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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

KUMARAGURU COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

COIMBATORE – 641 049
(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated To Anna University , Coimbatore)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS

Question Bank-III Semester

EEE 223 –Electrical Machines & Drives

Prepared By
P.Kalaisevan
Lecturer / Department of Mechatronics
KCT.
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049
Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

Unit -1
DC and AC Machines
1. What is a motor?
A motor is a rotating component that imparts and generates motion. Motors are designed to
convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to perform some physical task or work.

2. What is meant by Generators?

Electric generators are used to efficiently convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Magnetism is the basis of their principles of operation.

3. Define torque.
The twisting force of a motor or gear motor shaft, usually expressed in inch/ounces or
inch/pounds.
Torque = Force X Distance

4. What is MMF? Give it’s expression

MMF is the work done in moving a unit magnetic pole once around the magnetic circuit.
MMF=N I ampere turns
Where N=no of turns
I =current in amp

5.Define magnetic field intensity.

It is the MMF per unit length. Amp turn/metre
H=N I/l where N=no of turns;I=current in amp;l=length in metre

6. What is reluctance?
It is the property of the magnetic material to oppose the magnetic lines of flux
S=F/F where F=MMF ; F=flux ;S=reluctance in amp turns per weber

7.What is stacking factor?

It is the ratio between the net cross sectional area of the core to the cross section occupied by the
magnetic material.

8. What is leakage flux?

The flux which takes a path which is not intended for it is called leakage flux..

9. How is the direction of induced e.m.f determined?

Direction of induced e.m.f is determined by using
(i) right hand gripprng rule and
(ii) Right hand cork screw rule.

10.State Lenz’s law.

Any induced e.m.f will circulate a current in such a direction as to oppose the cause producing it.
e= -N dF/dt

11.What is self inductance?

The e.m.f induced in a coil due to change of flux in the same coil is known as self inductance.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

12. Give the expression for magnetizing force.

F = B I l sinθ Newton,
Where
I is the current carried by the conductor
l is the effective length of the conductor
B is the flux density in Wb/m2

13.What are the factors on which hysteresis loss depends?

The hysteresis loss depends on the magnetic flux density , frequency f and the volume of the
material V.

14. What is core loss? What is its significance in electric machines?

When a magnetic material undergoes cyclic magnetization , two kinds of power losses occur on
it – hysteresis and eddy current loss which together are known as core loss. It is important in
determining heating, temperature rise , rating and efficiency of transformers, machines and other
a.c run magnetic devices.

15. What is eddy current loss?

When a magnetic core carries a time varying flux voltages are induced in all possible paths
enclosing flux. Result is the production of circulating current in core. These induced currents do
no useful work are known as eddy current and have power loss known as eddy current loss.

16.How are hysteresis and eddy current losses minimized?

Hysteresis loss can be minimized by selecting materials for core such as silicon steel & steel
alloys with low hysteresis coefficient and electrical resistivity.
Eddy current losses are minimized by laminating the core.

17.How will you find the direction of emf using Fleming’s Right Hand Rule?
The thumb, the forefinger and the middle finger of the right hand are held so that these fingers are
mutually perpendicular, then
Forefinger - Field
Thumb - Motion
Middle finger- I, current

18.How will you find the direction of force produced using Fleming’s Left Hand Rule?
The thumb , forefinger and middle finger of the left hand are held so that those fingers are
mutually perpendicular then
Forefinger - Field
Thumb - Motion(due to force)
Middle finger - I, current

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

19.Which type of d.c armature winding requires equalizer rings?

Lap winding

20.How are armature windings classified based on the placement of the coil inside the
armature slots?
Single layer winding and
Double layer winding

21. Why the armature core in d.c machines is constructed with laminated steel sheets
Steel sheets offer low reluctance path for the magnetic field , laminated sheets reduce eddy
current loss.

22. Why is commutator employed in d.c machines?

1. Conduct electricity between armature and fixed brushes
2.Converts alternating emf into unidirectional emf and vice versa

23. Distinguish between shunt and series field coil constructions.

Shunt field coils are wound with wires of small cross section and have more number of turns.
Series field coils are wound with wires of larger cross section and have less number of turns.

24. How can one differentiate between long shunt compound motor and short shunt
compound motor?
In a short shunt compound motor the shunt field circuit is shorter i.e. across the armature
terminals. In a long shunt compound motor the shunt field circuit is connected across the load
terminals.

25. Define the term armature reaction in dc machines.

The interaction between the flux set up by the current carrying armature conductors with the main
field flux is defined as armature reaction.

26. What are the two unwanted effects of armature reaction?

· Cross magnetizing effect / Distorting effect
· Demagnetising effect

27.Why are carbon brushes preferred for dc machines?

The high contact resistance carbon brushes help the current in the coil undergoing commutation
to attain its full value in the reverse direction at the end of commutation. The carbon brushes also
lubricate and give less wear and tear on commutator surface.

28. How does a d.c motor differ from d.c generator in construction?
Generators are normally placed in closed room , accessible only to skilled operators. Therefore on
ventilation point of view they may be constructed with large opening in the frame.
Motors on the other hand , have to be installed right in the place of use which may have dust,
dampness, inflammable gases, chemical fumes etc . To protect the motors against these elements ,
the motor frames are made either partly closed or totally closed or flame proof etc.

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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

29.How will you change the direction of rotation of a d.c motor?

Either the direction of the main field or the direction of current through the armature conductors
is to be reserved.

30. What is back emf in d.c motors?

As the motor armature rotates, the system of conductor come across alternate North and South
pole magnetic fields causing an emf induced in the conductors. The direction of the emf induced
in the conductors is in the direction opposite to the current .As this emf always opposes the flow
of current in motor operation it is called back emf.

