Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8





According to science, each person is genetically unique. Except for identical twins, each person
has a unique genetic composition. This uniqueness becomes even more heightened because of individual
experiences. Humans are formed by forces other that genetics. Family background, religious affiliations,
educational achievements, socio-cultural forces, economic conditions, emotional states, and other factors
shape human identities. Because of this, no two people can ever be exactly the same.

This situation-the diversity of people and cultures-impacts communication. People interacting with
those coming from unfamiliar cultures may have difficulties in communication. Most people tend to
conclude that miscommunication results from a speaker’s lack of proficiency a language. What is not
realized is the fact that even with excellent language skills, people may still experience miscommunication.

How then do we approach intercultural communication? The following reading text talks about
intercultural communication. Before reading the text, look up the meanings of the following words and
phrases that are used in the selection.

 Take for granted

 Cultural biases
 Domestic workforce
 Cultural overtones
 Durable bond
 Grossly disloyal


By Carol Kinsey Goman (2011)

(1) Communicating across cultures is challenging. Each culture has set rules that its members take for
granted. Few of us are aware of our own cultural biases. Because cultural imprinting is begun at a
early age. And while some of a culture’s knowledge, rules, beliefs, values, phobias, and anxieties
are taught explicitly, most of the information is absorbed subconsciously.
(2) The challenge for multinational communication has never been greater. Worldwide business
organizations have discovered that intercultural communication is a subject of importance-not just
because of increased globalization, but also because their domestic workforce is growing more and
more diverse. Ethnically and culturally.
(3) We are all individuals, and no two people belonging to the same culture are guaranteed to respond
in exactly the same way. However, generalizations are valid to the extent that they provide clues
on what you will most likely encounter when dealing with members of a particular culture.


(4) All international communication is influenced by cultural differences. Even the choice of

Purposive Communication Page 1

communication medium can have cultural overtones. The determining factor may not be the
degree of industrialization, but rather whether the country falls into a high-context or low-context
(5) High-context cultures (Meditterranean, Slav, Central European, Latin American, African, Arab,
Asian, American Indian) leave much of the message unspecified, to be understood through
context, nonverbal cues, and between-the-lines interpretation of what is actually said. By contrast,
low-context cultures (most Germanic and English-speaking countries) expect messages to be
explicit and specific.


(6) Some cultures think of time sequentially, as a linear commodity to “spend,” “save,” or “waste.”
Other cultures view time synchronically, as a constant flow to be experienced in the moment, and
as a force that cannot be contained or controlled.
(7) In sequential cultures (like North American, English, German, Swedish, and Dutch), business
people give full attention to one agenda item after another.
(8) In synchronic cultures (including South America, southern Europe and Asia) the flow of time is
viewed as a sort of circle, with the past, present, and future all interrelated. This viewpoint
influences how organizations in those cultures approach deadlines, strategic thinking, investments,
developing talent from within, and the concept of “long-term” planning.
(9) Orientation to the past, present, and future is another aspect of time in which cultures differ.
Americans believe that the individual can influence the future by personal effort, but since there are
too many variables in the distant future, we favour a short-term view. Synchronistic cultures’
context is to understand the present and prepare for the future. Any important relationship is a
durable bond that goes back and forward in time, and it is often viewed as grossly disloyal not to
favour friends and relatives inn business dealings.


(10)In international business practices, reason and emotion both play a role. Which of these dominates
depends upon whether we are affective (readily showing emotions) or emotionally neutral in our
approach. Members of neutral cultures do not telegraph their feelings, but keep them carefully
controlled and subdued. In cultures with high affect, people show their feelings plainly by laughing,
smiling, grimacing, scrowling, and sometimes crying, shouting, or walking out of the room.
(11)This doesn’t mean that people in neutral cultures are cold or unfeeling, but in the course of normal
business activities, neutral cultures are more careful to monitor the amount of emotion they display.
Emotional reactions were found to be least acceptable in Japan, Indonesia, the U.K., Norway, and
the Netherlands and most accepted in Italy, France, the U.S., and Singapore.
(12)Reason and emotion are part of all human communication. When expressing ourselves, we look to
others for confirmation of our ideas and feelings. If our approach is highly emotional, we are
seeking a direct emotional response: “I feel the same way.” If our approach is highly neutral, we
want an indirect response: “I agree with your thoughts on this.”
(13)It’s easy for people from neutral cultures to sympathize with the Dutch manager and his frustration
over trying to reason with “that excitable Italian.” After all, an idea either works or it doesn’t work,
and the way to the test the validity of an idea is through trial and observation. That just makes
sense-doesn’t it? well, not necessarily to the Italian who felt the issue was deeply personal and
who viewed any “rational argument” as totally irrelevant!
(14)When it comes to communication, what’s proper and correct in one culture may be ineffective or
even offensive in another. In reality, co culture is right or wrong, better or worse-just different. In
Purposive Communication Page 2
today’s global business community, there is no single best approach to communicating with one
another. The key to cross-cultural success is to develop an understanding of, and a deep respect
for, the differences.



1. Invite open, non-judgmental communication with others, listening closely to the intent and spirit of their
words and offering clear, constructive responses in return;
2. Clarify at the outset the substance and internet of all agreements and commitments made, making every
effort to fulfill them and supporting others to do the same;
3. Publicly explain the purpose and potential benefits of all group endeavors, enlisting explicit agreement and
support for them from participants before proceeding;
4. Initiate and develop jointly beneficial and sustainable projects with colleagues in which plans and
responsibilities are equitably shared, reliably carried out, and honestly evaluated by all


As a Christ-centered Paulinian, I am an Engaging, Trustworthy Team Builder and Mentor, fostering community
through active collaboration.


LEARNING OUTCOMES: During the learning session, you should be able to:

1. Demonstrate awareness of the reality of cultural diversity;

2. Demonstrate an understand of how cultural diversity affects communication; and
3. Appreciate the benefits and challenges of cross-cultural communication.


Task 1: COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS: Instruction: The preceding input tackles the things to consider
when communicating with people of different cultures. Check your understanding of the reading selection
by answering the following questions:

1. How does each of the items in the following contrasting pairs differ from the other?
a. High-context vs. low-context- People in a high context culture such as Arab tend to place a
larger importance on the long-term relationships and a loyalty and have fewer rules and
structures implemented. Low context implies that a lot of information is exchanged explicitly
through the message itself and rarely is anything implicit or hidden.
b. Sequential vs. synchronic- According to Fons Trompenaars Seven Dimensions of Culture,
cultures with a preference for a sequential approach to time tend to treat time as a commodity.

Purposive Communication Page 3

Synchronic cultures tends to value priorities more than a predetermined time limit. They will do
what is right to do at the moment, not follow a strict schedule.
c. Affective vs. neutral- People from affective cultures tend to express their feelings and emotions
openly whereas people from neutral cultures usually try to hide their thoughts and feelings.
2. What does the author recommend that we do to be successful in cross-cultural communication?
The author suggested that the key to cross-cultural success is to develop an understanding of, and
a deep respect for, the differences.

Task 2: COMMUNICATING ACROSS CULTURES. Instruction. Read the following statements carefully,
decide if each statement is true or false. Write T on the blank is the statement is true, and F is the
statement is false. If the statement is false, re-write or revise it to make it true. Use the space provided after
each statement. (Point system: 5 items x 3 points each = 15 points)

1. Anyone who is proficient speaker of a language will find communicating across cultures easy.
Not anyone who is a proficient speaker of language will find communicating across culture easy
because may still experience miscommunication.

2. Our emotions do not matter whenever we communicate with others.

When we communicate, our emotions do matter. Feelings play a big role in communication. It will
help us succeed when communicating with other people. If you are emotionally aware, you will
communicate better.

3. There is no such thing as a right culture or a wrong culture.

There is such a thing as right and wrong. Morality is about rules and boundaries. Respecting rules
is called “right”, not respecting rules called “wrong”.

4. All cultures have the same way of thinking about time.

Different Cultures will have different interpretations of being ‘on time’. The importance placed on
deadlines and how people refer to the past, present or future are just same aspects of how time
can be perceived differently across cultures.

T 5. Communicating across cultures happens in one’s own country because of the diverse domestic
workforce of many companies today.


Task 3: COMMUNICATING ACROSS CULTURES. Instruction. With a partner, interview a member of an

expatriate community in the Philippines. An expatriate (also referred to locally as “expat”) is a non-Filipino
person who is temporarily residing in the Philippines for business or work purposes. During your interview,

Purposive Communication Page 4

ask about his/her experiences in communicating with Filipinos. What are his/her experiences? Be ready to
present the results of your interview as a written report and as an oral presentation to the class. Use the
following interview guide questions.

