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You are on page 1of 10

angular kinematics

Linear Angular

•Mass •Moment of inertia

•Force •Torque

resistance to angular

motion (like linear

motion) dependent on

mass

mass is distributed to the angular motion dependent on

axis of rotation, the easier both the quantity and

it is to rotate distribution of mass

Inertia

1

Moment of Inertia

• ANGULAR FORM OF INERTIA (I)

– resistance to changes in the state of angular

motion

• I = mr2

– for a single particle

– proportional to mass and distance squared

• SI unit = kg.m2

Different Axes

• recognize that

rotation can occur

about different axes

– each axis has its

own moment of

inertia associated

with it

2

Whole Body I

• consider human movement to occur about 3 principal axes

• each principal axis has a principal moment of inertia

associated with it

• when mass is distributed closer to axis the moment of

inertia is lower

Torque

(a.k.a. moment of force)

• The turning or rotational effect of an

eccentric force.

• Equal to the product of perpendicular

components of force and distance (from the

force’s line of action).

– Any eccentric force will cause a torque

– “Moment arm” is a special name given to the

distance from force’s line of action and the axis

of rotation.

3

Centric and Eccentric Forces

• Centric forces result in linear motion only.

in rotational motion (sometimes linear

motion, too).

Example

Fmuscle

dmuscle

Wforearm Wball

dforearm

dball

4

Example

Fmuscle(parallel)

Fmuscle

Fmuscle(perpendicular)

d

(moment arm)

Example

Fmuscle

d(perp)

(moment arm)

5

Eccentric Forces: Couple

• A couple is a pair of forces which are equal

in magnitude but opposite in direction, are

equidistant from the axis of rotation, and

act to produce pure rotation.

Angular Analog

Newton’s Laws

1) a rotating body will continue to turn about

its axis of rotation with constant angular

momentum, unless an external couple or

eccentric force is exerted upon it

•linear momentum

AKA - The principle

M = m.v of conservation of

•angular momentum angular momentum

H = I. ω

6

Angular Analog

Newton’s Laws

2) the rate of change of angular momentum of

a body is proportional to the torque causing

it and the change takes place in the

direction in which the torque acts

ωf – ωi

ΣT = I t

ΣT = Iα

7

Angular Analog

Newton’s Laws

3) for every torque that is exerted by one body

on another there is an equal and opposite

torque exerted by the second body on the

first

TRANSFER OF

ANGULAR

MOMENTUM

enter pike - Hlegs

because legs slow down

Htrunk+arms to maintain

a constant Htotal

entry - Htrunk + arms

to give a clean entry

8

Angular Momentum

in Long Jump

rotate arms and legs CW to account for Htotal

9

Sources of Angular Momentum

• Whole body H = sum

of all segmental H’s

s= N

• Each segmental H has 2

H = ∑ Hs sources

s =1

– Isωs/Gs (H caused by

( )

s= N

H = ∑ I sωs / Gs + ms r ωGs / G

2 rotation of segment

s =1

about its own CG)

– msr2ωGs/G (H caused by

rotation of segment’s

CG about the whole

body CG). This is the

most important source!

10

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