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ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ
НЕЛИЧНЫХ ФОРМ ГЛАГОЛА

ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

VERBALS IN USE
Учебное пособие д л я с т у д е н т о в с п е ц и а л ь н о с ти
«С о в р е м е н н ы е и н о с т р а н н ы е я зы к и »
у ч р е ж д е н и й , о б е с п е ч и в а ю щ и х п о л у ч е н и е в ы сш е го о б р а з о в а н и я

Б|'бл1ятэка МДЛУ

М инск
Лексис
201 5
УДК 811.11Г367.625(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923
П69

Авторы:
старший преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ Н. В. Федосеева,
старший преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ С. А. Лысенко,
старший преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ Т. В. Рахунок,
преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ Ю. В. Кривко.

П69 Практическая грамматика английского языка. Употребление неличных форм глагола =


English Grammar Practice. Verbals in Use : учебное пособие / [H. В. Федосеева и др.) - Минск :
Лексис, 2015. - 226 с.
ISBN 978-985-6932-53-6.

Ц е ль да н н о го пособия - развитие и соверш енствование грам м атических знаний, навыков и ум ений студе нтов,
предусм отренны х ти пово й уч ебно й програм м ой д л я ВУЗов по спец и альн о сти «С о в ре м е н ны е и ностранны е язы ки »
в рамках изучения темы «Н е ли ч н ы е формы гла го ла ».
Пособ ие состоит из взаимосвязанных разделов практического характера. П ре дн азнач ено д л я студе нтов языковых
ВУЗов и факультетов, изучающих английский язык на пр о дв и нуто м уровне, а такж е м ож ет бы ть и спользовано ш ироким
кругом л и ц , изучающих английский язык на курсах и ли сам остоятельно.

УДК 8П .11Г 367.625(075.8)


ББК 81.2Англ-923

ISBN 978-985-6932-53-6 © О ф орм ление. О О О «Л е к си с», 2015


3

THE INFINITIVE
FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE

Com plete the charts.

A C TIV E PASSIVE COM M ON C O N T IN U O U S


to catch to have been talking
to be lit to have risen
to have m ade to be leaving
to have been tried to ski
to strike to be tying

N O N -P ER FEC T PERFECT
to hold
to be selling

to have been spending


to be spoken o f

to have shrunk
to burst

j Build the form of the infinitive according to the description.

Th e Indefinite Infinitive Passive — drive, wear, raise, lay.


The Perfect Continuous Infinitive — deal, lie, stay.
The Continuous Infinitive — study, buy, feel.
The Perfect Infinitive Passive — build, hang, hurt.
The Perfect Infinitive Active — arise, fall, shine, sit, win.

J State the form of the infinitive and explain w h y it is used.

1. It is pure luck to have been born into this family.


2. Gold and love are hard to hide.
3. He bought an alarm clock not to oversleep.
4. Judging from the books and papers on the writing-table he must l\ave been working
since they left him in the morning. ’
4

5. He seemed to be weighing something in his mind.


6. People don't like to be told what to do.
7. She seems to have grown taller.
8. It ought to have been done long ago; at least before their leaving London.
9. I meant to have helped him, no offence was meant.
10. W hen in Paris, we w ent to a wonderful restaurant to enjoy an open-air meal.
11. I don't know what Mark's doing. He may be studying in his room.
12. He pretended to have forgotten her name.
13. The Rolex company are the first to have developed the idea of a modern watch.
14. He claims to have worked here before.
15. Th e y seem to have been fighting all their lives.
16. He's a slow worker! I could have done the job twice in the time he's taken.
17. An intelligence test sometimes shows a man how smart he would have been not to have
taken it.

Ex. 4 | Underline the correct forms.

1. Helen can't have been tr y in g / t o have tried to call us all day. The phone hasn't rung once.
2. I like to give / t o be given presents to friends, but even more I like to give / t o be given
gifts.
3. He was sorry not to n o t ic e / n o t to have noticed the fax on the secretary's table.
4. The third key remained to have been t e s t e d / to be tested.
5. That w om an is still sitting. She seems to be w a it in g / t o have been w a itin g over an hour.
6. I intended to have been re m in d e d / to have re m inded you of it earlier.
7. Jack appears to overtake / to have overtaken John on the last lap. — Yes, let's go and
congratulate him!
8. H ow can she w o r k / b e w orking in the garden now? It is already dark.
9. This meeting, Edwina realized, must have p la n n e d / have been planned several hours
ago.
10. The man seemed to study / to be studying me and I felt uneasy in his presence.
11. Progress might b e / h a v e been all right once, but it has gone on too long.
12. M any buildings were reported to have d a m a g e d / to have been d a m a g ed by the fire.
13. I'd rather w a lk / h a v e walked a little before going to bed later tonight.
14. If happiness could b u y / be bought, few of us could p a y / be p a id the price.

Ex. 5 | Fill in the correct forms of the infinitives.

1. Everybody is going (to give) a rise.


2. How fortunate he is (to travel) all over the world and (to see) so much of it.
3. He kept late hours last night, he may still (to sleep).
5

4. She seems (to w ork) at her course paper since spring and says she has still a lot (to do).
5. She must (to be) very beautiful years ago.
6. The manuscript appears (to w rite) in Greek.
7. This book is likely (to publish) and (to appear) on sale pretty soon.
8. He was seen (to disappear) in the distance.
9. The book was believed (to lose) until the librarian found it during the inventory. It turned
out (to misplace).
10 It was (to be) a non-stop flight, but the plane had to make a forced landing.
11. I'd sooner (to stay) at home than see this play.
12. Office affairs are easy (to begin) and difficult (to finish).
13. In the morning he was nowhere (to see).
14. Half of the m odern medicines could well (to th ro w ) out of the w indow except that the
birds might (to eat) them .
15. She seemed (to pay) no attention to w hat was going on round her.

Ex. 6 ~| Translate into English.

1. Я рад, что д а л вам эту книгу.


2. Я рад, что мне д а ли эту книгу.
3. Мы хотим проинформировать вас об этом.
4. Мы хотим, чтобы нас проинф орм ировали об этом.
5. Мы рады, что встретили его на станции.
6. Мы рады, что нас встретили на станции.
7. Они очень довольны , что их пригласили на конференцию.
8. Они очень довольны , что пригласили вас на конференцию.
9. Я не дум ал прерывать ее.
10. Я не предполагал, что меня прервут.
11. М не неловко, что я причинил вам столько беспокойства.
12. Он будет счастлив, что повидался с вами.
13. Он, казалось, подыскивал нужные слова.
14. Ему повезло, что он побывал в такой интересной поездке
15. Он терпеть не может, когда на д ним шутят.
16. Дети лю бят, когда им рассказывают сказки.
17. Вы, кажется, уже давно здесь сидите.
18. Посмотрите на него! Он, очевидно, решает какую-то важную задачу.
19. Вряд ли они запом нили мой адрес.
20. Не может быть, чтобы он сидел в читальном зале с самого утра. Наверное, он уже
уш ел.
6

THE BARE INFINITIVE AND THE TO-INFINITIVE

Ex. 7 Supply the missing m arker TO.

1. He never let himself be angry.


2. 1have look after the children as well as feed the animals.
3. You'd better not say what you think.
4. You may as well tell us the truth.
5. 1used live in a caravan.
6. W here would you like have lunch?
7. You must take care not offend her.
8. 1d on 't w ant them think you in the wrong.
9. The least w e can do is try and understand this idea.
10. Mrs. Carey rose help her lay the cloth.
11. People sometimes hurt you, but it is not because they mean.
12. It heartened M ary hear him speak so lightly.
13. Lisa felt herself grow red to the tips of her toes.
14. He was seen sneak quietly in the room.
15. Jack couldn't get his car start.
16. It's easier do it yourself than explain to som ebody else how do it
17. Live all you can. It's a mistake not.

Ex. 8 ■Use the required form of the infinitive in brackets, insert the marker TO where necessary.

A.

1. Let's (not stay out) long.


2. 1could not but (adm it) that he was right.
3. H ow dare you (open) my letters!
4. He was heard (knock) on the door twice.
5. Could you help me (carry) this bag?
6. You oughtn't (show) your feelings.
7. I'd rather (go) for a walk in the rain than (do) nothing at all.
8. Susan must (oversleep), because it's 10 am and she's not in the office yet.
9. I'm sorry, 1should (let) you (know ) about it long ago.
10. 1heard the door (open) and saw a shadow (m ove) across the floor.
11. Need w e really (leave) so early?
12. 1have never known him (speak) so rudely before.
13. There is nothing (do) but (wait) till som ebody comes (let) us out.
14. She had the child (drink) a glass of w arm milk.
15. The kidnappers told the parents (not inform ) the police, and the parents didn't dai
(disobey).
7

16. Will we need (show ) our passports?


17. "If you've got nothing to say," I said, "w hy (try) (say) it? W h y not (have) a little rest?"

B.

1. There was one announcem ent (make).


2. She hoped (accomplish) the task by the end of the week, but she failed.
3. All I wanted (do) was (cut) the formalities short.
4. I'm sorry (disappoint) you but I can't let you (have) any money till the end of the month.
5. You are (not mention) this to anyone.
6. I think he must (suffer) from injury now.
7. He is expected (arrive) in a few days.
8. I haven't done much for you. You might (ask) much more at that time.
9. It's very interesting (hear) you (say) that.
10. She noticed that he seemed (look) at the sideboard and with her engaging smile leaned
forward.
11. She liked (like), (think) w orthy of confidence.

Change the sentences as show n.

M odel: I couldn't understand the timetable, (w asn't able)


I w asn't able to understand the timetable.

1. It's important to eat enough. (You should)


2. I'd like to go sailing this summer. (I might)
3. She'll probably get married in June. (She expects)
4. I said I would help her. (I agreed)
5. It's necessary to make careful plans. (W e must)
6. Perhaps he's ill. (He seems)
7. I want to change my job. (I wish I could)
8. I may come and see you next week. (I hope)
9. You don't need to apologize. (You needn't)
10. Th e y will open a new branch in London. (They have decided)
11. I will certainly pay you on Saturday. (I promise)
12. I couldn't find the ticket office. (I didn't manage)
13. I prefer to go by myself. (I would rather)
14. She said she w ouldn't see him again. (She refused)
15. I can play chess. (I've learnt)
8

tea. SI®; [ Join the beginning and end of the sentences using the m arker TO w here necessary.

1. The coffee isn't strong enough a. leave the ship.


2. 1have never known him b. make a brilliant career.
3. The captain was the last c. work on a farm.
4. You must d. have time to pack.
5. The m urderer is. said e. put on the cornflakes?
6. 1am ready to do anything but f. have telephoned you, but 1forgot.
7. W hy don't you do something useful like g- pay for a drink himself.
8. He got up very early in order (T O ) h. be hiding in the woods near your house.
9. 1was too terrified i. move.
10. Is there any milk j- have annoyed your sister yesterday.
11. 1meant k. lend me your umbrella?

