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Author: Noel D. Anciado


Illustrator and Layout Artist: Shaine Rita B. Incapas
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Introduction

21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World


Module aims to engage students in appreciation and critical study
of 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World, en-
compassing their various dimensions, genres, elements, structures,
contexts, and traditions.

This module allows the students to embark on a journey from


Philippine regions to the different parts of the world through various
literary encounters.

Here, the learners will be accompanied by Lito and Letty, the


ship captains of Balangay ( an old name of a Philippine boat). Lito
is a Filipino Ship Captain who is in-charge of the local destinations.
And Letty is a Lady Ship Captain from other country. She is in-
charge of the tour abroad. Lito and Letty assist each other in every
module visit.

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Legend

This Self Learning Kit is divided into 27 modules with varied


parts and respective icons:

Gearing Up
(Review)

Testing the Water


( Pre-test)

Leaving the Shore


( Priming Activity)

Rocking the Boat


( Activity Proper)

Plotting the Course


( Analysis)

Keeping Track
( Abstraction)

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Legend

Approaching Destination
(Application)

Seeing the Lighthouse


( Reflection)

Dropping the Anchor


( Post Test)

Going Back to the Ocean


( Remediation)

Discovering the Gem


( Answer Key)

Every module targets a specific learning competency and asks l


earners to perform multiple tasks.

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Hello, dear student, our fellow voyager!


Welcome…

I’m Letty. Are you ready to set sail and


BEGIN your voyage with this module?

I’m Lito.
Well, it’s time to GO ABOARD to set
your quest for KNOWLEDGE in motion.
Have FUN!

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Connect with the Module:


Some reminders before cruising:

Use the module with care especially in turning each


1 page.

Be reminded to answer the Pre-Test before moving


2 on to the Self-Learning Kit (SLK) Proper.

Read and understand the directions in every exer-


3 cise.

Observe honesty in answering the tests and exer-


4 cises and in checking your answers.

Do not put unnecessary mark/s on any part of this


5 module.

Try to finish the task at hand before proceeding to


6 the next.

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Horizon Overview

Learning Competency:
EN12Lit-Ia-21 Identify geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of
Philippine literary history from pre-colonial to the contemporary

The use of this module requires every learner to demonstrate


understanding of transformation in the Philippine literature through times.
Through this, each learner will experience how language, ethnic and ge-
ographic dimensions contribute and are influenced by changes in the
government. At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:

 Identify various dimensions of Philippine literary history from pre-


colonial to contemporary;
 Enumerate differences between and among periods of Philippine
literature as presented by geographic, linguistic, and ethnic
dimensions;
 Show appreciation of the early and contemporary forms of Philippine
literature.

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Gearing Up

Studying literature can be very easy


with the right amount of knowledge gained
from your journey in the past. Do you
know how our literature landscape has
evolved?

For your next journey , we will guide


you in gathering more literary tools that will
surely make learning more convenient.

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Testing the Waters

DIRECTIONS: Using the given answer sheet, darken the circle correspond-
ing to the letter of the best answer for each item.
1. Jose Rizal’s works such as Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo were
written to awake the mind of our countrymen.
A. Spanish Period
B. American Period
C. Pre-Spanish Period
D. Period of Enlightenment

2. The Philippines had literature such as legends, folktakes, folksongs, and


the like.
A. Spanish Period
B. Japanese Period
C. Pre-Spanish Period
D. Period of Enlightenment

3. In this period, religious books were written such as Doctrina Cristiana


and Urbana and Felisa to support or contradict the Catholic Church.
A. Spanish Period
B. American Period
C. 21st Century Period
D. Period of Enlightenment

4. Filipino writers went into all forms of literature like news, reporting,
poetry, stories plays, essays, and novels which clearly depicted their love
of country and their longings for independence.
A. Edsa I Period
B. American Period
C. Pre-Spanish Period
D. The 3rd Republic Period

5. Filipino literature was given a break during this period for the Filipino
literature was prohibited to use. Many wrote plays, poems short stories,
etc. Topics and themes were often about life in the provinces.
A. Japanese Period
B. American Period
C. Pre-Spanish Period
D. The 3rd Republic Period

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Let’s Navigate

It is time for us to explore ! Get ready


with your map for we are about to take the
most exciting journey we could ever have.