Part – C

1. Describe the construction and working of three phase induction motor.

2. Draw and explain various load characteristics of DC Shunt Motor.
3. Explain the speed – torque curve of single phase induction motors in detail.
4. Draw and explain the torque-speed characteristic of a three phase induction motor.
5. Explain the characteristics of DC series motors.
6. Explain the construction details of a D.C motor. With a neat sketch.
7. Explain the construction of a 3 phase induction motor.
8. Derive the armature torque of a D.C motor.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

Unit - 2
Starting and Breaking Methods

1. What are the advantages of three-phase induction motors?

ü simple construction.
ü high reliability.
ü rugged construction
ü low cost
ü high efficiency
ü less maintenance
ü self-starting torque
ü good power factor
ü can be operated in explosive and dirty environments.

2. What are the disadvantages of three phase induction motor?

ü the speed is not constant with load
ü reduction in efficiency when speed is varied.
ü low starting torque compared to D.C shunt motor.

3. What are the two main parts of an induction motors?

1. Stator 2.rotor

4. What are the two types of rotor of an induction motors?

1. Squirrel cage rotor 2.slip-ring or wound rotor

5. What is meant by end ring?

In squirrel cage rotor, the copper bars are placed in the slots. These bars are short circuited at each
with the help of conducting copper ring called end ring.

6. The squirrel cage rotor is also known as short circuited rotor. Why?

The copper bars are shorted to each through end ring. The entire rotor resistance is very small.
Hence this rotor is called short circuited rotor.

8. Define slip.
The slip of an induction motor is defined as the ratio of difference between synchronous speed
(Ns) and rotor speed (N)to synchronous speed.
% S = Ns – N / Ns x 100

9. Define starting torque of an induction motor.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049
Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

The torque produced by three-phase induction motor at the instant of starting is knows as starting
torque.

S.no Squirrel cage rotor Slip-ring rotor

1. Simple construction Construction is complicated
2 Rotor consists of copper bars which are Rotor consists of three phase winding
shorted at the ends with the help of end
rings
3 Slip ring and brushes are not present Slip ring and brushes are present
4 External resistance can not be added External resistance can be added
5. Moderate torque High starting torque can be obtained
6. speed control by rotor resistance is not speed control by rotor resistance is
possible possible

8. Define Squirrel cage type of Induction motor.

Rotor winding is composed of copper bars embedded in the rotor slots and shorted at both end by
end rings.
Simple, low cost, robust, low maintenance.

9. Define Wound rotor type of Induction motor.

Rotor winding is wound by wires. The winding terminals can be connected to external circuits
through slip rings and brushes.
Easy to control speed, more expensive.

10. What is meant by rotating magnetic Field?

When a 3 phase stator winding is connected to a 3 phase voltage supply, 3 phase current will flow
in the windings, which also will induced 3 phase flux in the stator.
These flux will rotate at a speed called a Synchronous Speed, ns. The flux is called as Rotating
magnetic Field

11. How can the reversal of rotation of poly phase induction motor be attained?
Change the phase sequence of the power supply.

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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

12. Why a single phase induction motor does not self start?
When a single phase supply is fed to the single phase induction motor. Its stator winding produces
a flux which only alternates along one space axis. It is not a synchronously revolving field, as in
the case of a 2 or 3phase stator winding, fed from 2 or 3 phase supply.

13. What is meant by plugging?

The plugging operation can be achieved by changing the polarity of the motor there by reversing
the direction of rotation of the motor. This can be achieved in ac motors by changing the phase
sequence and in dc motors by changing the polarity.

14. Give some applications of DC motor.

Shunt : driving constant speed, lathes, centrifugal pumps, machine tools, blowers and fans,
reciprocating pumps
Series : electric locomotives, rapid transit systems, trolley cars, cranes and hoists, conveyors
Compound : elevators, air compressors, rolling mills, heavy planners.

15. What are the different types of electric braking?

Dynamic or Rheostatic braking,
Counter current or plugging and
Regenerative braking

16. Compare electrical and mechanical braking.

Mechanical
ü Brakes require frequent maintenance
ü Not smooth
ü Can be applied to hold the system at any position
Electrical
ü very little maintenance
ü smooth
ü cannot produce holding torque.

17. When does an induction motor behave to run off as a generator?

When the rotor of an induction motor runs faster than the stator field, the slip becomes negative.
Regenerative braking occurs and the K.E. of the rotating parts is return back to the supply as
electrical energy and thus the machine generates power.

18. Define synchronous speed.

It is given by Ns = 120f / p rpm.
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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

19.What is meant by regenerative braking?

Regenerative braking occurs when the motor speed exceeds the synchronous speed. In this case
the IM runs as the induction m\c is converting the mechanical power into electrical power which
is delivered back to the electrical system. This method of braking is known as regenerative
braking.

20. What is meant by dynamic braking?

Dynamic braking of electric motors occurs when the energy stored in the rotating mass is
dissipated in an electrical resistance. This requires a motor to operate as a gen. to convert the
stored energy into electrical.

21. What is critical speed?

It is the speed that separates continuous conduction from discontinuous conduction mode.

22. Which braking is suitable for reversing the motor?

Plugging is suitable for reversing the motor.

23. Is Induction motor runs with synchronous speed or not.

Induction motor never runs with synchronous speed. It will stop if it tries to achieve synchronous
speed.

24. What is the function of a no-voltage release coil provided in a dc motor starter?
As long as the supply voltage is on healthy condition the current through the NVR coil produce
enough magnetic force of attraction and retain the starter handle in the ON position against spring
force. When the supply voltage fails or becomes lower than a prescribed value the electromagnet
may not have enough force and the handle will come back to OFF position due to spring force
automatically. Thus a no-voltage or under voltage protections given to the motor.

