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Design Guidelines for PE & ROTO Lined

Carbon Steel Piping
Carbon steel piping with internal PE / ROTO lining is used for liquid service with high
chloride as well as higher oxygen content. The maximum operating temperature of the
PE & ROTO lined piping is 60 °C. Also, these types of coatings are suitable for gas-
liquid ratio values upto 300.

A PE liner consists of a number of Polyethylene pipe lengths, which are fused together
and inserted into sections of carbon steel pipelines and flowlines. The Carbon Steel pipe
provides the pressure containment; while the PE liner provides corrosion protection. At
the ends of the sections, the liners are terminated by PE stub ends. Connections
between PE lined carbon steel pipes shall be flanged.

The PE & ROTO lining is carried out only after the pipe spools are fabricated &
hydrotested. No welding is allowed on the pipe spool once the PE or ROTO lining is
done. The pipe trunnion member & line stop members, if applicable, shall be welded
prior to the lining. Hydrotesting of the spool or pipelines is done before the lining & after
the lining also. Therefore, gaskets are required to be considered for each flanged joint
for hydrotest purpose.

The requirements to be considered while designing of PE lined piping are mentioned


PE/ROTO lining dimensional limitations:

The longest continuous length of liner, which can be installed in straight pipe, depends
on  diameter and wall thickness, but is generally reduced in practice by local curvature of
the line.

For off plot piping scope the PE lining can be done for a pipe spool of upto 250m length.
For shop lined piping the maximum length of PE lined pipe spool is kept as 18m
because of the transportation limitations. Minimum pipe spool length requirement is 5m
(can be as less as 2m if agreed with PE lining vendor). PE lining can be done only for
straight pipe spools. It can not be done for pipe spools with reducers or branches. In
such cases (for pipe spools with reducers or branches) rotolining is carried out .

Bends for PE lining shall not be less than 20D radius (recommended radius is 40D
wherever possible). PE or ROTO lining cannot be carried out for pipe spools with orifice
flanges because of the small size orifice flange tapings. In this case, one option is to use
a suitable material for the upstream & downstream pipe spools & the orifice flanges. And
the other option is to use carrier rings with orifice tapings & orifice plate of the suitable
material which will get sandwiched between two PE lined flanges which avoids the use
of expensive material for the upstream & downstream pipe spools. 

Annulus Vents: 

Every PE lined pipe spool shall have vent points. The minimum number of vent points
shall be one on each flanged end of a section of lined pipe. The vent points to be
provided with valves for oil & gas application & without valves for water service
application. The valves shall be opened only for venting purpose. Continuous venting is
not permitted. The purpose of venting is as follows.

 To vent the (ambient) gas from the pipe/annulus during installation.

 To vent the permeated fluids accumulated in the annulus to prevent collapse.
 To allow monitoring of the integrity of the PE liner during the service life.
Vent holes shall be designed such that no extrusion of the PE liner will occur. For larger
diameter lines, vent discs with multiple holes or wire screens may be used. Vent holes
shall not be larger than 3 mm in diameter. All vents shall be valved (except for water
service where vents can be plugged) and shall have a “snorkel” to prevent ingress of
dirt, moisture and/or air.

The design of the vent point assembly shall be agreed with the Company.

Design Guidelines for ROTO Lined Piping: 

Rotolining is a method of lining the inside of pipes or other parts with a seamless, one
piece inner layer of plastic. In this lining technique the lined spool is produced by heating
and rotating a carbon steel spool with a polymer, which is in a granular form, placed
inside the pipe spool. The polymer melts and forms a liner on the internal surface of the
carbon steel pipe. Also, the polymer forms a bond with the metal.

The choice of which polymer to use is based on the chemical resistance properties that
are required of the final part. Polyethylene, Polypropylene, PVDF or number of other
polymers is used for rotolining

application. The lining thickness varies from 2 mm to 8 mm. The heavy lining thickness
allows post machining of critical surfaces that would not be possible with a thinner lining
applied by other methods. Virtually any type of metal weldment or casting can be
rotolined. Typical items that can be rotolined are tanks, carbon steel pipes, fittings, and
complex welded structures.

