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Learning Evidence (LE) 1:

Worksheet on Comparative Analysis of Primary vs. Secondary Sources

(Tejeros Convention, 1897)

Primary Source: Santiago Secondary Source: Teodoro

Alvarez “Memoirs of a General” Agoncillo’s “Seeds of Discontent”

Gen. Santiago Alavarez is also known as General Apoy Teodoro A. Agoncillo is an eminent Philippine
or also known as "Kidlat ng Apoy"(Lightning of Fire). He historian of the 20th century. He was born in Lemery,
was born in Novelita, Cavite in July 25, 1872. He was a Batangas, in November 9, 1912. Agoncillo is known
Captain General (Commander-in-Chief) of the for his contribution to the history of the Philippines
Magdiwang forces. He is prominent for his bravery and which are considered essential in gaining broad
heroism in the battle of the Dalahikan as a commander. understanding of our Philippine history.
In 1901, Alvarez was a president of the Nacionalista
Party’s directorate.

First published during the 1920s in Sampaguita, a Revolt of the Masses by Teodoro Agoncillo was
When was Tagalog weekly, the memoirs are reproduced in this written in the year 1947 and published year 2002.
the volume together with the English translation by Paula
account Carolina Malay.

March 25, 1897 – The assembly at Tejeros was December, 1896 – Aguinaldo, Tirona, and
convened Evangelista meets Bonifacio and his entourage at
March 26, 1897 – Another meeting called by Pres. Zapote
Baldomero Aguinaldo, but only some Magdiwang
leaders attended
March 27, 1897 – Meeting at Tanza Parish House January 2, 1897 – Bonifacio, as the supremo head of
April 2, 1896 – The Magdiwang was formed in Noveleta, the Katipunan is being skeptical with his very little
Cavite influence in the Magdalo Area. As a result, he wrote
Mention of
April 3, 1896 – The Magdalo was formed from San Francisco de Malabon to his uncle in law,
Mariano Alvarez.

March 22, 1897 – The battle enraged and the

assembly in Tajeros came together during
Aguinaldo’s birthday.

April 1897 – the Spaniards conquered the town that

Bonifacio stayed in

Andres Bonifacio – The Supremo

Emilio Aguinaldo – Winner of the Andres Bonifacio – the Supremo; the Supreme head
elections for the position President of the Katipunan – obeyed by all; founder of the
Baldomero Aguinaldo – Leader of Katipunan; and the initiator of the Revolution
Key personal Magdalo Mariano Trias – Minister of Grace and Justice of
ties General Vibora – won over General Magdiwang
Apoy as Captain General in the Ariston Villanueva – Minister of War of Magdiwang
election Santiago Alvarez – Commander-in-Chief of
Emiliano De Dios – won the position of Secretary Magdiwang
of War in the election Diego Moxica – Minister of Finance of Magdiwang
General Vibora – won over General Apoy as Captain Artemio Rcarte & Meriano Riego de Dios – Military
General in the election Commanders of Magdiwang
Daniel Tirona Vito Belarmino & Crispulo Aguinaldo – Military
Jose Del Rosario Commanders of Madalo
Cayetano Topacio Mariano Alvarez – president of the Magdiwang
Cayetano Topacio – Minister of Finance of Magdalo
Emilio Aguinaldo – Commander-in-Chief of Magdalo
Edilberto Evangelista – Lieutenant General of
Messrs. who attended the assembly at Tajeros: Madalo
Pascual Alvarez – executive secretary of Magdiwang
Mariano Alvarez Emiliano Riego de Dios – Minister of the Interior
Ariston Villanueva – Secretary of War (pagpapaunlad) of Magdiwang
of Magdiwang Jacinto Lumbreras, Teodoro Gonzales, & Severino
Diego Mojica de las Alas – the acting officers of othe Magdiwang
Jacinto Lumbreras – Secretery of the in the assembly at Tajeros
Magdiwang council Baldomero Aguinaldo – President of the Magdalo
Pascual Alvarez government
Santiago V. Alvarez – Captain General Candido Tirona – Minister of War of Magdalo
Apoy / Magdiwang
Nicolas Portilla
Santos Nocon
Mariano Trias – winner of the elections for the position
Artemio Recarte
Luciano San Miguel
Santiago Rillo
Severino de las Alas

Sequencing In March 25, 1897, two rival factions of the Katipunan; This article starts by introducing the division of the
of Events the Magdiwang and the Magdalo, gathered for the Katipunan into two factions; the Magdiwang and the
assembly in Tejeros. The convention started by tackling Magdalo, each with their own sovereign power over
the major issue of the choice of the kind of government a number of towns. As independent factions, each
to be established. The invitations for this assembly were had elected their own officials with the different
signed by Sec. Jacinto Lumbreras of the Magdiwang positions.
whom presided over the assembly. Chairman
Lumbreras declared the assembly open and announce Both factions made the decision for their armies to
the main topic of discussion and they argued about the wear the same uniform but later proved to be too
revolutionary government. expensive.

