to point,
drop unnecessary information,
add important information you left out,
eliminate wordiness,
fix errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
Answer the following questions:
 Do you agree that the steps listed above are absolutely necessary?
 Do you think it is necessary to always pursue these steps in your abstracts??
 What are parts of an abstract?
 Did you know all these things about abstracts before?
 If you did, who told you first? Or did you acquire this knowledge by probe and error
experience?

Section 2. Grammar workout

Subject/verb agreement
There are some special rules about subject-verb agreement that you should be familiar with:
A sentence with two subjects joined by and takes a plural verb. E.g.:The chemistry lab and
the physics lab are . . .
Some words end in -s but are singular in form. Many of these words are the names of fields
of study {economics, physics, etc). News is another word of this kind. E.g.:
Economics is . . . The news was . . .
When a clause begins with the expletive there, the verb may be singular or plural,
depending on the grammatical subject.
Subjects with each and every take singular verbs. (This includes compound words like
everyone and everything.) E.g.:
Each state has . . .
Each of the representatives was . . .
Every person was . . .
Everyone wants . . .
The verb in relative clauses depends on the noun that the relative pronoun refers to. E.g.:
The house that was built . . .
The students who were selected . . .
The phrase the number of + plural noun takes a singular verb. The phrase a number of +
plural noun takes a plural verb. E.g.:
The number of trees is . . .
A number of important matters have . . .
Singular subjects used with phrases such as along with, accompanied by, together with, as
well as, and in addition to take singular verbs. E.g.:
The mayor, along with the city council, is . . .
Together with his friends, Mark has . . .
Quantities of time, money, distance, and so on usually take a singular verb. E.g.:
Five hundred dollars was . . .
Two years has . . .
Ten miles is . . .
Problems involving subject-verb agreement. Underline the form that correctly completes
each sentence. Then circle the subject with which the underlined verb agrees. The first one is
done as an example.
The first bridge to be built with electric lights (was/were) the Brooklyn Bridge. .
Ethics (is/are) the study of moral duties, principles, and values.
There (is/are) two types of calculus, differential and integral.
George Gershwin, together with his brother Ira, (was/were) the creator of the first musical
comedy to win a Pulitzer Prize.
In a chess game, the player with the white pieces always (moves/move) first.
The Earth and Pluto (is/are) the only two planets believed to have a single moon.
A number of special conditions (is/are) necessary for the formation of a lingua franca.
Each of the Ice Ages (was/were) more than a million years long.
The national language, along with regional and minority languages, (makes/make) up the
linguistic situation in a country.
A lingua franca may be any natural or any artificial language which (is/are) used among
speakers of different mother tongues.
Sheep (is/are) covered with thick fur.
The more-or-less rhythmic succession of economic booms and busts (is/are) referred to as the
business cycle.
The number of migrants in developed countries (depends/depend) on its economic
conditions.
All trees, except for the tree fern, (is/are) seed-bearing plants.
Fifteen hundred dollars a year (was/were) the per capita income in the United States in
1950.
Everyone who (goes/go) into the woods should recognize common poisonous plants such as
poison ivy and poison oak.
Unit 1-21. THE USE OF ESP IN BUSINESS ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of international English in European
business

A Swedish researcher Rebecca Hincks‘ study quantifies differences in slower speaking


rates of Swedes in business meetings, and examines the effects of slower rates on the speaker‘s
ability to convey information. The participants of her experiment were fourteen fluent ESP
speakers, Swedish student engineers, who held the same oral presentation twice, once in English
and once in their native Swedish. The temporal variables of mean length of runs and speaking
rate in syllables per second were calculated for each language. Speaking rate was found to be
23% slower when using English. The slower rate of speech was found to significantly reduce the
information content of the presentations when speaking time was held constant. Her study study
definitely dispels any misunderstanding that ESL speakers can manage to deliver the same
amount of information despite their slower rate of speech in English. Therefore, training in rate
perception and modification should be more rigorously incorporated into teacher training programs
so that teachers can learn to slow down their speech when necessary.

Text 1-21. SPEAKING RATE AND INFORMATION CONTENT IN ENGLISH


LINGUA FRANCA ORAL PRESENTATIONS
(Based on Rebecca Hincks‟ study of oral presentations as a spoken genre)

Introduction
As English continues its growth as a lingua franca, more and more speakers across the
world find themselves in front of an audience that needs to hear the speaker‘s message in a
language that neither speaker nor listener is entirely comfortable with. One reason for the
discomfort can be traced to the extra time it takes to formulate one‘s message in a second
language (ESL). Slower English speakers in business meetings have inhibitions about taking the
floor from native speakers, and both Swedish and international students may be frustrated by
their ability to formulate responses quickly enough to contribute to classroom discussion (J.
Jones, 1999). Though researchers have begun to explore the effect of L2 language use in
interactive situations such as the meeting or the seminar, the ramifications of slower L2 speaking
rates when holding an instructional monologue, such as a presentation or a lecture, have not been
explored.
Understanding differences in speaking rate is important for many reasons, one of which is
the changing linguistic situation in universities across Europe. By facilitating the movement of
students between countries, the Bologna Process has instituted a dramatic increase of the use of
L2 English in the university classroom (Wilkinson, 2004). For example, at Sweden‘s Royal
Institute of Technology (KTH), the balance between native Swedish students and foreign
students has changed greatly in recent years. As many as 70% of its Master‘s programs are now
being given in English to serve the needs of the growing numbers of students who don‘t speak
Swedish. More than 20% of the student engineers who participated were soon to leave the
classroom and enter the lingua franca environment of Northern European industry, and were
practicing one of the most critical and high-stakes tasks they would need to perform in their
future careers.
For that reason, I believe, it is appropriate to use the term ‗English as a lingua franca‘
regarding the study. Many of the university‘s students come from outside Sweden. For teachers,
this of course means a switch from teaching in one‘s native language to teaching in a lingua
franca medium. Neither teachers nor students are entirely satisfied with this new linguistic
situation. Teachers complain that they lose spontaneity in their teaching; students complain about
the quality of their teachers‘ English.
English courses for teachers have been instituted at many northern European universities,
but teachers often do not have time to attend them. The pedagogical implications for students of
the shift to English-language instruction have also been studied. Klaassen (2001) concluded that,
at least after the first year of instruction, a teacher‘s pedagogical skill was more important than
the language used. Airey & Linder (2006), on the other hand, found that when lectured in
English, ―students asked and answered fewer questions and reported being less able to follow the
lecture and take notes at the same time,‖ (2006) even though the students themselves had not
anticipated differences in the learning situation.
The cognitive demands of using a second language result in a slower rate of speech for
most speakers. When time is limited, as it usually is when one is to deliver a lecture or an oral
presentation, a slower rate of speech must affect the content of the lecture in one way or another.
The best-case scenario would be a more concisely delivered L2 lecture; the worst-case scenario
would be that important information was omitted for lack of time. The purpose of the research
reported on in this paper was to first quantify differences in speaking rate when speakers hold
presentations in their native language and in fluent English, and then to examine the effect of
different speaking rates on the information content of the two presentations per speaker.

The present study


Temporal variables have thus been explored from the L1 perspective, the L2 perspective,
and various interfaces between them. The present study is motivated by needs that could be
described as pragmatic rather than theoretical. We are now in a situation, at least in Europe,
where more speakers than ever before are carrying out their daily business in a second language,
English. The fact that speakers speak more slowly in a second language may be obvious but it is
not trivial in the globalizing world.
The question asked here is therefore how much are speakers slowed down?
Does the slower rate of speech mean that when time is limited, parts of an intended
message may be left out?
This study has gathered data about the temporal characteristics of not only L2 but also L1
speech. This is not only necessary for the comparative nature of the study, but also because one
goal of research into the temporal aspects of instructional speech could be to establish target
speaking rates for lecturers and presenters.
Studies have shown that comprehension both for L1 and L2 users improves as rates slow.
Native speakers in particular often need to learn to slow down their rate of speech, even when
addressing other native speakers (Lynch, 1994). This can be difficult to achieve. Griffiths &
Beretta found ―no evidence of an intuitively shared feeling for a rate at which to pitch ...
deliveries‖ to student groups of varying ability in English (1991). Native-speaking teachers need
to learn what speaking rates are appropriate.
Much temporal research has focused on laboratory speech samples, and the little work that
has focused on naturally occurring speech has looked at the lectures of university professors,
although not in a situation where the same lecture has been delivered in two languages. The
genre that is examined in the present study, the oral presentation, differs from laboratory speech
in a number of ways.
First of all, it can be said to be neither ‗read,‘ nor ‗spontaneous‘ but rather ‗guided‘,
‗planned‘ or ‗semi-spontaneous.‘ Secondly, it reflects the kind of task that many people regularly
meet, with a real communicative need and active listeners. Finally, the seven to ten minutes per
speaker used in this study are longer speech samples than have been previously examined in the
L2 temporal studies. Instead of mining a small amount of speech for a wide variety of features,
the study focuses on the two variables, that have shown to be most salient in previous research.
Another difference from previous L2 studies is that the speakers in this study, though
students, were relatively proficient speakers of English. They represent the upper ranges of
English proficiency that can be encountered in northern Europe today, and northern European
English speakers are generally seen to be at the forefront of proficiency in the lingua franca
context (Erickson, 2004).
Using the Council of Europe (Europe, 2001) descriptors, the speakers would be placed in
either the B2 or C1 categories regarding oral production.
The speakers should be seen as representatives of the types of people who need to use
English on a daily basis to carry out their work, and who can be frustrated by the extra cognitive
load that it entails, despite their skill in the language. The slower speaking rates in L2 that were
found in the study should therefore be seen as potentially minimal differences; speaker groups
generally less fluent than Swedes are likely to show even larger differences in speaking rate.
A possible objection to simply describing speakers in terms of their speaking rates is that
such an approach cannot evaluate qualitative differences in the presentations. A competent
speaker could theoretically still include the same basic content in an L2 presentation, even at a
slower pace, by eliminating superfluous detail or repetition and being more direct.

Method, speech material and participants


The fourteen participants in the study, six women and eight men, were Master‘s students of
Engineering at Sweden‘s Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, taking an elective course in
Technical English. All were native speakers of Swedish and had gone through the regular
Swedish school system, which begins teaching English at an early age using communicative
pedagogy. Young Swedish speakers of English have been shown to be among the best in Europe
(Erickson, 2004). Their fluency is generally attributed not only to the success of school
instruction, but also to other factors such as the use of subtitles rather than dubbing in foreign
language television and films, the linguistic similarities between English and Swedish, and the
motivation to learn a second language generated by being a native speaker of a relatively minor
European language (Berg, Hult, & King, 2001).
The students were all roughly 24 years old and completing their third or fourth years of
engineering studies in a variety of disciplines. They had taken a written diagnostic test upon
application to the language department, and had been placed in either the upper intermediate
(B2+) (10 subjects) or advanced classes (C1) (4 subjects). The oral presentations were recorded
in the second half of the 56-hour courses, so that students had had plenty of time to warm up
their spoken English. In addition, the four advanced students had previously held a shorter oral
presentation for their classes. In summary, the subjects were fairly fluent speakers of English
who can be seen as representative of many Europeans who need to use English regularly as part
of their work. In the researcher‘s opinion, their English was also perceptually on a par with many
of their teachers at KTH.

Data collection
Instruction in presentation skills is an important component in the Technical English
classes. The students practice what they have learnt by holding their own presentation and by
analyzing other presentations in the form of written peer review comments. The presentation is
to be about ten minutes in length though teachers generally do not enforce the time restrictions as
strictly as is commonly done in conference settings. The topic for the presentation is up to the
student but is to be of a basically technical nature.
All students but one used presentation software. Speaker 8 used overhead transparencies.
None of the speakers used a manuscript. Teachers and classmates gave the students feedback on
the class presentation.
During the two different terms when these subjects were studying English, they and many
of their classmates allowed their classroom presentations to be audio recorded as part of a larger
effort to collect a presentation corpus, presently consisting of about 100 recordings. All Swedish
natives were also asked whether they would like to present their presentation again, this time in
Swedish, for a small sum of money. Though many students expressed an initial willingness,
scheduling difficulties and time pressures in the end narrowed down to a group of five students
in Fall 2004, and nine students in Spring 2006. The students were told that they could use the
same visual material as they had used for the English material and were assembled in small
groups, so that an audience would be present to hear the presentation.
Audio recordings were made directly into a computer using a small clip-on microphone.
Analysis was done using WaveSurfer (Sjölander & Beskow, 2000) to present the speech
waveform and enable the measurement of pause length.

Transcription
The 28 presentations were carefully transcribed in a two-step process. First the entire
presentation was orthographically transcribed, including filled pauses. Speech recognition was a
helpful tool in the English transcriptions. The speaker-dependent dictation software Dragon
NatSpeak 9 was trained to the researcher‘s voice, who then repeated exactly what the speakers
said into a microphone—a task that required concentration, but made the transcription process
very efficient. A complete, though imperfect, transcription could be produced in real time – 10
minutes for a 10-minute presentation. Listening to the presentation two or three more times
allowed for correction of the inaccuracies and addition of the filled pauses that the speech
recognition is trained to ignore. The vocabulary of the dictation software was impressive,
including Swedish place names and rare words such as types of pharmaceuticals and phenomena
(e.g. quantum teleportation).
The second phase of transcription, which allowed further correction to any eventual
inaccuracies, was to break the transcriptions into ‗runs‘, using pauses as boundaries. The speech
waveform was used to locate all silent or filled pauses longer than 250 milliseconds. A filled
pause is not readily visible in the waveform, and so it was necessary to listen carefully and make
run breaks for most of the filled pauses as well, unless they were extremely short ones. The run
breaks appear as line breaks in the transcription, but the length of the pauses themselves was not
collected as data.

Results
The main research issue addressed was an attempt to quantify the effect on speaking rate of
using an L2 in the oral presentation situation. Using English instead of their native language
meant that all speakers had shorter run lengths and slower rates of speech. On average, using
English slowed the speakers down by 23%. When using a second language, the participants in
this study, though they were speaking about material they themselves had prepared and were
fluent speakers of English, show the degree to which operating in a second language affects the
cognitive processes underlying speech production.
The transcripts reveal that a number of the speakers did not know how to express some
concepts in Swedish, indicating that they had not thought through their presentations before
coming to be recording. This discrepancy between the two presentation situations is mirrored in
real-life: speakers who must work in a second language are likely to practice ahead of time to
make sure that they have command of the vocabulary and expressions they must use to
communicate. If these speakers had been better prepared for their L1 presentations, even larger
differences between L1 and L2 would have been found, so these methodological imperfections
should not negatively impact the validity of the results.
This study might dispel any illusions that L2 speakers can manage to deliver the same
amount of information despite their slower rate of speech in an L2. When time was not
controlled, there were some differences in information content, but they were not large,
indicating that the speakers were proficient in English and well-prepared for their task. When
time was kept constant, however, the slower speaking rate meant that information was left out.
The study has used the idea unit as a unit of measurement adequate to establish quantifiable
differences in content. However, there are other differences between the presentations that would
be trickier to measure. One of these might be the use of metaphor or the frequency of adjectives,
aspects that add important detail for the listeners. Another phenomenon revealed by the study is
that of domain loss in the first language. Though several speakers at times had to search for
terminology in Swedish, one speaker, S7, was at such a loss to explain an American road race in
Swedish that the information content of his L1 presentation suffered.

Implications
Let us consider what would happen if the results of this study were extrapolated from a ten-
minute presentation to a 45-minute lecture. If the rate of a delivery of a 45-minute lecture is
slowed down by 25%, then the lecture will take closer to an hour to finish. If information is
omitted from the L2 lecture at the same rates as were found in this study, then a 45-minute
lecture could lack as much as 60 pieces of information that would have been mentioned in the
lecturer‘s first language. The challenges faced by L2 speakers extend beyond the classroom –
other measures that could be considered to accommodate them could include variable speaker
time at conferences and other gatherings.
The slow-down effect of 20-25% that was found in the study needs to be seen as a
conservative estimate, given the facts that the students were relatively fluent speakers of English
and had prepared and practiced for their English presentations. Faster lecturing is generally not
better, far from it. While teachers using an L2 may be constrained by combinations of their own
speaking style and their L2 proficiency, L1 teachers have at least the theoretical possibility of
choosing a speaking rate that is appropriate for the audience and context. Yet, this can be
extremely difficult to do. Therefore, ―training in rate perception and modification should be more
rigorously incorporated into teacher training programs‖ so that teachers can learn to slow down
their speech when necessary. Speech engineers could contribute to the pedagogy of public
speaking by developing applications that give online feedback on rate of speech, so that speakers
could be warned when they begin to speak too quickly. Indeed, present-day dictation software
could give this kind of information after the fact, by calculating the words transcribed in relation
to the time spent speaking.

EXPLICATION OF KEY FACTS AND IDEAS GIVEN IN THE TEXT, SELECTING


KEY WORDS, ABSTRACT WRITING, ORAL PRESENTATION

Instruction: These are guidelines for presentation issues which usually pose a big problem
for graduate students and young researchers. This is a collection of data from study materials
placed in the Internet without copyright limitations. You are sure to realize that, no matter how
brilliant your ideas might be, they will fail to achieve their potential because of your failure to
address presentation issues. On reading and understanding the following information your
purpose will be to acquire the standard guidelines along which a presentation is built. This will
be your goal as a graduate student and beginning researcher.
Many good research papers fail to achieve their potential because of the student's failure
to address six important presentation issues: (1) Presentation Format; (2) Grammar and
Style; (3) Adequate Research; (4) Citation; (5) Plagiarism; and (6) Field Component.

(1) Presentation Format:


Your professor normally will indicate the type of presentation format preferred for a
graduation paper. Your oral presentation is based on the summary of your graduation paper. In
general, all papers should be typed, headings and subheadings should be used to indicate the
major sections of the paper. Consult with your professor for specific requirements on this issue.

(2) Syntax and Grammar:


There is nothing more frustrating than reading a research paper plagued with vocabulary
and syntax errors! In a computerized environment, vocabulary errors and major syntax errors are
totally unacceptable.
Read over your presentation text carefully BEFORE you print out the final copy. Have a
friend or relative read the paper back to you so you can listen to how it sounds. Watch out for
simple language problems. If you are unsure about any grammar or vocabulary issue, consult a
writing aid, or ask your professor for help. Remember, it's not only important what you say, but
how you say it! The key to a successful paper is to EDIT, EDIT, EDIT!!!

(3) Quality of Research:


A well written and researched paper should draw from accepted academic sources. What
are academic sources? Primarily, these are books written by academics and other experts as well
as professional journal articles. Academic journal articles are those published in accepted
professional journals, usually 10-15 pages in length, with a detailed bibliography, and are usually
peer reviewed by other academics and professionals. Check with your professor if you are unsure
about a particular journal source. Articles that are NOT considered academic in nature are those
published in media magazines that are often anonymous in nature, short in length, and with no
cited bibliography. Other NON-JOURNAL sources include statistical abstracts, encyclopedias,
reference books, etc. Although these are valid and very useful sources, and should be used in
your work, they do not fit the definition of "academic journal articles" for the purpose of a
research paper.
Be extremely careful about material read and downloaded from the Internet or any world-
wide web source. Most academic journal articles are not available on the web. If you find
material on the Web, it must meet the criteria outlined above to qualify as a legitimate academic
journal article. All material downloaded from the Web and used in a paper should be checked
against other reputable sources. DO NOT try and submit prepackaged research papers
downloaded from the Web! You will be caught, you will receive an "F" for the course, and you
will be charged with fraud!

(4) Citation:
Your research paper will contain material gained from a variety of academic and non-
academic sources. All sources must be clearly and correctly attributed in the text and listed in a
Bibliography or Works Cited section at the end of your paper.

(5) Plagiarism:
Plagiarism is a serious problem that is not very well understood by most students. Simply
stated, plagiarism is the act of passing someone else's work off as your own or using someone's
research without proper citation. Direct plagiarism occurs when a passage is quoted verbatim
(word for word).
Indirect plagiarism occurs when the student paraphrases the original work without
giving credit to the original author. Paraphrasing means to substitute certain words and to alter
some sentences while repeating all the main ideas. Even though the original work was not copied
verbatim, the ideas and substance have been copied.
If you use ANY piece of material from a published (or, in certain circumstances,
unpublished) source, you MUST provide proper citation. The rules on how to avoid plagiarism
can be quite confusing. Consult your professor or a good writing guide on tips to avoid this
serious problem. Basically, you should have a citation in every paragraph where you have used
material from a published source, including the Internet.
Moreover, EVERY map, table, graphic, or picture that you include from whatever source
(even if it's your own material) must have a proper caption and a full citation (i.e. Source:
Photograph by the author). DO NOT fill up the paper with lines of direct quotes from material.
Put the material in your own words and cite the original source.
If you have more than four lines of direct quotation on any one page in your paper, you
probably have too much direct quotation. If in doubt about this, talk to your professor!
Learn the rules NOW!! DO NOT PLAGIARIZE.
(6) Your field Component of the Research Paper:
Finally, we come to the very heart of many research paper problems – the failure to
include your field component in the paper. Having your field component does not mean throwing
some table in at the end of the research paper!
Your discipline is concerned with definite relationships. Ask yourself at the beginning of
the research project what the field component of your paper is going to be. What pattern or
process are your investigating? How has it changed? How might it change as the result of some
action or process?
Also important to this concept is the "SO WHAT?" question. You must have a good
rationale for conducting the research. Why are you researching this topic or issue? Adding to the
body of knowledge about a topic, exploring new methodological approaches to a problem or
issue, evaluating policy implications for a specific problem, or helping us to understand more
fully the complexity of human-environment relationships all are solid rationales for conducting
research.
Finally, and above all, you should enjoy your research. Choose issues or problems that
really motivate you and challenge you professionally and intellectually. Don't opt for the already
hashed-over approach that will bore you to distraction. Address the serious and challenging
issues – the reward and satisfaction will be much higher in the long run.

Answer the following questions:


 Did your professors indicate the type of presentation format in your research field? If
they did, when did you learn about it first?
 Are grammar and style criteria important in Ukrainian language papers?
 What academic sources do you regularly use?
 Do you often download from the Internet?
 Do you always check downloaded data against reputable sources?
 What is meant by indirect plagiarism?
 What is meant by direct plagiarism?
 What is meant by a field component of a research paper?
 How can you avoid plagiarism in your research paper?

Prepare a 5 minute talk on Rebecca Hincks‟ study of oral presentations as a spoken


genre.

Section 2. Grammar workout

Identify and correct errors involving subject-verb agreement


The experimental site, islands off Noumea in New Caledonia, (is remote from any human
activity/are remote from any human activity/remote from any human activity/both are remote
from any human activity).
Contrary to the results of the experiment (fresh water prove to be intensively
concentrated/fresh water proves to be intensively concentrated/fresh waters are intensively
concentrated/prove fresh water is to be intensively concentrated) in the middle of the island
rather than on its edges(that is the usual zones/which are the usual zones/it are the usual
zones/there are the usual zones) of sea water-freshwater interaction.
Complementary (analyses/analysis) derived from dialect study findings (have revealed/is
revealed/are revealed)the importance of on-site research.
The density of the vowel changes and the greater degree of consonant development
(is maximal in London suburbs area/are maximal in London suburbs area/it is maximal in
London suburbs area/they are maximal in London suburbs area).
On the area margins(the phenomenon is observed/are observed the phenomenon/there are
the phenomenon/it is the phenomenon), with mixture of phonetic variables.
A number of special conditions (is/are) necessary for the phonetic change sources to form.
There (is/are) two types of urban dialects in England.
Two years (is/are) a long time when you have to wait.
The number of trees in the National Park is not great.
Each of the students (is/are) to submit their papers.
No news (is/are) good news.
The President along with his advisers (is/are) expected to arrive in an hour.
Unit 1-22. THE USE OF ESP IN EUROPEAN BUSINESS

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of international English in European
business

ESP makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words or formulas. It is


estimated that about half of written English text is constructed according to the idiom principle.
Comparisons of written and spoken corpora suggest that formulas are even more frequent in
spoken language. Formulaic language covers a range of prefabricated linguistic units from
idioms and proverbs to speech act routines, turns of phrase and collocations. All of these are
considered not to be creatively strung together, each time anew, following the rules of the
language, but to be retrieved (by the speaker) and processed (by the hearer), which allows them
to depart to various degrees from their predictable meanings. Speakers‘ displays of identity and
of alignment with particular groups provide one especially promising direction for hypothesis
formation in this respect. Istvan Kecskes‘ research describes useful formulaic sequences for ESP
speech. It determines ESP instructors‘ evaluations of their pedagogical importance. It
summarizes experiments which show that different aspects of formulaicity affect the accuracy
and fluency of processing of these formulas in advanced L2 learners of English.

