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Dr.

Adel Gastli

Electromechanical
Systems & Actuators

PERMANENT
MAGNET MOTORS

CONTENTS
„MAIN TYPES
„PM DC MOTORS
„PM AC MOTORS
„APPLICATIONS

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MAIN TYPES
„ Conventional dc machines in which the
stationary field winding is replaced by a
permanent magnet. (DC MOTOR)

„ Synchronous machine in which the


rotating field is replaced by a permanent
magnet. (AC MOTOR)

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PM DC MOTORS
„ CONSTRUCTION: Outer shell
made of magnetic material
serves as a return path for
magnetic flux as well as a
support for magnets.

Rotor
with commutator
Radially magnetized segment and brushes
like conventional dc
permanent magnets machines.
(arrows indicate direction
of magnetization)

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PM DC MOTORS (Cont’d)
n Disk-Armature or Printed-Circuit Type of PM
DC Motor :
Coil side
End Plates

Pole piece
Commutator Rotor
End Connectors

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PM DC MOTORS (Cont’d)

PCB Motor

Brushes

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PM DC MOTORS (Cont’d)
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT & EQUATIONS
Ra
Ia
n Ea=KaΦdωm =Kmωm
+

n Km =KaΦd (Motor’s Torque


Vt
Ea
constant)
-
n T= Ea Ia /ωm=Km Ia

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PM DC MOTORS (Cont’d)
FEATURES
n Don't require external excitation => Less power
dissipation.
n Space is not needed for windings => smaller
machine size (30% reduction in weight) and some
cases cheaper.
n Smooth stator structure unlike their salient pole
structure in conventional dc machines.
n Power ratings ranging from few watts to 100kW or
more.

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PM DC MOTORS (Cont’d)
DISADVANTAGES

n Risk of demagnetization due to excessive currents in


the motor windings or due to overheating the
magnet.

n Limited air gap flux density that permanent magnets


can produce.
P.S. For new magnetic materials such as samarium cobalt and neodymium-
iron-boron, these characteristics are becoming less and less restrictive for
permanent magnet machine design.

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PM AC MOTORS
Magnetic axis
n Similar to conventional of rotor
synchronous machine. a
n Permanent magnets c’ θ=ωt+θ0
replace the field ω b’
windings. N
Magnetic axis
n Can be analyzed with S of phase 2
the same techniques b c
used for synchronous a’
machines assuming a Permanent
Magnet rotor
constant field current.

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PM AC MOTORS (Cont’d)
n An alternate viewpoint of a permanent magnet ac
motor is that it is a permanent-magnet stepping
motor with non-salient stator.
n There is a little, if any, saliency (cogging) torque in
the PM ac motor.
n Operation is similar to that of the PM stepping motor.
Based on rotor-position information from the shaft-position sensor, the
motor phase windings are excited sequentially in such a way as to produce
the desired torque and speed. The frequency of the excitation determines
the motor speed, and the angular position between the rotor magnetic axis
and a given phase when it is excited determines the torque which will be
produced.

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Brushless DC Motor Applications

„ Tape drives and winders

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Brushless DC Motor Applications (Cont’d)

„ Artificial heart
„ Microscopes

Motorized Artificial Heart

Motorized Inverted Microscope

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Brushless DC Motor Applications (Cont’d)

„ Model airplanes, cars,


boats, helicopters

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Brushless DC Motor Applications (Cont’d)

„ Medical: centrifuges,
arthroscopic surgical
tools, respirators, dental
surgical tools, and organ
transport pump systems

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