12. Would you be so kind as 1. climb Everest w ithout oxygen?


13. Her ambition is m. marry a penniless man.
14. She would rather die than n. keep us awake.
15. W h o was the first person 0. clean the flat?

Ex. 11 Find and correct the errors if there are any.

1. Did you feel the earth move?


2. She liked this kind of thing. Some people pretended not.
3. This skirt needs be cleaned.
4. You look tired. W hy not to take a holiday?
5. Could you help me to unload the car?
6. Are you and Gillian getting married? — W e hope.
7. You ought have spared her feelings.
8. W e had nothing to do except to look at the cinema posters.
9. The teacher had us to learn a long poem by heart.
10. They were heard to ask the policeman for directions.
11. Robert seems have been working on the same project for ages.
12. I was made look stupid at yesterday's meeting.
13. Writers write not because they have to but because they wish.
14. The visitors were allowed take pictures in the gallery.
15. The white yacht was seen leave the harbor and disappear in the distance.
16. This expensive medicine is not be found anywhere.
17. I couldn't but to take the abandoned kitten home.
18. W e like machines that think but are afraid of people w ho try.
19. W h y don't you apologise to M r Howard? — I meant, but he is nowhere to be found.
9

Ex. 12 j Translate the parts given in brackets into English.

1. (М не приш лось) put off my trip till next summer.


2. (Вам бы лучш е) warn them against going there alone.
3. (Позволь мне) take this decision on my own.
4. (Им ничего не оставалось как) agree to their daughter's wedding.
5. The child (заставили) tidy his room up.
6. Are you interested in going to University? — (Да, мне бы хотелось.)
7. You (следует) respect elderly people.
8. (Почему бы не) get a take-away meal tonight for a change?
9. She (должна была позвонить) me two hours ago. Something terrible (должно быть, случилось).
10. Forget it. — (Я бы рад), but I can't.
11. I would sooner recycle our rubbish (чем покупать) поп-recyclable goods.
12. I noticed George (вздохнул с облегчением ) after he read the letter.
13. He (предпочел бы поехать) to ski in the Alps last winter than (лететь) to the Maldives.
14. W hy can't you go with us? — (М н е не разрешают.)
15. George (пом ог мне) investigate the matter.
16. I (пож алуй) have a cup of camomile tea before going to bed.
17. W ould you be so helpful as (чтобы поднести) this heavy bag for me?

Ex. 13 | Translate the sentences into English. Pay attention to the marker TO.

1. Разреши Марку помочь мне написать сочинение.


2. Вы, до лж н о быть, приняли его за кого-то другого.
3. Тебе бы лучш е не вмешиваться в это де ло .
4. Я почувствовал, как мое сердце дрогнуло.
5. Боюсь, я не смогу прийти. Но я постараюсь.
6. Почему бы не устроить вечеринку в его честь?
7. Было слышно, как ребенок разбил что-то в детской.
8. Вам, возможно, придется прийти завтра.
9. Им ничего не оставалось делать, как ж дать утреннего поезда.
10. Ты не подписал свой тест. — Да, я забыл.
11. Я не могу заставить себя попробовать это блю до.
12. Он предпочел бы вчера промолчать.
13. Не выбрасывай письмо. — Я и не собираюсь.
14. Она заметила, как симпатичный незнакомец подм игнул ей.
15. Как ты смеешь называть меня обманщиком?
16. Я не слышал, как ты вошла в комнату.
17. Предлож и им помочь. — Я как раз хотел это сделать.
18. Зачем притворяться, что тебе все равно?
19. О де яло нужно постирать сегодня.
20. Почему ты с ним не танцевала? — Он меня не попросил.
10 .• H r i ■' G r a m r s 'j r • •:

THE BSS3FDNITIVE AS A SUBJECT

J Translate into Russian and com m ent on the form of the infinitives.

A.
1. To go out alone In the middle of the night is risky.
2. It is strange to see you alone.
3. It would be w rong to be showing these letters around.
4. It's nice of him to be Involved in my affairs.
5. To die is nothing; but it is terrible not to live.
6. To have given up after such hard work seems a shame.
7. To find them in so short a time would have been next to Impossible.
8. The girl was only four but it delighted us to be talking with her.
9. 'It's a shame to have woken you up/ said Sally stepping in.
10. 'Th a t would be a good Idea/ she said. 'It's so clever of you to have thought of It.'
11. It was exciting to be discovering new things every day.
12. Everybody liked Sally. It was a treat to be talking to her and to be charmed by her smile.
13. To have m et Billie there was bad enough, but to have been noticed by Ann was even
worse.
14. Mike related the story for the sixteenth time. It was a pleasure to have found a listener
and to be listened to.

B.
1. It is strange to be known so universally and yet to be so lonely.
2. It is better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.
3. It is tedious to be thinking about it all the time.
4. W hen guns speak it is too late to argue.
5. To err is human, but to really foul things up requires a computer.
6. It sounds strange to have been living in a tow n for ten years and not to be able to find
the right street.
7. It Is difficult to make predictions, especially about the future.
8. It is better to be hated for what you are than to be loved for w hat you are not.
9. Is it so small a thing to have enjoyed the sun, to have loved, to have thought, to have
hoped?
10. It is possible to fail in many ways...while to succeed is possible only in one way.
11. W hether they give or refuse, it delights people just the same to have been asked.
12. Oh, it is excellent to have a giant's strength; but it is tyrannous to use it like a giant.
13. It is a good rule in life never to apologize. The right sort of people do not want apologies,
and the w rong sort do not deserve them,
14. It is absurd to divide people into good or bad. People are either charming or tedious.
15. Sleep is lovely, death is better still, not to have been born is the miracle.
Ex. 15 M atch the parts of the sentences.

1. It is a great ability a) to be accused of a m urder you didn't comm it.


2. It takes tw o b) to be able to conceal one's ability.
3. It's a lady's privilege c) to be superstitious.
4. It Is useless d) to change her mind.
5. It is bad luck e) to flog a dead horse.
6. It is easy f) to make a quarrel.
7. It feels strange g) to be brave from a safe distance.
8. It's terrible h) to be called the Queen.

Ex. 16 Paraphrase sentences according to the examples given.

M o d e l: I can't believe w hat he says, (hard) -> It is hard to believe what he says.

1. I couldn't refuse his invitation. (impossible)


2. W e were taken to the Zoo. (fun)
3. Translating this text may present difficulties, (difficult)
4. Everybody was surprised to see her again. (surprise)
5. I was delighted when we had made it up finally. (delightful)
6. Don't phone Bob. He Is sleeping already, (too late)
I. W henever you have to look after children, you feel tired, (tiring)
8. W e were horrified when w e had our first quarrel, (horrible)
9. W hen we were soaring like birds in the white sky, we felt excited, (exciting)
10. I was annoyed when I had lost my key again, (annoying)
II. W orrying where the children might be is nightmarish, (nightmare)
12. W hen we took off our w et boots, w e felt relieved, (relief)
13. It's no use discussing it. (useless)
14. If you break a mirror, you will be unlucky, (bad luck)
15. I dread being alone in such a place, (dreadful)

Ex. 17 Com bine the sentences so as to use infinitives as subjects.

M odel: She helped us. It was so kind. It was kind o f her to help us.
He came without flowers. W hat a mistake! It was a mistake to have come without flowers.

1. Don't eat too much. It is an unhealthy habit.


2. I forgot everything I knew. It's a disaster!
3. W e were crossing the river on a tiny boat. It was dangerous.
4. They left the bicycles outside. It is so silly of them !
5. W hy did he make that remark? It was so rude!
12 2 1 .1 >' or:.;

6. You should go by train. Trains are safer than airplanes.


7. W hy did we believe them ? W e were so silly.
8. He didn't contribute anything. It is so selfish.
9. W hy d o n 't you w ant to accept their offer? It would be foolish.
10. You say you found the house em pty? — Yes, it was so odd.
11. W e were sitting there silently for an hour. It seemed so natural.
12. You have to w ork on Sundays? — It's almost a crime I
13. He pulled strings to get Mrs W orting dismissed. It is so mean of him.
14. He recognized me after all these years. W hat a joyl
15. W hy are you wasting your time like that? It doesn't do you any good.
16. He was making strange remarks through the interview. It was unbecoming of him.

Ex. 18 Change the sentences using the continuous infinitive, the passive and perfect forms
of the infinitive. Use the w ords in bold type as prom pts.

M odels: I was pleased that I was introduced to you.


pleasure - ) It was a pleasure to be introduced to you.

I have been working with you f o r five years.


h onou r -> It's an hono u r to have been working with you fo r five years.

1. I felt delight when I was finally noticed.


delightful ............................................................................................................................
2. You feel awful when you are judged so negatively.
feels.......................................................................................................................................
3. I have been invited to their party. I am truly surprised.
is...................................................... .......................................................................................
4. He has been living in fear for such a long time.
aw ful.....................................................................................................................................
5. So, you have been given a second chance... You may consider yourself lucky.
great luck.............................................................................................................................
6 . W e were caught In a trap. Believe me, it's terrible.
caught...................................................................................................................................
7. Everybody has forgotten me. It is so convenient.
been.......................................................................................................................................
8. I have been having this splitting headache for tw o days. I can't bear it any more.
unbearable.............................................................................. ............................................
9. This thought haunted me for years. It is a strange feeling.
have.......................................................................................................................................
10. She has been through hard times, and now nobody offers her any help. It's unthinkable!
offered.............................................. ....................................................................................
11. W e were wandering in the forest for tw o days. It was a nightmare!
b e ...........................................................................................................................................
13

12. It can't be chickenpoxl Is it possible that their diagnosis is wrong?


misdiagnosed w ith .......................................................................................
13. W e lost to a w orthy rival. It is not a failure.
lost......................................................................................................................

Ex. 19 Com plete the follow ing using infinitives as subjects.

1. It's a silly superstition.... 8. It's a rigid m u s t....


2. It's beyond m y p o w e rs.... 9. It's no picnic....
3. It's o u t o f the question.... 10. It's not cricket....
4. It p a ys .... 11. It's sheer m adness....
5. It's no big d ea l.... 12. It's unfem inine....
6. It's no laughing m a tte r.... 13. It's som ething....
7. It's a man-sized jo b .... 14. It's very shabby o f you.

Translate the sentences using the phrases from exercise 19.

1. Быть во главе больш ого коллектива что-то да значит.


2. И речи быть не может о том , чтобы продать дом .
3. Нечестно пытаться получить повышение таким способом. ■
4. Нужно обязательно помогать друзьям в беде.
5. Бояться черных кошек — глупые предрассудки.
6. Получить выговор — не п овод д л я смеха.
7. Помыть машину особого труда не представляет.
8. Просто сумасшествие гулять босиком в такую погоду.
9. С твоей стороны очень некрасиво бы ло не пригласить их в дом .
10. Снести эту стену по плечу только мужчине.
11. Ты считаешь, что женщ ине не пристало заниматься боксом?
12. Я не в силах этого понять.
13. Всегда имеет смысл планировать заранее.
14. Не так-то просто вести маш ину всю ночь.