Wow ! That sounds interesting. I cannot


wait to start this memorable exploration with
you. I really love to know the richness of the
Philippine literature.

Rock the Boat

DIRECTIONS: Complete the literary TIMELINE below. Choose your


answers from the given choices written in the capsules.

1566 - 1872 1898 - 1941 - 1946 1970 1981 - 1986 - 2001 –


1965
1898 -1898 1941 1945 -1970 -1980 1985 1999 present

Japanese Period American Regime Spanish Period

Rebirth of Freedom Pre-Spanish Period Period of Activism & New Society

Post EDSA I Period 21st Century Period of Enlightenment

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Plotting the Course


Journey

DIRECTIONS: Study the literary map below. Note how our


geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of Philippine literary
history from pre-colonial to the contemporary time contribute and are
influenced by the various events to answer the questions below.
Draw strings to connect the literary pieces to their locations on the
map.
Pre-colonial
Ida-Ida- Maguidanao
Ibanag- Tagalog

Japanese and American Period Lullabyes or ili-ili- Ilongo

Kahapon, ngayon, at bukas - Ambahan- Mangyan

Kapangpangan Harana- Cebuano


Kissa- Tausug

Ang Mga Tunuksan Isa Ca Bulacalac -


Visaya

Spanish and Period of Enlightenment


Awit and Korido- Tagalog
Lagaylay- Sorsogon
THE MORO-MORO- Mindanao

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Think about This!

1. Which among the literary pieces are you familiar with?


____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. What does the activity say about the geographic, linguistic, and
ethnic dimensions of Philippine literature from pre-colonial to con-
temporary time?
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. What do you think were the changes happened in our literature
as the time passed by?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

Keeping the Track

our forefathers already had their own litera-


ture which was reflected in their customs and traditions? They had
their own alphabet even before they were colonized. Their alphabet
was burned by the Spanish friars in the belief that they were works of
the devil or were written on materials that easily perished, like the
barks of trees, dried leaves and bamboo cylinders which could not
have remained undestroyed even if efforts were made to preserve
them. Other records that remained showed folk songs that proved ex-
istence of a native culture truly our own. Some of these were passed
on by word of mouth till they reached the hands of some publishers or
printers who took interest in printing the manuscripts of the ancient
Filipinos. Our unique geographic location is the reason or having rich
and varied.

Pre-Spanish Literature is characterized by


 LEGENDS. Legends are a form of prose the common theme of
which is about the origin of a thing, place, location or name. The
events are imaginary, devoid of truth and unbelievable. Old Filipi-
no customs are reflected in these legends.

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 FOLK TALES. Folk tales are made up of stories about life,


adventure, love, horror and humor where one can derive lessons
about life. These are useful to us because they help us appreciate
our environment, evaluate our personalities and improve our
perspectives in life. An example of this is THE MOON AND THE
SUN.

 THE EPIC AGE. Epics are long narrative poems in which a series of
heroic achievements or events, usually of a hero, are dealt with at
length. Nobody can determine which epics are the oldest because in
their translations from other languages, even in English and Spanish.

 FOLK SONGS. Folk songs are one of the oldest forms of


Philippine literature that emerged in the pre-Spanish period.
These songs mirrored the early forms of culture. Many of these
have 12 syllables. Examples of which are Kundiman,
Kumintang o Tagumpay, Ang Dalit o Imno, Ang Oyayi o Hele,
Diana, Soliraning and Talindaw

 Other forms of Pre-Spanish Poetry


 Epigrams (Salawikain) is oldest form of Philippine
literature that emerged in the pre-Spanish period.
These songs mirrored the early forms of culture. .
 Riddles (Bugtong) or Palaisipan are made up of one or
more measured lines with rhyme and may consist of
four to 12 syllables. It is known as tigmo in Cebuano,
paktaton in Ilongo and patototdon in Bicol.
 Chant (Bulong) is used in witchcraft or enchantment.
 Maxims are are rhyming couplets with verses of 5, 6 or
8 syllables, each line having the same number of sylla-
bles.
 Sayings (Kasabihan) are often used in teasing or to
comment on a person’s actuations.
 Sawikain (Sayings) are used to state lines with no hid-
den meaning.