Text 1-22. FORMULAIC LANGUAGE


(Based on Istvan Kecskes‟ research “Formulaic language in English Lingua
Franca”)

Objectives
The focus of this paper is the use of formulaic language in English Lingua Franca (ELF).
The conversation in Example 1 demonstrates a frequent problem occurring in lingua franca
communication in which the language in use is not the L1 of either speaker:
Example 1:
Chinese student: – I think Peter drank a bit too much at the party yesterday.
Turkish student: – Eh, tell me about it. He always drinks much.
Chinese student: – When we arrived he drank beer. Then Mary brought him some vodka.
Later he drank some wine. Oh, too much.
Turkish student: – Why are you telling me this? I was there.
Chinese student: – Yes, but you told me to tell you about it.
One of the nonnative speakers used a formulaic expression in a nativelike way. However,
the other nonnative speaker was not familiar with the conventional connotation of the expression.
For him the most salient meaning of the formula was its literal meaning, its combinatorial
meaning. This discrepancy in processing led to misunderstanding between the speakers.
Recently English Lingua Franca communication has been receiving increasing attention
in language research. Globalization has changed the world and the way we use language. With
English being the most frequently used lingua franca much communication happens without the
participation of native speakers of English. The development and use of English as a lingua
franca is probably the most radical and controversial approach to emerge in recent years, as
David Graddol (2006) claimed in his book English Next. The book argues that it is an inevitable
trend in the use of global English that fewer interactions now involve a native speaker, and that
as the English-speaking world becomes less formal, and more democratic, the myth of a standard
language becomes more difficult to maintain. Graddol claims that in this new world the presence
of native speakers hinders rather than supports communication. In organizations where English
has become the corporate language, meetings sometimes go more smoothly when no native
speakers are present. Globally, the same kind of thing may be happening on a larger scale.
Understanding how non-native speakers use English talking to other non-native speakers has
now become an important research area. The Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English
(VOICE) project, led by Barbara Seidlhofer, is creating a computer corpus of lingua franca
interactions, which is intended to help linguists understand ELF better. Although several studies
have been published on the use of ELF (e.g., House 2002, 2003; Meierkord 1998, 2000; Knapp
and Meierkord 2002; Firth 1996; Seidlhofer 2004), our knowledge about this particular variety of
English is still quite limited.
What makes lingua franca communication unique is that interlocutors usually speak
different first languages and belong to different cultures but use a common language that has its
own socio-cultural background and preferred ways of saying things. So it is essential to ask two
questions:
1. With no native speakers participating in the language game how much will the players
stick to the original rules of the game?
2. Can current pragmatic theories explain this type of communication in which basic
concepts such as common ground, mutual knowledge, cooperation, and relevance gain new
meaning?
Second language researchers have worked out several different tools and methods to
measure language proficiency and fluency. In the center of all these procedures stand
grammatical correctness and pragmatic appropriateness. There is no room here to discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. Let‘s just say that if we want to learn how
much lingua franca speakers stick to the original rules of the language game, we will need to find
out something about their thought processes and linguistic conventions as reflected in their
language use. What are the possible means for this? First of all, people belonging to a particular
speech community have preferred ways of saying things (cf. Wray 2002) and preferred ways of
organizing thoughts. Preferred ways of saying things are generally reflected in the use of
formulaic language and figurative language while preferred ways of organizing thoughts can be
detected through analyzing, for instance, the use of subordinate conjunctions, clauses and
discourse markers. This paper will focus on the use of formulaic language in ELF to answer the
two questions above.

The formulaic continuum


By formulaic language we usually mean multi-word collocations which are stored and
retrieved holistically rather than being generated de novo with each use. Collocations, fixed
expressions, lexical metaphors, idioms and situation-bound utterances can all be considered as
examples of formulaic language in which word strings occurring together tend to convey holistic
meanings that are either more than the sum of the individual parts, or else diverge significantly
from a literal, or word-for-word meaning and operate as a single semantic unit.
Certain language sequences have conventionalized meanings which are used in
predictable situations. This functional aspect, however, is different in nature in each type of fixed
expression, which justifies the hypothesis of a continuum that contains grammatical units (for
instance: be going to) on the left, fixed semantic units (cf. as a matter of fact; suffice it to say) in
the middle and pragmatic expressions (such as situation-bound utterances: welcome aboard; help
yourself) on the right.

Table 1. Formulaic Continuum


Gramm. Units Fixed Sem. Phrasal Verbs Speech Situation- Idioms
Units Formulas bound
Utterances
be going to as a matter of put up with Going Welcome kick the
fact shopping aboard bucket
have to suffice it to get along not bad help yourself spill the beans
say
The more we move to the right on the functional continuum the wider the gap seems to
become between compositional meaning and actual situational meaning. Language development
often results in a change of function, i.e., a right to left or left to right movement of a linguistic
unit on the continuum. Lexical items such as ―going to‖ can become grammaticalized, or lexical
phrases may lose their compositionality and develop an ―institutionalized‖ function, such as I‟ll
talk to you later, How are you doing?, Welcome aboard, and the like. Speech formulas such as
you know, not bad, that‟s all right are similar to situation-bound utterances (SBU). The
difference between them is that while SBUs are usually tied to particular speech situations,
speech formulas can be used anywhere in the communication process where the speakers find
them appropriate.
Corpus studies have broadened the scope of formulaic expressions.
Researchers working with large corpora talk about formulaic sequences that are defined by
Wray (2002) as: ―a formulaic sequence [is] a sequence, continuous or discontinuous, of words or
other elements, which is, or appears to be, prefabricated: that is, stored and retrieved whole from
memory at the time of use, rather than being subject to generation or analysis by the language
grammar.‖ Based on this definition much of human language is formulaic rather than freely
generated. I did not follow this definition in this study, and concentrated only on fixed
expressions that are usually motivated and allow relatively few structural changes (fixed
semantic units, speech formulas, phrasal verbs, idioms and situation-bound utterances). I ignored
collocations such as if you say…; this is good…; I have been…, etc., which are frequent in the
database but hardly fit into the groups given in the table.
Current linguistic models emphasize combinatorial creativity as the central property of
human language. Although formulaic language has been mostly overlooked in favor of models of
language that center around the rule-governed, systematic nature of language and its use, there is
growing evidence that these prefabricated lexical units are integral to first- and second-language
acquisition and use, as they are segmented from input and stored as wholes in long-term memory
(Wood 2002; Wray 2002; Miller and Weinert 1998). Formulaic expressions are basic to fluent
language production.

Preferred ways of saying things


Formulaic language is the heart and soul of native-like language use. In fact this is what
makes language use native-like. Languages and their speakers have preferred ways of saying
things (cf. Wray 2002). English native speakers shoot a film, dust the furniture, or ask you to
help yourself at the table. Having said that, if we want to find out how much non-native speakers
stick to the rules of the game when no native speakers are present, we should look into the
differences in the use of formulaic language.
Keeping the preferred ways of native speakers means that LF interlocutors try to keep the
original rules of the game. These preferred ways lead to the use of prefabricated expressions. The
knowledge of these expressions gives a certain kind of idiomaticity to language use. Our
everyday communication is full of phrasal expressions and utterances because we like to stick to
preferred ways of saying things. Why is this so? Three important reasons can be mentioned:
Formulas decrease the processing load
There is psycholinguistic evidence that fixed expressions and formulas have an important
economizing role in speech production (cf. Miller and Weinert 1998; Wray 2002). Sinclair‘s
idiom principle says that the use of prefabricated chunks ―…may…illustrate a natural tendency
to economy of effort‖ (Sinclair 1991). This means that in communication we want to achieve
more cognitive effects with less processing effort. Formulaic expressions ease the processing
overload not only because they are ―readymade‖ and do not require the speaker/hearer any
―putting together‖ but also because their salient meanings are easily accessible in online
production and processing.
Phrasal utterances have a strong framing power
Frames are basic cognitive structures which guide the perception and representation of
reality (Goffman 1974). Frames help determine which parts of reality become noticed. They are
not consciously manufactured but are unconsciously adopted in the course of communicative
processes. Formulaic expressions usually come with framing. Most fixed expressions are defined
relative to a conceptual framework. If a policeman stops my car and says Step out of the car,
please, this expression will create a particular frame in which the roles and expressions to be
used are quite predictable.
Formulaic units create shared bases for common ground in coordinating joint
communicative actions
The use of formulaic language requires shared experience and conceptual fluency. Tannen
and Öztek (1981) argued that ―cultures that have set formulas afford their members the
tranquility of knowing that what they say will be interpreted by the addressee in the same way
that it is intended, and that, after all, is the ultimate purpose of communication.‖ Nonnative
speakers do not share a common ground or similar experience either. This is especially true for
lingua franca communication where participants belong to different speech communities and use
a common language that does not reflect any of these speech communities.

Formulaic language in pragmatics research


Formulaic language (pre-patterned speech) has not received much attention within any
subfield of pragmatics. Certain groups of formulas such as idioms, phrasal verbs and others have
been discussed in figurative language research. But with few exceptions (Coulmas 1981;
Overstreet and Yule 2001; Wray 2002; Van Lancker-Sidtis 2003, 2004; Kecskes 2000, 2003) not
much has been written about formulaic language in pragmatics. Why is it that pragmaticists
almost ignore this topic although our everyday conversation is full of formulaic expressions? I
can think of two reasons: – ‗What is said‘ is not well defined for formulaic utterances.
In the Gricean paradigm listeners determine ―what is said‖ according to one set of
principles or procedures, and they work out (calculate) what is implicated according to another.
Implicatures are based on ―what is said‖, the combinatorial meaning of the expression. But
listeners often have to calculate certain parts of ―what is said‖ too. This somewhat contradicts the
basic assumption of major pragmatic theories (neo-Gricean approach, relevance theory)
according to which ―what is said‖ is usually well defined for every type of utterance. If it weren‘t
we would have no basis for working out implicatures. However, in formulaic language there are
many counter-examples, especially in phrasal utterances.
Clark (1996) argued that when you tell a bartender: Two pints of Guinness, it is unclear
what you are saying. Are you saying in Grice‘s sense I‟d like or I‟ll have or Get me or Would you
get me or I‟d like you to get me a glass of beer? There is no way in principle of selecting among
these candidates. Whatever you are doing, you do not appear to be saying that you are ordering
beer, and yet you cannot be implicating it either because you cannot cancel the order – it makes
no sense to say Two pints of Guinness, but I‟m not ordering two pints of Guinness.
―What is said‖ simply is not well defined for phrasal utterances. (In relevance theory
Carston (2005) has also questioned the utility of the concept ―what is said‖, which is sometimes
identified with the ―explicature‖, which is in large part contextually determined.)
Further example: To the cashier in a store: “Are you open?”
Linguistic units only prompt meaning construction.
The leading thought in present day linguistic research on meaning is that linguistic stimuli
are just a guide in the performing of sophisticated inferences about each other‘s states of minds
and intentions. Linguistic units only prompt meaning construction. Formulaic expressions do not
fit very well into this line of thinking because they usually have fixed meanings. They are like
frozen implicatures. The modular view rarely works with fixed expressions. When situation-
bound utterances such as Nice meeting you; You‟re all set; How do you do? are used, there is
usually just one way to understand their situational function. (To be continued in Unit 2-22)
EXPLICATION OF KEY FACTS AND IDEAS GIVEN IN THE TEXT, USING
FORMULAIC LANGUAGE FOR ABSTRACT, SUMMARY AND CRITIQUE WRITING

Instruction: There is no single satisfactory definition of formulaic language, and


researchers differ in what they consider formulaic. Potentially, parts of formulaic language are:
idioms, collocations, turns of phrase, preferred ways of saying things, routines, set phrases,
rhymes and songs, prayers, proverbs (Wray, 2002).
We may notice formulaic language in: ritualised events, structured events such as weather
forecasts, the language of very young children, the materials in foreign language textbooks,
especially for beginners, and in phrasebooks. In addition, the absence of formulaic language may
be what marks out competent language learners as non-native speakers.
A formulaic sequence is: a sequence, continuous or discontinuous, of words or other
elements, which is, or appears to be, prefabricated: that is, stored and retrieved whole from
memory at the time of use, rather than being subject to generation or analysis by the language
grammar (Wray, 2002).
Use samples of formulaic language given below for abstract, summary and critique writing.

Formulaic language for abstract, summary and critique writing


Condensed – concise – abbreviated
To highlight – to describe – to review
To be worthwhile
To be given license to do – to be allowed to do
To downplay the author
To break off – to separate, to single out
To make progress on the problem
Citation of the source
Well-developed paragraphs
Room for creativity
Extent of one‘s work
Hand-waving results – vague, indefnite
Room for caveats – room for caution, warning
The problem of detecting
The characteristic formulation of
Studies regarding the effects of
A process that insures the fidelity of
Significant mechanistic insights into the function of
A considerable amount of
The implications of these findings for
In particular
Not surprisingly
Along with
Well over half of
In large part,
Respectively
On one hand, on the other hand
Firstly, secondly
Under some conditions
Both alone and in … complexes
In terms of this belief
We find that
We have shown that
(It) is constructed and included in
(It) will expedite the search for and analysis of
(It) is implemented to obtain
(It) is included in
(It) is proposed that
(It) plays an important role in
(It) accounts for
(They) are affected by changes in
(They) are shown to be translated into subsequent changes in
(They) are often the opposite of what is suggested by
(They) are apt to
(They) have been implicated in
(They) have been the most extensively studied at both the functional and structural levels
This is shown to be …and to handle
Little is known about how
Classic analysis assumes that
This paper describes … and argues that
This paper expands the literature by examining how
The results provide additional insight and richness to our understanding
In this review, we will discuss what we have learned from
The aim of the present review is to provide, firstly, an overview of the major findings of
studies concerning
This review revealed that even though research on
The research has not brought clarity in
The limitations of those studies are discussed
Plans are examined
Section 2. Grammar workout

Misplaced modifiers
A misplaced modifier is a participial phrase or other modifier that comes before the
subject, but does NOT refer to the subject. Look at this sentence:
Driving down the road, a herd of sheep suddenly crossed the road in front of Liza's
car. (INCORRECT;)
This sentence is incorrect because it seems to say that a herd of sheep – rather than
Liza – was driving down the road. The participial phrase is misplaced. The sentence could
be corrected as shown:
As Liza was driving down the road, a herd of sheep suddenly crossed the road in front
of her. (CORRECT),
This sentence now correctly has Liza in the driver's seat instead of the sheep.
The following sentence structures are often misplaced.
Present participle.Walking along the beach, the ship was spotted by the men.
Correction: Walking along the beach, the men spotted the ship.
Past participle. Based on this study, the scientist could make several conclusions.
Correction: Based on this study, several conclusions could be made by the scientist.
Appositive. A resort city in Arkansas, the population of Hot Springs is about 35,000.
Correction: A resort city in Arkansas, Hot Springs has a population of about 35,000.
Reduced adjective clause. While peeling onions, his eyes began to water.
Correction: While he was peeling onions, his eyes began to water.
Adjective phrases. Warm and mild, everyone enjoys the climate of the Virgin Islands.
Correction: Everyone enjoys the warm, mild climate of the Virgin Islands.
Expressions with like or unlike. Like most cities, parking is a problem in San
Francisco.
Correction: Like most cities, San Francisco has a parking problem
Structure items with misplaced modifiers are usually easy to spot. They generally
consist of a modifying element at the beginning of the sentence followed by a comma, with
the rest or most of the rest of the sentence missing. The answer choices tend to be long.
To find the answer, you must decide what subject the modifier correctly refers to.
Examples:
Using a device called a cloud chamber, ____________
(A) experimental proof for the atomic theory was found by Robert Millikin.
(B) Robert Millikin's experimental proof for the atomic theory was found.
(C) Robert Millikin found experimental proof for the atomic theory.
(D) there was experimental proof found for the atomic theory by Robert Millikin.
Choices (A) and (B) are incorrect because the modifier (Using a device called a cloud
chamber) could not logically refer to the subjects (experimental proof and Robert Millikin's
experimental proof). (D) is incorrect because a modifier can never properly refer to the introductory
words there or it.
1. Fearing economic hardship, _____
(A) many Ukrainians emigrated to other countries in the 1990s.
(B) emigration from Ukraine to other countries took place in the 1990s.
(C) it was in the 1990s that many Ukrainians emigrated to other countries.
(D) an emigration took place in the 1990s from Ukraine to other countries.
2. Rich and distinctive in flavor, ____
(A) there is in the United States a very important nut crop, the pecan.
(B) the most important nut crop in the United States, the pecan.
(C) farmers in the United States raise pecans, a very important nut crop.
(D) pecans are the most important nut crop in the United States.
3.____________ orbiting from 2.7 to 3.6 billion miles from the sun.
(A) The astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto in 1930
(B) Pluto was discovered by the astronomer Clyde Tombaugh in 1930
(C) It was in 1930 that the astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto
(D) The discovery of Pluto was made by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930
4. A popular instrument,____.
(A) only a limited role has been available to the accordion in classical music.
(B) there is only a limited role for the accordion in popular music.
(C) classical music provides only a limited role for the accordion.
(D) the accordion has played only a limited role in classical music.
Unit 1-23. INTERPRETATION OF MEANING IN SUCCESSFUL LINGUA
FRANCA INTERACTION

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of international English in European
business

The insights gained from ELF research during recent years have made a considerable
impact on the conceptualization of English as an international language and have told a lot about
interactional practices and pragmatic strategies successful ELF speakers use. These insights into
successful ELF usage are gained from the observation and analysis of spoken data, and there are
very good reasons for doing so. The fact that much of what we know about ELF today comes
from researching spoken interactions, at one of the central principles governing such spoken
interactions – the principle of turn-taking is arguably a central issue to be investigated in ELF.
But despite the huge body of work on turn-taking, in general, and the immense growth of
research on ELF over the last few years, turn-taking management in English as a lingua franca
remains still very much unknown territory.
Christiane Meierkord‘s study analyses informal non-native speaker (NNS} – non-native
speaker conversation to see what types of NNS errors lead to what types of NNS response
constituting negative input available to the NNS. This study further examines the differential
effect of the NNS response on subsequent NNS speech in a given conversation.

Text 1-23. INTERPRETING SUCCESSFUL LINGUA FRANCA INTERACTION


(Based on Christiane Meierkord‟s analysis of non-native/non-native small talk
conversations in English)

Christiane Meierkord received her Ph.D. in English linguistics at Düsseldorf University in


1996 for her thesis on English as medium for intercultural communication. Since 1997 she has
been a lecturer at Erfurt University where she pursues her post-doctoral research project on
Routine expressions and structures in child, adolescent and adult English learner language. Her
major research interests are: English as international lingua franca, varieties of English,
methodology of Discourse and Conversation Analysis and research into learner language.
Introduction
Until recently, most of the research on intercultural communication has focussed on native
/non-native speaker interaction both in the context of immigration and minorities and in
intercultural politics and business. Interaction among non-native speakers of a language,
however, has not received much attention. When speakers do not share each other's language but
can resort to a third language for communicative purposes, they use a lingua franca, a language
which is the mother tongue to neither of them. This paper is concerned with this latter type of
intercultural communication.
A lingua franca may be any natural or any artificial language which is used among speakers
of different mother tongues. It may be used either intranationally, like e.g. English in India or
Nigeria, or internationally e.g. English between Germans and Japanese. Whereas speakers of
intranational lingua francas have often acquired these as nativized second languages and use
them in a variety of domains, most participiants in international lingua franca conversations need
to be regarded as learners of a language they use for restricted purposes only. Because of the
diverse linguistic and cultural background of speakers, conversation in lingua franca English is
rather heterogeneous. In the course of this paper, the most noticeable features of lingua franca
English small talk conversation will be discussed. Suggestions will be made for both the analysis
and the interpretation of intercultural conversations involving speakers who do not form a stable
speech community and who, therefore, need to negotiate the norms for every individual
conversation depending on the specific participants.
Lingua franca communication research
Lingua franca communication differs from other forms of intercultural communication
such as native/non-native communication and communication via a professional or non-
professional interpreter. Participants in lingua franca conversations are representatives of their
individual mother cultures. Hence, they have their individual cultural backgrounds regarding
communicative norms and standards. We will, therefore, expect interferences from the different
mother tongues. At the same time, speakers have to a certain degree acquired the norms of either
British (BrE) or American English (AmE) when learning the language. Thus, at least three but
sometimes even more cultures are involved in lingua franca communication. Unless the speakers
are familiar with the others' mother tongues, the amount of different cultures interacting in these
situations demands that speakers cope with the unexpected, by having to apply imperfect
knowledge of and competence in the language they use (cf. Knapp 1991). The resulting level of
insecurity experienced by the participants has the effect of making them establish a unique set of
rules for interaction that may be referred to as an inter-culture, a "culture constructed in cultural
contact" (cf. Koole and tenThije 1994) or as a lingua franca culture, which is reflected in
specific linguistic characteristics. These characteristics are apparently not influences of the
speakers' mother tongues and will be discussed at a later point in this paper. At the same time,
the speakers must, in most cases, be regarded as learners of the language they use as a lingua
franca. Their communicative behaviour is not only a reflection of cultural norms, but it also
represents the individual stages of their interlanguage5with its specific characteristics as well as
the results of adaptation to the interlocutors.
Lingua franca or non-native/non-native communication has basically been studied from
two different perspectives. Firth (1990 and 1996) and Gramkow Andersen (1993) analysed
business telephone conversations between speakers of different European mother tongues, taking
an interactional approach and focussing on the way participants cooperate to achieve the goal of
their conversation. Others have approached lingua franca conversations as interactions between
learners. Schwartz (1980) and Varonis/Gass (1995) investigated the negotiation of meaning
between non-native speakers of English with different linguistic backgrounds. Yule (1990)
studied the management of verbal conflict among Indian, Chinese and Korean students
interacting in lingua franca English. Meeuwis (1994) and Meierkord (1996 and 1998) provide
analyses of the discourse features of lingua franca small talk.
The above-mentioned studies yield interesting results and offer important insights. As a
basic finding, they all stress the cooperative nature of lingua franca communication. Being in
clear contrast to the findings of e.g. Thomas (1983) who emphasized the pragmatic problems
encountered by non-native speakers when interacting with native speakers of English,
cooperation among non-native speakers manifests itself e.g. in collaborative overlap and joint
construction of what is usually called a turn. If our aim is to arrive at valid generalizations
regarding the different varieties of lingua franca usage, quantitative analyses of larger copora are
needed. A frame of reference, which is capable of dealing with the data's heterogeneity will need
to be applied to the data. Categories useful for the analysis of lingua franca talk-in-interaction
have been proposed by both Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis. However, as neither
of these models have been designed to fit lingua franca data, modifications seem to be necessary
and will be suggested below. Apart from modified tools for analysis, lingua franca data also
requires a differenciated interpretation of the results produced by data analyses, taking into
account both the intercultural as well as interlanguage aspects of this variety of English.

The data
The following discussions are based on tape-recorded, naturally occurring, face-to-face
group conversations. The data was collected in a student hall of residence for overseas students
in Great Britain and comprise 23 conversations of a total of 13.5 hours. The speakers
participating in the conversations are aged roughly between 20 and 30. They are of both sexes,
speak 17 different mother tongues and include both less competent and more competent
speakers. The corpus, thus, is very heterogeneous, but is, nevertheless, representative of the
situations which involve lingua franca communication.

Data analysis in lingua franca communication research


Lingua franca communication implies the mingling of different cultures and the associated
communicative norms that apply within these cultures. Discourse produced in lingua franca
English has its specific characteristics, and these make it difficult to apply existing categories
proposed by Discourse and Conversation Analysis (CA), which both had originally been
developed for interactions between native English and American speakers.
Below a short account of the most central unit of analysis in CA, the turn, will be given.
This unit requires an investigation into the applicability of the model to lingua franca talk-in-
interaction and to a discussion of necessary modifications.