Translate the fragments given In brackets using infinitives as subjects.

1. W hen the stomach is full, (легко говорить о диете).


2. (Лучш е знать) some of the questions than all of the answers.
3. (Было ужасно вставать с постели) in that kind of "sleep-in" weather.
4. (Лучш е спросить дор огу) than go astray.
5. (Глупо наказывать соседей) by fire when you live next door.
6. (Бесполезно винить) the looking glass if your face is awry.
7. (Вы годно казаться глупым) if one is wise.
8. (Поним ать, что нужно делать, и не де ла ть этого) is lack of courage.
9. (Невозможно перемещаться) faster than the speed of light, and certainly not desirable,
as one's hat keeps blowing off.
10. (Тяж ело создать хороший ф ильм ) when every twelve minutes it is interrupted by
twelve dancing rabbits singing about toilet paper.
11. (Никогда не бывает слишком поздно отказаться от) our prejudices.
12. (Воспринимать его всерьез и следовать его советам) was absurd.
13. (Невозможно наслаждаться) idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of w ork to do.
14. (Лучш е молчать и считаться глупцом ) than to speak out and remove all doubt.
15. W he n e ver you find yourself on the side of the majority, (пора остановиться и
обдум ать это).
16. (Вечно планировать) to make a better life but never to find time for it is like putting off
eating and drinking and sleeping until you're dead.

Ex. 22 Щ Translate the sentences using infinitives as subjects.

1. Учиться никогда не поздно.


2. Проще простить врага, чем друга.
3. Приятно, что я оказался вам полезен.
4. Восстановить дв оре ц стоило бы больш их денег.
5. Было бы неправильно не предупредить их.
6. И дти в кино бы ло слишком поздно.
7. Бесполезно бы ло пытаться сделать это за о ди н день.
8. Быть другом требует времени.
9. М оей обязанностью было готовить чай по утрам и вечерам.
10. Так приятно, когда тебе, наконец, д а ли отпуск.
11. Тяж ело жить с лю дьм и, которых лю биш ь, и не давать им советы.
12. Ничего не делать — это одно из самых сложных занятий.
13. Давать советы всегда глупо, но еще глупее давать полезные советы.
14. В настоящем жить сложно, а в прош лом — невозможно.
15. Полезно, когда вам напоминают о ваших достиж ениях.
Tn--j I n f i n i t y ^ 15

THE INFINOTIVE AS A PREDICATIVE


AND PART OF A PREDICATIVE

| Translate Into Russian and com m ent on the use of the Infinitives.

A.

1. His only dream was to buy a house.


2. He will be difficult to persuade.
3. All he did was to print his name.
4. It is easy to deal with her.
5. She is easy to deal with.
6. It took me an hour to get there.
7. His first sign of returning strength was to ask for brandy.
8. The problem was how to tell him about It.
9. He is a delight to listen to.
10. Th e part of Ham let is difficult to cast.
11. The parade was a joy to watch.
12. Th e pudding is easy to make.
13. The difficulty was w here to cross the river.
14. It's awfully good of you to have come here.
15. A small car would be cheap to run.

B.

1. Education's purpose is to replace an em pty mind with an open one.


2. All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover
them .
3. Th e most im portant thing is to be whatever you are w ithout shame.
4. A man's silence will be wonderful to listen to.
5. The greatest mistake you can make in life is to be continually fearing you will make one.
6. It takes a long time to become a personality.
7. Th e best thing is to look natural, but it takes make-up to look natural.
8. To be upset over w hat you d on 't have is to waste what you do have.
9. Every child is an artist. Th e problem is how to remain an artist once he grows up.
10. It is easy to be wise after the event.
11. W hat most people need to learn in life is how to love people and use things instead of
using people and loving things.
12. It's dangerous to generalize from a limited num ber of examples.
13. To read a book for the first time was to make the acquaintance of a new friend; to read
it a second time was to meet an old one.
14. Life is easier than you'd think; all that Is necessary is to accept the impossible, do without
the indispensable, and bear the intolerable.
15. To believe is to know you believe, and to know you believe is not to believe.
16

Ex. 24 Make up sentences, using the following infinitives w ith the adjectives from the table below.

to deal with
funny to rem em ber
O ur cat interesting to understand
l/You/She/He/We/They hard to carry
M y boyfriend (un)pleasant to see
O u r neighbours difficult to hear
Their house nice to forget
The film easy to persuade
Your words (un)comfortable to argue with
The sofa (in)convenient to sit on
The argument amusing to follow
The rule useful to look at
The suitcase charming to talk to
His advice restful to account for
This problem fun to avoid
joy to watch
problem to agree to
delight to please
to answer
to find

Ex. 25 Paraphrase the following sentences according to the m odel.

M o d e l: It is hard to please him. He is hard to please.

1. It is not difficult to rem em ber the rule.


2. It's very comfortable to sit in m y Grandfather's armchair.
3. It was difficult to get along with him.
4. It's not very easy to translate this passage.
5. It is pleasant to look at the girl, but not at all pleasant to talk to her.
6. It was unpleasant to watch their quarrel.
7. It's always funny to listen to his stories.
8. It would be useful to follow Uncle Jack's advice.
9. It is difficult to explain his behaviour.
10. It is rather hard to read his handwriting.
11. It is very pleasant to listen to him.
12. It is hard to polish a diamond.
13. It is very comfortable to work at this desk.
14. It was very amusing to watch the scene.
15. It was easy to follow the track.
17

I Paraphrase the follow ing sentences starting w ith the w ords given.

1. He aims to become a top chef by the age of 30.


His aim __

2. Discussing problems with a friend can be helpful.


It___________________________________________________________________

3. I have come to congratulate you and to wish you every success.


W hat I have come f o r___________________________________________________________

4. There was no necessity to re-do it.


I t ________________________________________________________________________________

5. He wrote abstracts of articles on the subject of research. That was his job.
His job ______________________________________________________________________
6. W orrying and fussing was useless.
To w orry _________________ _________________________________________________

7. Younger siblings want to establish their own Identity. That Is their main priority.
The main priority o f _____________________________________________________________

8. All they wanted was to make themselves understood.


To m a k e ________________________________________________________________________

9. You should take a long rest. This is the only thing that could do you good.
Th e only t h in g __________________________________________________________________

10. The question is not easy to answer.


I t ________________________________________________________________________________

11. I must ask you a few questions on the matter. It Is my duty.


It's my d u t y ______________________________________________________________________

12. You are to check up the results of the observations. It's your next task.
Your next ta s k __________________________________________________________________

13. The sculpture was completely ruined. The restoration was impossible.
I t ________________________________________________________________________________
14. I didn't w ant to offend you. Tha t was the last thing I meant.
The last th in g ___________________________________________________________________

15. W e have to cut costs. It's the only way to survive.


The only w a y ___________________________________________________________________

B i 6 nmT 3 Ka M fl/IY
Com plete the sentences using the infinitives fro m the right colum n as subjects or
predicatives.

1. He left. for him now was a torture. a) to repair


2. M y next plan was to the house, avoiding Wells if b) to go on
possible. c) to hear
3. It was impossible the bicycle. d) to try
4. M y advice to you is a coach tour. e) to speak
5. It took us twelve days the island. f) to tell
6. The onlv thine she could do was the truth. g) to wait
7. At this m om ent required more effort than she could H) to return
make. i) to search
8. The greatest thing is our heads up. j) to keep
9. It is such a comfort you say so, doctor.
10 . There was no water nearby and the only thing was
to find it somewhere.

Ex. 28 Complete the following using infinitives as subjects, predicatives o r parts of predicatives.

1. She is pleasant______________________ .
2. The main problem is
3. would be unjust.
4. M y hobby is .
5. The book was difficult _
6. O u r plan w a s _________
7. _____________________ was very pleasant.
8 . The sentence is easy____________ and useful.
9. Th e best way to master a foreign language is .
10 . _____________________ is the only thing to do.
11. The next thing to be done is _________________
12. would be much more useful.
13. His only wish is.
14. W hat he says is pleasant_____ but hard
15. O u r only chance to see him is
16. is not an easy matter.
17. O u r aim w a s ____________________
18. All she cooks is n ice_____________ and delicious
19. This problem will not be difficult.
.
20 The first thing he did w a s _______
21. Th e boy is h a rd _________________
22 . W hat I w ant Is__________________
23. O u r next step w a s _______________
19

Ex. 29 | Find and correct the mistakes if there are any.

1. Is your friend easy to deal with?


2. All I w ant to do is to help you.
3. Her neighbour was difficult to have talked to.
4. The best thing to do now is to be seen what turn things will take.
5. The most exciting experience he had ever had was to see himself in a film for the first
time.
6. It really hurts me to be going away.
7. Bad habits are easily to acquire and hardly to break.
8. The house was charming to look at, but rather inconvenient to live.
9. It was very kind of you to have helped me change the wheel.
10. Th e Gadfly was difficult to be convinced.
11. It would be very hard to be found out his true identity.
12. Not to act sooner is his greatest regret.
13. This phenom enon is difficult to explain it.

Ex. 30 I Translate the fragments in brackets into English.

1. M y way of joking (говорить) the truth. It is the funniest joke in the world.
2. Th e most he could do at the m om ent (бы ло да ть) me a cup of tea.
3. Th e reason of his success (б уде т легко понять).
4. The quickest way of ending a war (проиграть) it.
5. His behaviour (нелегко одобрить).
6. I belonged to neither groups, and to speak (бы ло принимать) sides.
7. The date of the letter (бы ло невозможно разобрать).
8. To be great (быть непонятым).
9. Her attitude to her duties (будет нелегко смириться).
10. All we are asking for (это чтобы нам да ли шанс).
11. Gem m a was (приятно смотреть) and (интересно разговаривать).
12. Exotic animals (проблем атично ухаживать).
13. (Глупо говорить) that the company is not interested in making money.
14. Th e least we could do (бы ло попытаться понять) their idea.
15. His greatest claim to fame (состоит в том, что его выбрали) for the last Olympic squad.
16. The next move (будет проконсультироваться) an experienced lawyer.
17. It's impossible (делать обобщ ения) about what men and w om en are like.
18. One way to make reading pleasurable (бы ло бы найти) books that your children will
love to read.
20_______________________________________________________________ : - ч ■■■■■-........ ■■- ■

Ex. 31 Translate the sentences into English using infinitives as subjects, predicatives o r parts
of predicatives.

1. С ней бы ло тр удно иметь дело.