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Task 1 ITS REAL


DIRECTIONS: Given below are sample literary pieces. Explain each by
providing real-life scenarios or situations.

__________________________
“May tainga ang lupa, may pakpak __________________________
ang balita.”
__________________________

_____________________
_____________________
THE MOON AND THE SUN
_____________________ (Tingguian folk tale)
_____________________
In the olden days, like the moon,
_____________________ the sun had also star children
_____________________ which were yellowish in color, very
bright and very hot.
_____________________ He star children of the moon,
_____________________ however, were reddish and cool.
That moon was scared hat his stars
_____________________ would wither and die if they play with
_____________________ the star children of thesun.
The moon suggested to the sun that
_____________________ they kill their children who were
_____________________ crowding the heavens with their
_____________________ number.
When the sun had killed her
_____________________ children, the moon merely hid
_____________________ behind the clouds.
In the evening, when the clouds
_____________________ faded, the moon stars appeared.
_____________________ This angered the sun so he gave chase
to the moon. Thus when he
_____________________ overtakes the moon, we have the
_____________________ so-called eclipse.
Every morning, the kills the moon
stars that he catches.
Until now, this chase continues
and because the moon still continues

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Take a break!
How about a cup of coffee?

Let’s Change the Gear!

Spanish Period (1565-1898)

Look at the picture at the left.


What can you recall from the
discussion you had with your
history teacher?

Do you know that?

During these times, many changes occurred in the lives of Filipi-


nos:
 embraced the Catholic religion
 changed their names
 were baptized.

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Literature in this period may be classified as religious prose and


poetry and secular prose and poetry.
 SPANISH INFLUENCES ON PHILIPPINE LITERATURE
 The first Filipino alphabet called ALIBATA was replaced by the
Roman alphabet.
 The teaching of the Christian Doctrine became the basis of
religious practices.
 The Spanish language which became the literary language
during this time lent many of its words to our language.
 European legends and traditions brought here became
assimilated in our songs, corridos, and moro-moros.
 Ancient literature was collected and translated to Tagalog and
other dialects.
 Many grammar books were printed in Filipino, like Tagalog,
Ilocano and Visayan.
 Our periodicals during these times gained a religious tone.
 THE FIRST BOOKS
 ANG DOCTRINA CRISTIANA (THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE).
This was the first book printed in the Philippines in 1593 in xy-
lography.
 Nuestra Señora del Rosario. It contains the biographies of
saints, novenas, and questions and answers on religion.
 Libro de los Cuatro Postprimeras de Hombre (in Spanish and
Tagalog). This is the first book printed in typography.
 Ang Barlaan at Josephat. This is a Biblical story printed in the
Philippines and translated to Tagalog from Greek by Fr. Antonio
de Borja.
 The Pasion. This is the book about the life and sufferings of
Jesus Christ. It is read only during Lent. Urbana at Felisa.
 FOLK SONGS. Folk songs became widespread in the Philippines.
Each region had its national song from the lowlands to the mountains
of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. They truly manifest the artistic feel-
ings of the Filipinos. They show the Filipinos’ innate apprecia-
tion for and love of beauty. The examples are Leron-Leron Sinta,
Pamulinawen, Dandansoy, Sarong Banggi and Atin Cu Pung Sing-
sing.
 RECEREATIONAL PLAYS. There are many recreational plays per-
formed by Filipinos during the Spanish times. Almost all of them
were in poetic form.

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 Tibag – The word tibag means to excavate. This ritual was