1. What are your pleasant experiences in communicating with Filipinos?


2. What are the challenging situation you have encountered?


3. How did you deal with these challenges?


PROCESSING: Instruction. Answer the question: What have you learned from different communicative
tasks? Fill in your answers in the box provided below.

I’ve learned that the key to cross-cultural success is to develop an understanding of,
Activity 1
and a deep respect for, the differences.

I’ve learned that there is such a thing as right and wrong. Morality is about rules and
Activity 2
boundaries. Respecting rules is called “right”, not respecting rules called “wrong”.

Activity 3


Purposive Communication Page 5

The world of business is evolving from traditional using business letters and meeting with clients to
high technological means of transacting business with the use of technology, software applications and
other social media platforms. In every business transaction, communication takes place and medium to
close with business deals in the globalized countries. Intercultural communication happens when one or in
a team transacts business with the foreign people by means of face-to-face transaction or online distant
transaction. Even if business captivates the world, let us not forget to show respect at all times regardless
of the diversity of race, culture, color of skin, and spoken language.


SYNTHESIS: Instruction: Summarize your understanding of the topic by using a concept map. Draw your
concept map below.

Information is conveyed
Information is conveyed explicitly
Relationships are short
Relationships are stable. lived.

High Context vs. Low Context

Affective vs. Neutral Sequential vs. Synchronic

Communication Sequential
Still think People tend to do activity
logically Believed they
one at a time
are rational
Identify with and civilized Cross- Cultural Communication
Appointment are strictly
feelings first kept
Avoid overtly
Overtly Synchronic
Looks at how people from differing
display Try to identify cultural backgrounds People usually do more than
emotion intellectual first communicate, in similar and one activity at a time
different with themselves.

ASSESSMENT: DEEPENING ACTIVITY. Instruction. Write a letter to a non-Filipino person who plans to
reside in the Philippines someday. In this letter, give this person some advice about how to communicate
with Filipinos.x

SELF- ASSESSMENT. Instruction. Now that you are more informed about cultural diversity and its
influence on communication, reflect on the following practices. Use the table below for your self-rating.
Purposive Communication Page 6
Communication practices Yes No Not sure
1. If I cannot understand the person I am taking with, I will
think of him/her as lacking in language proficiency.
2. If I interact with someone from a different cultural
background, I will be more careful about what things I
say and how I say them.
3. I will be sensitive to the values of people whose cultures
are different from mine.
4. In situations of miscommunication, I will attempt to
control my emotions.
5. I will not avoid people whose cultures are different from

While doing the task of this lesson I’ve learned that the key to cross-cultural success is to
develop an understanding of, and a deep respect for, the differences. I’ve learned that there is
such a thing as right and wrong. Morality is about rules and boundaries. Respecting rules is called
“right”, not respecting rules called “wrong”. Not anyone who is a proficient speaker of language will
find communicating across culture easy because may still experience miscommunication.

ASSIGNMENT. Instruction. Think of a topic and prepare questions for the interview (Note: Questions
should be limited to the foreigner’s practiced culture. Conduct a face to face interview with an English
speaking foreigner and make an observation narrative report.

Interviewer: Location:
Interviewee: Date:
Time Starts:
Time Ended:
Guide Questions: Answer:

Purposive Communication Page 7

EXPANDED OPPORTUNITIES. Instruction: Research and list down 10 countries and their respective
established practices or culture. Identify the characteristic of the culture whether high and low context and
justify your answer by probing it in the column.

Country Culture High Context Low Context












Floyd, K. (2012). “Interpersonal Communication.” New York, The McGraw-Hill Companies

Madrunio, M. & Martin,I. (2018). Purposive Communication Using English in Multilingual Contexts.”
Quezon City: C & E Publishing, Inc.

Padilla, M., Dagdag, L., & Roxas, F. (2018). “ Communicate and Connect! Purposive Communication.”
Malabon City, Philippines: Mutya Publishing House Inc.

3G Elearning FZ LLC (2014). “Basic Communication Skills.” UAE, 3G Elearning FZ LLC

Purposive Communication Page 8