25. Mention the Starters used to start a DC motor.

Two point Starter
Three point Starter
Four point Starter

26. Mention the Starters used to start an Induction motor.

D.O.L Starter (Direct Online Starter)
Star-Delta Starter
Auto Transformer Starter
Reactance or Resistance starter
Stator Rotor Starter (Rotor Resistance Starter)

27. What are the protective devices in a DC/AC motor Starter.

Over load Release (O.L.R) or No volt coil
Hold on Coil
Thermal Relays
Fuses(Starting /Running)

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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

28. Give the prime purpose of a starter for motors.

when induction motor is switched on to the supply, it takes about 5 to 8 times full load current at
starting. This starting current may be of such a magnitude as to cause objectionable voltage drop
in the lines. So Starters are necessary

29.Why motor take heavy current at starting?

When 3 phase supply is given to the stator of an induction motor, magnetic field rotating in space
at synchronous speed is produced. This magnetic field is cut by the rotor conductors, which are
short circuited. This gives to induced current in them.
Since rotor of an induction motor behaves as a short circuited secondary of a transformer whose
primary is stator winding, heavy rotor current will require corresponding heavy stator balancing
currents.

Part – C

1. Draw a neat schematic diagram of a three point starter and explain its working.
2. Draw a neat schematic diagram of a four point starter and explain its working.
3. Explain with neat circuit diagram, the star-delta starter method of starting squirrel cage
induction
motor.
4. Explain the typical control circuits for DC Series and Shunt motors.
5. Explain the different starting methods of three phase squirrel cage induction motors with neat
sketches.
6. Explain different methods of starting of DC Motors.
7. Explain with neat diagram the starting of three phase slip ring induction motor.
8. Draw and explain the push-button operated direct-on line starter for three phase induction
motor.
9. Draw and explain the manual auto-transformer starter for three phase induction motor.
10. (i) List out the advantages and disadvantages of electrical braking over mechanical braking.
(8)
(ii) Discuss any one method of electrical braking of DC Machines. (8)
11. Explain how an induction motor is brought to stop by (i) Plugging and (ii) dynamic braking.
(16)
12. Explain the various methods of braking of induction motors.
13. Explain Rheostat braking in DC Series Motor and Plugging in DC Shunt Motor.
14. Explain various methods of braking of DC Shunt Motors with neat diagrams.

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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

15. Explain various methods of braking of DC Series Motors with neat diagrams.
16. Explain the method of regenerative braking employed in DC Motors.

Unit – 3
Introduction to Electrical Drives

1. Define Drive and Electric Drive.

Drive: A combination of prime mover, transmission equipment and mechanical working load is
called a drive.
Electric drive: An Electric Drive can be defined as an electromechanical device for converting
electrical energy to mechanical energy to impart motion to different machines and mechanisms
for various kinds of process control.

2. What is meant by electrical drives?

Systems employed for motion control are called drives and they employ any of the prime movers
such as diesel or petrol engines, gas or steam turbines, hydraulic motors and electric motors for
supplying mathematical energy for motion control. Drives employing electric motion are called
electric drives.

3. Classify the type of loads driven by the motor.

The type of load driven by the motor influences the current drawn and losses of the motor as the
slip various. The normally occurring loads are
b. Torque varying proportional to speed.
c. Torque varying preoperational to the square of the speed.

4. List out some examples of prime movers.

I.C Engines, Steam engine, Turbine or electric motors.

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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

5. List out some advantages of electric drives.

i. Availability of electric drives over a wide range of power a few watts to mega watts.
ii. Ability to provide a wide range of torques over wide range of speeds.
iii. Electric motors are available in a variety of design in order to make them compatible to any

6. Give some examples of Electric Drives.

i. Driving fans, ventilators, compressors and pumps.
ii. Lifting goods by hoists and cranes.
iii. Imparting motion to conveyors in factories, mines and warehouses
iv. Running excavators & escalators, electric locomotives trains, cars trolley buses, lifts & drum
winders etc.

7. What are the types of electric drives?

Group electric drives (Shaft drive),
Individual Drives,
Multi motor electric drives.

8. Classify electric drives based on the means of control.

Manual, Semiautomatic, Automatic.

9. What is a Group Electric Drive (Shaft Drive)?

This drive consists of single motor, which drives one or more line shafts supported on bearings.
The line shaft may be fitted with either pulleys & belts or gears, by means of which a group of
machines or mechanisms may be operated.
10. Specify the functions of power modulator.
Power modulator performs one or more of the following four functions.
a. Modulates flow of power form the source to the motor in such a manner that motor is imparted
speed-torque characteristics required by the load.
b. During transient operations, such as starting, braking and speed reversal, it restricts source and
motor currents within permissible values; excessive current drawn from source may overload it or
may cause a voltage dip.

11. Mention the different types of drives.

1)Group drive
2)Individual drive
3)Multimotor drive

1)dc drives
2)ac drives

13. What are the functions performed by electric drives?

Various functions performed by electric drives include the following.
a. Driving fans, ventilators, compressors and pumps etc.
b. Lifting goods by hoists and cranes
c. Imparting motion to conveyors in factories, mines and warehouses and
d. Running excavators and escalators, electric locomotives, trains, cars, trolley buses, lifts
and drums winders etc.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

14. What are the disadvantages of electric drives?

a. Electric drives system is tied only up to the electrified area.
b. The condition arising under the short circuits, leakage from conductors and breakdown of
c. Failure in supply for a few minutes may paralyses the whole system.

15. What are the advantages of group drive over individual drive?
The advantages of group drive over individual drive are
a. Initial cost: Initial cost of group drive is less as compared to that of the individual drive.
b. Sequence of operation : Group drive system is useful because all the operations are stopped
simultaneously.
c. Space requirement : Less space is required in group drive as compared to individual drive.
d. Low maintenance cost: It requires little maintenance as compared to individual drive.