brought here by the Spaniard to remind the people about the
search of St. Helena for the Cross on which Jesus died.
 Lagaylay – This is a special occasion for the Pilareños of
Sorsogon during Maytime to get together.
 The Cenaculo – This is a dramatic performance to commemorate
the passion and death of Jesus Christ.
 Panunuluyan – This is presented before 12:00 on Christmas Eve.
This is a presentation of the search of the Virgin Mary and St. Jo-
seph for an inn wherein to deliver the baby Jesus.
 The Salubong (or Panubong) - The Salubong is an Easter play
that dramatizes the meeting of the Risen Christ and his Mother.
It is still presented in many Philippine towns.
 Carillo (Shadow Play) – this is a form of dramatic entertainment
performed on a moonless night during a town fiesta or on dark
nights after a harvest.
 Zarzuela – considered the father of the drama; it is a musical
comedy or melodrama three acts which dealt with man’s pas-
sions and emotions like love, hate, revenge, cruelty, avarice or
some social or political proble.
 Sainete – this was a short musical comedy popular during the
18th century. They were exaggerated comedies shown between
acts of long plays and were mostly performed by characters from
the lower classes. Themes were taken from everyday life sce-
narios.
 MORO-MORO. Like the Cenaculo, the Moro-moro is presented
also on a special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to
entertain the people and to remind them of their Christian
religion.
 KARAGATAN. This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-religious
nature celebrated during the death of a person.
 DUPLO. The Duplo replaced the Karagatan. This is a poetic
joust in speaking and reasoning. The roles are taken from the
Bible and from proverbs and saying. It is usually played during
wakes for the dead.
 BALAGTASAN. This is a poetic joust or a contest of skills in
debate on a particular topic or issue. This is replaced the DU-
PLO and is held to honor Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar.
 THE DUNG-AW. This is a chant in free verse by a bereaved
person or his representative beside the corpse of the dead. No
definite meter or rhyming scheme is used.
 AWIT and the CORRIDO. Some use these two interchangeably
because distinction is not clear.

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Task 2 REFLECT ON ME
DIRECTIONS: Write a reflective essay highlighting the message of the
excerpt of one of the most famous literary pieces during Spanish time,
Pasyon, in the first box and draw the theme being revealed in the second
box.

KASAYSAYAN NG PASYONG MAHAL


NI HESUKRISTONG PANGINOON NATIN
(COPYRIGHT 1949 BY IGNACIO LUNA & SONS)
Panalangin sa Diyos Oh Diyos
sa kalangitan Hari ng sangkalupaan
Diyos na walang kapantay,
mabait lubhang maalam
at puno ng karunungan.
Ikaw ang Amang tibobos
ng nangungulilang lubos
amang di matapus-tapos,
maawi't mapagkupkop sa taong lupa't alabok.
Iyong itulot sa amin Diyos Amang maawain
mangyaring aming dalitin,

Box 1: Reflective Essay


_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Box 2: Drawing

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You’ve just finished another remarkable


period!
You deserve a real break.

Period of Enlightenment (1972- 1898)

In 19th Century, Filipino intellectuals educated in Europe called


ilustrados began to write about the hitch of colonization.
The 300 years with Spaniards marked the longest colonial period in
the Philippine history. Due to the need to see new hope in the midst of
multitude, the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3 priests Gomez, Burgos
and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt.
 The Propaganda Movement (1872-1896)
This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intel-
lectual middle-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar;
Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose
Ma. Panganiban, and Pedro Paterno.
Some of Rizal’s writings:
1. NOLI ME TANGERE- This was the novel that
gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved
the way to the revolution against Spain.
2. EL FILIBUSTERISMO- This is a sequel which
exposed those in the government and in the church.
3. MI ULTIMO ADIOS- This was a poem by Rizal
while he was incarcerated at Fort Santiago.
4. SOBRE LA INDOLENCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS
(On the Indolence of the Filipinos)- An essay on the
so-called Filipino indolence and an evaluation of the
reasons for such allegations.
5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CIEN AÑOS- An essay
Jose Rizal predicting the increasing influence of the US in the
Philippines and the decreasing interest of Europe

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Some of Del Pilar’s writings


1. PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA (Love of Coun-
try). Translated from the Spanish AMOR PATRIA of
Rizal, published on August 20, 1882, in Diariong Ta-
galog.
2. KAIINGAT KAYO (Be Careful). A humorous and
sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez in the
novel NOLI of Rizal, published in Barcelona in 1883.
3. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN (Prayers and Jokes).
Similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done against
the parish priests, published in Barcelona in 1888..
Marcelo del Pilar

Some of Jaena’s writings


1. ANG FRAY BOTOD (Friar Botod). One of his
works
written in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the
Cavite
Revolt attacking the friars in the Philippines.
He exposed how some of the friars were greedy,
ambitious and immoral.
2. LA HIJA DEL FRAILE (The Child of the Friar)
and EVERYTING IS HAMBUG (Everything is
mere show). Here Jaena explains the tragedy of
Graciano Lopez Jaena marrying a Spaniard.
3. SA MGA PILIPINO...1891) A speech which aimed to improve the
condition of the Filipinos to become free and progressive.
4. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY KOLUMBUS (An Oration to
Commemorate Columbus). A speech he delivered in Madrid on the 39 th
anniversary of the discovery of American.