The concept of turn


Conversation Analysis developed from approaches by a number of American sociologists
in reaction to the quantitative methodology applied in their field. Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson
(1974) applied ethnomethodological methods to spoken conversation. Analysing a corpus of
informal spoken discourse they arrived at the conclusion that turn-taking is the essential
characteristic that distinguishes conversations from monologic speech. Rules which seem to
govern the turn-taking process were identified together with transition-relevance-places at which
speaker change was found to occur, but the central concept, that of the 'turn', has remained only
vaguely defined. It is the way simultaneous speech and pauses have been included in these
definitions, that is of interest when we are dealing with lingua franca discourse, because both
occur in a specific way in lingua franca discourse, as will be explained below.
Schegloff (1968) claimed that participants orient themselves towards the rule 'one party at a
time'. Any violations of this rule would be classified as 'noticed events' by the participants of a
conversation, and that these violations would result in the application of repair mechanisms.
Similarly, overlap was characterised by Sacks et al. (1974) as a turn-taking error and hence as
being a violation of turn taking requiring repair. Oreström (1983) admits that "speaker-shift is
seldom, if ever, an entirely smooth process and the interactants generally try to see to it that the
transitions from one speaker to another take place in a non-abrupt manner and they therefore try
to avoid simultaneous speech and interruption."
What is central to these early statements is the fact that overlapping speech is regarded as
being erroneous and a violation of some rule. Even though this argument is still prevalent in
many recent discussions of the term 'turn', the existence of unproblematic overlap has also been
considered. McCarthy (1991), for example, states that "speakers predict one another's utterances
and often complete them for them, or overlap with them as they complete", and Langford (1994)
interprets this kind of overlap as displaying "close attention and support". Yule (1996) adds a
further aspect – the collaborative use of overlap:
For many (often younger) speakers, overlapped talk appears to function like an expression
of solidarity or closeness in expressing similar opinions or values. [...], the effect of the
overlapping talk creates a feeling of two voices collaborating as one, in harmony.
Even though the authors acknowledge cooperative overlap, they do not refer to it as being
used to jointly build up a collaborative turn. Immediately related to the concept of turn is the
distinction of participants' roles into speaker and hearer, which assigns to the hearer only those
passive activities which support the speaker. Schegloff, however, has recently (1996) claimed
that participants jointly create talk-in-interaction, and as a result he labels them co-participants.
As I shall demonstrate further below, this must necessarily lead towards a re-definition of turn as
a jointly completed unit of conversation, which will also have to include a discussion of the term
back-channel, i.e. those utterances that are usually being considered to be the hearer's
contributions.
Co-participation and the floor
A series of problems have been encountered by researchers who tried to use the turn
concept for analyses of non-dyadic interactions. Edelsky (1981) found the category of turn and
its definition difficult to apply to multi-party informal talk. In her corpus, two or more
participants often "either took part in an apparent free-for-all or jointly built one idea, operating
on the 'same wavelength'" (1981). She therefore suggests to concentrate on the floor, "the
acknowledged what's-going-on within a psychological time/space. What's going on can be the
development of a topic or a function (teasing, soliciting a response, etc.) or an interaction of the
two. It can be developed or controlled by one person at a time or by several simultaneously or in
quick succession." (1981) In case several participants jointly hold the floor, this can be done in
two different ways. In case of what Edelsky calls a 'free-for-all', there is "much simultaneity,
joint building of an answer to a question, collaboration on developing ideas [...], and laughter."
(1981) In less 'unorderly' stretches of talk, she found that participants, though speaking
sequentially, shared "in the creation of an idea or a function (joking, suggesting, etc.)." (1981)
Though the concept of 'floor' provides important insights into what actually happens when
speakers talk simultaneously and identifies overlapping speech as being a kind of speech that is
in no way erroneous, the concept of the 'turn' is an unquestionably valuable one for any analysis
of intercultural communication, but it still needs to be modified. Edelsky (1981) proposes what
she calls a non-technical definition and defines turn as "an on-record 'speaking' (which may
include nonverbal activities) behind which lies an intention to convey a message that is both
referential and functional." (To be continued in Unit 2-23)

EXPLICATION OF KEY FACTS AND IDEAS GIVEN IN THE TEXT,


PRESENTATION OF A RESEARCH PAPER

Instruction: Not all non-native speakers have trouble communicating in English. Many
speak at a native level, but many do not. The ability to communicate with people who speak a
limited amount of English is actually a skill that can be developed over time with practice.
Whether you deal with non-native English speakers often or rarely, this advice will help you to
communicate more effectively and smoothly. Graduate students who are non-native speakers of
English should focus on developing a variety of oral presentation skills used in the non-native
EL academic community, in particular, and in any other non-native EL environment, in general.
You will address different aspects of spoken English, including higher level issues such as
linguistics, sociolinguistics, organizational and strategic competence, as well as more detail-
oriented issues, such as accuracy in pronunciation, stress patterns, intonation and rhythm.
Mastering these skills will be especially useful to students who wish to prepare for teaching
responsibilities, and to those graduate students who need to prepare for giving lectures, leading
discussion/lab sections, interacting with non-native speakers, presenting graduation papers,
reporting on current research, and engaging in job interviews. Below are some useful tips on
skills for writing and presenting a graduation paper.

Tips for writing a graduation paper


Writing a graduation paper in your field is similar to writing a scientific report, in which
the main goal is the demonstration of acquired knowledge in a selected field. The research in
graduation papers is a difficult aspect as your field of science has many diverse directions.
Despite the diversity of subjects, there are accepted methodological approaches in writing
graduation papers. These tips will provide a guide on the important elements of graduation
papers, and the way they can be approached.

The steps in graduation paper writing


The common steps that can be identified through the process of writing a graduation paper
are as follows:
Identifying a research problem – such step in graduation papers implies asking
questions regarding an identified problem, considering the feasibility of them being answered.
A literature review - A review of literature will indicate the gaps in specific knowledge
in the selected field. It should be highlighted that in terms of division to sections, it can be stated
that the literature review is one of the largest sections in graduation papers, serving two
purposes, i.e. demonstrating the accumulated knowledge and identifying the gaps in it.
Formulating a hypothesis – basically, hypotheses are the assumptions made through the
preliminary investigation. One or more are selected as the basis of the graduation paper, and
which are tested in the study.
Data collection – according to the established hypothesis, the type of data to be collected
will be determined. At the same time, the nature of the requested data will require assessing the
most effective methods of its collection, e.g. quantitative or qualitative data. Accordingly,
several aspects should be determined in graduation papers such as the samples, the body of data,
and the appropriate method of data measurement.
The "thinking about it stage" is when you are finally faced with the reality of
completing your MA degree. Usually the early phases of a graduate program proceed in clear
and very structured ways. The beginning phases of a graduate program proceed in much the
same manner as an undergraduate degree program. There are clear requirements and
expectations, and the graduate student moves along, step by step, getting ever closer to the
completion of the program.
One day, however, the clear structure begins to diminish and now you're approaching the
graduation paper stage. This is a new and different time. These next steps are more and more
defined by you and not your adviser, the program, or the department.
Be realistic about the time that you're willing to commit to your research project. If
it's a 1 year project that you're thinking about admit it at the beginning and then decide whether
or not you have 1 year to give to it. If the project you'd like to do is going to demand more time
than you're willing to commit then you have a problem.
Research proposal. Assuming you've done a good job of "thinking about" your research
project, you're ready to actually prepare the proposal. A word of caution - those students who
tend to have a problem in coming up with a viable proposal often are the ones that have tried to
rush through the "thinking about it" part and move too quickly to trying to write the proposal.
Here's a final check. Do each of these statements describe you? If they do you're ready to prepare
your research proposal.
I am familiar with other research that has been conducted in areas related to my research
project.
(___Yes, it's me)
(___No, not me)
I have a clear understanding of the steps that I will use in conducting my research.
(___Yes, it's me)
(___No, not me)
I feel that I have the ability to get through each of the steps necessary to complete my
research project.
(___Yes, it's me)
(___No, not me)
I know that I am motivated and have the drive to get through all of the steps in the
research project.
(___Yes, it's me)
(___No, not me)

Section 2. Grammar workout

Missing or incomplete comparisons


Many sentences contain comparisons, some of these involve the comparative forms of
adjectives.
Examples:
Sea bass__________ freshwater bass.
(A) are larger than (correct)
(B) are larger the
(C) are as large
(D) are larger
On the average, the Pacific Ocean is deeper than the Atlantic.
Rhonda is a more experienced performer than Theresa.
This show is less interesting than the one we watched last night.
Be sure that the sentence compares similar things or concepts.
The ears of African elephants are bigger than Indian elephants. (INCORRECT) The ears of
African elephants are bigger than those of Indian elephants. (CORRECT)
The first sentence above is incorrect because it compares two dissimilar things: an African
elephant's ears and an Indian elephant. In the second, the word those refers to ears, so the
comparison is between similar things.
Another type of comparison involves the phrase as...as; not so…as.
Examples:
The lab lasted as long as the class did.
There weren't as many people at the meeting as I had thought there would be.
Wild strawberries are ___________as cultivated strawberries.
(A) not so sweet (correct)
(B) not as sweet
(C) less sweeter
(D) not as sweeter
The words like/alike and unlike/not alike can also be used to express comparison:
Like A, B, …; A, like B, …; A is like B; A and В are alike.
Unlike X, Y, …; X, unlike Y…;. X is unlike Y; X and Y are not alike
Other phrases can be used in making comparisons:
A is the same as В; A and В are the same; A is similar to В.
X is different from Y; X and Y are different; X differs from Y.
A special kind of comparison is called a proportional statement. A proportional statement
follows this pattern: The more A.., the more B.
Example:
The higher the humidity, the more uncomfortable people feel.
Identify and correct errors involving misplaced modifiers
__________air pollution is a big problem in Simferopol.
(A) Like in most Ukrainian cities
(B) Like most Ukrainian cities
(C) Alike most Ukrainian cities
(D) As most Ukrainian cities
__________, everyone wants to be friends with John.
(A) Kind and cooperative
(B) As he is kind and cooperative
(C) Being kind and cooperative
(D)Also kind and cooperative
__________for his exam his computer broke.
(A) While sitting
(B) While he was sitting
(C) On sitting
(D) He was sitting
__________is constantly growing
(A) The center of the Crimea, the population of Simferopol
(B) In Simferopol, the center of the Crimea, the population
(C) The center of the Crimea, Simferopol, the population
(D) Simferopol, the center of the Crimea, the population
_________he decided to drop his research.
(A) Resulting in a failure
(B) Resulting in a failure of his research
(C) As his research resulted in a failure
(D) Because a failure
__________a car accident happened.
(A) Walking down the street
(B) When I was walking down the street
(C) I was walking down the street
(D) Walked down the street
__________can help assess the prerequisites for a new urban dialect.
(A) Mapping the sociophonetic variables this analysis
(B) This analysis of mapping the sociophonetic variables
(C) Mapping this analysis of the sociophonetic variables
(D) When mapping the sociophonetic variables this analysis
(Based on the hypothesis/Basing on the hypothesis/It is based on the hypothesis/There is
based on the hypothesis) that family enterprises aim at humane objectives (to a greater extent/on
a greater extent/with a greater extent/at a greater extent) and at financial objectives (to a lesser
extent/on a lesser extent/with a lesser extent/at a lesser extent) than non-family enterprises (the
results of an empirical study for the region Upper-Austria are presented/are presented the
results of an empirical study for the region Upper-Austria/an empirical study for the region
Upper-Austria results are presented/the results are presented of an empirical study for the
region Upper-Austria).
Unit 1-24. REALITY AND PARADOX OF EUROPE'S LINGUA FRANCA

Section 1. Guidelines for reading texts on the use of international English in European
business

Professor Jennifer Jenkins: Given that there are now more second language than first
language speakers of English around the globe, dramatic developments in spoken English are
likely to occur over the coming years. In Europe, we may be about to witness the emergence of a
hybrid European accent, albeit with local variations, which will no longer look to Britain to
dictate its norms.
Dr Jennifer Jenkins is co-ordinator of Teacher Education and Applied Linguistics in the
English Language Centre, King's College London.
Professor Juliane House: The role of English as a worldwide lingua franca is irreversible.
It is therefore more fruitful to accept this role than either bemoan it or follow the European
Union's hypocritical language policy. A distinction between a "language for communication" and
a "language for identification" is useful here. English as a lingua franca (ELF) is a language for
communication, and as such the "property" of all European speakers whose native languages will
continue to serve as languages for identification, i.e., means for speakers to identify with their
linguistic community's cultural heritage.
The usefulness of this "division of labour" is reflected in three recent developments: a
renewed concern with local, regional and national linguistic and cultural practices; attempts to
give English as a school subject a curricular status markedly different from other foreign
languages; results from empirical research into ELF interactions and the influence of ELF on
discourse norms in other European languages.
Dr Juliane House is professor of Applied Linguistics and head of the English language
programme at the University of Hamburg.

Text 1-24. BRINGING EUROPE'S LINGUA FRANCA INTO THE CLASSROOM


(After an editorial published on guardian.co.uk on Thursday 19 April 2001)

Jennifer Jenkins and Barbara Seidlhofer suggest how the results of new research into how
'non-native' speakers of English use the language must change the way it is taught
A Finnish scientist coming to Vienna for a conference on human genetics; an Italian
designer negotiating with prospective clients in Stockholm; a Polish tourist chatting with local
restaurateurs in Crete: they all communicate successfully in "English", but which "English"?
Well, chances are that it is not the language you hear in chat shows and soaps on British or
American television, but rather a range of "Englishes", with enough of a common core so as to
make it viable as a means of communication.
In fact, it is even claimed that a European variety of English, sometimes labelled "Euro-
English", is in the process of evolving to serve as a European lingua franca. As yet, however, this
new variety of English has not been described, largely because it is at such an embryonic stage in
its evolution. All we can say with any degree of certainty is that English as a lingua franca in
Europe (ELFE) is likely to be some kind of European-English hybrid which, as it develops, will
increasingly look to continental Europe rather than to Britain or the United States for its norms of
correctness and appropriateness.
However, as long as there is no sound empirical basis for a description of how the language
is actually used, the forms ELFE will take will remain an object of speculation.
This is why we decided to record interactions among "non-native" speakers of English
from a wide variety of first-language backgrounds, and to investigate what happens linguistically
when English is used as a lingua franca. The focus of our research to date has been on
pronunciation and lexicogrammar (vocabulary plus grammar), and it has enabled us to make a
number of educated guesses at emerging characteristics of ELFE.
Jennifer Jenkins gathered data from interactions among non-native speakers of English in
order to establish which aspects of pronunciation cause intelligibility problems when English is
spoken as an International Language. This enabled her to draw up a pronunciation core, the
Lingua Franca Core, and certain of the features she designates core and non-core provide
evidence as to the likely development of ELFE pronunciation.
The features of the Lingua Franca Core are those which were found to be crucial for
intelligibility. They include:
• consonant sounds except for "th" (both voiceless as in "think" and voiced as in 'this') and
dark 'l' (as, for example, in the word 'hotel');
• vowel length contrasts (e.g. the difference in length between the vowel sounds in the
words "live" and "leave");
• nuclear (tonic) stress (eg the stress indicated by capital letters in the following: "I come
from FRANCE. Where are YOU from?").
Most other areas of pronunciation are then designated non-core, and these include many
features on which teachers and learners often spend a great deal of time and effort, such as the
exact quality of vowel sounds, word stress, or the "typical rhythm of British English", with lots
of "little" words such as articles and prepositions pronounced so weakly as to be hardly audible.
Taking the Lingua Franca Core as our starting point, we predict that the pronunciation of
ELFE will, over time, develop certain characteristics. For example, it is unlikely that "th" will be
a feature of ELFE accents since nearly all continental Europeans other than those from Spain and
Greece have a problem in producing it. What is not clear at this stage is whether the ELFE
substitute will be "s" and "z" (as used, for example, by many French- and German-English
speakers) or "t" and "d" (as used, for example, by many Italian- and Scandinavian-English
speakers), or whether there will be scope for regional variation. Given that users of "s" and "z"
outnumber users of "t" and "d", however, we predict that ultimately the former will become the
accepted ELFE variant.
Similarly, because of difficulties of many Europeans with dark "l", we predict that this
sound will not be included in the ELFE pronunciation inventory, but will probably be substituted
with clear "l" (a development which will run counter to that in British English, where dark "l" is
increasingly being substituted with l-vocalisation, such that "bill" sounds more like "biw").
On the other hand, the British-English distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants
is likely to be maintained in ELFE since the loss of this distinction proved to be a frequent cause
of intelligibility problems in the research. For example, a German-English speaker's devoicing of
the final sound on the word "mug" so that it sounded like "muck" rendered the word
unintelligible to an Italian-English speaker.
The phenomena which can be observed in the area of ELFE lexicogrammar are the
research focus of Seidlhofer's current work. For this purpose, she has been compiling a corpus of
interactions in English among fairly fluent speakers from a variety of first-language
backgrounds. This corpus, supported by Oxford University Press, is called the Vienna-Oxford
ELF Corpus and is housed at the University of Vienna.
The findings emerging from it are similar to Jenkins' research into pronunciation in that
they also involve many of those features often regarded, and taught, as particularly "typical" of
(native) English. In our analyses of a variety of interactions such as casual conversations and
academic discussions, no major disruptions in communication happened when speakers
committed one or more of the following deadly "grammatical sins":
• using the same form for all present tense verbs, as in 'you look very sad' and 'he look very sad';
• not putting a definite or indefinite article in front of nouns, as in "our countries have signed
agreement about this";
• treating "who" and "which" as interchangeable relative pronouns, as in "the picture who. . ." or
"a person which";
• using just the verb stem in constructions such as "I look forward to see you tomorrow";
• using "isn't it?" as a universal tag question (i.e. instead of "haven't they?" and "shouldn't he?"),
as in "They've finished their dinner now, isn't it?".
These characteristics, it will be noted, are described in a neutral way here, i.e. we are not
talking about "dropping the third person -s" or "leaving out the -ing ending of the gerund", but
this is not the way these "mistakes" are usually treated in English classrooms around Europe. As
many teachers of English as a foreign language will know, the time and effort spent on such
features as the "third person -s", the use of articles and the "gerund" is often considerable, and
nevertheless many learners still fail to use them "correctly" after years of instruction, especially
in spontaneous speech.
What our analyses of ELF interactions suggest is that the time needed to teach and learn
these constructions bears very little relationship to their actual usefulness, as successful
communication is obviously possible without them. It seems, in fact, that there is a very good
reason for many students' observed resistance to learning these characteristics of native-speaker
English: like the th-sounds discussed above, they are not communicatively crucial. Rather,
speakers tend to tune into them only when they use English in a native-speaker community and
wish to "blend in" (which, for certain learners, obviously remains a desirable objective) while
they seem to be redundant in much lingua franca communication.
As far as the implications for teaching are concerned we would like to make two general
suggestions. The first and most important point to emphasise is, in our view, the need to
encourage both teachers and students to adjust their attitudes towards ELFE. Even those who
strongly support the development of a continental European hybrid variety of English that does
not look to Britain or America for its standards of correctness, reveal a degree of schizophrenia
in this respect. For example Charlotte Hoffman has described the English of European learners
as spanning "the whole range from non-fluent to native-like", as though fluency in English were
not a possibility for those whose speech does not mimic that of a native speaker.
Similarly, Theo van Els pointed out in a lecture given last year in the Netherlands that the
ownership of a lingua franca transfers from its native speakers to its non-native speakers. Yet he
went on to argue paradoxically that the Dutch should not be complacent about their English
because "only very few are able to achieve a level of proficiency that approximates the native or
native-like level".
Our second point is that it is crucial for English language teaching in Europe to focus on
contexts of use that are relevant to European speakers of English. In particular, descriptions of
spoken English offered to these learners should not be grounded in British or American uses of
English but in ELFE or other non-native contexts (depending on where the particular learners
intend to use their English in future).
In this respect it is disappointing that so-called "authentic" materials offered to learners
continue to be based only on corpora of native speaker use. For example, Helen Basturkmen's
recent contribution to the ELT Journal argues in favour of "highlighting general strategies of
talk, and encouraging learners to become active observers of language use in settings relevant to
them". This would be admirable were it not the conclusion to an article in which she cites
examples taken exclusively from data of native speaker interactions. ELFE learners (along with
all other learners of English as an International Language) need descriptions drawn from
interactions between non-native speakers in the contexts in which they, too, will later participate.
To some, our proposal may seem to be a recipe for "permissiveness" and decline in "standards".
But what we are essentially seeking to do is to carry through the implications of the fact that
English is an international language and as such no longer the preserve of its native speakers. If
English is indeed a lingua franca, then it should be possible to describe it as such without
prejudice. And that may well be the biggest challenge for ELFE in the 21st Century.
TOPICS FOR THE FINAL DISCUSSION OF ELF/ESP IN EUROPEAN AS WELL AS
UKRAINIAN EDUCAION

The language of teaching


University education in Europe is given in a limited number of official national languages.
In countries with a federal structure, or regional autonomy, it is given in the regional language.
In addition there are universities that teach in a language from outside the nation/region: in most
cases in English. (German-language higher education in eastern Europe, for instance,
disappeared after 1945). Similarly, within each university, if a course is given in a non-national
language, that is almost always English. Universities in England are the only fully monolingual
universities in Europe. (British universities in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales are partly
bilingual). In the EU, language is an area reserved to national policy, although some minority
languages are protected by European and international instruments. There is no legal status
anywhere, for multilingualism as such.

Issues:
Should multilingualism be enforced as a goal in itself?
Should entirely monolingual higher education be effectively forbidden (or left to the private
sector)?
Should all European languages be given the protected status, given to some minority languages?
Should courses offered in one language be given in parallel, in other languages?
Should all courses be given in a fixed minimum of languages?
Should international courses especially, be multilingual, or available in parallel versions?
Should there be a maximum on the share of English-language courses?
Should visiting staff be required to speak a minimum of European languages?

The language of course material


The content of courses (books, articles, instructions, manuals, software, databases) has a
generally bilingual pattern, except in England. The smaller the teaching language, the more
material in other languages. The second language is either the national language, or English. The
long-term trend is to have all material in English, as at Dutch universities, in some disciplines.
There, Dutch is used for lectures and seminars only (and then only if there are no foreign
students). In all countries there is a general pattern that software is in English only, also
indicating a long-term trend.

Issues:
Should students have a right to course material in their native language?
Should students have a right to use multilingual material?
Should students have a right to use (multilingual) material in EU languages?
Aside from the claims of students, should course content and material be multilingual, as a
general policy?
Is bilingualism of material (teaching language plus English) an acceptable substitute for
multilingualism?
Should compiled works (readers, collections) be multilingual?
Are monolingual (English) works, excluding EU content, acceptable in the EU?
Should software be multilingual?
Does EU policy, on a multilingual information society, also apply to academic software and
academic computing centres?
Should course information (folders, syllabus, guides, websites) be multilingual?

Library acquisition policy


Again the general trend is to bilingual libraries: language of teaching, plus English. As
funds for acquisition of books (and journal subscriptions) are cut, priority goes to "major
international texts and journals". These are usually in English. In England itself, academic
libraries are often monolingual.

Issues:
Is justice applicable between languages?
Are there moral obligations of equal acquisition, across languages?
Is there, in any case, a moral preference for multilingual libraries?
Should libraries give preference in acquisition, to multilingual works?
Should all EU languages be given equal library acquisition status with English, in the EU?
Should libraries in the EU give preference in acquisition, to EU languages, or to all European
languages?
Should there be a maximum on English-language acquisitions?
If a library refuses to supply a work in an official EU language, is that contrary to European law?
Can a monolingual library be prosecuted under national law, for criminal discrimination?

Equal treatment of speakers


Probably, most of the world's students use a language which is not their native language or
dialect. British and US-American students can study in their own countries, and globally, in a
standard English close to their native dialect: an extremely privileged group.

Issues:
Should all students be obliged, as a matter of justice, to use a non-native language as part of their
university study?
Should English-language students, specifically, be excluded from English-language international
courses, to prevent unfair advantage?
Should the number of languages of teaching be greatly increased, to include also non-standard
dialects?
Is an examination just or fair, if one student can use a native language, while others must use
their fourth or fifth language?
Are migrants (English speakers excepted) systematically disadvantaged at European
universities?
Is it just to give protected status (including education facilities) to some minority languages, but
not to others?

Access to journals and conferences


Issues of justice between speakers, arise also in selection procedures, for journals and
conferences. The dominance of English-language publishing is well known. Less obvious is that
publishers are also disproportionately located in English-speaking countries. English-language
journals also, inevitably have editors and advisors who speak, read and write good academic
English. It is not as easy to trace the language of conferences, but English is certainly the
dominant language of conferences. A bilingual conference is usually in the teaching language of
the host university, plus English. Organisers often require papers in English, even if most of
those present understand other languages.