16. Write short notes on individual electric drives.

In individual drive, each individual machine is driven by a separate motor. This motor also
imparts motion to various other parts of the machine. Examples of such machines are single
spindle drilling machines (Universal motor is used) and lathes. In a lathe, the motor rotates the
spindle, moves the feed and also with the help of gears, transmits motion to lubricating and
cooling pumps. A three phase squirrel cage induction motor is used as the drive. In many such
applications the electric motor forms an integral part of the machine.

17. Mention the parts of electrical drives.

2)Power modulator
3)Sources
4)Control unit
5)Sensing unit

18. Mention the applications of electrical drives.

Paper mills
Electric traction
Cement mills
Steel mills

19. Mention the different types of classes of duty.

Continuous duty
Discontinuous duty
Short time duty
Intermittent duty

20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Group drive (Shaft drive)?
ü A single large motor can be used instead of a number of small motors.
ü The rating of the single motor may be appropriately reduced taking into account the
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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

ü There is no flexibility, Addition of an extra machine to the main shaft is difficult.

ü The efficiency of the drive is low, because of the losses occurring in several transmitting
mechanisms.
ü The complete drive system requires shutdown if the motor, requires servicing or repair.
ü The system is not very safe to operate
ü The noise level at the work spot is very high.

21. What is an individual electric drive? Give some examples.

In this drive, each individual machine is driven by a separate motor. This motor also imparts
motion to various other parts of the machine.
Single spindle drilling machine, Lathe machines etc.

22. What is a multi motor electric drive? Give some examples.

In this drive, there are several drives, each of which serves to activate on of the working parts of
the driven mechanisms.
Metal cutting machine tools, paper making machines, rolling mills, traction drive, Traveling
cranes etc.,

23. Write about manual control, semiautomatic control & Automatic control?
Manual control: The electric drives with manual control can be as simple as a room fan,
incorporating on switch and a resistance for setting the required speed.
Semiautomatic control: This control consists of a manual device for giving a certain command
(Starting, braking, reversing, change of speed etc.,) and an automatic device that in response to
command, operates the drive in accordance with a preset sequence or order.
Automatic control: The electric drives with automatic control have a control gear, without manual
devices.

24. What are the Typical elements of an Electric Drive?

25. What is a load diagram? What are its types? What are required to draw a load
diagram?
A load diagram is the diagram which shows graphically the variation of torque acting on the
electric drive. The motor of the electric drive has to overcome the load torque expressed as a
function of time.
Types:
One for the static or steady state process
Other for the dynamic process, when the dynamic components of torque are induced by the
inertia of the motor & load.
(Instantaneous speed, acceleration, Torque & power) as a function of time are required to
draw…..

26. What are the types Drive systems?

ü Electric Drives Mechanical Drives

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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

27. Give an expression for the losses occurring in a machine.

The losses occurring in a machine is given by
W = Wc + x2 Wv
Where Wc = Constant losses
Wv = Variable losses at full load
X = load on the motor expressed as a function of rated load.

28. What are the assumptions made while performing heating & cooling calculation of an
electric motor?
i. The machine is considered to be a homogeneous body having a uniform temperature gradient.
All the points at which heat generated have the same temperature. All the points at which heat is
dissipated are also at same temperature.
ii. Heat dissipation taking place is proportional to the difference of temperature of the body and
surrounding medium. No heat is radiated.
iii. The rate of dissipation of heat is constant at all temperatures.

29. What are the factors that influence the choice of electrical drives?
1. Shaft power & speed 11. Speed range
2. Power range 12. Efficiency
3. Starting torque 13. Influence on the supply network
4. Maintenance 14. Special competence
5. Total purchase cost 15. Cost of energy losses
6. Influence on power supply 16. Environment
7. Availability 17. Accessibility
8. Nature of electric supply 18. Nature of load
9. Types of drive 19. Electrical Characteristics
10.Service cost 20. Service capacity & rating

30. Indicate the importance of power rating & heating of electric drives.
Power rating: Correct selection of power rating of electric motor is of economic interest as it is
associated with capital cost and running cost of drives.
Heating: For proper selection of power rating the most important consideration is the heating
effect of load. In this connection various forms of loading or duty cycles have to be considered.

31. How heating occurs in motor drives?

The heating of motor due to losses occurring inside the motor while converting the electrical
power into mechanical power and these losses occur in steel core, motor winding & bearing
friction.

32. What are the classes of duties?

1. Continuous duty
2. Short time duty operation of motor Main classes of duties
3. Intermittent periodic duty
4. Intermittent periodic duty with starting
5. Intermittent periodic duty with starting & braking
7. Continuous duty with starting & braking
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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

33. What is prime mover?

The basic source of mechanical power which drives the armature of the generator is called prime
mover.

34. What is meant by “short time rating of motor”?

Any electric motor that is rated for a power rating P for continuous operation can be loaded for a
short time duty (Psh) that is much higher than P, if the temperature rise is the consideration.

35. How a motor rating is determined in a continuous duty and variable load ?
1. Method of Average losses
2. Method of equivalent power
3. Method of equivalent current
4. Method of equivalent Torque

36. Define heating time constant & Cooling time constant?

The time required to heat the machine parts to 63.3% of its final temperature rise is called as
heating time constant.
The time required to cool the machine parts to 36.6% of its final temperature fall is called as
cooling time constant.

37. What are the various function performed by an electric drive?

1. Driving fans, ventilators, compressors & pumps etc.,
2. Lifting goods by hoists & cranes
3. Imparting motion to conveyors in factories, mines & warehouses and
4. Running excavators & escalators, electric locomotives, trains, cars, trolley buses and lifts etc.

38. Give the materials used in machine manufacturing

Three materials are used in machine manufacturing.
(i)steel – to conduct magnetic flux
(ii)copper – to conduct electric current , (iii)Insulation

Part – C

1. Derive the expression for the temperature rise or heating curves. In motors
2. Derive the expression for the temperature fall or cooling curves in motors.
3. What are all the factors influencing the choice of electric drives.
4. Explain the different classes of duty. With a neat sketch.
5. Discuss in detail the determination of power rating of motors.
(ii) Explain the choice of selection of the motor for different loads.

7. (i) Describe the simplifications based on which the heating and cooling calculations of an
electric
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Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

(ii) Establish the heating time constant and the heating curves.
8. (i) Compare the D.C and A.C drives.
(ii) Write a brief note on classes of duty for an electric motor.
9. Draw the typical temperature rise-time curve and derive the equation for temperature rise
in an
electric drive.
10. Explain the loading of an electric motor and its duty cycle with a simple diagram.
11. Explain in detail about the various types of electric drives.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

Unit – 4
Conventional and Solid-state speed control of DC drives

1. Give the expression for speed for a DC motor.

Speed N = k (V-IaRa) / Ф
Where V = Terminal Voltage in volts
Ia = Armature current in Amps
Ra = Armature resistance in ohms
Ф= flux per pole.

2. List the different methods of speed control employed for dc series motor
Field diverter method
Regrouping of field coil d\s
Tapped field control
Armature resistance control
Armature voltage control for single motor
Series parallel control for multiple identical motors

3. What are the three types of speed control?

The three types of speed control as,
a. Armature voltage control
b. Field flux control
c. Armature resistance control.

4. What are the advantages of armature voltage control?

The advantages of armature voltage control are,
a. High efficiency
b. Good transient response
c. Good speed regulation.

5. What are the methods involved in armature voltage control?

When the supply in A.C.
a. Ward-Leonard schemes
b. Transformer with taps and an uncontrolled rectifier bridge.
c. Static ward Leonard scheme or controlled rectifiers when the supply in D.C.
d. Chopper control.

6. Give some drawbacks and uses of Ward-Leonard drive

The drawbacks of Ward-Leonard drive are.
a. High initial cost
b. Low efficiency
The Ward-Leonard drive is used in rolling mills, mine winders, paper mills, elevators, machine
tools etc.

7. Give some advantages of Ward-Leonard drive.

The advantages of Ward-Leonard drive are,
a. Inherent regenerative braking capability
b. Power factor improvement.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

8. What is the use of controlled rectifiers?

Controlled rectifiers are used to get variable D.C. Voltage form an A.C. Source of fixed voltage.

9. What is known as half-controlled rectifier and fully controlled rectifier?

The rectifiers provide control of D.C. voltage in either direction and therefore, allow motor
control in quadrants I and IV. They are known as fully-controlled rectifiers.
The rectifiers allow D.C. Voltage control only in one direction and motor control in
quadrant I only. They are known as half-controlled rectifiers.

10. What is called continuous and discontinuous conduction?

A D.C. motor is fed from a phase controlled converter the current in the armature may flow in
discrete pulses in called continuous conduction.
A D.C. motor is fed from a phase controlled converter the current in the armature may flow
continuously with an average value superimposed on by a ripple is called discontinuous
conduction.

11. What are the three intervals present in discontinuous conduction mode of single phase
half and fully controlled rectifier?
The three intervals present in half controlled rectifier are,
a. Duty interval
b. Free, wheeling interval
c. Zero current interval.
The two intervals present in fully controlled rectifier are
a. Duty interval
b. Zero current interval.

12. What is called inversion?

Rectifier takes power from D.C. terminals and transfers it to A.C. mains is called inversion.

13. What are the limitations of series motor? Why series motor is not used in traction
applications now a days?
1. The field of series cannot be easily controlled. If field control is not employed, the series motor
must be designed with its base speed equal to the highest desired speed of the drive.
2. Further, there are a number of problems with regenerative braking of a series motor.
Because of the limitations of series motors, separately excited motors are now preferred even for
traction applications.

14. What are the advantages of induction motors over D.C. motors?
The main drawback of D.C. motors is the presence of commutate and brushes, which require
frequent maintenance and make them unsuitable for explosive and dirty environments. On the
other hand, induction motors, particularly squirrel-cage are rugged, cheaper, lighter, smaller,
more efficient, require lower maintenance and can operate in dirty and explosive environments.

15. Give the applications of induction motors drives.

Although variable speed induction motor drives are generally expensive than D.C. drives,

16. What is voltage commutation?

A charged capacitor momentarily reverse-bias the conducting thyristor to turn it off.
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049
Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

17. What is current commutation?

A current pulse is forced in the reverse direction through the conducting thyristor. As the net
current becomes zero, the thyristor is turned OFF. This is known as current commutation.

The load current flowing through the thyristor either becomes zero (as in natural or line
commutation employed in converters) or is transferred to another device from the conducting
thyristor. This is known as load commutation.

19. What is a controlled rectifier?

A controlled rectifier is a device which is used for converting controlled dc power from a control
voltage ac supply.

20. What is firing angle?

The control of dc voltage is achieved by firing the thyristor at an adjustable angle with respect to
the applied voltage. This angle is known as firing angle.

21. Give some applications of phase control converters.

Phase control converters are used in the speed control of fractional kW dc motors as well as in
large motors employed in variable speed reversing drives for rolling mills. With motors ratings as
large as several MW’s.

22. What is the main purpose of freewheeling diode?

Freewheeling diode is connected across the motor terminal to allow for the dissipation of energy
stored in motor inductance and to provide for continuity of motor current when the thyristors are
blocked.

23. What is a full converter?

A full converter is a tow quadrant converter in which the voltage polarity of the output can
reverse, but the current remains unidirectional because of unidirectional thyristors.

24. What is natural or line commutation?

The commutation which occurs without any action of external force is called natural or line
commutation.

25. What is forced commutation?

The commutation process which takes place by the action of an external force is called forced
commutation.

26. What is a chopper?

A chopper is essentially an electronic switch that turns on the fixed-voltage dc source for a short
time intervals and applies the source potential to motor terminals in series of pulses.

27. What are the two main difficulties of variable frequency system?
Control of Va requires variation of chopper frequency over a wide range. Filter design for
variable frequency operation is difficult. At low voltage, a large value of toff makes the motor
current discontinuous.
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049
Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

28. What are the ways of speed control in dc motors?

Field control - by varying the flux per pole. -for above rated speed
Armature control- by varying the terminal voltage -for below rated speed

29. Give the Limitation of field control

a. Speed lower than the rated speed cannot be obtained.
b. It can cope with constant kW drives only.
c. This control is not suitable to application needing speed reversal.

30. What are the main applications of Ward-Leonard system?

* It is used for colliery winders.
* Electric excavators
* In elevators
* Main drives in steel mills and blooming and paper mills.

31. What are the merits and demerits of rheostatic control method?
* Impossible to keep the speed constant on rapidly changing loads.
* A large amount of power is wasted in the controller resistance.
* Loss of power is directly proportional to the reduction in speed. Hence efficiency is decreased.
* Maximum power developed is diminished in the same ratio as speed.
* It needs expensive arrangements for dissipation of heat produced in the controller resistance.
* It gives speed below normal, not above.

32. What are the advantages of field control method?

* More economical, more efficient and convenient.
* It can give speeds above normal speed.

33. Compare the values of speed and torque in case of motors when in parallel and in series.
* The speed is one fourth the speed of the motor when in parallel.
* The torque is four times that produced by the motor when in parallel.

34. Mention the speed control method employed in electric traction.

Series-parallel speed control.

35. What is the effect of inserting resistance in the field circuit of a dc shunt motor on its
speed and torque?
For a constant supply voltage, flux will decrease, speed will increase and torque will increase.

36. While controlling the speed of a dc shunt motor what should be done to achieve a
constant torque drive?
Applied voltage should be maintained constant so as to maintain field strength

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

Part – C

1. Explain with neat sketch the chopper control method of speed control of DC Motors.
2. Explain with neat sketches about the DC Shunt Motor speed control by using single phase fully
controlled bridge converter.
3. Discuss the Ward-Leonard speed control system with a neat circuit diagram. Also mention its
4. Explain how the speed of a DC Shunt Motor can be varied both above and below the speed at
which it
runs with full field current.
5. (i) Explain with neat sketch the operation of chopper fed DC Series Motor drive. Also, derive
the
expression for average motor current.
(ii) Explain Time ratio control and Current limit control.
6. Explain the speed control schemes of DC Series Motor.
7. Explain the different methods of speed control employed in DC Shunt Motor.
8. Explain the control of DC drives using rectifiers and choppers.
9. Explain the single phase half wave converter drive speed control for DC drive with waveforms.
10. Explain in detail the single phase semi-converter speed control for DC drive for separately
excited
motor.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

Unit – 5
Conventional and Solid-state speed control of DC drives

1. Where is the V/f control used?

The V/f control would be sufficient in some applications requiring variable torque, such as
centrifugal
pumps, compressors and fans. In these, the torque varies as the square of the speed. Therefore at
small
speeds the required torque is also small and V/f control would be sufficient to drive these leads
with no
compensation required for resistance drop. This is true also for the case of the liquid being
pumped with
minimal solids.

2. How is the speed of a squirrel cage induction motor controlled?

The speed of a squirrel cage induction motor can be controlled very effectively by varying the
stator
frequency. Further the operation of the motor is economical and efficient, if it operates at very
small
slips. The speed of the motor is therefore, varied by varying the supply frequency and maintaining
the
rotor frequency at the rated value or a value corresponding to the required torque on the linear
portion of
the torque-speed curve.

3. How is the speed control by variation of slip frequency obtained?

Speed control by variation of slip frequency is obtained by the following ways.
a. Stator voltage control using a three-phase voltage controller.
b. Rotor resistance control using a chopper controlled resistance in the rotor circuit.
c. Using a converter cascade in the rotor circuit to recover slip energy.
d. Using a cyclo converter in the rotor circuit.

4. Mention the effects of variable voltage supply in a cage induction motor.

When a cage induction motor is fed from a variable voltage for speed control the following
observations
a. The torque curve beyond the maximum torque point has a negative shape. A stable operating
point
in this region is not possible for constant torque load.
b. The voltage controlled must be capable of withstanding high starting currents. The range of
speed control is rather limited.
c. The motor power factor is poor.

5. How is the speed controlled in induction motor?

The induction motor speed can be controlled by supplying the stator a variable voltage, variable
frequency supply using static frequency converters. Speed control is also possible by feeding the
slip
power to the supply system using converters in the rotor circuit, Basically one distinguishes two
different methods of speed control.

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

a. Speed control by varying the slip frequency when the stator is fed from a constant voltage,
constant
frequency mains.
b. Speed control of the motor using a variable frequency variable voltage motor operating at
constant
rotor frequency.

6. Define base speed.

The synchronous speed corresponding to the rated freq is called the base speed.

7. What is meant by frequency control of IM?

The speed of IM can be controlled by changing the supply freq because the speed is directly
proportional to supply frequency. This method of speed ctrl is called freq control.

8. What is meant by V/F control l?

When the freq is reduced the i/p voltage must be reduced proportionally so as to maintain
constant flux otherwise the core will get saturated resulting in excessive iron loss and
magnetizing current. This type of IM behavior is similar to the working of dc series motor.