Rotolining Procedure: 

 The rotolining process comprises placing a polymer having an average particle

size of 70-1000 μm containing a melt processible fluoropolymer, in a cylindrical article
to be lined (the powder being present in sufficient amount to make a lining at least
500 μm thick).
 The cylindrical article is rotated to bring the radial acceleration at the substrate
surface to be coated to 100 m/sec2 or greater, pressing the powder against the article
to be lined by means of the centrifugal force generated by that rotation, at the same
time heating the melt processible fluoropolymer to a temperature equal to or higher
than the melting point of the melt processible fluoropolymer, but not higher than 400°
C., thereby adhering the melt processible fluoropolymer to the surface of the article to
be lined.
 During the heating cycle, the polymer particles begin to stick to the hot metal
substrate. A skin is formed. This skin gradually forms a homogenous layer of uniform
thickness. Ultimate wall thickness is determined by the amount of material that is
initially placed into the cavity.
 Adding a small amount of a heat stabilizer such as PPS (polyphenylene sulphide)
to prevent the decomposition of the fluoropolymer on heating can give an excellent
coating with minimal bubble formation.
 After a predetermined time at a specific temperature, the entire polymer is
distributed over the surface of the spool. The spool is then cooled by a combination of
forced air and water mist.
 The part is then removed from the machine and surfaces such as flange face and
“O” ring sealing areas are machined into the plastic. Linings are spark and
ultrasonically tested to insure liner integrity.
 The process itself introduces no force or shear to the material. The result is a
relatively stress free lining. Rotolined parts are completely seamless and weld free.
Advantages of ROTOLINING: 

 Seamless construction with a very smooth interior surface.

 Polymer rotolining have an excellent chemical resistant, relatively high
temperature performance and an excellent metal to plastic bond.
 Thicker lining & uniform wall thickness can be achieved than electrostatic or
spray coating.
 Drastically reduces permeation through the coating and possible corrosion of the
metal substrate.
 Thicker coating can be repaired by welding if mechanically damaged. Thin
coatings must be stripped and recoated, if repairs are not possible.

ROTO lining dimensional limitations: 

 Guidelines for ROTO lining dimensional limitations are as per below table:
Rotolining Dimensional table

All dimensional given in above table shall be considered as diagonal lengths. The above
dimensions shall be verified with the ROTO lining contractor prior to issuing the
isometrics for fabrication.

For ROTO lining minimum branch-off size shall be 1” NB.

The thickness of PE & ROTO lining on the flange raised face (collar thickness) is as per
below Table:
The above thicknesses shall be verified with the PE & ROTO lining contractors prior to
issuing piping isometric drawings for construction.

Flange joint details for PE / ROTO lining piping: 

Typical PE / ROTO lined flange joint detail is as follows:

Typical Flanged joint

The 1/2” NB annulus vents shown in the above sketch are for PE lined pipe spool only.

Galvanised carbon steel retainer rings are used between PE / ROTO lined flange joints
to hold the stub ends in place (to avoid the plastic material from deformation). The width
of retainer ring is calculated as follows:

A = (2 x B + 2 x T) – 3mm


A – Width of retainer ring

B – Thickness of flange raised face

T – Collar thickness

Retainer rings are generally provided by PE lining vendor, still it has to be confirmed with
the vendor at the start of the project.

Following sketches provides the information regarding the use of retainer ring &
insulating gasket for PE & ROTO lining flange joints.
Flanged joints
The use of insulating gasket for PE & ROTO lining piping is restricted for the insulating
spools only wherever shown in PEFS. For flange joint between PE / ROTO lined CS
piping & SS or DSS mating flange insulating gasket is not required to be provided.

For insulating joint insulating gasket, extra long sleeves, washers & extra long bolts are
required. The spectacle blind, spade & spacers shall be considered of suitable material
for PE & ROTO lined piping and the blind flange shall be epoxy coated or ROTO lined.
This shall be finalized with the client & construction contractor prior to start of a project.

A typical isometric of PE/Rotolined pipe is shown below: