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Darwin’s Tree of Life (1837)

• Discovery of DNA structure in 1953 showed that single-cell organisms and bacteria
are more complex than Darwin imagined.
• Horizontal gene transfer (as opposed to vertical gene transfer, i.e. parent to
offspring) = a process by which an organism transfers genetic material (i.e. DNA) to
another cell that is not its offspring = the exchange of genetic material between
different organisms in a single generation.
• [Michael Syvanen] Tested 2000 genes common to humans (e.g. frogs, fruit flies.
LOL.) – Scattered pattern in genome sequencing suggests evolution of animals and
plants are not tree-like. It’s more like an irregular, small structure growing out of the
web of life.
• (Genome = the complete set of genes in the chromosomes of each cell of a specific
• [Doolittle] The tree of life doesn’t exist in nature; it’s the way humans classify
• Doesn’t suggest evolution, because this gene exchange has not been observed to
turn bacteria into different kinds of bacteria.

Ernst Haeckel’s Drawings (1874)

• Note: Haeckel was known for the biogenetic law, which says that the activity of an
organism is imprinted on its genetics. Therefore, characters that are acquired can
be inherited. E.g. tattoo. (ROFL)
• Principles of genetics and empirical observations of embryos – that kind of
inheritance doesn’t occur, because the DNA is the agent of heredity.
• Fraud #1 – Haeckel took shortcuts with his illustrations.
• Fraud #2 – Haeckel’s “gills” in his human embryo were actually the initial phases of
the middle-ear canal, parathyroid (neck stuff) and thymus (immune system stuff).
• Fraud #3 – Haeckel’s “egg yolk pouch” in his human embryo was actually the pouch
that produces blood for the infant.
• Fraud #4 – Haeckel’s “tail” in his human embryo was actually the backbone.

• Dr Lee Spetner and Sir Fred Hoyle took it upon themselves to examine the fossil in
one museum (the other one was in another museum).
• They weren’t allowed to touch it; could only take photographs using some special
awesome camera that reveals stuff like CSI tools reveal blood etc.
• Note: The ‘feathers’ were not dug up; there were only impressions of feathers in the
• Discovery: Impressions of modern feathers had been added – someone spread a
mixture of finely-grounded limestone (batu kapur) and gum Arabic thinly across the
wing and tail  pressed modern feathers into it  removed the feathers after the
cement completely hardened.
• One of the feather impressions showed traces of foreign substances.
• Museum then refused further testing.
• One theory is that the Archaeopteryx is a modified genuine fossil of the
compsognathus (some dinosaur la).
• The other is that it’s just a bird. (potong stim)

Miller Experiment (1953)

• Necessaries for an experiment = starting materials, variables, conditions,
• Wrong starting materials:
− No O2 – O2 was present in all rock layers in archaeological finds – no evidence
that Earth had a reducing atmosphere (an atmosphere lacking in O2).
− Life couldn’t have evolved without O2, because no O2  no ozone  UV light
from the sun would’ve destroyed ammonia.
• Wrong conditions:
− Not as random as Miller claimed – electric spark was used to provide energy
but filtered off to disallow it to destroy the products of the experiment.
− In fact, the electric spark was much better at destroying the products than
creating them.
• Wrong conclusion:
− Products of experiment = Tar (85%) + carboxylic acid (13%) + amino acids
− Both tar (the main product) and carboxylic acid are toxic to life. They poison
and kill living systems by binding irreversibly to protein enzymes in them
(which is how modern pesticides are made).
− Both left-handed and right-handed amino acids were formed – life is based
purely on left-handed molecules. The presence of one right-handed amino
acid molecule prevents the production of protein.