Issues:
The basic issue: is it legitimate for a journal to refuse an article on grounds of language?
Is this refusal discriminatory, and possibly a criminal offence?
Is this refusal morally equivalent to racism?
Should journals, published in the EU, be obliged to accept submissions in all EU official
languages?
Is refusal of an article in French by a British journal, for instance, contrary to European law?
Should there be quotas by native language, for journal editors, editorial boards, advisors and
reviewers?
Is it acceptable for a journal to refuse a person as editor/advisor, on grounds of language?
Is a requirement to use one language for conference papers legitimate?
Is lack of funds for translation a legitimate reason to limit conference languages?
Should the EU fund monolingual conferences?
Should a minimum number of EU languages be legally required at non-local conferences?
Are existing conference language restrictions contrary to European law?

The language of publication


The long-term trend in journals is, once again, a combination of a dominant global
publishing language (English), combined with limited-area journals in official national
languages. In effect this fixes the language of contact as English. Multilingual journals are rare.

Issues:
Should the EU enforce (or subsidise) multilingual journals, or parallel publication?
Is it acceptable to publish results of EU-funded research, in English only?
Should research funds, in general, be conditional on multilingual publication?
Is there a general moral obligation to multilingual publication?
Does legal protection of minority languages bind journal publishers to some publication in these
languages?

Section 2. Spelling workout

As a finishing touch to the final intensive reading unit of this Manual, below are
offered two popular samples of the "Euro English" satire published on the website Orwell
Today: www.orwelltoday.com which has been monitored by an independent researcher
Jackie Jura, under the title EURO ENGLISH. You are sure to enjoy correcting humorous
spelling mistakes:

Euro English
The European Union Commissioners have announced that agreement has been reached to
adopt English as the preferred language for European communications, rather than German,
which was the other possibility.
As part of the negotiations, the British government conceded that English spelling had
some room for improvement and has accepted a five-year phased plan for what will be known as
EuroEnglish (Euro for short).
In the first year, "s" will be used instead of the soft "c". Sertainly, sivil servants will reseive
this news with joy. Also, the hard "c" will be replaced with "k". Not only will this klear up
konfusion, but typewriters kan have one less letter.
There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year, when the troublesome "ph"
will be replaced by "f". This will make words like "fotograf" 20 per sent shorter.
In the third year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be Expekted to reach the stage
where more komplikated changes are possible.
Governments will enkorage the removal of double letters, which have always ben a
deterent to akurate speling. Also, al wil agre that the horible mes of silent "e"s in the languag is
disgrasful, and they would go.
By the fourth year, peopl wil be reseptiv to steps such as replasing "th" by "z" and "w" by "
v".
During ze fifz year, ze unesesary "o" kan be dropd from vords kontaining "ou", and similar
changes vud of kors be aplid to ozer kombinations of leters.
After zis fifz yer, ve vil hav a reli sensibl riten styl. Zer vil be no mor trubls or difikultis and
evrivun vil find it ezi tu understand ech ozer.
Ze drem vil finali kum tru.

Jackie Jura received ―a snotty-toned email‖ in response to a joke she had on the site
entitled EURO ENGLISH by Author Unknown. It said that the author who inspired "Euro
English" was none other than one of the greatest satirists in the history of the world, Mark
Twain.
Here's the Mark Twain,s version:
A Plan for the Improvement of English Spelling
by Mark Twain
For example, in Year 1 that useless letter "c" would be dropped to be replased either by "k"
or "s", and likewise "x" would no longer be part of the alphabet. The only kase in which "c"
would be retained would be the "ch" formation, which will be dealt with later. Year 2 might
reform "w" spelling, so that "which" and "one" would take the same konsonant, wile Year 3
might well abolish "y" replasing it with "i" and Iear 4 might fiks the "g/j" anomali wonse and for
all.
Jenerally, then, the improvement would kontinue iear bai iear with Iear 5 doing awai with
useless double konsonants, and Iears 6-12 or so modifaiing vowlz and the rimeining voist and
unvoist konsonants. Bai Iear 15 or sou, it wud fainali bi posibl tu meik ius ov thi ridandant letez
"c", "y" and "x" -- bai now jast a memori in the maindz ov ould doderez -- tu riplais "ch", "sh",
and "th" rispektivli.
Fainali, xen, aafte sam 20 iers ov orxogrefkl riform, wi wud hev a lojikl, kohirnt speling in
ius xrewawt xe Ingliy-spiking werld."

More reading on the topic:


NU SPELING, by George Orwell
EURO ENGLISH MAYHEM, by Kate Gladstone & Jackie Jura
MEIHEM IN CE CLASRUM, by Dolton Edwards
TWAIN QUOTE NOT, by M. J. Shields
EURO ENGLISH, by Author Unknown
<http://www.orwelltoday.com/newspeak.shtml>
PART 2. THE SKILLS OF EXTENSIVE READING

MODULE 2-1. ENGLISH AS A CONTACT LANGUAGE OF INTERNATIONAL


COMMUNICATION

Unit 2-1. PEOPLE ON THE MOVE

Guidelines for extensive reading of ESP texts


Extensive reading of ESP texts has not been emphasized in traditional English as a foreign
or second language teaching. In Ukraine English instruction at the university level is usually the
intensive reading course, which implies close study of short passages, including syntactic,
semantic, and lexical analyses along with translation to study meaning. A plausible definition of
extensive reading as a language learning procedure is that it is reading: (1) of larger quantities of
material or longer texts; (2) for general understanding; (3) with the intention of gaining specific
experience and acquiring special information from the text. (4) Extensive reading is
individualized, with students being offered a choice of texts they would want to read; (5) the
texts may or may not be discussed in class.

Text 2-1. PEOPLE ON THE MOVE


(Based on David Graddol‟s English Next. Why global English may mean the end of
English as a Foreign Language)

More people than ever are on the move. Between 1960 and 2000 the total number of
international migrants had doubled to 175 million, representing nearly 3% of the world‘s
population. Many migrants seek a better life in one of the more developed countries which
encourage the immigration of skilled workers to counterbalance their ageing workforce. This is
changing the social and linguistic mix of the destination countries.
For example, London is now widely regarded as the most multilingual city in the world – a
study in 2000 found that children in London schools spoke over 300 languages.
Historically, the movement of people has been the main reason for language spread. It still
has important linguistic consequences today.

1. European migrant workers


Freedom of labour movement within the EU has led to the emergence of new linguistic
communities in many smaller English towns.
After the accession of new countries to the European Union in 2005, Britain elected not to
impose restrictions on migrant workers. The result has been an influx of workers from eastern
Europe, especially Poland. In October 2005 the New York Times reported:
Despite fears across Europe that low-cost workers would steal jobs, multicultural Britain
has absorbed these workers with hardly a ripple . . .Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians and other
Easterners are arriving at an average rate of 16,000 a month . . . Since May 2004, more than
230,000 East Europeans have registered to work in Britain.
In some parts of the UK, this influx has greatly increased demand for ESL classes, even in
remote areas.

2. Returnees
As the economies of developing countries grow, many former economic migrants return –
often with the skills and capital they have acquired overseas. The governments of both China and
India encourage ‗returnees‘ who have become a new social category in these countries, part
envied, part resented. Returnees usually face challenging issues relating to identity. Some family
members of returnees may feel they belong ‗elsewhere‘ – children, for example, who have been
brought up in the USA with English as their first language.
People on the move: Migrant workers. Refugees and asylum seekers. Immigrants.
Tourists, visitors to friends and family. Business workers. International students. Troop
movements, peace-keeping. Emergency aid work, NGOs.

3. Tourism
International tourism is growing, but the proportion of encounters involving a native
English speaker is declining. There were around 763 million international travellers in 2004, but
nearly three-quarters of visits involved visitors from a non-English-speaking country travelling
to a non-English-speaking destination.
This demonstrates the scale of need for face-to-face international communication and a
growing role for global English: English to English – 4%; English to other countries – 12%;
Other countries to English – 10%; Non-English speaking to non-English speaking – 74%.
Tourism is growing, but the majority of human interactions do not involve an English
native speaker. (Data derived from World Tourism Organisation)

4. The redistribution of poverty


One of the legacies of the British Empire is that, in many countries, access to English
remains part of an elitist social process. In the old, modernist model, English proficiency acted as
a marker of membership of a select, educated, middle class group. In a globalised world, English
is much more widely distributed, as is access to education generally. The increasingly important
role that English is now playing in economic processes, in providing access to the kind of global
knowledges available in English and the jobs which involve contact with customers and
colleagues for whom English is the only shared language, has brought with it the danger that
English has become one of the main mechanisms for structuring inequality in developing
economies.
Lack of English in some countries now threatens to exclude a minority rather than the
majority of a population.

5. Expat workers
The stream of migrant workers flowing to richer economies threatens to impoverish the
developing economies they come from – Bangladeshi construction workers in South-East Asia,
Indian entrepreneurs in African countries. This exodus of talent has raised serious concerns.
There is, however, another dimension to this. English is a necessary skill for many of these
workers: for example, Malaysia in 2003 made basic proficiency in English a requirement for all
foreign employees, just as Bangladesh signed an agreement to send 200,000 workers to
Malaysia.
Mexicans working in the USA are estimated to send back 18 billion dollars a year but
remittances are known to be drastically underestimated by official statistics. . In many countries,
remittances from expat workers make a significant contribution to the national economy.
English is widely regarded as a gateway to wealth for national economies, organisations,
and individuals. If that is correct, the distribution of poverty in future will be closely linked to the
distributions of English.
Saudi Arabia, nurses and doctors from Nepal, indicate that the actual flow may be 10 times
or more than that published.
In many countries, such as sub-Saharan African countries, there may be no official
statistics actually collected. In other words, remittance economies are probably of far greater
importance in development than recognised in statistics.
Migrant workers not only remit money, but also often acquire – or maintain during periods
of employment difficulty in their home country – skills and knowledge which they may later
repatriate if the economic situation ‗back home‘ improves.
6. Internal migration
Internal migration to urban areas has a similar impact on rural economies. Workers may
leave their children with grandparents in the country, sending home money which is vital to the
support of not only their own families but also the rural economy as a whole. Such internal flows
of money are even less well documented than international flows but there is a language
implication here also. Many rural migrants seek employment in one of the hospitality industries
where some level of English is expected. Because the language of the city is often different from
that of their home area, new linguistic skills are acquired, and a linguistic conduit established
between the urban and rural varieties. If life in the city goes well, the worker may be joined by
the children who will also acquire new languages.

7. A reserve army of labour offshore


The classic marxist analysis of capitalism argues that maintaining a surplus labour capacity
prevents labour costs from rising.
Offshoring raises fears of increased unemployment but, to some extent, replaces it as a
means of controlling labour costs in developed economies. This is how countries such as India
and China have enabled a period of low inflation with economic growth in the USA and UK, not
just by reducing the cost of goods and services, but also by exerting downward pressure on
wages and reducing the power of trade unions.
Poverty, as well as wealth, is becoming globalised. The impact of globalisation on wealth is
complex: it seems that inequalities are being magnified within all countries, but the gap between
national economies may be narrowing. Access to English may be a contributing factor.
As many developed countries become the destination for migrants, the ethnic mix is
changing and with it fears of the erosion of national identity, as represented in a shared national
language and values.
Anxiety is growing about what appears to be the increasing separateness of some ethnic
communities.
In cities in North America and western Europe, it may not be necessary to be fluent in the
national language in order to find work or obtain access to key services, including shopping,
healthcare and voting.
Ethnic communities may be sufficiently large to be self-sustaining and public services
increasingly cater for linguistic minorities.
There is another side to such separate, parallel lives. In premodernity, there was little
movement of individuals. Aside from periods of mass migration, only particular classes
travelled: some kinds of trader, explorer, soldiers, entertainers, scholar-monks. In modernity,
travel became easier as technology improved. European empires involved much coming and
going, and emigration to the new colonies. During wartime, large numbers of people came into
contact with new cultures and languages. But by and large, once individuals and families moved,
they also moved on, leaving behind old relationships and starting a new life and identity.
We now live in a world in which migrants do not have to break connections with friends
and family to begin the generations-long process of assimilating to a new identity. Not only is it
possible to retain close contact with the ‗home‘ community, on a daily basis via email and
telephone, it is also possible for people to read the same newspapers as those being read in the
community they have left, watch the same television programmes on satellite television, or
borrow the same films on DVD.
Furthermore, we can see with the perspective of the 21st century that patterns of emigration
are now reversable. Chinese or Indian immigrants who intended to make new lives in America –
even adopting citizenship – may none the less return to their native countries, bringing with them
young families who did not grow up there.
Social network ties which were broken in modernity – it was assumed forever – are
everywhere becoming reconnected. The main leisure use of the internet is said to be family
genealogy. Families and communities which were separated generations ago by emigration are
finding each other once again. Third generation immigrants in English-speaking countries are
often keen to learn the heritage languages of their grandparents, creating an important new
motivation for foreign language learning amongst ethnic minority communities in the UK and
USA.
Internet sites such as ‗Friends Reunited‘ allow people who were at school together, or who
worked together, to make contact again. Ties of affiliation are being reconnected, helping to
create a different texture to society: one which is more dispersed and diasporic and less
dependent on geographic proximity for close network ties.
English is at the centre of many globalisation mechanisms. Its future in Asia is likely to be
closely associated with future patterns of globalisation.

Instruction: After almost every text, the first question you should ask is an overview
question about the main idea, main topic, or main purpose of the text. Main idea questions ask
you to identify the most important thought in the text, the main idea or topic of a passage.

Sample Questions
What is the main idea of the passage? Choose the right answer.
(A) Historically, the movement of people has been the main reason for language spread. It
still has important linguistic consequences today.
(B) Freedom of labour movement within the EU has led to the emergence of new linguistic
communities in Britain.
(C) We now live in a world in which migrants do not have to break connections with friends
and family to begin the generations-long process of assimilating to a new identity.
(D) Poverty, as well as wealth, is becoming globalised.
Will patterns of emigration become reversable in the 21st century?
Which line or lines best summarize the author's main idea?
Sample Questions
What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) Lack of English in some countries.
(B) Need for face-to-face international communication and a growing role for global
English.
What does the passage mainly discuss? What is the passage primarily concerned
with?
(A) People on the move.
(B) The impact of globalisation on wealth.

Main purpose questions ask why the author wrote a passage. The answer choices
for these questions usually begin with infinitives.
Sample Questions
• What is the author's purpose in writing this passage?
• What is the author's main purpose in the passage?
• What is the main point of this passage?
• Why did the author write the passage?
Sample Answer Choices
To define_____
To relate_____
To discuss_____
To propose_____
To illustrate_____
To support the idea that_____
To distinguish between _____and______
To compare ____and_____
Main detail questions ask about the most significant information of the passage. To
answer such a question you should point out a line or two in the text.
Sample Questions
What news is emphasized in the passage?
In what line is the most significant information given?
Caution:
Don't answer the initial overview question about a passage until you have answered the
other questions. The process of answering the detail questions may give you a clearer
understanding of the main idea, topic, or purpose of the passage.
The correct answers for main idea, main topic, and main purpose questions correctly
summarize the main points of the passage; they must be more general than any of the supporting
ideas or details, but not so general that they include ideas outside the scope of the passages.
If you're not sure of the answer for one of these questions, go back and quickly scan the
passage. You can usually infer the main idea, main topic, or main purpose of the entire passage
from an understanding of the main ideas of the paragraphs that make up the passage and the
relationship between them.
Unit 2-2. THE COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION

Guidelines for extensive reading of ESP texts


Larger texts are essential for the reading to be "extensive," but there is no regulation on
how much "extensive" is. This variety suggests that quantity of reading is not an absolute
number of hours or pages but depends on a student‘s perceptions of how extensive reading
differs from other reading classes; this will vary according to type of program, level, and other
variables. By aiming at general comprehension, this procedure reduces both teacher demands on
the student and student demands on the text to attain the objectives of fluency and speed as well
as comprehension. Extensive reading must imply a relatively low degree of detail discussion.
Everything must be taken in context: we want students to achieve a degree of understanding
sufficient for contents acquisition. The level of global understanding required varies with the
student's language proficiency, the nature of the text, and other factors.

Text 2-2. THE COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION


(Based on David Graddol‟s English Next. Why global English may mean the end of
English as a Foreign Language)

Technological development is not just transforming the economy, it is also changing


society and global politics. This section explores some key recent developments which are
helping to change attitudes towards, and demand for, languages.

1. Communications technology
The ‗communications revolution‘ has, in many ways, just begun. New communications
media are changing the social, economic and political structure of societies across the world.
In 1997, when David Graddol‘s book The Future of English? was published, the cost of
international telephone calls was falling fast. By the end of the 20th century, the cost of a call
was determined less by distance and duration and more by the extent to which the telecoms
business in a destination country had been liberalised. Countries such as Vietnam were amongst
the most costly to reach from the UK, whereas the English-speaking world had been brought into
close proximity, in terms of ‗teledistance‘.
The world is talking more. In 2004, international calls from fixed lines reached 140 billion
minutes. In 2002, mobile phone connections overtook fixed lines and passed the 2 billion figure
in September 2005.
With the development of voice over internet protocol (VOIP), calls can be made over the
internet across the world at no marginal cost. Such facilities are not only available to large
corporations – making Indian call centres more attractive – but also to ordinary consumers
through schemes such as Skype which, by the end of 2005, claimed to have 50 million users.
VOIP is replacing landline technology, which is expected to be obsolete in the UK by 2010.

2. Text messaging
Short text messages (SMS) have become a major form of communication in Europe and
Asia, especially among young people.
SMS has had several social and political impacts: in the UK new forms of bullying have
emerged; in Germany, it is used to organise mass parties. In 2001, text messaging helped bring
down the Philippines President, Joseph Estrada; in 2005, it helped mobilise participants in the
‗Orange revolution‘ in the Ukraine, and massive anti-Syrian protests in Lebanon after the
assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.

3. Surveillance society
Technology is undermining the traditional distribution of power by redistributing
knowledge. The state builds databases on its citizens; businesses profile the buying habits of
their customers through loyalty cards; surveillance cameras provide data on civil disturbances,
crime, weather and traffic flow; eavesdropping technologies monitor citizens conversations,
email and text messages or comments on websites.
Citizens exploit the same technologies. Internet forums allow shoppers to compare prices
and read consumer reviews; volunteers create databases of the location of speed cameras for use
in car navigation systems; blogs, websites, and webcams allow individuals and small
communities to project and manage their own identities.
The Victorians debated the paradox brought by new communications technologies
(especially the electric telegraph which wired up the world by the end of the 19th century). On
the one hand, it allowed the ‗centre‘ to monitor and control the ‗periphery‘, whether it be the
government in London attempting to control the civil servants in the far reaches of the empire, or
central management controlling staff and rolling stock along the newly built railway lines. But it
also allowed information to be disseminated quickly and more widely inways that were
liberating and empowering to ordinary people.
(A) This „cat and mouse‟ game is likely to continue as technology allows even faster and
more powerful ways of collecting, analysing and communicating information.
Surveillance, censorship and cryptography are now some of the main drivers of language
technology research. International telephone traffic (in billions of international telephone
minutes) has been steadily increasing but may now be levelling off as other channels of
communication are used. (Data from International Telecommunications Union)
The proportion of internet users for whom English is a first language has been decreasing
fast. But is that also true of web content?
In 1998, Geoff Nunberg and Schulze found that around 85% of web pages were in English.
A study by ExciteHome found that had dropped to 72% in 1999; and a survey by the Catalan ISP
VilaWeb in 2000 estimated a further drop to 68%.
It seems that the proportion of English material on the internet is declining, but that there
remains more English than is proportionate to the first languages of users. Estimates from the
Latin American NGO Funredes suggest that only 8–15% of web content in English represents
lingua franca usage. Although it is difficult to estimate how much content is in each of the major
languages, these figures seem to be roughly correct.
This may be simply a time-lag – internet sites in local languages appear only when there
exist users who can understand them. Surveys of bilingual internet users in the USA suggest that
their use of English sites declines as alternatives in their first language become available.
An analysis published in November 2005 by Byte Level Research concluded:
(B) This data makes clear that the next Internet revolution will not be in English. While
English isn‟t becoming any less important on the Internet, other languages, such as Chinese,
Russian, Spanish, and Portuguese, are becoming comparatively more important.
The dominance of English on the internet has probably been overestimated. What began as
an anglophone phenomenon has rapidly become a multilingual affair.
Software has been made capable of displaying many different kinds of script. Many
corporate websites now employ multilingual strategies making choice of language a ‗user
preference‘. Machine translation of web content is only a mouse-click away. And there are many
reasons why the internet, which started as a long-distance, global communications medium, is
now serving much more local interests. Furthermore, the internet is proving to be a very useful
resource to those interested in learning lesser-used languages.
So, a much more important story than the dominance of English lies in the way lesser-used
languages are now flourishing on the internet and how communication is becoming more
multilingual. The proportion of English tends to be highest where the local language has a
relatively small number of speakers and where competence in English is high.
In Holland and Scandinavia, for example, English pages run as high as 30% of the total; in
France and Germany, they account for around 15-20%; and in Latin America, they account for
10% or less. (Geoffrey Nunberg ‗Will the Internet Always Speak English?‘ The American
Prospect) English on the internet is declining.

4. Why English is used less . . .


More non-English speakers use the internet. Many more languages and scripts are now
supported by computer software. The internet is used for local information. Some major uses,
such as eCommerce (Amazon; eBay) are mainly national. Many people use the internet for
informal communication with friends and family. The internet links diasporic linguistic
communities.
Declining use of English on the internet, based on data from the Latin American NGO
Funredes, is more in formal contexts such as chat rooms than in corporate emails, and in contexts
where everyone shares a first language. In other words, the sociolinguistics of the internet is
looking more like that of more conventional modes of communication.
News media offer news in English, and the languages in which global news is provided.
When Al Jazeera started broadcasting from its base in Qatar at the end of 1996, it triggered
a transformation of the international news media. By providing an independent source of news
about events in the Middle East, it managed to discomfort equally both western governments and
those in neighbouring Arab states.
Arabic suddenly became an important language in which to present world news.
A rival news channel, Al Arabiya, began transmitting in 2003 from Dubai, with Saudi
backing. In early 2004, Al Hurra, a new Arabic news channel funded by the US government
began transmitting to 22 Arab countries from its Washington studios.
The BBC, in a major restructuring of its overseas operations in 2005, announced that it
would also be starting a new Arabic TV channel in 2007.
Latin America launched its own, Spanish language, rival to CNN when, on 31 October
2005, Telesur began full broadcasting from Caracas. The network‘s Uruguayan director, Aram
Aharonian, promised Telesur would ‗see Latin America with Latin American eyes, not foreign
eyes‘.
English, however, remains the preferred language for global reach. Al Jazeera plans to go
global in English, establishing regional headquarters in London, Washington and Kuala Lumpur.
By the end of 2005, its English website had become a major source of news for American
internet users and its new English language TV channel started broadcasting in spring 2006.
Russia‘s new government-funded, English-language 24-hour TV channel ‗Russia Today‘ began
broadcasting in December 2005, to North America, Europe and Asia. Even France‘s new global
channel, due by the end of 2006, will broadcast in both French and English, following the
successful bilingual model of the German international channel, Deutsche Welle. And a new
pan-African news channel – using French and English – is planned.

5. Independent journalists and bloggers


Blogs provide news sites in which an author can present their own view of the world,
however local or global that might be. By the end of 2005, there were an estimated 20 million
active blogs worldwide. Some bloggers now act as independent journalists, breaking stories
which are taken up by the mainstream media. Others have acquired large readership for their
blogs and become influential opinion leaders. Blogs also provide a public record of grassroots
experience – for example, the progress of hurricanes across the USA.
Trend analysis shows what people are discussing from day to day. Sites such as ‗Global
Voices‘, based at Harvard University, aggregate data from blogs to supply journalists with an
alternative news feed.
Independent citizen–journalists do not just break stories, but also act as an army of fact-
checkers who will call to account any news source who gets their facts wrong.
Technology also allows mainstream media, such as the BBC, to tap in to citizen news
gatherers. Not only can people around the world file their own accounts of breaking news stories
via the internet, but also upload photos which they have taken with their camera phones.
By the end of 2005, there were an estimated 20 million active blogs worldwide.
Technology is enabling new patterns of communication in ways which have implications
for language patterns.
Anglo-centric technological limitations are largely overcome, allowing practically any
language or script to be used on the internet or in computer software.
As English becomes used more widely as a language of international reach, a greater
diversity of viewpoints are represented. Other world languages, such as Spanish, French and
Arabic, are also being adopted by the new media. Lesser-used languages are flurishing on the
internet.