2. Это правило нетрудно объяснить.
3. Её настроение легко понять.
4. Единственное, чего ему бы хотелось, — это найти место, где мож но пообедать.
5. Ему тр удно угодить.
6. Наш план заключался в том, чтобы закончить работу д о начала года.
7. Такую роль очень интересно играть.
8. Теперь остается только поместить объявление в газету.
9. В этом дом е бы ло удобно жить.
10. Эти инструкции легко выполнимы.
11. Пользоваться телефоном д л я справок значит экономить время.
12. Это стихотворение легко бы ло выучить наизусть.
13. Проблема была в том, куда пойти учиться.
14. Было бы лучш е убедить его работать, чем принуж дать его.
15. На него бы ло не очень приятно смотреть.
16. Главное в том, как заставить его поверить нам и послушаться нашего совета.
17. В пьесе слишком много сцен: ее нелегко поставить.
18. М о й вопрос состоит в следующем: когда приступать к работе.
19. Первое, что необходимо бы ло сделать — это посоветоваться с друзьями.
20. Его задача заключалась в том, как объяснить причину отсутствия.
THE INFINITIVE AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL MODAL PREDICATE

Ex. 32 | Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the infinitives.

A.
1. I have to meet Tom in ten minutes. I'd better go now or I'll be late.
2. It should have been great to see him again after so many years.
3. To smoke like that must be dangerous.
4. That can't have been Nick that you saw.
5. It's a pity you didn't ask because I could have helped you.
6. Everyone was angry because Sam w o uldn't turn off the television.
7. I'd rather have pasta than potatoes.
8. "W ell," said Lemvine. "I must be going now."
9. He can't have said that; he is such an agreeable person.
10. M y plan was to find Roger first thing in the morning, but he was nowhere to be found.
11. I'd rather have gone to the cinema last night. I didn't like the performance we watched.
12. There are times w hen the traffic here can be very heavy.
13. W e've almost run out of petrol. W e'd better stop at the nextpetrol station to fill up.
14. I suppose Bill might have lost his way.
15. Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood.

B.
1. Every minute you are thinking of evil, you might have been thinking of good instead.
2. A lifetime of happiness! No man alive could bear it: it would be hell on earth.
3. Life was meant to be lived, and curiosity must be kept alive. One must never, for whatever
reason, turn his back on life.
4. It's never too late to be w ho you might have been.
5. I rejoined the others in the small fisherman's cottage and there I had to break the sad
news.
6. — I w o n 't do it! — Yes, you will!
7. The worst thing you can possibly do is w orrying and thinking about w hat you could have
done.

Ex. 33 | O pen the brackets paying attention to the form of the infinitive.

1. I d on 't want (to go) swimming. I'd rather (to play) tennis.
2. I am not sure what Mike is doing right now. He might (to sit) at home.
3. W e are enjoying our holiday, though the weather could (to be) better.
4. A good hom e must (to make), not (to buy).
5. You shouldn't (to take) that book. You know It's wrong to steal.
6. It must (to snow) heavily, have a look, the ground and all the trees are white.
22 » 1 j '

7. This problem might (to deal w ith) long time ago. W hy should I remind you that?
8. Th e best and most beautiful things in the world cannot (to see) or even (to touch). They
must (to feel) within the heart.
9. W e could (to buy) a small yacht with w hat w e spent on our dog and all the things he
destroyed. Then again, how many yachts wait by the door all day for your return?

Ex. 34 J Paraphrase the following sentences using m odal verbs o r m odal expressions.

A.
1. It's forbidden to park on the pavements.
2. I recom m end going to Brighton for a week.
3. Do you w ant me to turn off the oven, or not?
4. I would prefer to eat in than eat out tonight.
5. Is it possible that she has wrongly interpreted your words?
6. He looks very pleased, probably his work has been approved of.
7. It w asn't compulsory to wear school uniform at my school.
8. He isn't capable of speaking quietlyl
9. I don't believe that you have lost your keys again I
10. It's hardly possible that this text was difficult to translate.
11. O ur worrying so much was a waste of time.
12. It is extremely im portant for you to finish by 5.
13. It's possible that the decision will be announced next week.
14. You had better leave before Jack gets back.

B.
1. It isn't a good idea to exercise on a full stomach.
2. Perhaps they didn't notice the tyre was flat.
3. The police refused to do anything about my noisy neighbours.
4. In all probability he didn't like the holiday spent together with Aunt Augusta.
5. Although you are in charge, it doesn't give you the right to be rude.
6. It would have been possible for Helen to give us a lift.
7. They hoped to have spent the sum m er together but that wasn't destined to be.
8. All that was possible for us to do was to write to him.
9. I expect this beach will be deserted.
10. Don't worry, everything will be arranged as you want, I promise you.
11. It was agreed that Jim would make a speech at the meeting but he had fallen ill, so Tom
was obliged to speak Instead.
12. Evidently he didn't know her telephone number. He would have given her a call.
13. Oh, I'll make you regret your words.
14. It would be better if you didn't bring M ary to the party.
15. Jim keeps giving me presents.
23

Ex. 35 Com plete the follow ing sentences using m odal verbs and the appropriate form s of the
infinitives.

1. One thing is for sure, som eon e _____________________________ (to know) about it.
2. There were plenty of tickets left for the concert. W e ______________________ (to buy)
them in advance.
3. Pay no attention to w hat Martin said. H e ____________________________(to be) serious.
4. It's your own fault, y o u ____________________________ (not to go) to bed so late.
5. I spent last week at the beach because I ____________________ (not to go) to school.
6. G e o rg e _____________________________(to like) it there if he has stayed there for so long.
7. I _______ (to buy) that car, but I decided to look at a few others.
8. The heating comes on automatically. Y o u ____________________________(not to turn) it on.
9. Not a living b e in g _________________________ (to be seen).
10. W ha t about this m e a t? ____________________ I _______________ (to roast) It o r ___________
(to stew) it?
11. I begged David to accept some money but h e _______________________ (to hear) of it.
12. Look at these fences! Th e people h e re _____________________ (to be) very unfriendly.
13. Y o u ________________ (to be) right, but I still don't agree with you.
14. Don't take a risk like that again! W e _________________________________ (to lose) because
of you yesterday.
15. Th e best thing w e __________________________ (to do) is to tell everybody.
16. He put the m oney in his pocket, and kindly told me, 'D o n 't make yourself uneasy.
I'll take care of it. I t _________________________________(to be) all right'.
17. Mrs. Pearce: W h a t_________________________________ (to become) of the g irl? ________
she (to be paid) anything?

Ex. 36 Correct the mistakes in the following sentences if there are any.

1. You m ustn't have forgotten it alreadyl


2. He couldn't but agree to m arry Jane in order to please his mother.
3. Fortunately I needn't have gone to the bank in person.
4. It can have been taken months to redecorate the house If the father hadn't hired the
workers to help.
5. He couldn't help laughing when he saw a girl with her father's boots on.
6. You should wear a helmet when you ride your bike — it's the law!
7. I'd sooner not to tell anyone.
8. Something must have happened. He was to come at 8.
9. Shall I say anything to that? — No, you don't have.
10. You must have woken up earlier — you missed the bus!
11. I am sorry I disturbed you I ought to phone before I came.
24

12. I would better go to the bank this afternoon.


13. Harry may have won the match with a bit more effort.
14. Eventually I could find the way with the help of a map.
15. I am afraid you oughtn't to use this phone — I'm expecting an Important call.
16. I'd rather had told you the truth earlier.
17. You mustn't help me now if you don't want to.

Ex. 37 Translate into English the parts given in brackets.

1. You don't look very well. (Тебе бы лучш е не ходить) to


work today.
2. You (долж но быть, многое п овидали) in your life
though you are much younger.
3. W e (не нужно бы ло ходить) to the library. W e had all the
necessary books.
4. I'm tired. (Пож алуй, я никуда не пойду) this
evening, If you don't mind.
5. W e 13 Dfl вышли из лом у) so earlv. The train will arrive only
in an hour.
6. They (долж ны были встретиться) at the railway
station at 6 pm.
7. 1w onder what he (может делать здесь) so late? —
He (возможно, ж дет) for Mary.
8. Unfortunately, she (ничего не оставалось делать, как)
leave.
9. It (наверняка, разозлит его) to hear about it.
10. This (до лж н о бы ло случиться) . His absent-mindedness Is
widely known.
11. This matter (придется заняться) right away.
12. Не (частенько сидел часами) reading, paying no
attention to what was going on around him.
13. 1(долж ен был приготовить) this report by Thursday
but 1had no time.
14. If he came to our place another time, we (бы и говорить с ним не стали)

15. You (могли с таким же успехом сделать) it by


yourself.
25

Ex. 38 | Translate the sentences into English using m odal verbs and m odal expressions.

1. Когда долж ен начаться концерт? — В 7 часов.


2. С какой стати я буду ему перйая звонить?
3. Неужели он действительно отказался вам помочь?
4. Лж ецу следовало бы иметь хорошую память.
5. Замок никак не закрывается! Ты мог бы починить его, в конце концов!
6. М ож ет пойти дож дь. Лучш е взять с собой зонтик.
7. Боюсь, что вам придется согласиться на их условия.
8. Не может быть, чтобы он придум ал это сам.
9. Эту книгу, возможно, нелегко найти.
10. Я обещаю, что все будет сделано. Не нужно беспокоиться.
11. Такую роль, до лж н о быть, очень интересно играть.
12. Ты никуда не пойдеш ь, пока не Сделаешь уроки!
13. Наверное, он испугал вас своими угрозами.
14. Ах, если бы только я могла предвидеть это!
15. Если бы мы не вмешались, они, может быть, поссорились бы.
16. Вам следовало бы принять во внимание все подробности, когда вы обсуж дали этот
вопрос.
17. Право же, вы могли бы подум ать о других!
18. Вы не захотели последовать моему совету — теперь пеняйте на себя.
19. Доктор велел ей лежать, но она и слышать об этом не хотела.
20. Собрание назначено на 5 часов. Его невозможно перенести.
21. Не может быть, что тебе понадобился час, чтобы добраться сюда.
26

THE INFINITIVE AS PAIR! OF A COMPOUND VERBAL


ASPECT PREDICATE

Ex. 39 j Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use o f the infinitives.

A.
1. He began to describe the picture.
2. W e used to spend a lot of time in the club.
3. It will take time to find him.
4. Did he continue to work with this company?
5. W hen they were younger, they would go to football matches every Sunday.
6. We'd rather take a train.
7. The toilets were few and hard to find.
8. It started to snow.
9. She finished cleaning the house and w ent on to cook dinner.
10. If you tell the truth, you don't have to rem em ber anything.
11. M y next plan was to leave the house.
12. I came to realize that I was wrong.

B.
1. Develop a passion for learning. If you do, you will never cease to grow.
2. Vacation used to be a luxury, however, in today's world, it has become a necessity.
3. I wish money grew on trees. But it takes hard w ork to make It.
4. Just as you began to feel that you could make good use of time, there was no time left
to you.
5. To love at all is to be vulnerable.
6. W he n you cease to dream you cease to live.
7. The best recipe for happiness is to avoid too lengthy meditations on the past.
8. You will never win if you never start to try.
9. Th e car is not safe to drive.
10. The dream was always running ahead of me. To catch up, to live for a m om ent in unison
with it was the miracle
11. I came to realize that it takes a couple seconds to say Hello but forever to say Goodbye.
12. If all my friends were to jum p off a bridge, I w o u ld n 't ju m p with them. I'd be at the
bottom catching them.
13. A successful man continues to look for w ork after he has found a job.
14. Life's great happiness Is to be convinced we are loved.
15. M iddle age is when your broad mind and narrow waist start to change places.
16. The ideal friendship is to feel as one while remaining tw o.
Tr«: in fia iv v t. 27

M atch the beginning and ending of sentences paying attention to aspect verbs.
Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. H ow can you continue to a. run next months.