Task 3 DEAR OH DEAR


DIRECTIONS: Make a gratitude letter addressed to ilustrados indicating
the importance of their writings in the attainment of nation’s freedom and
in the development of Philippine literature. Use the template on the next
page to do the task.
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Dear Ilustrados,
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Truly Yours,

You are indeed awesome! You


are doing your best to explore the
evolution of Philippine Literature.
For that, let me give you this.

The American Regime (1898-1944)

After having been colonized by the Spaniards, a new set of


colonizers brought about new changes in Philippine literature.
Linguistically, Americans influenced Filipino writers to write using
English language. English as medium of instruction was introduced
in the schools as intellectual language of education.
Jose Garcia Villa became famous for his free verse.
Angela Manalang Gloria used free verse in writing her poetry about
illicit love.
Alongside this development, writers in the provinces
continued to use vernacular language. Some of them are Lope K.
Santos, Valeriano Hernandez Pena and Patricio Mariano. Ameri-
can’s influence was evident in the fusion of American pop cultures
and romantic tradition such as Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan by
F.P Boquecosa who also penned Ang Palad ni Pepe after Charles
Dicken’s David Copperfield.

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The active arousal in the field of literature started to be felt in the follow-
ing newspapers.
 EL NUEVO DIA (The New Day). Established by Sergio
Osmeña in 1900. The American censors twice banned
this and threatened Osmeña with banishment because of
his nationalistic writings.
 EL GRITO DEL PUEBLO (The Call of the Nation). Estab-
lished by Pascual Poblete in 1900.
 EL RENACIMIENTO (The Rebirth). Founded by Rafael
Palma in 1901.
 Plays written during the period
 KAHAPON, NGAYON AT BUKAS (Yesterday, Today and
Tomorrow). Written by Aurelio Tolentino depicting the
suppression done by the Americans and their plan to col-
onize the Philippines.
 TANIKALANG GINTO of Juan Abad.
 MALAYA by Tomas Remigio.
 WALANG SUGAT by Severino Reyes.
 Characteristics of Literature during this period
 During the first year of the American period, the lan-
guages used in writing were Spanish and Tagalog and the
dialects of the different regions, but Spanish and Tagalog
predominated.
 The writers in Tagalog continued in their lamentations on
the conditions of the country and their attempts to arouse
love for one’s native tongue.
 The writers in English imitated the themes and methods of
the Americans.

Task 4 TRACE AND RACE


DIRECTIONS: Describe the changes happened in our literature from
Spanish Period to American Period. Put emphasis on the language
used and the influences contributed by Americans and Spaniards in
the Philippine literature.

Spanish Period Enlightenment American Period


Period

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You are doing


great! How about
trying our mango?

The Japanese Period (1941-1945)

Between 1941-1945, Philippine Literature was interrupted in its


development when the Philippines was again conquered by another
foreign country, Japan. Philippine literature in English came to a halt.
Except for the TRIBUNE and the PHILIPPINE REVIEW, almost all news-
papers in English were stopped by the Japanese.
 FILIPINO POETRY DURING THIS PERIOD
The common theme of most poems during the Japanese
occupation was nationalism, country, love, and life in the barrios,
faith, religion and the arts.
Three types of poems emerged during this period. They were:
 Haiku – a poem of free verse that the Japanese like.
It was made up of 17 syllables divided into three lines.
The first line had 5 syllables, the second, 7 syllables, and
the third, five. The Haiku is allegorical in meaning, is short
and covers a wide scope in meaning.
The moon in the water;
Broken and broken again,
Still it is there
Chōshū
(Trans. R. H. Blyth)
 Tanaga – like the Haiku, is short but it had measure and
rhyme. Each line had 17 syllables and it’s also allegorical
in meaning.
SANGGOL
(Emelita Perez Baes)
Pag ang sanggol ay ngumiti
nawawala ang pighati,
pag kalong mo’y sumisidhi
ang pangarap na punyagi.
 Karaniwang Anyo (Usual Form)