9. What are the advantages of V/F control?

ü Smooth speed ctrl
ü Small i/p current and improved power factor at low freq. start
ü Higher starting torque for low case resistance

10. What is meant by stator current control?

The 3 phase IM speed can be controlled by stator current control. The stator current can
be varied by using current source inverter.

11. What are the 3 modes of region in the adjustable-freq IM drives characteristics?
ü Constant torque region
ü Constant power region
ü High speed series motoring region

12. What are the different methods of speed control of IM?

ü Stator voltage control
ü Supply freq. control
ü Rotor resistance control
ü Slip power recovery control.

13. What is meant by stator voltage control.?

The speed of the IM can be changed by changing the stator voltage. Because the torque is
proportional to the square of the voltage.

14. Mention the application of stator voltage control.

This method is suitable for applications where torque demand reduced with speed, which points
towards its suitability for fan and pump drives.

15. List the adv of squirrel cage IM?

ü Cheaper
ü light in weight
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049
Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

ü Rugged in construction
ü More efficient
ü Require less maintenance
ü It can be operated in dirty and explosive environment

16. What is indirect flux control?

The method of maintaining the flux constant by providing a voltage boost proportional to slip
frequency is a kind of indirect flux control . This method of flux control is not desirable if very
good dynamic behaviour is required.

17. What is voltage source inverter?

Voltage source inverter is a kind of D.C. link converter, which is a two stage conversion device.

18. What is the purpose of inductance and capacitance in the D.C. link circuit?
The inductance in the D.C. link circuit provides smoothing whereas the capacitance maintains the

19. What are the disadvantages of square wave inverter in induction motor drive?
Square wave inverters have commutation problems at very low frequencies, as the D.C. link
voltage available at these frequencies cannot charge the commutating capacitors sufficiently
enough to commutate the thrusters. That puts a limit on the lower frequency of operation. To
extend the frequency towards zero, special charging circuits must be used.

20. What is slip controlled drive?

When the slip is used as a controlled quantity to maintain the flux constant in the motor the drive
is
called slip enrolled drive. By making the slip negative (i.e., decreasing the output frequency of the
inverter) The machine may be made to operate as a generator and the energy of the rotating parts
fed
back to the mains by an additional line side converter or dissipated in a resistance for dynamic
barking.
By keeping the slip frequency constant, braking at constant torque and current can be achieved.
Thus braking is also fast.

21. What is a current source inverter?

In a D.C. link converter, if the D.C. link current is controlled, the inverter is called a current
source
inverter, The current in the D.C. link is kept constant by a high inductance and he capacitance of
the
filter is dispensed with . A current source inverter is suitable for loads which present low
impedance to
harmonic currents and have unity p.f.

22. Explain about the commutation of the current source inverter.

The commutation of the inverter is load dependent. The load parameters form a part of the
commutation
circuit. A matching is therefore required between the inverter and the motor. Multimotor
operation is not

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

possible. The inverter must necessarily be a force commutated one as the induction motor cannot
provide
the reactive power for the inverter. The motor voltage is almost sinusoidal with superimposed
spikes.

23. Give the features from which a slip controlled drive is developed.
The stator current of an induction motor operating on a variable frequency, variable voltage
supply
is independent of stator frequency if the air gap flux is maintained constant. However, it is a
function of the rotor frequency. The torque developed is also a function of rotor frequency. The
torque developed is also a function of rotor frequency only. Using these features a slip controlled
drive can be developed employing a current source inverter to feed an induction motor.

24. Where is rotor resistance control used?

Where the motors drive loads with intermittent type duty, such as cranes, ore or coal unloaders,
skip hoists, mine hoists, lifts, etc. slip-ring induction motors with speed control by variation of
resistance in the rotor circuit are frequently used. This method of speed control is employed for a
motor generator set with a flywheel (Ilgner set) used as an automatic slip regulator under shock

25. What is the function of inductance L and resistance R in the chopper resistance circuit?
A smoothing inductance L is used in the circuit to maintain the current at a constant value.
Any short circuit in the chopper does not become effective due to L.
The value of R connected across the chopper is effective for all phases and its value can
be related to the resistance to be connected in each phase if the conventional method has been
used. The speed control range is limited by the resistance.
26. How is the range of speed control increased?
The range of speed control can be increased if a combination of stator voltage control and rotor
resistance control is employed. Instead of using a high resistance rotor, a slip ring rotor with
external rotor resistance can be used when stator voltage control is used for controlling the speed.

27. Why the static Scherbius drive has a poor power factor?
Drive input power is difference between motor input power and the power fed back. Reactive
input power is the sum of motor and inverter reactive power. Therefore, drive has a poor power
factor throughout the range of its options.

28. How is super synchronous speed achieved?

Super synchronous speed can be achieved if the power is fed to the rotor from A.C. mains.
This can be made possible by replacing the converter cascade by a cyclo converter. A cyclo
converter allows power flow in either direction making the static sherbets drive operate at both
sub and supper synchronous speeds.

29. Give the features of static Scherbius drive

The torque pulsations and other reactions are minimal. The performance of the drive improves
with respect to additional losses and torque pulsations. A smooth transition is possible from sub
to super synchronous speeds without any commutation problems. Speed reversal is not possible.
A step up transformer may be interposed between the lines and the converter, to reduce the
voltage rating of the converter.

30. Where is Kramer electrical drive system used?

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049
Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

Some continuous rolling mills, large air blowers, mine ventilators, centrifugal pumps and any
other mechanisms including pumps drives of hydraulic dredgers require speed adjustment in the
range from 15 to 30% below or above normal. If the induction motor is of comparatively big size
(100 to 200 KW) it becomes uneconomical to adjust speed by mean's pf external resistances due
to copper losses as slip power is wasted as heat in the retort circuit resistance. In these case, the
Kramer electrical drive system is used , where slip power recovery takes places.