2. 1have com e to b. get up early when he worked on a farm.
3. The new modern trains w ill commence to c. make bicycles of this kind.
4. It started to d. become a doctor.
5. He used to e. w ork with all that noise going on?
6. After her teaching career she w e n t on to f. think you would never come.
7. 1was beginning to g- pour with rain all of a sudden.
8. Th e factory has ceased to h. realize that 1am making a mistake.

Com plete the sentences w ith W O U L D o r USED TO . W h e re either form is possible, use
th em both. W here there is a w o rd in brackets, put it in the correct position.

1. In the long sum m er holidavs. we go out som ewhere with a picnic


every day.
2. W hen 1was a newly-trained teacher, 1 work till late every night
preparing classes.
3. The v be haDDV together but thev are not now.
4. W hen they came to London, they (never) travel anywhere on the tube.
5. W hen 1had a car, 1 drive everywhere, but now I'm much fitter
because 1always walk or cycle.
6. During m y last year at university, 1 go to the library to start work at 9
o'clock every morning.
7. W hen we shared a flat together, we often stay up talking late
into the night.
8. W hen Am y was a baby, people (often) come up to me and tell me
how beautiful she was.
9. He be overweieht but he's much slimm er now.

10. W hen 1was at school, 1 (never) do my weekend hom ework until


Sunday evening. •
11. 1 work in the same deDartment as vour sister.
12. W hen 1was a teenager, 1 (often) spend the whole evening just
listening to music.
13. She have a lot of friends in London when she was a student of
School of Business.
14. He eo for a run everv dav.
Ex. 42 Correct the mistakes if there are any.

1. He continued to have been working in the library for an hour or so.


2. I can't help to think that I'm doing the w rong thing.
3. Don't you dare come back hom e late!
4. His hope was to have won in the lottery.
5. I'm starting getting tired of your insulting remarks.
6. This piece of w ood is not easy to carve.
7. The plants began to be growing after the m uch-needed rain.
8. This m elody is nice to be danced to.
9. Do you know w hy Jeremy ceased to have come to our m onthly meetings?
10. After she talked to her friends she came to have seen the problem in a new light.

Ex. 43 ~ j Translate into English and state the functions of the infinitives.

1. Когда-то это кафе было очень популярным.


2. Только сейчас я начинаю понимать, что он не тот, кому можно доверять.
3. После его слов она начала хохотать.
4. Сказать, что я не согласен, значит не сказать ничего.
5. Слова этой песни легко запомнить.
6. Она до лго лежала и плакала.
7. Вскоре я перестал быть полезным им.
8. М оя работа заключается в том, чтобы относиться ко всем клиентам одинаково.
9. Невозможно не влюбиться в эти живописные пейзажи.
10. Раньше Роберт ездил верхом каждый день.
11. Кевину понадобилось 10 лет, чтобы понять, что он лю б и т ее.
12. Все, что ты можешь сделать, это подчиниться его приказу.
13. Требуется много труда, терпения и удачи, чтобы добиться успеха.
14. Самое малое, что я могу д л я него сделать, это да ть ему еще о ди н шанс.
15. Ему причиняло боль дум ать о своем прош лом.
16. О н непрерывно поглядывал на часы.
17. То, что он не выиграл олимпийскую м едаль, п р и во дило его в отчаяние.
29

THE INFINITIVE AS AN OBJECT


Ex. 44 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the infinitives.

A.
1. David asked to be shown the city.
2. She advised me not to travel to this country.
3. I am curious to know the news.
4. I find it hard to believe the story.
5. I didn't know how else to express m y feelings.
6. I thought that they were fortunate to have arrived late.
7. You boys had better go on to Rex. It's heavenly of you to have come.
8. He felt a little guilty to be enjoying himself so much.
9. It used to w orry me and I thought it w rong to have so many beautiful things when others
had nothing.
10. She arrived there tired but thankful to have reached it at all.
11. The day before W ilhelmina and I were to have been married.
12. I knew Ann wasn't very happy to be doing her course.
13. Her first desire was to double-check everything.
14. The bridge is dangerous to walk over.
15. Good night, Mr. Bannister. Delighted to have made your acquaintance. You must come
round to the studio one of these days.
16. He has got a headache. He claims to have been working on the com puter all morning.

B.
1. To fail to plan is to plan to fail.
2. W e cannot direct the wind, but we can adjust the sails.
3. It was bitter to endure but sweet to remember.
4. Ask yourself w hether you are happy and you cease to be so.
5. It is no profit to have learned well, if you neglect to do well.
6 . Do not meddle In the affairs of wizards, for they are subtle and quick to anger.
7. The finest inheritance you can give to a child is to allow it to make its own way, completely
on its own feet.
8 .- Don't refuse to go on an occasional wild goose chase — that's what wild geese are for.
9. Society, my dear, is like salt water, good to swim in but hard to swallow.
10 . Alice was puzzled to have found herself in the strange world of the W onderland.
.
11 It never hurts to ask. Unless you ask for hurt.
12. Good friends are hard to find, harder to leave, and impossible to forget.
13. Never be afraid to try something new. Remember, amateurs built the Ark, professionals
built the Titanic.
14. It is equally offensive to speed a guest w ho would like to stay and to detain one w ho is
anxious to leave.
15. In these days, a man w ho says a thing cannot be done is quite apt to be interrupted by
some idiot doing it.
16. I get up every morning determined to both change the w orld and have a good time.
Sometimes this makes planning my day difficult.

j M atch the tw o parts of the sentences.

1. W hen there's snow on the ground, 1 a) to live with an optimist.


like b) to sell the family parrot to
2. Th e only mystery about the cat is w hy the tow n gossip.
it ever decided c) to live.
3. It is after you have lost your teeth d) to deal with some mud.
that you can afford e) to be taken at his word.
4. If you pray for rain, be prepared f) to become a
5. Since a politician never believes what domesticated animal.
he says, he is quite surprised g) to pretend I’m walking on
6. If a man hasn't discovered something clouds.
he will die for, he isn't fit h) to buy steaks.
7. A pessimist is a man w ho has been
compelled
8. Try to live your life so that you
w ouldn't be afraid

| O pen the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitives.

1. Good bye, M r Jackson. Glad (to be) of service to you.


2. I meant (to w arn) you earlier, but I couldn't find you.
3. W ith the unem ploym ent rate so high I am thankful (to offer) a job.
4. A good man would prefer (to defeat) than (to defeat) injustice by evil means.
5. Maggie was sorry (not to warn) her parents that she would be late.
6. Television enables you (to entertain) in your hom e by people you w o uldn't have in your
home.
7. Never tell a man you can read him through; most people prefer (to think) enigmas.
8. I hate (to bother) you, but the man is still waiting (to give) a definite answer.
9. W e expected (to see) the star on stage but an understudy had to stand in for him.
10. He claimed (to meet) me tw o years before, but I couldn't rem em ber him.
11. I meant (to write) about death, only life came breaking in as usual.
12. I am very sorry (to hear) that you are in trouble. And I am sorry (to involve) you in this.
13. "Well, there were worse types of human being. I might almost claim (to be) one myself,
once, long ago."
_______ 31

14. The British nation is unique in this respect. Th e y are the only people w ho like (to tell)
how bad things are.
15. The speech was intended (to deliver) at the parliament opening ceremony, but the
speaker failed (to appear).

i M ake up sentences w ith infinitives used as objects.

1. and never to look back, a rule of life, never to regret, make it.
2. we, to speak, never listen when, we are eager.
3. what it, the mind is slow, learnt early, to unlearn.
4. to creep, before you, leap, learn.
5. it, to live w ithout love, unbearable, people would think.
6. and quick, to perform, be slow, to promise.
7. know, only, to forgive, the brave, how.
8. an insult, never consider, to be called weird, it.

| Com plete the sentences

a) using suitable infinitives.

1. I le arn e d _______________ when I was around six or seven.


2. I can't w a it_______________ m y family again I
3. Students can't afford______________ .
4. Stubborn people refuse______________ .
5. Generous people are w illin g ______________ .
6. W hen people get married, they prom ise______________ .
7. After the quarrel we agreed never_______________.
8. Absent-m inded people tend______________ .
9. She's very sorry. She didn't m e a n _______________ you.
10. A quick-tempered person is always inclined______________ .
11. Troublemakers are always a p t ______________ .
12. If workers are dissatisfied they threaten______________ .
13. On a M onday morning, you have to get re a d y ______________.
14. Never be slow______________.
15. If you are ignorant don't be ashamed______________ .

b) using suitable nouns/pronouns and infinitives

1. If your friend complains about noisy neighbours, you may advise...


2. University rules forbid...
3. M useum attendants never permit...
4. W arm weather encourages...
5. Before a plane takes off air-hostesses remind...
32 ■inq ijh G ra m m a r P'-gct-ce

6. If the oven Is still hot, you should warn...


7. Growing companies usually invite...
8. I know I'm unpunctual, but I can't persuade...
9. He is afraid of his ow n shadow, you'll never be able to t e m p t ...

c) using conjunctive infinitive phrases.

W HO, WHAT, WHERE, W HEN, W HETHER, HO W , H O W LONG, H O W M U C H

Have you decided _ . for dinner this evening?


Can you show m e . the washing machine?
He advised u s ____ for our holidays.
You'll never forget. a bicycle once you have learned.
I can't decid e _____ . for the party.
I w o n d e r_________ if I need wise advice.
I don't k n o w _________ _ as a tip. I have never been to such posh restaurants before.
Amazing! I really can't im agine. to this!

using infinitives after the introductory IT.

I call it mean... 5. You should make it a rule...


I consider it a co m p lim e n t... 6. I find it very embarrassing...
Do you think it reasonable..? 7. I think it hopeless...
W e have it in our power... 8. W om en always feel it their duty.,

Ex. 49 Use the conjunctive phrases from the box to com plete the sentences.

w h a t to do w hen to be w h o to com plain


w he th e r to wish h o w to live h o w to w in
h o w m uch to leave

1. Wise men are not always silent, but they k n o w ______________________________________ .


2. If you can spend a perfectly useless afternoon in a perfectly useless manner, you have
le arned _____________________________________.
3. Those w ho k n o w _____________________________________ are much more numerous than
those w ho k n o w ______________________________________ with their trophies.
4. Th e world is so dreadfully managed, one hardly k no w s______________________________ to.
5. The lucky man is he w ho know s_____________________________________to chance.
6. Her lips moved, b u t _________________________________________ me good night or m urm ur a
prayer — I couldn't guess.
!h c Irifimav 33

Paraphrase the follow ing sentences using infinitives as part of conjunctive infinitive
phrases.