Instruction: A number of various questions are asked that require an overall understanding
of the passage. These are often the last questions in a set of overview questions.
Tone questions ask you to determine the author's feelings about the topic by the language
that he or she uses in writing the passage. Attitude questions are very similar to tone questions.
Again, you must understand the author's opinion. The language that the author uses will tell you
what his or her position is.
Above are five meaningfully tied paragraphs of variable length containing general
information in the field of communication revolution. For your convenience they are marked
with numbers 1-5. Your task is to understand the texts and determine the authors‘ feelings about
the topics.
Sample Tone Questions
• What tone does the author take in writing this text?
• How could the tone of this text best be described as?
Sample Answer Choices
The following adjectives indicate if the author's feelings are positive, negative, or neutral
• Positive • Humorous • Worried
• Favorable • Negative • Outraged
• Optimistic • Critical • Neutral
• Amused • Unfavorable • Objective
• Pleased • Angry • Impersonal
• Respectful • Defiant
If you read the italicized sentences in paragraph 3, would the tone of this paragraph most
likely be positive or negative? Choose the right descriptors from the list above.
Note: The italicized words in paragraph 3 (A) show a doubtful tone; and the italicized
words indicate a negative attitude. Words like „cat and mouse‟, „Surveillance, censorship and
cryptography‟ and similar words can "reverse" the tone of the passage.

Attitude questions are very similar to tone questions. Again, you must understand the
author's opinion. The language that the author uses will tell you what his or her position is.
Sample Attitude Questions
If you read the italicized phrases in paragraph 3 (B), would the author‘s attitude most likely
be positive or negative? Choose the right descriptors from the list above.
Organization questions ask about the overall structure of a passage or about the
organization of a paragraph.
A Sample Question
Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
Answer Choices
 A general concept is defined and examples are given.
 Several generalizations are presented, from which a conclusion is drawn.
 The author presents the advantages and disadvantages of ... .
 The author presents a system of classification for ... .
 Persuasive language is used to argue against ... .
 The author describes ... .
 The author presents a brief account of ... .
 The author compares_and ....

A Sample Question
 What is the author's attitude toward the growth of the number of non-English users of
the internet and the decline of use of English on the internet?
Questions about previous or following paragraphs ask you to assume how the passages
are organized, what would be the topic of the text. To find the order of the passages, look for
clues in the first lines. To find the topic of the text, look in the last lines.
Sample Questions
 With what topic would the text most likely begin?
 What does the second paragraph most probably discuss?
 Can it be inferred from the text which paragraph is most likely the last one?
Unit 2-3. ENGLISH AS A UNIVERSL LINGUAGE

Guidelines for extensive reading of ESP texts


The extensive reading procedure assumes that students will not only enjoy reading as a
means of enhancing English but will also get into topics of professional interest in the target
language. A few other points on the definition of extensive reading should be clarified. Extensive
reading is not just another reading subskill such as skimming or scanning. This confuses the
whole with its parts. We see extensive reading as a teaching/learning procedure, not a reading
subskill. In this course extensive reading is confined to graded materials. Basing on the
assumption that the students will be actively using the graded Part 2 of the Manual, extensive
reading can be studied more effectively and enjoyably when students use easy material that they
can understand and enjoy professionally. Exactly this is (a) an authentic reader, (b) specially
written for ESL students; and (c) abridged from authentic texts. Strictly speaking, materials in
this category are graded without simplifying the language.

Text 2-3. ENGLISH AS A UNIVERSL LINGUAGE


( After C. Gnutzmann‟s “Can Euro English or English as a European lingua franca
contribute to establishing a European identity?“)

European identity
The EU has recently experienced a major expansion of membership, with new members
waiting to join and with ever-growing trends of migration from both within and outside. Yet,
major players within the EU are now adjusting to the newcomers, still without previously having
really established a clear sense of their own European identities. In this context, we aim at
exploring key issues in the negotiation of identities within the new socio-political, economic and
cultural framework. Key questions will be:
1. What are the main characteristics, mechanisms and dissemination features of neo-
colonial modes of representation in contemporary Europe?
2. How are they received by groups commonly associated with the former periphery, and
how are they shaped by other groups?
The case for considering neo-colonialism in Europe is justified and explained from the
perspective of postcolonial theory, while the context will be examined from the perspective of
EU discourse that reflects its stance on national, regional and ethnic identity and the policies
aimed at encouraging a harmonious bonding of Europe‘s postcolonial, diasporic, multi-cultural,
multi-ethnic and mobile communities. All this includes an investigation of aspects that might be
directly linkable to patterns of European colonialism and/or to related issues of globalization and
diaspora, which still represent a rather marginal area in postcolonial research.
Questions of European identity are much discussed and debated, both in relation to an over-
arching EU identity and in relation to the groups that go to make up the EU. It seems clear that
while a distinct European identity is some way off for many Europeans, within Europe there is
nonetheless a constant quest and a need by many people to re-position themselves, either
consciously or unconsciously, in relation to the changing environment. In this quest to reposition,
the role of language is fundamental on a number of dimensions.
Language is often cited as an essential element in our identity, albeit one among many. On
one level it is crucial as the medium through which groups express their own aspirations and
concerns, as their means to selfexpression and self-image: ―Language allows us to identify our
own place in the world and our own subjectivity. A language is the product of the collective
attitudes and values of a particular group‖. At the same time, language is also the medium
through which people‘s perceptions of others are reflected and is thus a mirror for the biases and
prejudices that they may hold.
On another level, language can be a vital factor in its own right, becoming another actor in
identity construction within debates over language status, language policy and language form.
The EU has of course long appreciated the importance of language in the future success or
otherwise of the EU and has embodied in its own treaties the inviolability of national languages
and the importance of guaranteeing individual language rights within Europe. It has also
increasingly supported Europe‘s minority languages, at least in its own discourse and in its
funding initiatives and both of these positions are reinforced in the Framework Strategy for
Multilingualism (Commission of the European Communities 2005) currently under discussion.
EU philosophy is enshrined in the new Framework Strategy which promotes linguistic and
cultural diversity, stating that:
It is this diversity that makes the European Union what it is: not a ―melting pot‖ in which
differences are rendered down, but a common home in which diversity is celebrated, and where
our many mother tongues are a source of wealth and a bridge to greater solidarity and mutual
understanding. Language is the most direct expression of culture; it is what makes us human and
what gives each of us a sense of identity.

Language issues in the EU


The EU has yet really to acknowledge or come to terms with language issues relating to the
excolonial groups of non-European origin. And, as regards individual nations, both France and
Britain have in recent years come up with some rather clumsy attempts to get to grips with
language differences among their non-indigenous populations—often identifying language as a
cause for social ills. A good example of this was the controversial Bénisti report for a bill on the
prevention of delinquency in France (Commission Prévention du GESI 2004), which provoked
uproar by appearing to identify inability to speak French with problems of social unrest and in its
early stages proposed that mothers should be obliged to speak to their children in French in the
home. And Blackledge shows that in the debate in Britain surrounding the strengthening of
legislation relating to language testing for citizenship the apparently liberal discourse of
politicians and policy-makers links languages other than English, and therefore speakers of these
languages, with civil disorder, school underachievement, social segregation, societal burden,
isolation, unhappy marriage, poor employment prospects, mental health difficulties, lack of
social mobility, and threat to democracy, citizenship and nationhood.
Furthermore, these ideologies gain force as they are debated in increasingly legitimate
settings, and are ultimately enshrined in the least negotiable domain of all, the law.
Language rights and language status issues can easily become a channel for the expression
of wider group grievances or aspirations, especially when a language has been long suppressed
and subjugated to that of a dominating force, whether intra-nationally, as in the case of regional
languages, for example, or cross-nationally, as with the Baltic states. Although sometimes
debates over language can be a diversionary tactic, either conscious or unconscious, to mask
other underlying concerns, because of its identity function, language can become imbued with
immense symbolic potential among groups wanting to reassert their separateness and the right to
control over their own affairs. Our language lets us set our boundaries, lets us differentiate
ourselves from others and, we imagine, has the power to unify. As a result, language can be
endowed with a kind of idealistic potential as a unifying force that will overcome former
divisions–an approach used with both benign and less benign intent according to context. Such a
unifying role, although counter to the stated aims of the European Commission, is often proposed
for English within Europe where increasingly it functions de facto as a lingua franca.
Crucial in discussing linguistic issues in relation to Europe, whether it be from the
perspective of own and others‘ discourse, or in relation to language as actor in identity
negotiation, is the disparity in power between dominant and less dominant groups. While this
may derive from the legacy of what is traditionally understood as colonialism, similar power
disparities also remain as the legacy of over-powerful neighbours, or an overweening state
apparatus in relation to the regions. For the purposes of this volume we have identified three
groups within Europe where power disparities of the kind mentioned above are evident, and
where a neocolonial mentality might be anticipated.
The concept of lingua franca usually denotes a medium of communication between people
each speaking different mother tongues, which means that it is used as an auxiliary or a third
language. According to the defining criterion of ―third language‖, native speakers of English
could not be part of lingua franca communication in English, simply because English would not
be a third language in their case. This position is in line with traditional definitions of lingua
franca and defines EELF interactions ―as interactions between members of two or more different
linguacultures in English, for none of whom English is the mother tongue‖. Thus, failing to meet
the criterion of third language for the use of the English language, e.g. between an Australian and
a Bulgarian at an international meeting, would not fall within the scope of the above-mentioned.

The concepts of Euro English


Although the concepts of Euro English (EE) and English as a European lingua franca
(EELF) have been part of the discourse of applied (socio-)linguistics and language teaching for
more than a decade, it seems quite safe to say that a common understanding of these expressions
has not been reached as yet. A similarly pessimistic statement can probably be made with regard
to the idea of European identity, which, after all, one would assume to be central to the process
of Europeanization within the context of the European Union (EU) although it was not even
explicitly referred to in the final – though by now obsolete – version of the European
Constitution.
Obviously, we are dealing with three ideologically loaded concepts which in order to
become manageable in our discussion, would really need some in-depth historical and systematic
clarification. Since, given the time-frame of this paper, such an endeavour is not realistic the
article will mainly concentrate on a discussion of EE and EELF from an applied sociolinguistic
and pedagogical perspective, also making reference to their possible contribution to European
identity, although no detailed discussion of this concept can be given.
Borneman and Fowler view Europeanization as the result of a new kind and intensity of
European integration brought about as a reaction to the two world wars and the subsequent cold-
war division of East and West (―Europeanization‖, 487). In accordance with these authors, the
process of Europeanization, in spite of its being instigated and driven by the EU administrations
and organisations, must be distinguished from the political body of the EU, neither of which is in
a position to replace the nation-states of Europe at present. Nonetheless, the nations ―are now
being brought into new relations with each other‖.
The paper will proceed as follows: following the introduction, it offers some thoughts on
plurilingualism in Europe, which in the Common European Framework (CEF) (Council of
Europe 2001) is put forward as the Council of Europe‘s official language policy statement and
favoured approach to language learning, not least because plurilingualism is seen as a viable
alternative, if not an antidote to compensate for the widespread use of English in Europe.
Since English is extensively used as a de facto lingua franca in Europe, at least in
Continental Europe (and London), the concept of lingua franca and its definition will be dealt
further on. Although the term EE (Euro English) in this paper is employed more or less
synonymously with EELF, EE seems to suggest that there exists some kind of English with its
own characteristic structures and functions; a kind of English that is specifically European in
flavour–the phenomenon of linguistic transference from the various European languages has also
been identified by some researchers as a marker of Euro-English. The term Euro English also
implies, more perhaps than EELF does, that EE could be considered as a linguistic variety in its
own right, similar perhaps to English as a Second Language (ESL) varieties such as Singapore or
Indian English.
Drawing on the general, reciprocal relationship between language and culture the question
that is pursued is whether EELF is possibly reflective of (a) European culture and (b) whether
EELF can contribute to establishing a European identity. If the latter should turn out to be the
case one might want to ask whether the potential identity creating function of EELF could lead to
questioning the European Council‘s policy on plurilingualism and the concomitant principle of
cultural diversity although, at present, plurilingualism and cultural diversity are seen as the main
pillars of official European language policy and of European identity viewed from a
linguacultural perspective.

Plurilingualism in Europe: uniting cultural diversity and reducing the dominance of


English?
Undoubtedly, the English language serves as the main medium of communication in and
across Europe, among native speakers, between native and non-native speakers of English, but
above all among non-native speakers of different first languages and varying cultural
backgrounds.
Although English is now used widely and for many purposes the status of the language
with regard to its function as a European lingua franca still remains unclear. It is a well-known
fact that, from a language policy perspective, English is not recognised as an official European
lingua franca. In the Common European Framework (CEF) for example, plurilingualism,
characterised as aiming at ―reducing the dominant position of English in international
communication‖ (Council of Europe 2001: 4), is advocated instead.
From a communicative as well as from a political perspective, proficiency in several
languages is considered to be a highly desirable aim because this ability increases a person‘s
communicative range in an international context, it confers prestige and it can be a most decisive
criterion for a successful job application. In addition, multilingual competence is assumed to
overcome the limits of the mother tongue as well as to emphasise and value diversity in language
and culture. Not surprisingly, one of the main principles underlying the propagation of
plurilingualism by the Council of Europe is ―that the rich heritage of diverse languages and
cultures in Europe is a valuable common resource to be protected and developed‖ (Council of
Europe 2001).
For this reason the major aim of the Council of Europe is ―to convert that diversity from a
barrier to communication into a source of mutual enrichment and understanding‖ (ibid.).
However, advocating diversity unreservedly can also be seen as a debilitating factor with regard
to EU language policy and practice. It is sometimes just not very practical, because its
advantages are not properly weighed up against its disadvantages. This has led critics to question
the idea ―that the great diversity of languages and cultures as such is a good thing and that,
consequently, its present manifestation in the EU represents a great richness, a treasure that
should be defended at all costs‖ (van Els 2000).
Despite this criticism, the ability to understand other cultures and to communicate across
cultures is to be regarded as a key feature of European citizenship and European identity. In
order to achieve such intercultural understanding, i.e. being able to communicate in a foreign
language and to appreciate the culture represented by this other language, requires more than just
developing linguistic knowledge in that language.
For this reason the Council of Europe‘s CEF recommends that a strong emphasis should be
put on the cultural dimension of the European languages.
By its proponents, the idea of plurilingualism is viewed as a historically ―natural‖ and
politically balanced response to the question of how to come to grips with linguistic diversity in
Europe. However, in reality this concept turns out to be a very idealistic one and poses questions
with regard to its practical implementation in language teaching and learning. It is precisely for
this reason that English in its lingua franca function has become so popular within the European
Union. On the other hand, due to its ubiquitous use, English has also been very much felt as a
culturally biased and ideologically loaded medium that has possibly come into being as a result
of Anglo-American neo-colonial policies.

Instruction: It is vital to identify the main point of each paragraph of the text and collect
circumstantial evidence in separate passages. When analyzing each paragraph of the text you
mostly rely on circumstantial evidence. Circumstantial evidence is evidence not drawn from the
direct observation of a fact. If, for example, Europeanization is viewed as a reaction to the two
world wars and the subsequent cold-war division of East and West, then there is circumstantial
evidence that European nations are now developing new relations with each other.

Overview questions ask you to determine the author‘s attitude to a specific item, the main
topic of a passage, the author's main point, the primary purpose of a passage, the organization of a
passage, etc. Before answering a variety of overview questions about short passages, read the
passages and mark possible answer choices.
Sample Questions
How would the author feel about a statement that a common understanding of EFL has
not been reached as yet?
Which of the following recommendations would the author most likely support?
A. To investigate all aspects that might be directly linkable to patterns of European
colonialism.
B To reduce human activities in favor of biodiversity.
C. To guarantee individual language rights within Europe.
D. To emphasise and value diversity in language and culture.

The author would be LEAST likely to agree with which of the following statements?
A. Neo-colonialism in Europe is not justified and explained from the perspective of
postcolonial theory.
B. Language is a minor element in European identity.
C. The idea of plurilingualism is viewed as a historically ―alien‖ and politically
unbalanced response to the question of how to come to grips with linguistic diversity in Europe.
The tone of the passage could best be described as (choose the right words):
 objective, optimistic, angry, humorous, critical, threatening, neutral.
Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
Too specific. Chaotic. Too general. Logically structured. Incorrect.
Irrelevant. Correct. Not clear. Well organized.
The attitude of the author could best be described as
(A) objective
(B) optimistic
(C) angry
(D) humorous
Point out one most characteristic line that best summarizes the author's attitude.
 What is the author's main point in the passage?
 What is the main topic of this passage?
 What is the main idea of the passage?
 What does the passage mainly discuss?
 Why did the author write this passage?
Sample Answer Choices
This author's main purpose in writing is to ...
The passage mainly concerns ...
The main idea of this passage is that ...
The primary purpose of this passage is to ...
The passage primarily deals with ...
The passage mainly discusses ...
The main topic of this passage is ...
The passage primarily deals with ...
The tone of the passage could best be described as
(A) objective
(B) optimistic
(C) angry
(D) humorous
Unit 2-4. MULTILINGUALISM

Guidelines for extensive reading ESP texts


Extensive reading as a teaching procedure cannot be considered without reference to the
transfer of L1 reading ability. So far, the only explanation of why extensive reading is effective
is that it replicates the process by which we learn to read in our native language, that is,
prolonged practice. If so, then an understanding of how and how much L1 reading ability
transfers to L2 would help us build a model of extensive reading. Optimal processing strategies
may vary among languages because of syntactical differences between L1 and L2. E.g., function
words in Russian or Ukrainian may affect comprehension in a totally different way than in
English.
Another problem in processing a foreign language text is the reader's background
knowledge of and experience with textual organization. Ukrainian scientists may be confused by
specialized texts in English because the conceptual structure of such works is different in the two
languages. Further, even typographic layout (subtitles, headings, and indentation) is so different
between Ukrainian and English as to cause problems for Ukrainian readers.

Text 2-4. POLYLINGUALISM, MULTILINGUALISM, PLURILINGUALISM


(Based on the Toolkit for Transnational Communication in Europe. Copenhagen Studies in
Bilingualism. University of Copenhagen, 2011)

Polylingualism
The concepts of monolingualism, bilingualism, and multilingualism build on the notion of
languages as separate sets of features which can be distinguished from each other and counted. In
bilingualism speakers know two such languages, i.e. they have acces to and competence in using
two different sets of linguistic features in interaction.
However, over the past decades sociolinguistics has criticized the traditional concept of
languages as separate and separable sets of features. The idea of separate languages as bounded
systems of specific linguistic features belonging together and excluding other linguistic features
is found to be insufficient to capture the reality of language use, at least in late modern
superdiverse societies (Vertovec 2010), and perhaps altogether. Instead the concepts of
languages as separable entities are seen as sociocultural constructions which certainly are
important, but rarely represent real-life language use.
This has led to several new concepts of the relationship between people and languages, and
to different terminology with respect to behavior which involves features associated with
different languages. Where the multilingualism perspective views people's competences and
behaviors in terms of "how many languages" they know and use, recently the understanding has
developed that people will also use features associated with languages of which they know very
little (Rampton 1995, Otsuji & Pennycook 2009, Jørgensen et al. 2011).
Bailey comments on this in his "heteroglossic" approach to language. Approaching
monolingualism and bilingualism as socially constructed does not change their social force at the
level of lived experience, but it does show that this social force is not a function of formal, or
inherent linguistic differences among what counts as languages (Bailey 2007).
Different terms have been used for the practices through which speakers employ features
associated with different languages, in particular several different languages, some of which the
speakers do not know very well. For instance, Otsuji & Pennycook use the term
metrolingualism, and Jørgensen et al. 2011 use the term polylingualism. The view of language
use is the same, namely that there are no linguistic restrictions on what can be combined in real-
life language production, but there are social restrictions which are related to political and
ideologically motivated norms.
Linguistic behavior is often regimented by ideological norms of language use, in particular
ideas of "pure" language, so-called monolingualism norms which prescribe the restricted use of
features only belonging to "one" languge at a time (Jørgensen 2010). In real life people regularly
use features associated with different languages, however, and such behavior (so-called code-
switching) has been the object of intense study in sociolinguistics. The behaviors have been
regimented by the multilingualism norm.
The monolingualism norm. Persons with access to more than one language should be sure
to master one of them before getting involved with the other.
The (double or) multiple monolingualism norm. Persons who command two or more
languages should at any one time use only one language, and they should use each in a way that
does not differ from monolingual usage.
The integrated (bi- or) multilingualism norm. Persons who command two languages are
encouraged to employ their full linguistic competence in two or more different languages at any
given time adjusted to the needs and the possibilities of the conversation, including the linguistic
skills of the interlocutors.
The polylingualism norm. Language users employ whatever linguistic features are at their
disposal to achieve their communicative aims as best they can, regardless of how well they know
the involved languages; this entails that the language users may know - and use - the fact that
some of the features are perceived by some speakers as not belonging together.
The term polylingualism refers to a view of language based on features. Languages in this
view are sociocultural constructions. Speakers use features and not "languages". At times this
will entail using features side by side which are associated with different languages.
Furthermore, it involves the possible use of features not generally considered to belong to a
language to which the speaker has access, i.e. a language the speaker does not "know". This does
not mean that all speakers can use all language – speakers are restricted by sociocultural norms
of language behavior, by dynamics of power, ideology, and by different access to resources. In a
range of situations, however, they will use features "belonging to different languages", even
when they only know very few items from some of these "languages".

Multilingualism
The notion of multilingualism is commonly taken to refer to the knowledge and use of two and
more languages in the individual and in society at large. No clear distinction is made in this
context between bilingualism and multilingualism since the focus is not restricted to two
languages.
One reason for this vagueness can be seen in that research on bilingualism has traditionally
focused upon two languages while, at the same time, also including the study of more than two
languages, which were seen through a bilingual lens, however. It was only in the 1980es with
increasing globalization and growing multiculturalism in society that multilingualism gained
momentum, which eventually led to expanding the binary paradigm of bilingualism through
rethinking language, culture and identity in more dynamic and flexible terms.
The traditional understanding of languages as distinctly identifiable entities came to be
seriously questioned and critics argued that conceiving of bi- and multilingualism simply as a
collective container of separate parallel monolingualisms could no longer be maintained (cf.
Martin-Jones 2007). In recent publications, bilingualism is often taken to include multilingualism
(cf. Wei 2010) or multilingualism is in turn used to include bilingualism (cf. Pavlenko 2005).
Alternatively, both terms are used in conjunction to indicate the distinctiveness and yet similarity
of bi- and multilingualism.
Over the last two decades, the issue of multilingualism has come to be assigned increasing
political importance. This holds true for the European context, and particularly for the European
Union. Here, the requirements of advancing Europeanization and the move towards upholding
European cultural and linguistic diversity resulted in a conception of multilingualism as a
political strategy which would ensure the Union's cultural and economic integration into a
transnational community. The ideology of diversity suggested that a transnational community
necessitates a pluralistic language regime based upon the principle of equality, which allows for
democratic participation while at the same time forming the ground for a common European
identity.
Recent studies on the major principles that actually guide the central assumptions
concerning multilingualism in Europe reveal that the foundations of the concept are debatable
since there is a wide-spread tendency to conceptualize multilingualism as a simple addition of
the various languages, i.e. preferably the big national languages, while a great many languages
stemming from regional minorities and recent immigration are neglected in this conception.
At the same time, assumptions of this kind imply a severe blending of language, identity
and culture which, again, suggests that the languages are connected to homogeneous speech
communities, identities and cultures. This, however, leaves little room for the dynamic
realizations of the connections between culture, identity and language as they appear to be
currently conditioned by Europeanization, globalization and migration within the late-modern
European society. Needless to say, the nation-state ideology still continues to prevail in these
assumptions and that the step towards multilingualism beyond the nation-state has as yet not
been taken.
Another critical point is that multilingualism is put to the service of contradicting interests
such as linguistic equality and the respect of human rights on the one hand, and market-based
capitalization of languages on the other. The principle of equality of languages implies that all
speakers should have the right to use their languages, suggesting that minorities have an equal
share within the European diversity framework. At the same time, multilingualism as an
economic capital appears to be essentially restricted to a few powerful languages which are to
ensure mobility, market efficiency and competitiveness. The multiple linguistic resources of the
minorities, and particularly the immigrant minorities, in turn, are largely silenced in this
conception.
Examples of this kind show that to date the meaning of 'multilingualism' remains vague and
leaves scope for conflicting and inconsistent interpretations on how to shape a pluralistic regime
in Europe. Moreover, they indicate that managing linguistic diversity in terms of
'multilingualism' appears to experience great difficulty in adapting to minorities and to newly
emerging patterns of migration.

