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Local series of events during 19th century

Late 18th century

 political and economic changes in Europe were finally beginning to affect Spain
and, thus, the Philippines.

 Manila was open to foreign merchants almost without restriction. The
demand for Philippine sugar and abaca (hemp) grew apace, and the
volume of exports to Europe expanded even further after the completion of
the Suez Canal in 1869.
 The growth of commercial agriculture resulted in the appearance of a new
 Alongside the landholdings of the church and the rice estates of the pre-
Spanish nobility there arose haciendas of coffee, hemp, and sugar, often
the property of enterprising Chinese-Filipino mestizos.
 Public education started in the Philippines, and even the church controlled
the curriculum.
 Many sons of the wealthy were sent to Europe to study. There, nationalism
and a passion for reform blossomed in the liberal atmosphere.
 Out of this talented group of overseas Filipino students arose what came to
be known as the Propaganda Movement. Magazines, poetry, and
pamphleteering flourished. José Rizal, being one of them.
 Liga Filipina was formed by Rizal when he returned to the Philippines
(Liga Filipina: a modest reform-minded society, loyal to Spain, that breathed
no word of independence.)
 Rizal was arrested
 Activists quickly formed the Katipunan being shocked by Rizal’s arrest.
This was led by Andres Bonifacio.
(The Katipunan was dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish from the
islands, and preparations were made for armed revolt. Filipino rebels had
been numerous in the history of Spanish rule, but now for the first time they
were inspired by nationalist ambitions and possessed the education needed to
make success a real possibility.)
August 1896
 Spanish friars uncovered evidence of the Katipunan’s plans, and its leaders
were forced into premature action.
December 30, 1896
 Rizal was executed.
December 1897
 a truce was concluded with the Spanish.
(Emilio Aguinaldo, a municipal mayor and commander of the rebel forces,
was paid a large sum and was allowed to go to Hong Kong with other leaders;
the Spanish promised reforms as well. But reforms were slow in coming, and
small bands of rebels, distrustful of Spanish promises, kept their arms;
clashes grew more frequent.)
April 21, 1898 – December 10, 1898
 Spanish-American War
 U.S. naval victory against Spain in the Battle of Manila Bay
May 1898
 Aguinaldo and his entourage returned to the Philippines with the help of
Adm. George Dewey. Confident of U.S. support, Aguinaldo reorganized his
forces and soon liberated several towns south of Manila.
June 12, 1898
 Philippine Independence was declared
September 1898
 a constitutional congress met in Malolos, north of Manila, which drew up a
fundamental law derived from European and Latin American precedents.
January 1898
 A government was formed on the basis of that constitution in January
1899, with Aguinaldo as president of the new country, popularly known as
the “Malolos Republic.”