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 THE FILIPINO SHORT STORY DURING THE JAPANESE


PERIOD
 The field of the short story widened during the Japanese
Occupation. Many wrote short stories, among them
were: Brigido Batungbakal, Macario Pineda, Serafin
Guinigindo, Liwayway Arceo, Narciso Ramos, NVM
Gonzales, Alicia Lopez Lim, Ligaya Perez, and Gloria
Guzman.
 PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH (1941-1945)
 Because of the strict prohibitions imposed of the Japa-
nese in the writing and publishing of works in English,
Philippine literature in English experienced a dark pe-
riod.
 POETRY IN ENGLISH DURING THIS PERIOD
 For the first twenty years, many books were published
both in Filipino and in English.
 THE NEW FILIPINO LITERATURE DURING THIS PERIOD
 Philippine literature in Tagalog was revived during this
period. Most themes in the writings dealt with Japanese
brutalities, of the poverty of life under the Japanese gov-
ernment and the brave guerilla exploits.

Task 5. SPOT THE DIFFERENCE


DIRECTIONS: Compare the Philippine literature during American and
Japanese regime.

Philippine Literature
in American Regime Philippine Literature
in Japanese Regime

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And I too can easily


discern your dedication to this
subject. Here is your gift.

Period of Activism (1970-1972)

According to Pociano Pineda, youth activism in 1970-72 was due to


domestic and worldwide causes. Activism is connected with the history of
our Filipino youth. Because of the ills of society, the youth moved to seek
reforms. Some continued to believe that the democratic government is
stable and that it is only the people running the government who are at
fault. Some believed that socialism or communism should replace
democracy. Some armed groups were formed to bring down the
democratic form of government.
 THE LITERARY REVOLUTION
The youth became vocal with their sentiments. They demanded
change in the government. This was manifested in the bloody demonstra-
tions and in the sidewalk expressions but also in literature. Campus
newspapers were written to show their protest. They held pens and wrote
on placards in red paint the equivalent of the word MAKIBAKA (To dare!).

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Task 6 LET YOUR VOICE BE HEARD


DIRECTIONS: Think of one social issue the country is facing off right now.
Write your stand about the issue on a placard in a poetic way.

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

A good way to
relax is to commune
with nature.
How about trying the
Philippine pineapple.

Period of the New Society (1972- 1980)

The period of the New Society started on September 21, 1972.


The Carlos Palanca Awards continued to give annual awards. Almost all
themes in most writings dealt with the development or progress of the
country – like the Green Revolution, family planning, proper nutrition,
environment, drug addiction and pollution. The New Society tried to stop
pornography or those writings giving bad influences on the morals of the
people.
 FILIPINO POETRY DURING THE PERIOD OF THE NEW
SOCIETY
Poems dealt with patience, regard for native culture, customs
and the beauties of nature and surroundings. Those who wrote poetry
during this period were: Ponciano Pineda, Aniceto Silvestre, Jose Garcia
Revelo, Bienvenido Ramos, Vicente Dimasalang, Cir Lopez Francisco,
and Pelagio Sulit Cruz.
 THE PLAY UNDER THE NEW SOCIETY
In this period, old plays and dramas were revived like the
Tagalog Zarzuela, Cenaculo and the Embayoka of the Muslims
which were presented in the rebuilt Metropolitan Theater, the Folk
Arts Theater and the Cultural Center of the Philippines.

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 COMICS, MAGAZINES AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS


During this period of the New Society, newspapers donned new
forms. News on economic progress, discipline, culture, tourism and
the like were favored more than the sensationalized reporting of kill-
ings, rape and robberies. Filipinos before were hooked in reading
magazines and comics. Given below are some of the examples.

Kislap Magazine Liwayway Magazine


Image source: http://rocesfamily.com/sm2002/ Image source: http://aoperadostresreas.info/new/l/

Liwayway is a leading Tagalog weekly magazine published in the Phil-


ippines since 1922. It contains Tagalog serialized novels, short stories, po-
etry, serialized comics, essays, news features, entertainment news and ar-
ticles, and many others. In fact, it is the oldest Tagalog magazine in the
Philippine. Kislap is a well read ko in the ’50s, was a magazine of general
interest: Movie, song, radio, fiction, features. But its come-on was colored
movie ads which served as the magazine’s cover. The two became the out-
lets for writers to publish their works in the new society period.