Plurilingualism
Plurilingualism is another concept of the relationship between people and languages.
Similarly to polylingualism it refuses the idea of languages as separate and separable linguistic
entities. Like the term multilingualism, plurilingualism has been used for individual and societal
phenomena as well, although it has a clear focus on the individual dimension of languages since
it is sometimes even understood as individual (as opposed to societal) multilingualism.
The development of plurilingualism is interpreted in different ways:
 It may be interpreted as one of the terminological consequences of the European Union's
enhanced emphasis on multilingual education (e.g. Jessner 2008).
 Others consider the use of plurilingualism as a terminological choice characteristic of
Francophone research, whereas Anglophone researchers tend not to differentiate
terminologically between societal and individual multilingualism (e.g. Kemp 2009, De Cillia
2008).
 Most frequently, plurilingualism has become associated with the Council of Europe's
language policy, see chapter 1.3 of the Common European Framework of Reference (Council of
Europe 2001). The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is very clear
about the integrative and intercultural nature of plurilingualism in conceiving of plurilingual
competence as a complex competence which is fed by all linguistic knowledge as well as by the
linguistic and cultural experiences of the individual.
 In this conceptualization, the components relating to the single languages are not to be
seen as being stored separately, but rather as parts of the plurilingual and pluricultural
competence. Despite the Council's focus on plurilingualism, there is no clear division between
the EU using multilingualism (and hence suggesting an additive framework) and the Council of
Europe's plurilingualism. To give an example, the term "multilingualism" may even imply that
the conceptual basis of plurilingualism is at stake, which is the case in some of the European
Union's language policy documents (e.g. COM 2003).
If one starts out from the conceptualization of plurilingualism mentioned above and goes
beyond the terminological debate, one can follow that "plurilingual" which is frequently
associated with "pluricultural" competence implies paradigmatic changes at various levels:
 A holistic, multiple, dynamic, and individual vision replaces a segmented vision of
language skills.
 The focus is on disequilibrium and partial competence rather than on balance of skills.
 The importance of circulations, mediations and passages between languages and cultures
are highlighted instead of separateness (see Coste & Moore 2009).
It seems that these changes are most evident in the domain of multilingual education and
that in this domain a new theoretical frame is actually emerging which more or less explicitly
integrates plurilingualism. To give an example, Garcia's typology of bilingual education opens
up new perspectives on multilingual education in this sense: She assumes that monoglossic
ideologies do not cover the actual linguistic complexity, which cannot be seen through a
traditional "diglossic lens" (García 2009).
In her view heteroglossic ideologies differ from the monoglossic ones in so far as they start
out from multilingualism and go beyond the conception of two separate autonomous languages
that prevails in additive or subtractive bilingualism models (both pertaining to the monoglossic
ideologies). Within the heteroglossic ideologies she develops the recursive and dynamic
theoretical framework. The latter, which she explicitly relates to the Council of Europe's concept
of plurilingualism, is seen as the most appropriate model for multilingual education. The link to
polylingualism and translanguaging is more than obvious:
"If we focus then not on separate languages as we have done in the past, but on the
bilingual or multilingual discourse practices that we need and that are readily observable in
bilingual classrooms, we can see that bilingual arrangements that build on translanguaging, (...),
is indeed the only way to build the plurilingual abilities that we will need in the future" (García
2009: 297).

Instruction: Explication of facts and details given in the text. Factual or detail questions
ask about explicit facts and details given in the passage. To answer factual questions, you have to
locate and identify the information that the question asks about. Negative questions ask you to
determine which of the choices is not given in the passage. These questions contain the words
NOT, EXCEPT, or LEAST. Scanning questions ask you to find where in the passage some
particular information or transition is located. They are easy to identify: the answers are usually
found in the line of the text. If you are not sure from your first reading where to look for specific
answers, use the following scanning techniques.

• Focus on one or two key words as you read the stem of each question. Lock these words
in your mind.
• Scan the passage looking for the key words or their synonyms. Look only for these words.
Do NOT try to read every word of the passage.
• It may help to focus your attention. Don't reread the passage completely—just look for
key words.
• When you find the key words in the passage, carefully read the sentence in which they
occur. You may have to read the sentence preceding or following that sentence as well.
• Compare the information you read with possible answer choices.
The order of facts or details in the text almost always follows the order in which ideas are
presented in the passage. In other words, the opening information you need will usually come
near the beginning of the passage; the next factual information will follow that, and so on.
Knowing this should help you locate the information you need. Correct definitions of details are
seldom the same, word for word, as information in the passage; they often contain synonyms and
use different grammatical structures.

Factual Questions
What did Vertovec observe while studying modern superdiverse societies?
 (A) Bounded systems of specific linguistic features in separate languages.
 (B) Languages are separate sets of features which can be distinguished from each
other and counted.
 (C) People use features associated with languages of which they know very little.

What terms have been used for the practices through which speakers employ features associated
with different languages?
What ideological norms of language use is linguistic behavior often regimented by?
What does the term polylingualism refer to?
Where in the passage does the author first discuss "pluricultural" competence?
Where in the passage does the author specifically stress that multilingualism serves contradicting
interests?
In what paragraph does the author first mention the ideology of diversity?

Scanning questions
Scanning questions are usually easy to answer. Use the same techniques for scanning given
about detail questions. For each question, locate that part of the passage in which the answer will
probably be found, and write it out. Don't worry about answering the question itself, only about
finding the information. Do these scanning questions as fast as you can.
Sample Questions
 Is there another concept of the relationship between people and languages.?
 What is the term for using in real life features associated with different languages?
 What has plurilingualism become associated with?

Negative questions
Negative questions often take more time to answer than other questions. Therefore, you may
want to guess and come back to these questions if you have time. Scan the passage to find the
answers that ARE correct or ARE mentioned in the passage. Sometimes the three distractors NOT,
EXCEPT, or LEAST are clustered in one or two sentences; sometimes they are scattered
throughout the passage. The correct answer, of course, is the one that does not appear.
Sample Questions
According to the passage, only one of the following is true: The development of
plurilingualism is interpreted in different ways. (A) It may be interpreted as one of the
terminological consequences of the European Union's enhanced emphasis on multilingual
education. (B) Most evident paradigmatic changes at various levels of multilingual education.
(C) The principle of equality of languages. Which choice is true?
Unit 2-5. LANGUAGES BEYOND BOUNDARIES

Guidelines for extensive reading of ESP texts


The students' main task is reading, but writing summaries is valuable not only to provide a
means for teachers to check comprehension, but because the writing of summaries improves
comprehension. In addition, this practice helps students improve their writing ability. Another
task that can be adapted for extensive reading is the "standard exercise," a set of open-ended
questions that can be designed to suit most texts available to students in a course. Students also
have some responsibility for determining the appropriateness and comprehensibility of the texts
they are reading. One means of doing this is checking dictionary use: too much necessary use
shows that the text is too difficult. Too much unnecessary use shows that the student's approach
is not appropriate for extensive reading. In any case, a poor or inappropriate text is not the
disaster it can help in a translation or skills-building course because in the extensive reading
procedure reading is individualized: if a text proves to ' be uninteresting or too difficult, the
student simply abandons it for another. In other words, readability or comprehensibility is an
element of the course rather than a precondition, and is determined by the techniques of this
procedure.

Text 2-5. LANGUAGES BEYOND BOUNDARIES


(Based on Virginie Mamadouh‟s article in the Toolkit for Transnational Communication in
Europe. Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism. University of Copenhagen, 2011)

1. Borders - Borderlands – Boundaries (after Virginie Mamadouh)


Linguistic similarities and differences produce social boundaries. Some boundaries are
more important than others. State borders, which are primarily politically constructed territorial
boundaries, are particularly important because the modern state has developed into the
hegemonic political institution exercising its internal and external sovereignty. Territorial
modern states have also regulated linguistic practices in their bounded territory, and linguistic
characteristics have often been used as key markers to mobilize people as a nation within an
existing state or alternatively to secede from an existing state and establish a separate state. As a
result, state borders often coincide with linguistic boundaries and they reinforce each other. In
multilingual states, language arrangements are often territorial, delimitating juxtaposed
monolingual regions. In those cases administrative borders might reinforce linguistic boundaries.
Geographers traditionally distinguish between subsequent, antecedent, and superimposed
boundaries. In the first case, the boundary has been drawn after a population established itself. It
follows an existing cultural (linguistic) divide. In the second case the state boundary has been
drawn first and different groups (i.e. people sharing similar cultural features like a language)
settled later at the different sides of the boundary. In the third case, the state boundary has been
established later and crossed existing patterns.
In Europe we find extremely old state boundaries (Portugal/Spain, Spain/France) and
extremely recent ones (Kosovo/Serbia). Some states have been established as a response to
national territorial claims based on national and linguistic identities: for example Slovenia,
Slovakia or Kosovo. In other cases, linguistic boundaries followed old political boundaries: the
limes of the Roman Empire as boundaries between Germanic and Romance languages. Yet in
more numerous cases, state boundaries have been drawn across existing linguistic communities,
and subsequent processes of state formation and nation building have either homogenized
linguistically and culturally the population of the state or created ethnic minorities. European
borderlands vary greatly linguistically.
Some state boundaries are clear cut linguistic boundaries (Spain/Portugal, although this is
not true if Galician is conceived as a variant of Portuguese); others typically separate linguistic
minorities from the main state where the language is spoken (for example Slovenian speakers in
Italy and Austria, Hungarian speakers in Transylvania, German speakers in Poland and the
Czech Republic), Finnish Speakers in Northern Sweden, Swedish speakers on the Åland islands
and in Southern Finland, or linguistic minorities in both states (Basque speakers in Spain and
France, Catalan speakers in the same two countries).
Finally some state boundaries separate states sharing the same language (like Austria and
Germany, Belgium and France, Belgium and the Netherlands), while strongly institutionalized
territorial linguistic boundaries (like the one between Flanders and Wallonia or the one between
Southern and Northern Cyprus) are no established (official) state boundaries.
Both Europeanization and globalization have dramatically transformed the role of state
borders. The European integration project aims at removing barriers to communication and
mobility at the borders between Member States. By definition, globalization process implies the
intensification of (long distance) cross-border relations. In this context, linguistic similarities
between groups on both sides of an existing state border can be instrumental in fostering cross-
border encounters and initiatives.
Nevertheless, different institutional experiences may have created or expanded
differences in vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics, between linguistic groups at both sides of the
border and have generated asymmetrical power relations (for an extreme example see Stevenson
2002 for the impact of the division and the reunification of Germany on the German language).
In other cases new states magnify small differences between language varieties to establish their
national language (for example Norwegian standards versus Danish, and more recently efforts to
accentuate and systematise the differences between Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and
Montenegrin).
Geographers generally distinguish between borderlands according to the degree to which
each borderland is integrated in its state territory and the degree to which both sides of the border
are integrated with each others. The ideal embodied by the European integration project and
more specifically the European Union is that of fully integrated borderlands. The Interreg
programme of the European Commission does support this specific kind of cross-border
integration and also impact on borderlands linked by a common language.
Finally both Europeanization and globalization have also stimulated international
migration making linguistic superdiversity a key characteristic of contemporary urban regions
and creating linguistic boundaries inside cities (sometimes linked to micro-territories dominated
by a specific linguistic group) and transforming them in linguistic borderlands where similar
communication strategies might be deployed as in communication crossing state borders.

2. Languages of Regional Communication or ReLan (after the article by Rudi


Janssens, Virginie Mamadouh, László Marácz in the Toolkit for Transnational
Communication in Europe. Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism. University of Copenhagen,
2011)
Languages can be classified according to the scope of the communication they enable. It
is customary to talk of languages of local or of global communication. In the realm in between
we distinguish Languages of Regional Communication (ReLan). We define "regional" here as
communication beyond the realm of the local community.
A specific category of ReLan consists of Standard Languages institutionalized by
political authorities as the official languages on their territories (the so-called official or national
languages). Nevertheless we are particularly interested in ReLan amidst linguistic diversity,
either in multilingual regions when different language groups coexist or in transnational
communication. The region might be a borderland divided by state or administrative borders
(such as Tyrol) or a macro-region composed of multiple states (like Scandinavia or Central
Europe). These transnational ReLan are especially relevant when state borders become porous,
making transnational encounters more frequent due to globalization and Europeanization
processes.
In addition we propose a typology of ReLan on the basis of the prevalence of non-native
speakers involved in the communicational situation. Firstly, when the speakers involved are
almost exclusively L1-speakers of the regional language, we speak of a Regional Vernacular
Language (ReVer). When L2 speakers are predominant in the regional communicational
encounters and have the ownership of the language (and not L1 speakers or institutions
represented them), we speak of Regional Lingua Franca (ReLF). In the more balanced cases,
we speak of a regional vehicular language, for which we use the acronym ReLoC (Regional
Language of Communication as opposed to Regional Languages of Identification).
This typology can be illustrated with the example of German, which is also a national
language (NL) of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Belgium and a native language of many of
the majority of the inhabitants of the first three states in the list. German is also a ReVer, a
Regional Vernacular in a much wider region, including L1-speakers in Germany, Austria,
Switzerland, borderlands in France (Alsace), Denmark, Belgium, Italy (South Tyrol), Poland
(Silesia) and the Czech Republic and in Transylvania.
In addition German is a Regional Vehicular (ReLoC) when it is used as a language of
communication in Central Europe when an L1 speaker from the German lands meets a Central
European, i.e. Czech, Slovak, Pole or Hungarian speaking German as an L2. Finally, German
can become a ReLF when it is the language of communication of a Dutch, Czech, Pole or
Hungarian or other L2-speakers of German in the Central European macro region.
There are many ReLan in Europe, especially in regions crossing political borders (state
borders or linguistic relevant administrative borders). Some are mainly ReVer (like Catalan
along the French Spanish border or Hungarian in the Carpathian Basin), other mainly Regional
Vehicular or ReLoC (Czech in former Czechoslovakia or Serbian in former Yugoslavia) and
other ReLF (like French in Southeastern Europe, Russian in former Eastern Europe, and English
increasingly everywhere in Europe). ReLF could also adequately describe a situation of mutual
intelligibility between languages in a region, like between Danish, Norwegian (Bokmål) and
Swedish in the Nordic countries ("Scandinavian" as ReLF).
In addition, one could argue that in most European states where the rights of linguistic
minorities are guaranteed the state National Languages have become Regional Vehiculars
(ReLoC) rather than ReVer, while they have become even ReLF negotiated by speakers of
different L1 in those metropolitan regions where a condition of superdiversity prevails. To give a
German example again, German is a ReLF in Hamburg or Berlin among teenagers of various
ethnic and linguistic background. Similarly Catalan is becoming with the "normalization"
policies of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia a ReLoC rather than a ReVer, and
combined with the increasing international migration to Barcelona, even a ReLF.

3. Tool(s) – Toolkit (after Virginie Mamadouh)


Conventional understandings of languages as separate entities, and of language speakers
as, either mother tongue (L1) speakers, or foreign language (L2) speakers, are too simplistic to
provide a proper account of the diversity of observed encounters in multilingual contexts.
When individuals are labelled as plurilingual individuals or linguistic situations as
multilingual encounters, misconceptions are common and outdated. While it used to be common
(and often still is among monolinguals) to expect a bilingual person to speak both languages as
L1, it is now widely acknowledged that competences in the two languages might be partly
overlapping and complementary and asymmetrical. Likewise multilingual encounters are more
diverse than the stereotypical interaction between a L1 speaker and a L2 speaker. They include
also encounters of speakers with different L1 using a common language of communication and
users with differentiated competences in a language.
The linguistic tools available to individuals include not only different languages (like
English or German) and different styles or genres (appropriate for different situations), but also
different modes. Beyond the formal mode of a standardized language (these are generally
languages supported by state institutions and formal education as national and/or as foreign
languages, NL and FL), modes of communication include lingua franca (LF), code switching
(CS) and lingua receptiva (LaRa).
In the LF mode, the common language is negotiated between interlocutors according to
their linguistic background and to the situation, and language norms are neglected (whether
norms transmitted/imposed through foreign language formal education or through formal and
informal interactions with L1 speakers). In the CS mode, speakers switch between different
languages to convey content, assuming their interlocutor(s) can understand these elements. In the
LaRa mode, speakers speak different languages and have enough passive knowledge of the other
language(s) to understand each other.
Other tools include auxiliary languages (like Esperanto), the aid of mediators (human
ones like translators and interpreters, or manufactured ones like dictionaries and automatic
translating devices), cognitive resources regarding (intercultural and interlingual) communication
in general and the cultural and linguistic background of one's interlocutor in particular (for
example if one knows of typical pronunciation deviance, different ways of using tenses or
unfamiliarity with prepositions or with gendered names), as well as attitudes towards
multilingualism (such as flexibility, open mind).
The Toolkit aims at developing scientific and public knowledge about the use of these
different tools of communication and focuses especially on (combinations involving) two types
of languages of wider communication (these are languages with sizeable numbers of L2
speakers): English and Languages of (cross-border) Regional Communication (ReLan), and three
types of modes: LF, CS and LaRa.
Subsequently it aims at raising awareness among interlocutors potentially involved in
multilingual encounters and organizations that have to depend on multilingual encounters and
regulate them (businesses, universities, EU institutions and agencies, civil society transnational
organizations, translation and interpreter companies, etc.) regarding the possibilities of modes
other than standardized foreign languages. Finally, it aims at drawing conclusions for the
improvement of language teaching in formal education and beyond, to enable individual EU
citizens to use more creatively and effectively their linguistic resources (or repertoire).

Instruction: Making inferences and understanding indirect information given in the text.
There are questions that require you to make inferences. The answers to these questions are not
directly provided in the passage – you must "read between the lines." In other words, you must
make conclusions based indirectly on information in the passage. Many text readers find it
difficult to infer why the author of a text mentions some piece of information, or includes a quote
from a person or a study, or uses some particular word or phrase.

Sample questions:
Read the following paragraph:
Territorial modern states have also regulated linguistic practices in their bounded
territory, and linguistic characteristics have often been used as key markers to mobilize people as
a nation within an existing state or alternatively to secede from an existing state and establish a
separate state. As a result, state borders often coincide with linguistic boundaries and they
reinforce each other. In multilingual states, language arrangements are often territorial,
delimitating juxtaposed monolingual regions. In those cases administrative borders might
reinforce linguistic boundaries.
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) National governments impose titular languages upon the population.
(B) People are forced to speak the official language within the state borders.
(C) In multilingual states, local languages are limited by regional borders.
(D) Administrative borders coincide with linguistic boundaries.

Sample questions:
Read the following paragraph:
The linguistic tools available to individuals include not only different languages (like
English or German) and different styles or genres (appropriate for different situations), but also
different modes. Beyond the formal mode of a standardized language (these are generally
languages supported by state institutions and formal education as national and/or as foreign
languages, NL and FL), modes of communication include lingua franca (LF), code switching
(CS) and lingua receptiva (LaRa).
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) Languages supported by state institutions and formal education present a formal mode.
(B) Lingua franca (LF), code switching (CS) and lingua receptiva (LaRa) are available to
individuals as speech styles.
Which of the following would be the right guess about ReLoC?
(A) German is a Regional Vehicular (ReLoC) when it is used as a language of
communication by a Dutch, Czech, Pole or Hungarian or other L2-speakers of German in the
Central European macro region.
(B) French is a Regional Vehicular or ReLoC in former Czechoslovakia or former
Yugoslavia.

Sample purpose questions


 Why does the author propose a typology of ReLan?
 Why does the author refer to boundaries, borders, and borderlands?

Sample Answer Choices:


The author refers to ... / The author describes ... / The author uses the phrase ... / The
phrase ___proves that ... /The phrase ___is mentioned to illustrate that ...
to indicate that
to strengthen the argument that
to provide an example of
to challenge the idea that
to contradict
to support the proposal to
to illustrate the effect of
to make it easy for the reader to understand how
Unit 2-6. ENGLISH IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

Guidelines for extensive reading ESP texts


There are good reasons for using the extensive reading procedure much more than it has
been used before. One could argue that students "learn to read by reading"' and that
"comprehension will take care of itself". In other words, students with a certain level of ability in
English can learn to read by extensive reading alone. Reading ability can improve as much with
extensive reading as with skills training. At present, we cannot claim that extensive reading is
sufficient for most ESP students to learn to read special English. Most likely, skills/strategies
training is also necessary. However, current reading instruction centering on skills/strategies
training also is not sufficient, because students do not spontaneously apply the skills presented in
skill lessons: instruction and activities to encourage the development and automatic use of
comprehension skills must be incorporated into daily learning routine.
The extensive reading procedure comprises just this kind of activity. In the ESP situation in
particular, students do not have much opportunity to use English outside of class. Assignments of
reading special texts will increase exposure to the target professional language greatly, probably
much more than translation or skills assignments, which, in any case, involve much mental effort
in the native language. In addition, extensive reading provides an excellent means of laying
foundation for professional experience. With this procedure, teachers can expect that their
students will come to skillfully read and enjoy ESP texts.
Text 2-6. ENGLISH IN EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND GLOBALISATION
(Based on Dr. Robert Phillipson‟s interview to Ana Wu in the NNEST – ”Non-Native
English Speaking Teacher in TESOL of the Month” Blog)

Dr. Phillipson: Thank you for contributing questions, all of which are important. They are
also, unfortunately, ‗big‘ questions that need rather detailed answers, which time does not
permit. Anyone working in our professional field is likely to suffer from information overload. I
definitely do: I‘m rather stretched both professionally and in my home life, since my wife, Tove
Skutnabb-Kangas, and I live in the country, grow most of our own vegetables and fruit, and have
sheep. We enjoy working with nature, and feel this complements our intellectual activities. Both
involve interaction with ‗the real world‘, in our view.

1. Could you tell us your background and why you decided to become an educator?
(from Ana Wu, City College of San Francisco, ESL Instructor)
Dr. Phillipson: My home background and schooling were entirely monolingual British
English, but with many factors triggering a love of languages: my mother was in drama, my
parents were internationally oriented, and music figured prominently. My first visit to the USA
was as an 11-year-old member of the choir of St Paul‘s Cathedral Choir in London in 1953; we
gave concerts in 40 cities. At school I specialised in French and German, which led to studying
these languages at Cambridge University. I spent half a year between school and university in
continental Europe, experiencing Austrian, French and German cultures and becoming proficient
in the languages. With a BA, I joined the British Council, the UK‘s official service for cultural
diplomacy, in 1964. It stands for bridge-building between Britain and countries worldwide, in
theory in the interests of both. Within the organization‘s career service, English teaching seemed
to me to be the most stimulating activity, and I therefore found myself in posts in Algeria, Spain,
Yugoslavia, and London that built up ELT professionalism. But by 1973 I had had enough of
being in Her Majesty‘s service, emigrated to Denmark, and was lucky enough to find work
straight away at an experimental university, Roskilde. Studies there are multi-disciplinary in the
first two years, problem- and project-oriented, with students working in groups at building up
academic competence in speech and writing, in dialogue with their professors. This forces
teaching staff to constantly renew their professional identity, which is demanding but very
productive. At several Danish higher education institutions over the years, I have found
traditional teacher-centred course teaching much less worthwhile.
So to answer your question more directly, I have enjoyed being an educator, i.e. teaching,
and the institutional teamwork and administration that this entails. I have also been fortunate
enough to be in university employment in which there has been a right and duty to research for at
least one-third of my time, in institutions that attempt to ensure that teaching is informed by
ongoing research.
There is some personal information on my background in my contribution ‗Dialogue and
Discourse‘ to Christian and Critical English Language Educators in Dialogue: Pedagogical and
Ethical Dilemmas, ed. Mary S. Wong and A. Suresh Canagarajah, 2009. London & New York:
Routledge, pp. 66-71.