31. What is the use of sub synchronous converter cascades?

Sub synchronous converter cascades have been used, till now, in applications requiring one
quadrant operation. These can be employed for drives where at least one electrical barking is
switching.

32. How is the speed control obtained in static Kramer drive?

For speed control below synchronous speed, the slip power is pumped back to the supply, where
as for the case of speed above synchronous speed, additional slip power is injected into the rotor
circuit.

33. What is static Kramer drive?

Instead of wasting the slip power in the rotor circuit resistance, it can be converted to 60 Hz A.C.
and pumped back to the line. The slip power controlled drive that permits only a sub synchronous
range of speed control through a converter cascade is known as static Kramer drive.

34. What is the use and functions of step down transformer is static Kramer drive?
For a restricted speed range closer to synchronous speed, the system power factor can be further
improved by using a step -down transformer.
The step-down transformer has essentially two functions: besides improving the line power
factor, it also helps to reduce the converter power ratings.

36. What are the advantages of static Kramer drive?

The static Kramer drive has been very popular in large power pump and fan-type drives, where
the range of speed control is limited near, but below the synchronous speed. The drive system is
very efficient and the converted power rating is low because t has to handle only the slip power,
In fact, the power rating becomes lower with a more restricted range of speed control. The
additional advantages are that the drive system has D.C. machine like characteristics and the
control is very simple.

37. What are the causes of harmonic currents in static Kramer drive?
The rectification of slip power causes harmonic currents in the rotor, and these harmonics are
reflected to the stator by the transformer action of the machine. The harmonic currents are also
injected into the A.C. line by the inverter. As a result, the machine losses are increased and some
amount of harmonic torque is produced. Each harmonic current in the rotor will create a reading
magnetic field and its direction of rotation will depend on the order pf the harmonic.

38. Give the four modes of operation of a Scherbius drive

The four modes of operation of static Scherbius drive are,
ü Sub synchronous motoring.
ü Sub synchronous regeneration
ü Super synchronous motoring
ü Super synchronous regeneration
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049
Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

39. How is the static Scherbius drive operated in super synchronous motoring mode?
In super synchronous motoring mode, the shaft speed increases beyond the synchronous speed,
the slip becomes negative and the slip power is absorbed by the rotor. The slip power
supplements the air gap power for the total mechanical power output. The line therefore supplies
slip power in addition to stator input power. At this condition, the phase sequence of slip
frequency is reversed so that the slip current - induced rotating magnetic field is opposite to that
of the stator.

40. Give the use of synchronous motors.

Synchronous motors were mainly used in constant speed applications. The development of
semiconductor variable frequency sources, such as inverters and cyclo converters, has allowed
their use in draft fane, main line traction, and servo drives, etc.

41. How are the stator and rotor of the synchronous motor supplied?
The stator of the synchronous motor is supplied from a thyristor power converter capable of
providing a variable frequency supply. The rotor, depending upon the situation, may be
constructed with slip rings, where it conforms to a conventional rotor. It is supplied with D.C.
through slip rings. Sometimes rotor may also be free from sliding contacts (slip rings), in which
case the rotor is fed from a rectifier rotating with rotor.

42. What is the difference between an induction motor and synchronous motor?
An induction motor operates at lagging power factor and hence the converter supplying the same
must invariable is a force commutated one. A synchronous motor, on the other hand, can be
operated at any power factor by controlling the field current.

43. Mention the two modes employed in variable frequency control

Variable frequency control may employ and of the two modes.
a. True synchronous mode
b. Self-controlled mode

44. Mention the two slip-power recovery schemes.

ü Static Scherbius scheme
ü Static Kramer drive scheme.

45. Give the basic difference between the two slip-power recovery schemes.
The slip is returned to the supply network in Scherbius scheme and in Kramer scheme, it is used
to drive an auxiliary motor which is mechanically coupled to the induction motor shaft.

46. Write short notes on inverter rectifier.

The dc source could be converted to ac form by an inverter, transformed to a suitable voltage and
then rectified to dc form. Because of two stage of conversion, the setup is bulky, costly and less
efficient.

47. Is it possible to include/ Exclude external resistance in the rotor of a Squirrel cage
induction motor?. Justify

Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 049

Department of Mechatronics, EEE 223 Electrical machines and Drives

No it is not possible to include/ Exclude external resistance in the rotor of a Squirrel cage
induction motor because, the rotors bars are permanently short circuited by means of circuiting
rings (end rings) at both the ends. i.e. no slip rings to do so.

Part-C

1. Draw the power circuit arrangement of three phase variable frequency inverter for the speed
control of three phase induction motor and explain its working.
2. Explain the V/f control method of AC drive with neat sketches.
3. Discuss the speed control of AC motors by using three phase AC Voltage regulators.
4. Explain the speed control schemes of phase wound induction motors.
5. Explain the concatenation operation of three phase induction motors. Hence derive the speed
6. Explain in detail about Slip power recovery scheme.
7. Explain the different methods of speed control used in three phase induction motors.
8. Explain the working of following methods with neat circuit diagram.
i) Kramer system ii) Scherbius system
9. Explain in detail rotor resistance method of speed control of a slip ring induction motor.
10. (i) Explain the operation of Pole changing method of speed control.
(ii) Explain the pole amplitude modulation method.
11. Explain the static Kramer method and static scherbius method of speed control of three phase
induction motor.
12. Explain in detail about the various methods of solid state speed control techniques by using
inverters.
13. Explain the solid state stator voltage control technique for the speed control of three phase
induction
motor.
14. Explain the various methods of speed control of a three phase induction motor when fed
through
semiconductor devices.