Task 7 Exploring the Old


DIRECTIONS: One of the famous movies during this time is Maynila sa
mga Kuko ng Liwanag. Interview your parents/ grandparents about the
movie, and write a summary of it.

Movie poster of Maynila sa mga kuko ng liwanag.

Image source: https://video48.blogspot.com/2013/08/famas-1975-maynila-sa-mga-kuko-ng.html?m=1


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You did a great job! You can


be a great writer in your time!
Here’s a cup of chocolate for you.

Period of the Third Republic (1981-1985)

After ten years of military rule and some changes in the life of
the Filipino which started under the New Society, Martial Rule was
at last lifted on January 2, 1981. The Philippines became a new
nation and this; former President Marcos called “The New Republic
of the Philippines.”
 FILIPINO POETRY- Poems during this period of the Third
Republic were romantic and revolutionary. Writers wrote
openly of their criticism against the government. The
supplications of the people were coached in fiery, colorful,
violent, profane and insulting language.
 FILIPINO SONGS- Many Filipino songs dealt with themes
that were really true-to-life like those of grief, poverty,
aspirations for freedom, love of God, of country and of
fellowmen.
 CHILDREN’S BOOKS- Among the well-loved forms of
writing which abounded during this period were those of
children’s stories. The Children’s Communication Center
(CCC) directed by poet and writer Virgilio S. Almario
already.
Task 9 I Can Say
DIRECTIONS: Complete the statements below to state your point of view
about the kind, style, theme or purpose of the authors during this period.

_____________ ____________
_____________ ____________
I feel that... _____________ I believe that... ____________
_____________ ____________
_____________

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___________ ____________
___________ ____________
___________ In my own ____________
I think...
___________ opinion... ____________
___________ ____________

Good job! You are now approaching the new


era.

Post- Edsa I Revolution (1986-1995)

History took another twist. Once more, the Filipino people


regained their independence which they lost twenty years ago. In the
span of four days from February 21-25, 1986, the so-called People
Power (Lakas ng Bayan) prevailed. Together, the people barricaded the
streets petitioning the government for changes and reforms. Freedom
became a reality – won through a peaceful, bloodless and God-blessed
revolution.
 THE STATE OF LITERATURE DURING THIS PERIOD:
In the short span of the existence of the true Republic of
the Philippines, several changes already became evident. This in
noticed in the new Filipino songs, in the newspapers, in the
speeches, and even in the television programs.
 On Newspapers and other publications: Newspapers
which were once branded crony newspapers became
instant opposition papers overnight. This was true of
BULLETIN TODAY which became the opposition paper.
The now crony newspapers that enjoyed an overnight
increase in circulation were THE INQUIRER, MALAYA,
and the PEOPLE’S JOURNAL.

Task 9 Saying a Song


DIRECTIONS: One of the songs in this era is the song Ang Bayan
Ko. Describe the emotions of Filipinos and situations of the country
by interpreting each paragraph that can be found on the next page.

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Ang bayan kong Pilipinas ______________________________


Lupain ng ginto't bulaklak ______________________________
Pag-ibig na sa kanyang palad ______________________________
Nag-alay ng ganda't dilag ______________________________

At sa kanyang yumi at ganda


Dayuhan ay nahalina ______________________________
Bayan ko, binihag ka ______________________________
Nasadlak sa dusa ______________________________
______________________________

CHORUS
Ibon mang may layang lumipad ______________________________
Kulungin mo at umiiyak ______________________________
Bayan pa kayang sakdal-dilag ______________________________
Ang 'di magnasang makaalpas ______________________________

Pilipinas kong minumutya


Pugad ng luha at dalita ______________________________
Aking adhika ______________________________
Makita kang sakdal laya ______________________________
______________________________

21st Century Period

Filipino writers continue to write poetry, short stories, novellas,


novels, and essay whether these are socially committed, gender/ethnic
related or are personal in intention or not. Of course the Filipino writers
have become more conscious of their art with proliferation of writers
workshop here and abroad and the bulk of literature available to him via
the mass media including internet.