1. 1didn't know another w ay of expressing my feelings.


HOW
2. W e have finally made a decision about the tim e of our next meeting.
W HEN

3. 1can't choose guests for my tea party.


W H O (M )
4. A true traveller can always find a place for an overnight stop.
W HER E

5. The y both proposed to her. N ow she can't make up her mind and choose.
W H O (M )
6. The children haven't learnt the proper behaviour yet.
HOW
7. Shall 1answer her letter? 1can't decide it.
W H ETH ER
8. Could you show me a parking place for my car?
W H ER E

9. 1forgot the recipe for an Easter cake.


HOW
10. He is unpredictable. You can expect anything from him. You never know.
W HAT

11. Ask the passer-by about the turn for Regent5treet.


W H ER E
12. "Should 1move to a new house?" she wondered.
W H ETH ER

13. Th e y recommended me the right person so that 1could ask him for help.
W H O (M )
14. He didn't know what w ord could be said to cheer her up.
W HAT
15. A true gambler always knows the right time for rising from the table and going home.
W HEN
34 inqii^h G ram m ar Practioj

Ex. 51 Use the verbs provided in the boxes to express the same idea.

AR R A N G E, CONSENT, FAIL, M A K E U P O N E 'S M IN D , M A N A G E , PRETEND, TAKE CARE

1. I didn't pass my driving test. — I ....


2. Did you m ove the desk on your ow n? — Did you...?
3. He said 'Yes' to the offer to fill up the vacancy. — He ....
4. They all agreed that they should meet the next day. — T h e y ....
5. W hen she crept across the room she was very careful so that not to make any noise.
W hen she crept across the room sh e ....
6. His decision was to wait until the w om an was asleep. — H e ....
7. She behaved as if she didn't know me. S h e ....

ADVISE, ALLO W , EN TITLE, IN V ITE, ORDER, W A R N

M ake sure you use tw o objects after these verbs.

1. The soldiers fired by the officer's order. — The officer....


2. He is against smoking in his house. — He d o e s n 't....
3. The police say that the public shouldn't approach this man. — The p olice....
4. 'Drop in whenever you feel like to/ he told us. — H e ....
5. Never tell anyone that he should go to w ar or marry. — N e v e r....
6. According to this certificate, you can apply for free travel. — This certificate..

FOOLISH, FUR IO US, KEEN, M A D , POWERLESS, Q UICK, RELUCTANT, SORRY

1. W hy have you given up your job? You are out of your mind I — You a re ....
2. Have I woken you up? I should apologize then. — I am ....
3. I dream about starting my own business. — I am ....
4. She always spots a mistake in no time. — She is always ....
5. If we d on 't take delight in life, we can be called fools. — W e are ....
6. Leave her alone. She doesn't want any change. — She is ....
7. W hen they learn the truth they w o n 't be happy, believe me. — They will be
8. Unfortunately, I can't offer you any help. — Unfortunately I am ....

Paraphrase the following sentences using infinitives as objects after the introductory IT.

M o d e l: It is easier fo r people to forgive themselves than others. — FIND; EASIER


4 People find it easier to forgive themselves than others.

A.
1. I advise everybody not to pay too much attention to w hat people say — FIND; ADVISABLE
2. It is our good luck to have met you and known you. — CALL; G O O D LUCK
r! h : h t ; V i i.
35

3. He thought that he had better say nothing — T H O U G H T ; BETTER


4. W hat an absurd idea, to apply to th em for helpl — FIND; ABSURD
5. I should have accepted their offer. I think I was wrong. — CONSIDER; MISTAKE
6. M y blister turned walking into a problem. — M AD E; PROBLEM

B.
1. It was a great honour to be the representatives of the University. — W e considered ....
2. It has become his rule to read a couple of pages in French before going to bed. — He has
m a d e ....
3. It was such a lovely day. It was a pity to get up. — I th o u g h t....
4. I felt that it was m y duty to interfere in their quarrel at once. — I f e lt....
5. It is fortunate that I have learnt about their scheme beforehand. — I c a ll....
6. It is tedious for artists to represent w hat exists. — Artists find ....
7. Th e y believed that it was w orthw hile to try again. — The y believed ....

Ex. 53 Distinguish betw een an infinitive as an object and an infinitive as part of a predicative.

1. a) These sandwiches are quick to make and delicious,


b) He is quick to make excuses.
2. a) I don't think the child is ready to use a safety belt w ithout help,
b) After 8 weeks in a dark place the vanilla extract is ready to use.
3. a) The heart is slow to learn from its mistakes.
b) W e learn from our mistakes. But these lessons are slow to learn.

4. a) Baby clothes are exciting to shop for.


b) W e are excited to shop for baby clothes.

5. a) The graceful skaters were a pleasure to watch.


b) If you use this shampoo, you hair is pleasant to handle.
c) I'm pleased to announce the winners of the contest.
6. a) He was amused to see how seriously she took the game,
b) Such stories are amusing to hear.
7. a) She is obviously delighted to be the next M rs Jagger.
b) This guitar is a delight to play.
8. A wise person is quick to listen and slow to speak.
9. He is always prom pt to take offence.

10. Her letters are always enjoyable to read.


11. People were curious to know w hy the accident happened.
12. This water is unsafe to drink.
13. Your offer is impossible to resist.
14. W e are anxious to start.
36 Ь пф Ь п o r e m a r Practice

Ex. 54 У Find and correct mistakes if there are any.

1. I meant to have returned to Paris, but business required that I should go to London
first.
2. He w ho speaks w ithout modesty will find difficult to make his words good.
3. The Bible tells to love our neighbours, and also to love our enemies (probably because
they are generally the same people).
4. Bob was anxious to have m et Julie's parents.
5. W hen I am abroad, I always make a rule never to criticize or attack the governm ent of
my own country.

6. The doctor advised not to overdo things.


7. I d o n 't know w h y you thought necessary to tell Nicky som ething I told you in confidence.

Ex. 55 Translate into English the parts in brackets using infinitives as objects. The w ords in


1.
bold type are provided to help you.

(М ы торопимся объяснять) things w e don't really have an explanation for.


Q U IC K ........................................................................................................................................................

2. (О н с ужасом узнал) what others thought of him.


HO RRIFY.......................................................................................................... ..........................................

3. W hen I hear somebody sigh, 'Life is hard,' (меня всегда подмывает спросить),
'Com pared to what?'
T E M P T ........................................................................................................................................................

4. It's only after w e've lost everything that w e (без помех делаем ) anything.
FREE.......................................................................................................................... :.................................

5. A diplomat is a person w ho can (сказать, чтобы вы убирались вон) in such a way that
you actually look forward to the trip.
TELL................................................................................ .............................................................................

6. He was and remains honest and decent. Neither of you (достойны мыть) his feet.
FIT................................................................................................................................................................

7. She (исправно платит) her bills.


CAREFUL.....................................................................................................................................................

8. He (предпочел не обращать внимания) to w hat she said.


CHOOSE......................................................................................................................................................

9. He (не удосуж ился скрыть) his scepticism.


N O T BOTHER...........................................................................................................................................

10. The local dentist was unfashionably (настроен удалять) teeth rather than fill them .
EAGER.........................................................................................................................................................
37
>
11. (Не приучай собаку выпрашивать) for food from the table.
EN C O U R A G E....................................................................................................................................

12. She (не потрудилась записать) the telephone number.


N O T TR O UBLE...............................................................................................................................

13. (Постарайтесь получить) w hat you like or you will be forced to like what you get.
TAKE CARE.....................................................................................................................................

14. Difficulties (предназначены д л я того, чтобы воодуш евлять), not discourage.


M E A N .................................................................................................................................................

Ex. 56 Use the w ords in boxes to translate the fragm ents in brackets.

AFR AID , C A N AFFOR D , D ETER M IN ED , ENABLE, LUC K Y (2 ), HOPE, PRO UD , TEN D

1. It's not that (мне страшно умереть), I just don't w ant to be there when it happens.
2. Don't spend time beating on a wall, (в надеж де превратить) it into a door.
3. If a person (полон решимости сражаться) to the death, then they may very well have
that opportunity.
4. I (с гордостью плачу) taxes in the United States. The only thing is I could be just as proud
for half the money.
5. (М не повезло, что я побы вал) where I have been and (повезло, что возвращаюсь)
home again.
6. Only exceptionally rational men (м огут позволить себе быть абсурдными).
7. If the only tool you have is a hammer, you (склонны видеть) every problem as a nail.
8. (Сны да ю т нам возможность бы ть) quietly and safely insane every night of our lives.

A G O G , A N N O Y ED , FOOLISH, HAPPY, RELIEVED, RELUCTANT, SHOCKED, TH AN K FU L

1. W e (с облегчением узнали) that he was already at home.


2. After a long absence (ему не терпелось увидеть) his sweetheart.
3. (Она с неохотой говорит) about her illness.
4. (Ей бы ло доса дн о, что она занимается уборкой) for tw o hours already without any
help.
5. (Старушка пришла в ужас, обнаруж ив) a piece of glass in her cup of tea.
6. (Ты был бы глупцом, если бы упустил) this opportunity.
7. (Я благодарен за то, что делаю ) w hat I really like.
8. I never forget a face, but in your case (я бы с удовольствием сделал исключение).
Translate into English.

1. Он с удивлением заметил свое имя на подарке.


2. Я бы назвала больш ой удачей приглаш ение в их дом .
3. Не могу придум ать, куда можно спрятать ключ.
4. К лай д очень не лю б и л, когда ему напоминали о бедности его родителей.
5. Они взяли за правило проводить один де нь в неделю за городом.
6. О н не ож идал, что его обвинят.
7. Глупо быть слишком уверенным в своей правоте.
8. Не могу решить, сколько можно у него занять.
9. Интересно, до лго ли нужно кипятить воду.
10. Ему бы ло лю бопы тно узнать, чем закончилась их ссора.
11. Я надеялся выиграть забег, но до ж дь все испортил.
12. Покажите мне, как нужно менять масло в машине.
13. Хорошо, когда тебя ценят.
14. Помощь мисс Смит сделала возможной поимку опасного преступника.
15. Ей повезло, что ее не заметили.
16. О н подум ал, что безопаснее будет уйти.
17. Если бы не погода, девять человек из десяти не смогли бы начать разговор.
18. Пегги не знала, кого слушать и чему верить.
19. О н радовался тому, что его оставили одного.
20. Я забыла — полож ить ли сначала хлеб или включить тостер?
21. Я притворился, будто не заметил его смущения.
22. Л ю ди чувствуют, что их д о л г — заботиться о своих питомцах.
23. Я бы счел за честь принять этого ученого у себя дом а.
24. Миссис Гриффитс пожалела, что не пригласила Клайда в свой до м раньше.
25. Извините, что от меня было так мало пользы.
26. Ты можешь решить, что ты будешь спасать первым при пожаре?
27. Если вы потеряете репутацию , вы обнаруж ите, что вернуть ее — настоящая
проблем а.
28. Опы тны й во д и те ль всегда знает, когда уже пора остановить м аш ину и
вздрем нуть.
29. Белая королева считала, что вполне возможно поверить в шесть невозможных
вещей ещё д о завтрака.
39

THE INFINITIVE AS AN ATTRIBUTE


Ex. 58 "| Translate into Russian and co m m en t on the use o f the infinitives.