Mr. Montenegro supports the side of Mr. de las Alas Between the factions, tension rose as each faction
between the argument of Mr. de las Alas, Chairman wanted supremacy over the other. Neither would
Lumbreras, and Andres Bonifacio, thus triggering bow nor want to be placed upon the other’s
General Apoy and angrily argues against the motion. command. Each believed to have won more victories
The Magdiwang troops reacted to it suspiciously thus than the other. It was a silent conflict.
disrupting the assembly.
Mr. Lumbreras directs the chairmanship to Andres At first, Bonifacio refused to pay attention of the
Bonifacio after settling the argument, then the chair invitations from the Magdiwang. However, he
proceeded to continue for the election for the positions agreed. On December 1896, he left cavite together
of President, Vice President, Minister of Finance, with Ciriacao and Procopio.
Minister of Welfare, Minister of Justice, and Captain
Genera. They call for an assembly at Imus to eradicate the
growing tension.

After the votes were counted, Emilio Aguinaldo won As they begin the assembly, both factions greeted
against Andres Bonifacio in the position of President. one another but Bonifacio independently proceeded
Each position evaded Bonifacio until he was elected as to the head of the table. He sat with the Magdiwang
Secretary of Interior despite Tirona moving against it at his right which hinted impartiality. The Magdalo
with disrespect. Bonifacio aimed his revolver at Tirona kept quiet and sat on the left.
and demanded an apology. Everything became chaotic
as people were frantic. The two factions opened the assembly whether or
not to create a new government. Their atmosphere
was surrounded with the heated discussions and
Mr. Baldomero Aguinaldo requests a reconciliation arguments. The arguments ended up having no
meeting at Tejeros but none of the Magdalo members results, just increasing the suspicions of each faction.
did not appear, rumored about their absence is that the
Magdalo leaders were currently holding their seperate A conflict arose between the Magdiwang namely
meeting at the parish house in Tanza Parish House Alvarez and San Gabriel.

The next day, according to the eyewitnesses that a At the estate house in Tejeros, the Magdiwang had
meeting had actually taken place. Those elected at the organized another assembly at the estate house.
Tejeros convention knelt before crucifix and in the Meanwhile, the Magdalo battled the Spaniards.
name of the Holy Father, the highest pontiff of the Despite the events, the convention was continued
Roman Catholic Church. Supremo Bonifacio was not but mostly had Magdiwang attendees.
invited although he was one of the elected to office.
In the convention tejeros, they discussed about a
new type of government. They had an election and
the result revealed that Bonifacio failed to get the
presidency, he was replaced by Bonifacio.

Bonifacio missed every position until voted for the

last position which was the Director of the Interior.

Daniel Tirona Magdalo did not agree to the result

instead he proposed Jose del Rosario. As it was
escalated, Bonifacio drew his gun and tried to shoot
Tirona but was held back. This led the members to
start leaving the Assembly. Bonifacio who was
offended, declared the results null and void.

After the events of the Tejeros Convention, Andres

Bonifacio wrote to Mariano Alvarez after the events
of the Tejeros Convention mentioning that he was
belittled during the assembly as the men voted over
other men for positions. He also stated that the
results of the Convention were null.

He also wrote to Emilio Jacinto stating that he was

against the idea of establishing a new government
and that he lost the election against Aguinaldo for
the President position as he had influenced more
people for their approval.

Differences Alvarez’ words of mouth is biased about the meeting in Agoncillio’s words tuckled more on the detailed and
between Tejero’s convention and the people involved. It has broad emotions of the expressed personalities. In
2 accounts more detailed and specific information. comparing it from the primary source, it shows that
(in there are only few changes that was given but it’s
general) way deeper.

The above worksheet is your guide. In doing the comparative analysis, you have to come

up with a one full-page bigger Table where you can write all your findings/discoveries under each

column. You are expected to do further research/reading on each area, especially on the “Author’s

Background.” After you have completed the worksheet, come up with a narrative or discussion

below it. You are expected to download your output/work on: Canvas (if you are Category 3), FB

Group or Messenger GC (if you are Category 2) and a print out (in PDF format, if you’re Category 1).

From what I had observed, the primary source only talked about what happened generally atthe Tejeros Convention.
The second source, however, managed to write about what happened before,during, and after the Tejeros Convention.

I was able to spot some differences with these accounts. It seemed like Agoncillo had some error narrated to
the Tejeros convention which is wrong and unprofessional at all. For instance, in the primary source, Montenegro
argued with General Apoy. Butthe second source wrote that Santiago Alvarez was the one that got a
heated moment withMontenegro.

Agoncillo mentioned a lot of things that weren’t even stated in the primary resource. Thiscould mislead people who are
studying the Philippine History. I believe Agoncillo got carried away withhis emotions. It was so unscholarly of Agoncillo.
There is much confusion as you thoroughly read theaccount. The author has, wittingly or unwittingly, drawn a distorted
picture of the characters. And this isnot to speak of Agoncillo’s failure, in painting his portrait of Bonifacio or Santiago
Alvarez’s memoirs; toverify the recollection of someone who was not at the first uprising.
In summarizing the things that was talked about between two accounts, the primary source tackled the events in a
general way that occurred in the assembly of the two rival factions of the Katipunan; the Magdiwang and the Magdalo in
Tejeros. While the second source, Agoncillo’s narration was more on the Tejero’s initiation and completion of the
Tejero’s Convention. Based on my observation, Agoncillo added more stories derived from his imaginations and
emotions from what was stated in the primary source which in fact, could destroy the original thus shaping his own idea
of the historical actual events or people’s character from the memoir. Our history should be known