The new trends have been


used and introduced to meet the
need and taste of new generation.
21st Century learners are demanded
to be ICT inclined to compete
globally so as the style and format of
writing as well. New codes or lingos
are used to add flavor in the literary
pieces produced nowadays.

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Task 10
DIRECTIONS: From Period of Activism to 21st Century Period, young
writers have contributed significance writings. Write the significant literary
historical events during those times on the ribbons below.

Period of Activism Third Republic

Post-Edsa I 21st Century

You have been at it for quite


some time now.

After the comprehensive discussion


we had, you are about to apply what you
have learned from this module

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Approaching Destination

DIRECTIONS: Complete the table below with the information you ’ve
obtained from our previous discussion.

Sample Literary Geographical/Ethnic


Year Period
Pieces Dimension

1565 Pre-Spanish Maragtas Visayan

Seeing the Lighthouse

Directions: Use the ticket on the next page to write your reflection
about the discussion we have had. Write 3 new things you’ve learned, 2
realizations you’ve formed, and 1 question in mind.

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3 learnings
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

2 realizations
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

1 question
_______________________________________________

After having comprehensive


discussion and intensive tasks, you
are about to test your learning. This
tells if you are ready to the new
lesson or not.

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Dropping the Anchor

Directions: Identify the literary historical period as described by ge-


ographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions. Shade the circle of the correct
answer.
1. Chant (Bulong) was used in witchcraft or enchantment especially in far
places in Visayas.
A. Japanese Period
B. Rebirth of Freedom
C. Pre-Spanish Period
D. Period of Enlightenment

2. Lagaylay was used in a special occasion for the Pilareños of Sorsogon


during May time to get together.
A. Spanish Period
B. New Society Period
C. Pre-Spanish Period
D. Period of 3rd Republic

3. PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA was translated from the Spanish


AMOR PATRIA of Rizal, published on August 20, 1882, in Diariong
Tagalog.
A. Spanish Period
B. American Period
C. Pre-Spanish Period
D. Period of Enlightenment

4. Tagalog Zarzuela, Cenaculo and the Embayoka of the Muslims were


presented in the rebuilt Metropolitan Theater, the Folk Arts Theater
and the Cultural Center of the Philippines.
A. New Society Period
B. American Period
C. 21st Century Period
D. 3rd Republic

5. Haiku, is short with a measure and rhyme consisting of 17 syllables


which had favorable diminishing effect to Tagalog literature.
A. New Society Period
B. American Period
C. 21st Century Period
D. 3rd Republic
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I really love this journey. Now,


I have realized the reason for
having a wonderful Philippine
literature.

After walking with me in this journey,


don’t forget the ultimate goal of learning the
significant events or transitions happened in
our Philippine literature. This is just
beginning of more exciting journey in this
subject. Remember, we are living in a tropi-
cal country located near the western edge of
the Pacific Ocean along the great Ring of
fire. We were born in a place where great
poets dwelt to. The diverse ethnic groups we
have add spice on the richness of our
heritage. Linguistically, the literature we are
having now is a product of colonization and
changes in administration. From the first
language we had, it transforms into a new
face of literature. New vocabulary and codes
are used. which transpire the rich heritage of
this nation.

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Discovering the Gems

Answers can be found at the last page of this module.


The interpretation below will help you determining your readiness to face
the new lesson.

How do you perform in this module?


5- Excellent
4- Very Satisfactory
3- Satisfactory
2- Basic
0- Need Review

How about a hot bath? You cer-


tainly deserve one!

PRE-TEST POST-TEST
1. D 1. C
2. C 2. A
3. A 3. D
4. B 4. A
5. A

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REFERENCES

Chua, R. (2016). 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the
World. Makati: Diwa Learning Systems Inc.
Croghan SJ, Richard V.(1975).The Development of Philippine Litera-
ture in English: Quezon City:Alemar-Phoenix Publishing
House.
Fosdick, Carolyn, and Tarrosa (1954). Literature for Philippine High
Schools. New York: Macmillan Company.
Zaide, Gregorio F. (1970). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings. Ma-
nila: Villanueva Book Store. Retrieved from https://
www.scribd.com/doc/26364271/Philippine-Literature-Pre-
Spanish-Period.

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