A.
1. The children have a good garden to play in.
2. The goods to be produced by this company will be a real sensation.
3. She needs someone to talk to.
4. You're a useful fellow to have around.
5. There are several points in the article to com m ent on.
6. Melanie was the only person to have written a letter of thanks.
7. I have four kids to take care of.
8. The ladder is quite safe to use.
9. I gave him a book to be taken away.
10. This matter will have to be dealt with right away.
11. W e had nothing to object to.
12. I am glad to have got the ticket for the concert.
13. In this situation you will be the first to laugh at.
14. I intended to have finished m y w ork last night.
15. He is the very person to rely on.
16. It was a pleasure to have m et you.
17. There are still tw o more houses to knock down.
18. There's not much to get excited about.
19. Th e y were all cheating, but Bob was the one to have got caught.
20. There is nowhere to stay in this tow n.
21. She admitted that it was perhaps a silly thing to have done.

B.
1. There are books to be tasted, books to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and
digested.
2. He w ho laughs last is generally the last to get the joke.
3. Life is so short, and there's so much to do, one can't afford to waste a minute.
4. The best way to get approval is not to need it.
5. Th e y say a person needs just three things to be truly happy in this world: someone to
love, something to do, and something to hope for.
6. It is not enough to aim; you must hit.
7. A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read.
8. Life is not a problem to be solved, but a reality to be experienced.
9. Happiness comes of the capacity to feel deeply, to enjoy simply, to think freely, to risk
life, to be needed.
10. The road to glory is hard to climb.
11. The most important thing she'd learned over the years was that there was no way to be
a perfect m other and a million ways to be a good one.
40 k n q l i s h G r a m m a r lJ ' \ u , U l -

12. Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.


13. Children are not things to be molded, but are people to be unfolded.
14. Life is tragic for those w h o have plenty to live on and nothing to live for.
15. Perfection is achieved not when there is nothing m ore to add, but when there is nothing
left to take away.
16. He is the better equipped for life w h o has the less to carry.
17. He w ho has a w hy to live can bear with almost any how.

Com plete the sentences using infinitives fro m the right colum n. Note the w ords

1.
2.
3.
■ infinitives are used after.

1was thirsty, but there was nothing


1was tired out, but there was nowhere
W e were all hungry, but there wasn't very much
a)
b)
c)
to follow
to spare
to drink
4. W e were late setting off, so there was no time d) to be answered
5. 1couldn't do it alone, and there was no one e) to help
6. He complained that he was always the last f) to eat
7. 1switched on the TV, but there wasn't really anything g) to answer
8. Here are some instructions h) to be informed
9. There are so many letters i) to sleep
10. 1 have so many letters j) to watch

M atch the parts of the sentences.

The best way to succeed in life to let him have his ow n way.
to escape from a problem to write a book about it.
to cheer yourself to invent it.
to convince a fool that he is wrong to solve it.
to keep children home is to act on the advice we give to others,
to become acquainted with a subject to try to cheer someone else up.
to predict the future to make the hom e atmosphere pleasant
— and let the air out of the tires.

The only way to have a friend to have a great deal of it.


not to think about money to make certain it never starts.
to get rid of a temptation to yield to it.
to make a man trustworthy is to trust him.
to win an atomic war to make people hate you.
to succeed to be one.
to get ahead to start now.
41

j Insert the infinitives given in brackets in the appropriate form. Add prepositions if necessary.

1. She was the first__________________the astonished silence, (to break)


2. He was the only o n e _________________ three Nobel Prizes, (to win)
3. Tell the child matches are a dangerous th in g _________________ . (to play)
4. There are tw o more gam es_________________ and the tournam ent will be over, (to play)
5. The next patient__________________was a small boy in his early 'teens, (to examine)
6. Safety is the first principle_________________ in shooting competitions, (to observe)
7. I am the last m a n __________________ a question of the kind, (to ask) (2 variants)
8. There were no chairs________________ , so w e had to sit on the floor, (to sit)
9. Among the last________________they attracted the attention of the entire gathering, (to arrive)
10. He found that he was the only o n e ________________ the discrepancy, (to notice)
11. There were usually hundreds of matters, big and sm all________________ . (to attend)
12. If there is to be a vacancy I would like to be the o n e _________________the job. (to offer)
13. These houses were among the f e w ________________ after a great fire, (to survive)
14. I have a lot of th in g s _________________ and many p ro b le m s_________________ . (to think,
to consider)
15. He would never fail to find som ething_________________even if there was little or nothing
________________ . (to say, to speak)

Ex. 62 Replace the infinitives used in the function o f an attribute by attributive clauses.

M odel: Probably there's nothing to do. -> Probably there's nothing that we can do.

1. Iceland is a great place to visit.


2. I had apparently nothing to fear.
3. There w eren't many children in the neighbourhood to play with.
4. "Did they give you anything to drink?" I asked.
5. It was not the thing to say.
6. The first man to see me was Tom .
7. This is a mineral to be found only in this part of the country.
8. She was the only one to survive the crash.
9. The library has received a prospectus of the books to be published this year.
10. She found no one to admire.
11. I've got a suggestion to make to you.
12. They need a garden to play In.
13. A food mixer is a very useful gadget to have in your kitchen.

Ex. 63 Paraphrase the following sentences using infinitives as attributes.

1. A good housewife will always find som ething that must be done about the house.
2. There was nothing that might keep him at hom e that night, and he gladly accepted the
Invitation.
42

3. He was the first person w ho came to the bar and the last who left it.
4. He is not the man w h o would shirk his duty.
5. W e could not spare a m om ent.
6. Th e parcels are all sorted out. Here are the ones that will be sent by air.
7. W e can't lose time.
8. The ship has arrived with the pictures which will be displayed at the international exhibition.
9. W e must print five more reports.
10. There are no issues left for discussion.
11. Thank you very much, but I've got som ething better I can do with my time.
12. He might have som ething he wanted to tell her.
13. I just want to look round and see if there's anything that can be done.
14. At the end of the year there was a great deal we had to do.
15. There are various things one could find fault with.
16. Th e questions that are going to be submitted for discussion must be circulated tw o days
before the opening session.
17. Can you entrust the work to anyone?
18. All I w ant is som eone who can listen to me.
19. All I want is som eone w hom I can listen to.

Transform the sentences according to the models.

M odel A : He offered to help us but we turned him down. We turned down his offer to help us.

1. I rem em ber you promised not to talk of it.


2. He was perm itted to leave.
3. Th e y dem and to be regularly informed, and you will have to comply with it.
4. I don't intend to do anything about it.
5. He did not wish to let you down.

M odel B: It is needless to talk o f it now. -> There's no need to talk of it now.

6. It was funny and pleasant to watch how im patient the children were to see the presents.
7. It was clear to everybody that they were not inclined to answer any questions.
8. It is unnecessary to copy the whole text.
9. Is it possible to get a ticket for tom orrow ?
10. I doubt if he is willing to help.

Ex. 65 Com bine tw o sentences into one according to the m odel.

M o d e l: He is always ready to justify himself. It has become a tendency with him.


He has a tendency to justify himself.
1. He wanted to express his ideas. His effort was great.
2. It was necessary to regularly supply the expedition with water. The only w a y was to
transport it by air in helicopters.
43

3. His am bition in life was to become a good surgeon, and we were sure it would be
realized.
4. Th e y were anxious to complete the experiment in three months. To get more people to
work on it was the only means.
5. Her long-cherished desire had been to play in a film, and quite recently she got an
invitation from the studio.

Ex. 66 J M ake up sentences, using the follow ing phrases w ith attributive infinitives.

1. There's a lo t ________________________________________________ .
2. W e have no tim e ____________________________________________ .
3. I have n o b o d y ___________________________________________________ .
4. This is a nice t o w n ______________________________________________.
5. He Is an easy person_____________________________________________.
6. This is a chance n o t ____________________________________________ .
7. There are mistakes______________________ .
8. There's n o th in g ________________________________________________.
9. She was the last_______________________________________________ .

Ex. 67 J Find and correct the mistakes if there are any.


1. A ndrew was the three to go in for interview.
2. His plans to have travelled during the Christmas holiday fell apart.
3. You have much to live.
4. There is nothing to gain by pretending.
5. It was an article to pay attention.
6. Sandra was the last to have performed at the dance recital.
7. He had a good deal to be said about India.
8. Th e relief from that long waiting, the feeling of nothing to worry, was delicious.
9. He received a note to have been saying that he was expected at the family dinner.
10. You'll be the first to be broken the news.
11. W e've got no furniture — not even a bed to sleep.
12. Th e first person to have entered was Mrs. Evans.
13. He looked at the shelves of books to be reading and understanding.
14. They are one of the four teams to score more than 2000 points in First Division Soccer.
15. She has a talent to make the best of any bad situation.

Ex. 68 | Translate the parts in brackets using infinitives as attributes.

1. W e are different kinds of people, and there is nothing more (что можно сказать).
2. I need a box (в которую можно класть) books in.
44

3. He is a man (котором у можно доверять).


4. I'm so proud to be the first (кто приветствует) you here.
5. This is a rule (которое надо запомнить).
6. She needs someone (с кем можно поговорить).
7. He was an Englishman (у которого бы ло) the unfortunate experience.
8. Knowledge is not something (о чем можно хвастаться).
9. It's a pity we haven't got any pictures (которые можно повесить) on the wall.
10. Th e y had nowhere (куда можно пойти).
11. The delegates to the scientific conference (которая будет проводиться) on the 19th of
July have to register with the organizing committee.
12. The minister has a bodyguard (который охраняет) him.
13. I'm not the one (кто говорит) of w hat doesn't concern me.
14. I can't find anywhere (где можно остановиться).
15. Here is the list of medicines (которые нельзя купить) w ithout a prescription.

Ex. 69 j Translate the sentences using infinitives.

1. Это как раз подходящ ая книга д л я чтения перед сном.