2. From poststructural and postcolonial perspectives, linguistic imperialism could be


critiqued by its deterministic and binary divisions; those who colonize and those who are
colonized.
However, in this globalized era–where it is more difficult to differentiate this binary yet
expanding hegemonic power of English – what would linguistic imperialism provide to our
understanding of the dominance of English? Does linguistic imperialism have any insights
and meaning in this era? What would you say about Pennycook‟s (2003) article, “Global
Englishes, Rip Slyme, and performativity”? And how does linguistic imperialism differ from
world Englishes? (From Bong-gi Sohn, University of British Columbia, first year doctoral
student).
Dr. Phillipson: I have written a good deal about the issues you raise since the publication
of Linguistic imperialism in 1992. Several of my articles are being re-published in a new book
Linguistic imperialism continued (Routledge, July 2009, also published in New Delhi by Orient
Blackswan for seven Asian countries). The book also includes a number of book reviews of the
work of others in the field of ‗global‘ English, and goes into considerable detail on many of the
issues you ask about. In the introductory article I react to some of Pennycook‘s points of
criticism of my understanding of linguistic imperialism, such as being too deterministic and
overly structural. I don‘t think that Pennycook‘s work on hip-hop cultures really takes
educational policy for multilingualism, or even ‗English-medium‘ education, forward
significantly, except in relation to connecting to young people‘s awareness of language.
I move on to attempting to theorise ‗the linguistic imperialism of neoliberal empire‘, since,
as you rightly state, the world has changed a good deal, and the roles of English with it, over the
past 20 years. The linguistic imperialisms of dominant languages have not gone away, but are
integral to the maintenance and reconstitution of power, economic, political, cultural and military
in the preset-day world. The binary issue needs unpacking (the oppressed generally know the
difference between Them and Us), and this can be facilitated when colonizers become aware of
their role: their/our minds need decolonizing as much as do those of the colonized - and I am not
essentialising by writing this, we all have agency and responsibility, and an opportunity to exert
influence.
Within this overall framework, which, yes, is a global structure, TESOL activity can be
ambivalent, an issue that is explored in Julian Edge‘s (Re-)Locating TESOL in an age of empire
(2006), which I have a review of in the next number of the TESOL Quarterly. The initial work on
linguistic imperialism, and linguicism, required analysis of structure, ideologies and beliefs, and
the policies, discourses and professional norms that these are embedded and transmitted in.
Most work on World Englishes in the Kachruvian sense is purely descriptive, and an over-
simplification of the complexity of the sociolinguistics of English in multilingual societies.
Whereas I see my own work as attempting to document inequality and exploitation, and to move
things forward in a more just direction. Not getting stuck in intellectual games. I have reviewed a
recent book, Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes by Yamuna Kachru and Larry E. Smith in
World Englishes, 38/1, 2009, 136-138.
3. Currently, I am conducting a research project in which I am exploring the
crosslinguistic applicability of the native speaker fallacy by investigating foreign language
students‟ perceptions of their native and non-native teachers. The next step in the project will
be comparing ESL students‟ perceptions with that of foreign language students. I would like
to learn more about your expert opinion on the crosslinguistic applicability of the native
speaker fallacy.
I would like to make use of this opportunity to thank you for your immense contributions
to our field, as well as to our efforts of understanding what is behind the mirror (from Ali
Fuad Selvi, University of Maryland, College Park, PhD student – Graduate
Teaching/Research Assistant).
Dr. Phillipson: This sounds like an immensely worthwhile and much needed project.
Historically, it is a fact that the TESOL business evolved quite separately from well-established
traditions of foreign language learning. They remain distinct professional worlds, with literature
still dominating in most departments of ‗English‘ in, say, the UK and India, and the same being
true of departments of ‗French‘ or ‗Spanish‘ in the USA or Denmark. The financial constraints
that increasingly drive higher education in the UK mean that English for Academic Purposes,
pre-sessional language training, is being privatised, since there is cash in the foreign students
industry, and universities can then maintain their language departments, and an ‗apolitical‘ focus
on literature, unchanged.
By contrast, native speaker mythology has never taken root in most countries of continental
Europe, which have a relatively successful tradition of learning foreign languages, including
English, taught by locals with proficiency in the target language. University posts are open to all
in most countries, irrespective of mother tongue. This means that in foreign language
departments, any native speakers who are employed are so because of their qualifications and not
because of their mother tongue being privileged.
The need to analyse why there is so much faith in native speakers of English in Asia (but
not in the Indian sub-continent) and the Middle East really needs empirical exploration.
Personally I think it is a scandal that monolinguals are let loose on hapless Chinese, Malay,
Saudi, or Emirate learners. The attitudes of decision-makers as well as learners therefore need
clarification.
In the European Union, several studies have explored the gap between the policy-makers‘
rhetoric which advocates early foreign language learning, and the professional skills that need to
be in place for anything of the kind to succeed.
So any studies that can shed light on ‗the crosslinguistic applicability of the native speaker
fallacy‘ and cross-cultural and cross-national dimensions would be very welcome.You are
probably familiar with the considerable literature on the qualifications of 'non-native' teachers of
English (a discriminatory label, since it defines people negatively, in terms of what they are not).
I also heard of a PhD study at Teachers College, Columbia University, which Ofelia Garcia
supervised, and which drew on the fine tenets/fallacies. Ofelia wrote to me some months ago,
Maryam Brjian. She has just finished a dissertation on English teaching in Iran which she will
defend April 1st. For the moment, she is in the United States again, but I don't know whether she
still is. Ofelia is now a professor at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

4. Prior to the publication of your seminal book Linguistic Imperialism in 1992


conventional wisdom among linguists was that language spread was a naturally occurring
phenomenon. Perhaps the greatest significance of your book was to show that the current
position of English in the world was clearly not the inadvertent and natural result of language
spread as it has been traditionally defined. Also, as Alastair Pennycook pointed out in his book
English and the Discourses of Colonialism, you have been one of the few writers on ELT who
have written about in detail why colonialism should be seen as the context in which present
day language policies are framed. Pennycook compares your treatment of these aspects of
language teaching and ELT history with those of Kelly (1969) and Howatt (1984), for
example. How did you originally come to realize that the global spread of English is so closely
linked to colonialism and also to the Americanization or homogenization of world cultures?
Also, how important and relevant are the conclusions of your seminal book Linguistic
Imperialism and the five tenets you identified (especially tenet #2 “the ideal teacher of
English is a native speaker” and the “native speaker fallacy”) to ELT and especially non-
native teacher issues in 2009? (Questions 4, 5 and 6 from Terry Doyle, City College of San
Francisco, ESL Instructor).

Dr. Phillipson: The short answer to the first question is that my experience of being paid
for nine (youthful!) years by the British government to promote English worldwide, and of
working in countries with different political agendas (Third World liberation Algeria and
communist Yugoslavia, now both tragically fractured) made me sensitive to issues of
colonialism, neo-colonialism, and global and local inequalities.
One seminal experience was that my wife, Tove Skutnabb-Kangas was asked by a
Norwegain ‗aid‘ NGO in the early 1980s to get involved in support for the liberation movement
of Namibia, SWAPO, then still occupied by apartheid South Africa. It later transpired that well-
intentioned NGOs in Scandinavia were attempting to support Namibian refugee children living
in camps in Angola and Zambia by sending them literacy materials. And guess what? Large
amounts of money were being spent on British mother-tongue basic readers presenting a world in
which ‗Peter is helping Daddy wash the car, while Susan is doing the washing-up with Mummy‘,
and pictures of middle-class Brits to match. We were appalled, and started to look deeply into
what had happened in post-colonial education in ‗independent‘ countries in Asia and Africa.
Tove was already then a well-established scholar in bilingualism studies, with a worldwide
network, and publications for UNESCO dating back to the 1970s. We were twice at ‗aid‘
conferences for SWAPO in Zambia, planning education for an independent country, and have
never looked back. We have been deeply influenced by many African and Indian scholars and
creative writers (see, for instance, our ―Reviewing a book and how it relates to ‗global‘ English,
Wizard of the crow by Ngŭgĭ wa Thiong‘o‖. The European English Messenger, 16/1, 2007, 50-
54. It can be downloaded from my website, along with several recent articles,
www.cbs.dk/staff/phillipson).
I am afraid that the native speaker fallacy is alive and kicking in many parts of the world.
English as a ‗lingua franca‘ belongs in the same category of generally unchallenged myths that
serve to propel English forward uncritically, and which I have written about at length.

5. In your book English Only Europe? Challenging Language Policy, you contrast the
“diffusion of English paradigm” with the “ecology of languages paradigm”. Among other
things, the “ecology of languages paradigm” promotes multilingualism and linguistic
diversity, additive foreign/second language learning, and equality in communication. In this
book you also advocate English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) as a way to legitimate a shift away
from native speaker norms towards equipping people to function effectually as non-native
speakers. Can you explain further how the “ecology of languages paradigm” can bring about
truly equitable communication? Also, what are the negative consequences of continuing to
treat native speakers as the learning target? How can the ELF model make a positive
contribution to non-native teacher issues, to help decrease discrimination against non-native
job applicants and to put to rest the idea that non-native teachers have to define their identity
in terms of “native teachers”?
Dr. Phillipson: Much of what I have written earlier (in this NNEST contribution and
generally) can be seen as pointing in the direction of a world of more equitable communication. I
think that analysis and discussion of the native speaker issue, and of the legitimation of Englishes
in all their diversity, are often derailed by a failure to distinguish clearly between norms in
speech and in writing. The amount of variation in written English worldwide is minimal, except
in texts that are of purely local significance. Whereas in speech the position is much more varied.
This applies equally to so-called ‗native speakers‘ as much as to non-natives.
Research into ELF is still in its infancy, even if the Vienna project has now made a large
corpus accessible on the internet. But there is no direct connection between insights from the
kind of research that Seidlhofer and Jenkins stand for and what happens in classrooms. On the
other hand, if classrooms can sensitise learners to a wide variety of relevant types of spoken
English, develop the receptive competence of learners, while maintaining clear and different
goals for the types of spoken proficiency that are needed for different contexts, and different
levels of the education system (local – regional – national – international), I see this as ensuring
that English is learned appropriately, additively, and with no reason for any teachers to define
themselves as either native or non-native, but rather as proficient users of English.

6. Dr. Phillipson: In the March, 2009 interview Marinus Stephan on this blog, Dr. Stephan
mentions that your book Linguistic Imperialism is one of the best books he has read in the
politics of ELT. He also says that much criticism has been leveled at your book. No doubt, Dr.
Stephan is alluding to criticism of your arguments which come from what I feel are un-
informed people who refuse to see the connections between colonialism, Americanization, and
now globalization. How would you reply to people who say that the “native speaker fallacy” is
no longer relevant when it comes to policy decisions and hiring practices?
Dr. Phillipson: I agree that much of the criticism of Linguistic imperialism tends to be
rooted in political differences. I am also tired of the book being misrepresented, even by eminent
scholars like John Joseph, and Bernard Spolsky, to whom I have responded in ‗Linguistic
imperialism: a conspiracy, or a conspiracy of silence?‘ Language policy, 6/3-4, 2007, 377-383.

7. How do you think we should call ourselves? What do you think English speakers
should be called in the future? Would terms such as intercultural speakers, multi-linguals, or
translinguistic teachers be more accurate and representative than "non-native speakers"?
(Questions 7 and 8 are from Ana Wu, City College of San Francisco, ESL Instructor).
Dr. Phillipson: I strongly agree with the need to get away from the non-native label. It
may be no comfort for you to learn that teachers of English in Scandinavia are never referred to
in this way! Also, ESL means very different things in different parts of the world. Obviously
TESOLers should be minimally bilingual. There was a symposium on this topic organised by
Shelley Taylor at TESOL 2008 in New York (with, among others, Tove, Jim Cummins, Ofelia
García, and Joan Wink), one purpose being to attempt to persuade the High and Mighty in
TESOL to make a clear break with monolingualism. The short papers from this symposium are
appearing in a number of the TESOL Quarterly which I have already read proofs for.
I don‘t think my (European) views on what labels might go down well in your local
contexts are relevant. Good luck in producing something snappy and valid.

8. You have written and discussed very controversial issues. How do you deal with
criticism? How do you react to people who disagree with your ideas?
Dr. Phillipson: This is a tricky issue. Tove told me, as soon as Linguistic imperialism was
published, that I would need to develop a thick skin. I felt the need to spend quite a bit of time
responding to critiques of my work that I thought were invalid, in several journals. I list the
references in my new book, which does not regurgitate these ‗dialogues‘, though the book does
contain my reviews of books by people like David Crystal, Abram de Swaan, and Janina Brutt-
Griffler, scholars who basically claim that linguistic imperialism never existed (!), and that I got
it all wrong – which happily a lot of people worldwide don‘t agree with (the book was published
in China in 2000 and in India in 2008, better late than never). One is tempted to simply ignore
attacks that either misrepresent what one has written or contradict one‘s conclusions on false
premises. This has also happened with what Tove and I have written about linguistic human
rights. On the other hand, if one does not challenge conflicting views, they have a habit of
getting recycled by others as though they are uncontested. Ideally scholarly dialogue should take
things forward, and lead to better empirical descriptions and to an improvement of our concepts
and theoretical approaches – for which all of us, including myself, need to be open-minded.
Ana Wu: Thank you very much for your time and insightful interview!

Instruction: Clues in the context – views and ideas.


Vocabulary in context gives you clues to views and ideas expressed in the interview.
Professor Robert Phillipson is the author of the contradictory concept of linguistic
imperialism. He claims that the English language is a tool of the US imperialist policies
aimed at imposing American ideology upon the rest of the world.
In ordinary extensive reading text, there always are a number of clues that can help
you determine the views and ideas of the author as well as the meaning of ambiguous
or/and unknown words or phrases.

Synonymous word combinations


Compare the two sentences:
―Tove told me, as soon as Linguistic imperialism was published, that I would need to
develop a thick skin.‖ The word combination to develop a thick skin is understood from
another sentence in the same paragraph: ―One is tempted to simply ignore attacks that either
misrepresent what one has written or contradict one‘s conclusions on false premises.‖
Examples
Very often examples are given in the text to illustrate the meaning of a word:
―... well-intentioned NGOs in Scandinavia were attempting to support Namibian refugee
children living in camps in Angola and Zambia by sending them literacy materials. ―
―And guess what? Large amounts of money were being spent on British mother-tongue
basic readers presenting a world in which ‗Peter is helping Daddy wash the car, while Susan is
doing the washing-up with Mummy‘... .‖
From the above example, it is clear that large amounts of public money were wasted.
Contrast
The meaning of some sentences and words may be understood by contrasting them to other
sentences and words. E.g.: ―The financial constraints that increasingly drive higher education in
the UK mean that English for Academic Purposes, pre-sessional language training, is being
privatised, since there is cash in the foreign students industry, and universities can then maintain
their language departments, and an ‗apolitical‘ focus on literature, unchanged.
By contrast, native speaker mythology has never taken root in most countries of
continental Europe, which have a relatively successful tradition of learning foreign languages,
including English, taught by locals with proficiency in the target language.‖
From this paragraph, it is clear that the phrase native speaker mythology is signaling
Dr. Phillipson is critical of native speaker language training and higher education in the
UK, in general.
Semantic and thematic groups
Semantic groups are formed of words and phrases close in meaning; thematic
groups are formed of words referring to the same variety or type of objects or
phenomena. Making up a glossary of semantically/thematically close words and phrases
is an effective tool if you group them on the principle of similarity or closeness of
meaning. E.g.: Linguistic imperialism, linguistic imperialism of neoliberal empire, the
linguistic imperialisms of dominant languages, global and local inequalities, the oppressed.
Word nests
It is easier to memorize words when they are organized into root-related groups of words.
E.g.: colonialism, neo-colonialism, colonizers, decolonizing, the colonized.
MODULE 2-2. THE SKILLS OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Unit 2-7. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION – THE NEW NORM

Guidelines for extensive reading of ESP texts


Teaching basics of cross-cultural communication in the ESP extensive reading course
presupposes general understanding of longer texts with the aim of gaining specific field
experience and acquiring special information in this area. Extensive reading is individualized,
with students being offered a choice of assignments in which they are to combine content and
language learning. This module emphasizes the importance of understanding cultural
differences and cross-cultural communication skills in various contexts.

Text 2-7. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

(After Michelle LeBaron‟s Cross-Cultural Communication. Beyond Intractability)

1. Interactive communication
All communication is cultural – it draws on ways we have learned to speak and give
nonverbal messages. We do not always communicate the same way from day to day, since
factors like context, individual personality, and mood interact with the variety of cultural
influences we have internalized that influence our choices. Communication is interactive, so an
important influence on its effectiveness is our relationship with others. Do they hear and
understand what we are trying to say? Are they listening well? Are we listening well in
response? Do their responses show that they understand the words and the meanings behind the
words we have chosen? Is the mood positive and receptive? Is there trust between them and us?
Are there differences that relate to ineffective communication, divergent goals or interests, or
fundamentally different ways of seeing the world? The answers to these questions will give us
some clues about the effectiveness of our communication and the ease with which we may be
able to move through conflict.
The challenge is that even with all the good will in the world, miscommunication is likely
to happen, especially when there are significant cultural differences between communicators.
Miscommunication may lead to conflict, or aggravate conflict that already exists. We make –
whether it is clear to us or not – quite different meaning of the world, our places in it, and our
relationships with others. In this module, cross-cultural communication will be outlined and
demonstrated by examples of ideas, attitudes, and behaviors involving four variables: Time and
Space; Fate and Personal Responsibility; Face and Face-Saving; Nonverbal Communication.
As our familiarity with these different starting points increases, we are cultivating cultural
fluency – awareness of the ways cultures operate in communication and conflict, and the ability
to respond effectively to these differences.

2. Time and Space


Time is one of the most central differences that separate cultures and cultural ways of doing
things. In the West, time tends to be seen as quantitative, measured in units that reflect the march
of progress. It is logical, sequential, and present-focused, moving with incremental certainty
toward a future the ego cannot touch and a past that is not a part of now. Novinger calls the
United States a "chronocracy," in which there is such reverence for efficiency and the success of
economic endeavors that the expression "time is money" is frequently heard. This approach to
time is called monochronic – it is an approach that favors linear structure and focus on one event
or interaction at a time. Robert's Rules of Order, observed in many Western meetings, enforce a
monochronic idea of time.
In the East, time feels like it has unlimited continuity, an unraveling rather than a strict
boundary. Birth and death are not such absolute ends since the universe continues and humans,
though changing form, continue as part of it. People may attend to many things happening at
once in this approach to time, called polychronous. This may mean many conversations in a
moment (such as a meeting in which people speak simultaneously, "talking over" each other as
they discuss their subjects), or many times and people during one process (such as a ceremony in
which those family members who have died are felt to be present as well as those yet to be born
into the family).
A good place to look to understand the Eastern idea of time is India. There, time is seen as
moving endlessly through various cycles, becoming and vanishing. Time stretches far beyond the
human ego or lifetime. There is a certain timeless quality to time, an aesthetic almost too
intricate and vast for the human mind to comprehend. Consider this description of an aeon, the
unit of time which elapses between the origin and destruction of a world system: "Suppose there
is a mountain, of very hard rock, much bigger than the Himalayas; and suppose that a man, with
a piece of the very finest cloth of Benares, once every century should touch that mountain ever
so slightly – then the time it would take him to wear away the entire mountain would be about
the time of an Aeon."
Differences over time can play out in painful and dramatic ways in negotiation or conflict-
resolution processes. An example of differences over time comes from a negotiation process
related to a land claim that took place in Canada. First Nations people (Canadian Indians) met
with representatives from local, regional, and national governments to introduce themselves and
begin their work. During this first meeting, First Nations people took time to tell the stories of
their people and their relationships to the land over the past seven generations. They spoke of the
spirit of the land, the kinds of things their people have traditionally done on the land, and their
sacred connection to it. They spoke in circular ways, weaving themes, feelings, ideas, and
experiences together as they remembered seven generations into the past and projected seven
generations forward.
When it was the government representatives' chance to speak, they projected flow charts
showing internal processes for decision-making and spoke in present-focused ways about their
intentions for entering the negotiation process. The flow charts were linear and spare in their lack
of narrative, arising from the bureaucratic culture from which the government representatives
came. Two different conceptions of time: in one, time stretches, loops forward and back, past
and future are both present in this time. In the other, time begins with the present moment and
extends into the horizon in which the matters at hand will be decided.
Neither side felt satisfied with this first meeting. No one addressed the differences in how
time was seen and held directly, but everyone was aware that they were not "on the same page."
Each side felt some frustration with the other. Their notions of time were embedded in their
understandings of the world, and these understandings informed their common sense about how
to proceed in negotiations. Because neither side was completely aware of these different notions
of time, it was difficult for the negotiations to proceed, and difficult for each side to trust the
other. Their different ideas of time made communication challenging.
This meeting took place in the early 1990s. Of course, in this modern age of high-speed
communication, no group is completely disconnected from another. Each group – government
and First Nations representatives – has had some exposure to the other's ideas of time, space, and
ideas about appropriate approaches to negotiation. Each has found ways to adapt. How this
adaptation takes place, and whether it takes place without one side feeling they are forced to give
in to the other, has a significant impact on the course of the negotiations.
It is also true that cultural approaches to time or communication are not always applied in
good faith, but may serve a variety of motives. Asserting power, superiority, advantage, or
control over the course of the negotiations may be a motive wrapped up in certain cultural
behaviors (for example, the government representatives' detailed emphasis on ratification
procedures may have conveyed an implicit message of control, or the First Nations' attention to
the past may have emphasized the advantages of being aware of history). Culture and cultural
beliefs may be used as a tactic by negotiators; for this reason, it is important that parties be
involved in collaborative-process design when addressing intractable conflicts. As people from
different cultural backgrounds work together to design a process to address the issues that divide
them, they can ask questions about cultural preferences about time and space and how these may
affect a negotiation or conflict-resolution process, and thus inoculate against the use of culture as
a tactic or an instrument to advance power.
Any one example will show us only a glimpse of approaches to time as a confounding
variable across cultures. In fact, ideas of time have a great deal of complexity buried within
them. Western concepts of time as a straight line emanating from no one in particular obscure the
idea that there are purposive forces at work in time, a common idea in indigenous and Eastern
ways of thought. From an Eastern or indigenous perspective, Spirit operates within space and
time, so time is alive with purpose and specific meanings may be discerned from events. A party
to a negotiation who subscribes to this idea of time may also have ideas about fate, destiny, and
the importance of uncovering "right relationship" and "right action." If time is a circle, an
unraveling ball of twine, a spiral, an unfolding of stories already written, or a play in which much
of the set is invisible, then relationships and meanings can be uncovered to inform current
actions. Time, in this polychronic perspective, is connected to other peoples as well as periods of
history.
This is why a polychronic perspective is often associated with a communitarian starting
point. The focus on the collective, or group, stretching forward and back, animates the
polychronic view of time. In more monochronic settings, an individualist way of life is more
easily accommodated. Individualists can more easily extract moments in time, and individuals
themselves, from the networks around them. If time is a straight line stretching forward and not
back, then fate or destiny may be less compelling. (For more on this, see the essay on

3. Fate and Personal Responsibility


Another important variable affecting communication across cultures is fate and personal
responsibility. This refers to the degree to which we feel ourselves the masters of our lives,
versus the degree to which we see ourselves as subject to things outside our control. Another
way to look at this is to ask how much we see ourselves able to change and maneuver, to choose
the course of our lives and relationships. Some have drawn a parallel between the emphasis on
personal responsibility in North American settings and the landscape itself. The North American
landscape is vast, with large spaces of unpopulated territory. The frontier mentality of
"conquering" the wilderness, and the expansiveness of the land stretching huge distances, may
relate to generally high levels of confidence in the ability to shape and choose our destinies.
In this expansive landscape, many children grow up with an epic sense of life, where ideas
are big, and hope springs eternal. When they experience setbacks, they are encouraged to
redouble their efforts, to "try, try again." Action, efficacy, and achievement are emphasized and
expected. Free will is enshrined in laws and enforced by courts.
Now consider places in the world with much smaller territory, whose history reflects
repeated conquest and harsh struggles: Northern Ireland, Mexico, Israel, Palestine. In these
places, there is more emphasis on destiny's role in human life. In Mexico, there is a legacy of
poverty, invasion, and territorial mutilation. Mexicans are more likely to see struggles as
inevitable or unavoidable. Their fatalistic attitude is expressed in their way of responding to
failure or accident by saying "ni modo" ("no way" or "tough luck"), meaning that the setback
was destined.
This variable is important to understanding cultural conflict. If someone invested in free
will crosses paths with someone more fatalistic in orientation, miscommunication is likely. The
first person may expect action and accountability. Failing to see it, they may conclude that the
second is lazy, obstructionist, or dishonest. The second person will expect respect for the natural
order of things. Failing to see it, they may conclude that the first is coercive or irreverent,
inflated in his ideas of what can be accomplished or changed.
4. Face and Face-Saving
Another important cultural variable relates to face and face-saving. Face is important
across cultures, yet the dynamics of face and face-saving play out differently. Face is defined in
many different ways in the cross-cultural communication literature. Novinger says it is "the
value or standing a person has in the eyes of others...and that it relates to pride or self-respect."
Others have defined it as "the negotiated public image, mutually granted each other by
participants in communication." In this broader definition, face includes ideas of status, power,
courtesy, insider and outsider relations, humor, and respect. In many cultures, maintaining face is
of great importance, though ideas of how to do this vary.
The starting points of individualism and communitarianism are closely related to face. If I
see myself as a self-determining individual, then face has to do with preserving my image with
others and myself. I can and should exert control in situations to achieve this goal. I may do this
by taking a competitive stance in negotiations or confronting someone who I perceive to have
wronged me. I may be comfortable in a mediation where the other party and I meet face to face
and frankly discuss our differences.
If I see my primary identification as a group member, then considerations about face
involve my group. Direct confrontation or problem-solving with others may reflect poorly on my
group, or disturb overall community harmony. I may prefer to avoid criticism of others, even
when the disappointment I have concealed may come out in other, more damaging ways later.
When there is conflict that cannot be avoided, I may prefer a third party who acts as a shuttle
between me and the other people involved in the conflict. Since no direct confrontation takes
place, face is preserved and potential damage to the relationships or networks of relationships is
minimized.

5. Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is hugely important in any interaction with others; its
importance is multiplied across cultures. This is because we tend to look for nonverbal cues
when verbal messages are unclear or ambiguous, as they are more likely to be across cultures
(especially when different languages are being used). Since nonverbal behavior arises from our
cultural common sense – our ideas about what is appropriate, normal, and effective as
communication in relationships – we use different systems of understanding gestures, posture,
silence, spacial relations, emotional expression, touch, physical appearance, and other nonverbal
cues. Cultures also attribute different degrees of importance to verbal and nonverbal behavior.
Low-context cultures like the United States and Canada tend to give relatively less
emphasis to nonverbal communication. This does not mean that nonverbal communication does
not happen, or that it is unimportant, but that people in these settings tend to place less
importance on it than on the literal meanings of words themselves. In high-context settings such
as Japan or Colombia, understanding the nonverbal components of communication is relatively
more important to receiving the intended meaning of the communication as a whole.
Some elements of nonverbal communication are consistent across cultures. For example,
research has shown that the emotions of enjoyment, anger, fear, sadness, disgust, and surprise are
expressed in similar ways by people around the world. Differences surface with respect to which
emotions are acceptable to display in various cultural settings, and by whom. For instance, it may
be more socially acceptable in some settings in the United States for women to show fear, but not
anger, and for men to display anger, but not fear. At the same time, interpretation of facial
expressions across cultures is difficult. In China and Japan, for example, a facial expression that
would be recognized around the world as conveying happiness may actually express anger or
mask sadness, both of which are unacceptable to show overtly.
These differences of interpretation may lead to conflict, or escalate existing conflict.
Suppose a Japanese person is explaining her absence from negotiations due to a death in her
family. She may do so with a smile, based on her cultural belief that it is not appropriate to inflict
the pain of grief on others. For a Westerner who understands smiles to mean friendliness and
happiness, this smile may seem incongruous and even cold, under the circumstances. Even
though some facial expressions may be similar across cultures, their interpretations remain
culture-specific. It is important to understand something about cultural starting-points and values
in order to interpret emotions expressed in cross-cultural interactions.
Another variable across cultures has to do with proxemics, or ways of relating to space.
Crossing cultures, we encounter very different ideas about polite space for conversations and
negotiations. North Americans tend to prefer a large amount of space, perhaps because they are
surrounded by it in their homes and countryside. Europeans tend to stand more closely with each
other when talking, and are accustomed to smaller personal spaces. In a comparison of North
American and French children on a beach, a researcher noticed that the French children tended to
stay in a relatively small space near their parents, while U.S. children ranged up and down a
large area of the beach.
The difficulty with space preferences is not that they exist, but the judgments that get
attached to them. If someone is accustomed to standing or sitting very close when they are
talking with another, they may see the other's attempt to create more space as evidence of
coldness, condescension, or a lack of interest. Those who are accustomed to more personal space
may view attempts to get closer as pushy, disrespectful, or aggressive. Neither is correct – they
are simply different.
Also related to space is the degree of comfort we feel moving furniture or other objects. It
is said that a German executive working in the United States became so upset with visitors to his
office moving the guest chair to suit themselves that he had it bolted to the floor. Contrast this
with U.S. and Canadian mediators and conflict-resolution trainers, whose first step in preparing
for a meeting is not infrequently a complete rearrangement of the furniture.
Finally, line-waiting behavior and behavior in group settings like grocery stores or
government offices is culturally-influenced. Novinger reports that the English and U.S.
Americans are serious about standing in lines, in accordance with their beliefs in democracy and
the principle of "first come, first served." The French, on the other hand, have a practice of
resquillage, or line jumping, that irritates many British and U.S. Americans. In another example,
immigrants from Armenia report that it is difficult to adjust to a system of waiting in line, when
their home context permitted one member of a family to save spots for several others.
These examples of differences related to nonverbal communication are only the tip of the
iceberg. Careful observation, ongoing study from a variety of sources, and cultivating
relationships across cultures will all help develop the cultural fluency to work effectively with
nonverbal communication differences.

6. Summary
Each of the variables discussed in this module – time and space, personal responsibility and
fate, face and face-saving, and nonverbal communication – are much more complex than it is
possible to convey. Each of them influences the course of communications, and can be
responsible for conflict or the escalation of conflict when it leads to miscommunication or
misinterpretation. A culturally-fluent approach to conflict means working over time to
understand these and other ways communication varies across cultures, and applying these
understandings in order to enhance relationships across differences.

Instruction: Is ―cross-cultural communication‖ just another one of those buzzwords to you


that‘s being used everywhere but nobody really knows what it means? Despite its possible hype,
cross-cultural communication is nevertheless a widely recognized and valid concept which every
student should be familiar with. Being familiar with cross-cultural communication doesn‘t just
imply having a vague or rudimentary idea of what the expression ―cross-cultural
communication‖ means and how it works. In order to become proficient in ESP, an
interculturally effective person, you need to understand the concept of cross-cultural
communication with all its components and be able to translate it into action.
After almost every text, the first question you should ask is an overview question about the
main idea, main topic, or main purpose of the text. Main idea questions ask you to identify the
most important thought in the text, the main idea or topic of a passage.

Sample Questions
 What is the main idea of the passage? Choose the right answer.
(A) Differences of interpretation of communication varables may lead to conflict, or escalate
existing conflict.
(B) Nonverbal communication is very important in any interaction with others, because
verbal messages are often unclear or ambiguous,.
(C) Understanding of Time and Space; Fate and Personal Responsibility; Face and Face-
Saving; arises from our ideas about what is appropriate, normal, and effective as communication
in relationships.
(D) Cultures attribute different degrees of importance to verbal and nonverbal behavior.
 Will differences related to nonverbal communication become less important in the 21st
century?
 Which line or lines best summarize the author's main idea?
Sample Questions
 What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) The outline and demonstration of cross-cultural communication.
(B) Four non-verbal variables of cross-cultural communication.
 What does the passage mainly discuss? What is the passage primarily concerned
with?
(A) Nonverbal cues in crosscultural communication..
(B) The impact of different systems of understanding.
Main purpose questions ask why the author wrote a passage. The answer choices
for these questions usually begin with infinitives.
Sample Questions
• What is the author's purpose in writing this passage?
• What is the author's main purpose in the passage?
• What is the main point of this passage?
• Why did the author write the passage?
Sample Answer Choices
To define_____
To relate_____
To discuss_____
To propose_____
To illustrate_____
To support the idea that_____
To distinguish between _____and______
To compare ____and_____
Main detail questions ask about the most significant information of the passage. To
answer such a question you should point out a line or two in the text.
Sample Questions
 What factors are emphasized in the passage?
 In what lines is the most significant information given?
Caution: Don't answer the overview questions about a passage until you have skim-read
all paragraphs. The process of answering the detail questions may give you a clearer understanding
of the main idea, topic, or purpose of the passage.
The answers for main idea, main topic, and main purpose questions summarize the main
points of the passage; they must be more general than any of the supporting ideas or details, but
not so general that they include ideas outside the scope of the passages.
Unit 2-8. APPROACHES TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Guidelines for extensive reading of ESP texts


A READER by American scholars Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter, Edwin R.
McDaniel is based on the idea that successful intercultural communication is a matter of highest
importance if humankind and society are to survive. This text is theoretical and practical so that
the issues associated with intercultural communication can be first understood and then acted
upon. This broad-based, highly engaging reader, compiled by the authors who defined the
course, includes a balance of articles – some commissioned solely for this text – that discuss the
classic ideas that laid the groundwork for this field, as well as those that investigate the field's
latest research and ideas. Material is presented in context, which allows students to read,
understand and then apply the concepts to their lives to ensure that they are effective, culturally
aware communicators.

Text 2-8. APPROACHES TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION.


( Based on Intercultural Communication: A Reader by Larry A. Samovar, Richard E.
Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel)

1. Social interaction.
Although the ability to communicate effectively has long been an important aspect of any
social interaction between people from different cultures, within the past two decades it has
become essential. In the wake of the Berlin Wall falling on November 9, 1989, the power
structure of the international community moved from a bipolar (United States and the Soviet
Union) to a unipolar (United States) position. Now, the movement is rapidly toward a multipolar
international arrangement. Responsible world leaders are working toward greater cooperation on
all fronts – economic, political, and military. President Obama‘s policy of engaging other
nations, even when their aims appear counter to U.S. interests, demonstrates this trend toward
increased international integration and crosscultural interaction.
Movement to a more global, interconnected community has been abetted by dramatic
technological changes, such as digital communication advances that permit the uninterrupted
transfer of large amounts of data across national borders and breakthroughs in transportation that
facilitate the rapid, economical movement of people and goods over vast distances. These events,
often referred to collectively as ―globalization,‖ have brought about unprecedented levels of
interaction among people from different national, ethnic, and religious cultural backgrounds.
Media originating in one country are generally available throughout the world.
Multinational and transnational organizations, replete with multicultural workforces, are now
commonplace. An increasing number of international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
are engaged in emergency relief, humanitarian assistance, and charitable service work around the
globe. World tourism, once available only to the wealthy, is a growth industry, with package
tours to international destinations tailored to almost any budget. Nations with declining birthrates
and aging populations are recruiting health care workers from abroad. Immigration, international
marriage, and intercountry adoptions have added to U.S. cultural diversity. For example, for the
ten-year period 1999–2010, U.S. State Department statistics report that over 178,000 children
from other nations were adopted by U.S. families (―Total Adoptions,‖ 2010).
Broadly speaking, globalization has brought about the realization that modern societies
must learn to cooperate in order to prevent their mutual selfdestruction. There is a growing
perception that employment of force may result in near-term solutions but will ultimately create
problems that are more complex.
Increased concern over the planet‘s ecological degradation resulting from climate change
and pollution has raised awareness of the need for international cooperation on a scale previously
unseen. There is also a recognition of the need to engage in global cooperative efforts on a
number of other issues—nuclear arms, terrorism, over-population, world poverty, and escalating
competition for natural resources.
Closer to home, the United States is faced with such culturally related domestic concerns as
immigration, an aging population, growth of minority groups, and ideological divisions.
Solutions, either whole or partial, to these circumstances will require increased intercultural
understanding.
Before moving further into the study of culture and communication, we need to specify our
approach to intercultural communication and recognize that other people investigate quite
different perspectives. For example, some scholars who examine mass media are concerned with
international broadcasting, worldwide freedom of expression, the premise of Western domination
of media information, and the use of electronic technologies for instantaneous worldwide
communication. Other groups study international communication with an emphasis on
communication between national governments—the communication of diplomacy, economic
assistance, disaster relief, and even political propaganda.
Still others are interested in the communication needed to conduct business on a global
basis. Their concerns include such issues as cross-cultural marketing, negotiation Broadly
speaking, globalization has brought about the realization that modern societies must learn to
cooperate in order to prevent their mutual self-destruction.
As tides of immigrants and refugees continue to arrive in the United States and other
developed nations, we will be confronted with increased cultural diversity. If we are to continue
to assert that cultural diversity is a valuable, desirable asset and embrace the concept of a global
village, we must quickly learn to accept and tolerate the resulting differences. Your authors do
not profess to have the solution to these problems. However, as a means of better preparing you
for life in the global village, which will require frequent interactions with people who experience
the world differently from you, we do hope to stimulate thought and discussion about the
advantages and difficulties of multiculturalism and the need for effective intercultural
communication.

2. Looking Back
One of the most noticeable changes over the past two generations is just how international
the world has become. As a result of media and transportation advances, you now have access to
a wide variety of products and services from abroad. Depending on your location, U.S. cable TV
companies now offer channels in Chinese, Japanese, Tagalog, Hindi, Punjabi, Spanish, Russian,
and many other languages. For example, DISH TV has available more than 170 international
channels in 28 different languages (―International,‖ 2010). A visit to your local supermarket will
reveal a variety of ethnic foods, many imported from other parts of the world. In urban areas,
small ethnic food stores have become the norm. For instance, in La Jolla, California, a small
Iranian market sells a selection of fresh feta cheeses imported from France, Bulgaria, Denmark,
and Greece, as well as delicious pistachios from Iran.
A heightened awareness of culture in the U.S. armed forces is another significant change
from the past. During the Vietnam conflict (1961–73) and the first Gulf War (1990–91), culture
was an afterthought at best. However, fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan has brought the
importance of cultural understanding into the spotlight and several programs designed to instill
cultural awareness have been developed. The U.S. Army has instituted the Human Terrain
System, which co-locates civilian socio-cultural experts with commanders and staff to provide a
source of knowledge on local peoples and their culture (―Human,‖ 2010). In order to acquire and
effectively employ cultural knowledge, the U.S. Marine Corps established the Center for
Advanced Operational Cultural Learning, which has the mission of training personnel in the
application of language and culture to operations (―Center,‖ 2010).
Globalization has brought profound changes to the commercial sector, including the
creation of numerous transnational corporations whose reach influences markets around the
world. For example, Yum! Brands, the parent company of KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, Long
John Silver, and others, employs over one million workers in more than 110 countries (―Taking‖,
2009). In earlier years, international corporate managers came to the United States to launch their
careers, but now it is common to see U.S. managers heading to foreign locations.
In 2009, for instance, 24 percent of the graduates from MIT‘s prestigious Sloan School of
Management took positions abroad (―Job,‖ 2009). Among U.S. employers, workplace diversity
is a continuing source of concern, and training courses designed to make employees aware of
cultural differences and varied communication behaviors have become routine.
Residence abroad has also increased ―because the globalization of industry and education
tramples national borders,‖ and among the developed nations, the foreign-born population
exceeds 8 percent on average (―Others,‖ 2009). This international movement also includes
students in higher education. Current estimates are that over three million students are studying
in a country other than their own, and some 672,000 foreign students were attending U.S.
universities in 2008 (―Leagues,‖ 2010; ―And,‖ 2009).
Contemporary U.S. demographics probably represent the most easily noticeable change
relating to crosscultural issues. Quite simply, the United States has become much more
multicultural over the past fifty years. A glance around your classroom will probably reveal a
mix of people from different ethnicities, nationalities, age groups, and, less obvious, sexual
preferences.
Most of these classmates will be U.S. born, but some may be from other countries. This is
because people born outside the United States constitute 13 percent of the total population, the
largest percentage among the developed nations (―Ponzi,‖ 2009). And lest you think all
immigrants work in low-wage, dirty jobs, the 2000 census indicated that ―47 percent of scientists
and engineers in America with PhDs‖ were foreign born (―Economics,‖ 2009, p. 84). Immigrants
in the United States often group themselves together in urban areas, where they retain their
language and culture, unlike their predecessors in the early twentieth century who were expected,
and indeed often forced, to assimilate to the dominant U.S. culture. A particularly vivid example
of contemporary U.S. cultural diversity was the 2010 census website, which could be accessed in
over fifty languages (―United States,‖ 2010).
Changing demographics in the United States also present fertile ground for future clashes
between people of varied cultures. According to multiple reports, minorities will represent the
collective majority by 2050, and 19 percent of the total population will be foreign born (Passel &
Cohen, 2008; ―U.S. Census,‖ 2008). This demographic shift is expected to produce considerable
social change as members of minority ethnicities continue to replace the white majority in
political, commercial, and educational positions of power.
In the commercial sector, changes are already occurring. In states such as New Mexico and
California, where Hispanics constitute over 30 percent of the population, Spanish-language
media programs are common, and several large U.S. retailers, including Walmart, have opened
stores in Texas and Arizona specifically catering to the Hispanic market. According to a
Walmart press release, the new stores ―feature a layout and product assortment designed to make
it more relevant to local Hispanic customers‖ (Moreno, 2009; ―New Supermercado,‖ 2009). This
is an excellent example of how culture influences our lives. We are comfortable with the things
we know and are drawn to them, but we are often uncomfortable with things we do not know and
frequently avoid them.

3. Food for Thought


A review of various websites containing information about the opening of the Walmart
Supermercado stores revealed instances of vitriolic comments, with calls for people living in the
United States to learn English and adopt the U.S. culture. Think about the following: Have you
ever traveled abroad? Did you see any U.S. fast food outlets such as those listed below?
Starbucks in Berlin, Pizza Hut in Beijing, Denny‟s in Tokyo, Taco Bell in Bangalore,
Burger King in London, KFC in Paris, Wendy‟s in Mexico City.
How did you feel? How do you think the local residents might have reacted when those
restaurants were opened in their home country? Why?
This contemporary mixing of people from varied nationalities and ethnic groups, brought
about by immigration, global business connections, the ease of international travel, Internet
social networking sites, and increased societal acceptance is also dramatically increasing the
number of international interpersonal relationships. In Europe, international marriages (also
referred to as interracial marriage, biracial marriage, cross-cultural marriage, intercultural
marriage, interethnic marriage, and intermarriage) are growing in number (Pulsipher &
Pulsipher, 2008), no doubt abetted by the European Union‟s emphasis on cultural diversity. A
recent report indicates that in the United States “7 percent of America‟s 59 million married
couples in 2005 were interracial, compared to less than 2 percent in 1970” (Crary, 2007). These
cross-cultural unions are expected to increase, and such couples will encounter a host of
challenges, both within society and between themselves. Cultural issues such as identity, gender
roles, religious traditions, language, communication behaviors, conflict styles, child-rearing
practices, family acceptance, and many, many more, including some as mundane as food
choices, will have to be managed.
The issues of the future we have mapped out in this section represent only a portion of the
cultural challenges you will need to confront in the increasingly globalized social order. Others
problem areas requiring intercultural skills include the following: Religious fundamentalism will
continue to present inflexible opinions on a variety of U.S. domestic subjects—gay rights, same-
sex marriage, pro-life/pro-choice, etc.—which can lead to violent confrontation.
International fundamentalism remains the motivation for many terrorists and underlies the
Israeli-Palestinian problem. Aging populations coupled with declining birthrates will create a
shortage of indigenous workers in many developed nations, requiring a still greater influx of
immigrants. These new, younger arrivals will be needed to fill vacant jobs and to contribute to
the tax base supporting national social welfare programs.
We began with a discussion of how globalization has harnessed the forces of
contemporary geopolitics, technology, economics, immigration, and media to produce an ever-
shrinking world community, making interaction among people from different cultures more and
more common and necessary. We end with a reflection on the requirement and urgency for
greater tolerance of cultural differences generated by this new multipolar world order. The
world‘s population, as well as U.S. domestic demographics, continues to move toward a
pluralistic, multicultural society at a quickstep pace. The social forces behind this movement will
not easily or soon subside. The resulting cultural mixing requires that we, both individually and
as a society, become more tolerant of the varied beliefs, worldviews, values, and behaviors of
people from other cultures. Acceptance or tolerance may not be appropriate in every situation,
nor is universal, unquestioning acquiescence to every difference advocated. We do, however,
have to be willing to ―live and let live‖ on a broader scale. That we do not yet seem able or
prepared to do this is demonstrated by ongoing international and domestic struggles.
The international community is beleaguered with sectarian violence arising from
ideological, cultural, and ethnic differences. As we write this chapter, conflict between religious
factions in Iraq appears to be resurging. In the Darfur region of Sudan, people continue to be
killed and driven from their homes as a result of cultural and racial differences. The longstanding
Israeli-Palestinian conflict remains unresolved, and there is little promise of a solution in the
near future. The dispute between India and Pakistan continues over who should control the
disputed region of Jammu and Kashmir in the Himalayas. The conflict between the Russian
government and separatist movements in the Caucasus continues to ebb and flow. The
indigenous Uygur ethnic minority in western China continues to exhibit animosity toward
government policies favoring immigration into the region by other Chinese ethnic groups,
especially the Han. Drought, famine, a burgeoning population, and ineffective governmental
control continue to exacerbate ethnic and religious violence throughout the Horn of Africa.
Maoist insurgents in eastern India, claiming that the government exploits poor rural peasants,
have escalated their violence. The global war on terrorism, a product of variant ideological and
cultural perspectives, continues with little prospect of a final solution. Disagreement over what
constitutes human rights remains a source of tension among many nations.
Intolerance of differences is also a continuing issue within the United States, where we are
divided over a seeming multitude of culturally based issues, many of which fall along a
conservative vs. Liberal ideological divide. The demands of coping with the diverse customs,
values, views, and behaviors inherent in a multicultural society are producing increased levels of
personal frustration, social stress, and often violence.

Instruction: Above are three meaningfully tied paragraphs of greater length than those in
previous texts. They contain general information in the field of global changes producing impact
on American society.This text abounds in facts and names which may sound vaguely familiar but
as a would-be professional in crosscultural communication you are advised to take your time and
clear out for yourself the connotations behind these facts and names. Tone questions ask you to
determine the author's feelings about the topic by the language that he or she uses in writing the
passage. Attitude questions are very similar to tone questions. Again, you must understand the
author's opinion. The language that the author uses will tell you what his or her position is.
Your task is to understand the texts and determine the authors‘ feelings about the topics.
Sample Tone Questions
• What tone does the author take in writing this text?
• How could the tone of this text best be described as?
Sample Answer Choices
The following adjectives indicate if the author's feelings are positive, negative, or neutral
• Positive • Humorous • Worried
• Favorable • Negative • Outraged
• Optimistic • Critical • Neutral
• Amused • Unfavorable • Objective
• Pleased • Angry • Impersonal
• Respectful • Defiant
If you read the italicized sentences in paragraph 3, would the tone of this paragraph most
likely be positive or negative? Choose the right descriptors from the list above.
Note: The italicized words in paragraph 3 indicate a negative attitude. Words like „The
international community is beleaguered‟, „animosity, conflict, dispute‟ and similar words can
"reverse" the tone of the passage.
Attitude questions are very similar to tone questions. Again, you must understand the
author's opinion. The language that the author uses will tell you what his or her position is.
Sample Attitude Questions
If you read the italicized phrases in paragraph 3, would the author‘s attitude most likely be
positive or negative? Choose the right descriptors from the list above.
Organization questions ask about the overall structure of a passage or about the
organization of a paragraph.
A Sample Question
 Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
Answer Choices
A general concept is defined and examples are given.
Several generalizations are presented, from which a conclusion is drawn.
The author presents the advantages and disadvantages of ... __ .
The author presents a system of classification for ... __ .
Persuasive language is used to argue agains ... .
The author describes ... .
The author presents a brief account of ...
The author compares____and _________ ...
Sample Question
 What is the author's attitude toward the the fact that globalization has brought
about the realization that modern societies must learn to cooperate in order to prevent their
mutual self-destruction?
Questions about previous or following paragraphs ask you to assume how the passages
are organized, what would be the topic of the text. To find the order of the passages, look for
clues in the first lines. To find th