2. М не не у кого попросить совета.
3. Вопрос, который будет обсуждаться на нашем собрании, очень важен, на мой
взгляд.
4. Вы как раз то т человек, который может нам помочь.
5. Они продолж али сидеть и разговаривать почти д о полуночи.
6. Она знала, что ни в чем не виновата; ей нечего бы ло бояться.
7. У него бы ли де ти , о которых он долж ен был заботиться.
8. Тебе бы лучш е пойти дом ой и обговорить это с мужем.
9. Нельзя терять время, надо действовать.
10. О н был не из тех, кого можно было легко запугать.
11. Она тяжелый человек: с ней трудно иметь де ло .
12. Вот статья, которую надо прочитать.
13. Его тр удно убедить.
14. Кто вторым приш ел к финишу?
15. Она всегда найдет, на д чем посмеяться.
16. Я на этой неделе очень занят: у меня много де л.
17. Знать все — ничего не знать.
18. Несмотря на ж елание сказать что-нибудь веселое, он смог только улыбнуться.
19. Я позже всех разгадал ее намерение.
20. Пьеса оставляет желать лучшего: я большего ож идал от нее.
21. Он первый пожал мне руку и поздравил меня.
45

THE INFINITIVE AS AN ADVERBIAL


ADVERBOALS OF PURPOSE

Ex. 70 A. W h y do you think the follow ing groups of people need / w a n t to learn English?
Use in order t o / s o as to...

M o d e l: Hotel receptionists Hotel receptionists need English in order to talk to foreign guests.

1. businesspeople 3. scientists 5. pilots 7. housewives


2. secretaries 4. engineers 6. journalists 8. people in the travel business

B. W h y do some people need or use these things?

M o d e l: sleeping pills Some people need sleeping pills so as to help them to sleep.

1. a safe 5. make-up
2. an alarm clock 6. artificial sweeteners
3. medicine and tablets 7. hair dye
4. perfume / aftershave 8. a walking stick

Ex. 71 Transform these sentences to include an infinitive purpose clause introduced by the
w ords given in brackets.

1. A lot of people learn English because they want to study in English, (in o rd e r to)
2. W hat do I need to know if I want to be a good doctor? [in order to)
3. I came to live in the country. I wanted to have trees around me instead of buildings, (so as)
4. If you want to have a hundred students, you will need at least three teachers, (so as)
5. She turned up early because she wanted to get the room ready, (in order to)
6. As he wanted to do some weight-training, he w ent to the gym. (in order to)
7. I could buy some new trainers as I was given some money for that, (so as)
8. W e left the house early. W e didn't want to be late for the performance, (so os)
9. Everyone was pushing because they wanted to get to the front of the queue, (in order to)
10. Try to write clearly. That way you will avoid being misunderstood, (so as)

Ex. 72 Combine the following pairs of sentences. Use the appropriate conjunctions if necessary.

1. I read about your problems and came. I wanted to see if I could help.
2. John wanted to avoid trouble. He left the room.
3. M ary looked at me. She wanted to see what I meant.
4. His niece put her face up. She wanted to be kissed.
5. At last Lawson, exhausted, got up. He decided to go home.
46___________________________________________________________________ ■

6. It occurred to him that his information might be used. He wanted to help the girl.
7. Then she looked up and down the Westminster Bridge Road. She wanted to see if he was
in view.
8. So I w ent up to the counter and collected the penicillin, then w ent back. I decided to sit
and wait with George.

Ex. 73 Translate into English using infinitives as adverbials o f purpose.

1. Он вызвал машину, чтобы отвезти нас на станцию.


2. Я встал в 6 часов, чтобы не опоздать на утренний поезд.
3. Все бы ло сделано д л я того, чтобы спасти его.
4. Я написал ему письмо, чтобы напомнить ему о его обещ ании.
5. Ребенок выбежал навстречу матери.
6. Вы приехали д л я участия в конференции?
7. Он отдал свою рукопись на редакцию.

ADVERBIALS OF RESULT

Ex. 74 Com bine the following pairs of sentences using infinitives as adverbials of result. Use
the adverbs T O O o r EN O U G H w here necessary.

M o d e l: He is old. He can be your father. He is old enough to be your father.

1. He felt excited. He couldn't sleep.


2. I'm weak. I can't help you.
3. I didn't know that the office was very close. W e could reach it on foot.
4. She speaks Spanish well. She can be an interpreter.
5. I was tired. I couldn't go up to the dining-room.
6. W e arrived early. W e could have some coffee before the class began.
7. He was angry. He couldn't care what he did
8. She received a large pension. It could keep her for a lifetime.
9 He was kind to me. He said that he knew no one w ho combined those qualities to so
high a degree as I do.
10. They sucked their teeth automatically at us and then realized we were tired. W e couldn't
be annoyed by it.

Ex. 75 Com plete the second sentence so that it has a similar m eaning to the first sentence.
Use the w o rd given and other w ords to com plete each sentence.

1. He is too short to become a basketball player.


not He is _____________________________________________ become a basketball player.
2. It is such an expensive ring that I cannot buy it.
too The ring is________________________________________________ buy.
47

M ary can afford to buy a car; she's been saving up for months.
m oney M ary ha s________________________a car; she's been saving up for months.
4. The case wasn't light enough to lift,
too The case w a s ____________ to lift.
5. I'm not patient. I can't be a wildlife photographer,
so I'm n o t_______________________
______________________________________ be a wildlife photographer.
Charlotte is an experienced traveller, that's w hy she feels at home in most places,
as Charlotte is______________________________________ feel at hom e in most places.
7. Marilyn is a lady. She will never mention the accident,
enough Marilyn is __________________________________ the accident.

B a ,f j§j|f| C om bine the sentences using SO + ADJECTIVE + AS TO -IN F IN ITIV E .

M odel: He was naive. — He believed us. -> He was so naive as to believe us.

1. Th e noise from the factory was loud. a) It was nearly illegible.


2. Her handwriting was untidy. b) It was Insignificant.
3. The bookcase was heavy. c) It was unplayable.
4. The CD was badly scratched. d) It prevented me from sleeping.
5. The plot of the novel was complicated. e) It was almost impossible to move it.
6. The difference between the results was small. f) It was completely incomprehensible.

Ex. 77 Com plete the following.

1 . 1was too astonished .... 7. It was such music as ....


2. The boy is clever enough .... 8. The problem was too complicated ....
3. The sea was so stormy as .... 9. His illness was not so serious as ....
4. He was gentleman enough .... 10. She was wom an enough ....
5. The wind was so strong as .... 11. He was so fortunate as ....
6. Th e ship was too f a r .... 12. He produced such an impression as n e v e r.

Ex. 78 Translate the follow ing sentences into English.

1. Ребенок слишком мал, чтобы понять вашу шутку.


2. Он был так поражен, что не мог вымолвить ни слова.
3. Это был такой спектакль, что его нелегко забыть.
4. Было уже слишком поздно, чтобы менять что-нибудь.
5. Он бы л в достаточной мере художником, чтобы оценить картину.
6. Эта книга слишком большая, чтобы прочитать ее за один день.
7. Ураган был такой сильный, что сорвал крыши с многих домов.
8. Они не знают его достаточно хорошо, чтобы довериться ему.
48

9. Вопрос бы л слишком сложным, чтобы решать его так поспешно.


10. Он вел себя достаточно по-мужски и не растерялся.

' Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1. It was raining so the bench was too wet to sit on it.


2. I'm not enough strong to lift that suitcase.
3. She was cruel as to send a man to death.
4. The house is too shabby to live.
5. He was too tired not to go to the party.
6. She arrived too late for to catch the train.
7. The streets aren't wide enough to drive along them.
8. I have so much money go to Africa.
9. That cat's old and fat to catch any birds.
10. He isn't such a man to break his promise.

Com plete the following sentences using w ords from the box.

M o d e l: I'd like an elephant as a pet because they're so intelligent. But they're not small enough
to live in our apartment.

boring relaxing intelligent pretty friendly convenient...

1. I would like a spider as a pet because ...


I w ouldn't like a spider as a pet because ...
2. I like Sundays because ...
I d o n 't like Sundays because ...
3. I like [N A M E OF AN ACTOR] because ...
I do n't like [N A M E OF AN ACTOR] because ...
4. I eat a lot of chocolate because ...
I do n't eat a lot of chocolate because ...

ADVERBIALS OF COMPARISON

Paraphrase the following sentences using infinitives as adverbials of com parison.

M o d e l: He looked at them a lias if he wished to sav. «It's tim e ».


He looked a t them all as if to sav. « I t ’s tim e ».

1. The secretary looked through the docum ent as if she wanted to check it.
2. She turned to me as if she was going to ask me something.
49

3. He pressed his finger to his lips as if he wanted to warn her.


4. The captain rushed towards the goal as if he wanted to kick the leather ball through the
goal.
5. Looking at his watch the referee took a whistle to his mouth as though he wished to stop
the match.
6. A middle-aged man bent over the rail as though he was going to run out into the race­
course.
7. Dum bledore gave his wand a little flick, as if he was trying to get a fly off the end.
8. On hearing me say that she shrugged her shoulders as though she wanted to express her
indifference.

. ' Supply the beginning to the follow ing sentences.

1...................................... than to be loved.


2...................................... as if to say good-bye.
3...................................... as though to win that competition.
4...................................... as if to make everybody laugh at me.
5...................................... than keep to bed all day.
6...................................... as if to sound wise.
7...................................... as though to kill somebody.

Translate into English.

1. Папа вернулся, как будто д л я того, чтобы сказать нам что-то важное.
2. Она считает, что у нее есть более важные дела, чем мыть посуду.
3. Он позвал Лизу, как будто д л я того, чтобы извиниться за что-то.
4. Врач ополоснул ли цо и голову холодной водой, словно д л я того, чтобы успокоиться.
5. Насколько легче быть критичным, чем быть правым.
6. Сохраняй свое право думать, т. к. думать неправильно лучше, чем совсем не думать.

ADVERBIALS OF SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

Thin k of the ways to convey the idea expressed by the infinitives in Russian.

1. He returned to his motherland never to leave it again.


2. He w ent out into the street to find himself in the crowd of well-dressed people.
3. He w ent to Africa to die of malaria.
4. The success of the poems gave Byron every right to write: "I awoke one m orning to find
myself famous."
5. He woke up and w ent on deck to be told that they were almost abreast of the lights of
Brighton.
50 . H i ] , b ■.¡r-

6. The y heard a voice above them , and looked up to see a wom an's head thrust through a
small window.
7. At times he smiled softly to himself — only, immediately after, — to relapse again into gloom.

Paraphrase the following sentences according to the m odel. Translate th em into


Russian.

M o d e l: I turned round to find m yself face to face with Miss Peabody. ->
I turned round and found m yself face to face with Miss Peabody.

1. He arrived at eleven o'clock to see that everything was ready.


2. He rose to find Janet and the captain standing beside him.
3. The door opened to reveal Albert Wells. He was fully dressed.
4. Startled, he looked up to find her smiling.
5. The cigarette glowed and faded, only to glow again.
6. He arrived at three o'clock to learn that Fleur had gone out with the car at ten.
7. On the Christmas Eve I returned from the Falls to find a crowd of natives quarrelling
outside the garage.

Ex. 86 Replace the finite verbs in bold type by the infinitive m aking all the necessary changes.
Use the w ords QQlyjlieCG!&£W)t>lX. if necessary.

1. Madeleine flew to New York but only discovered that her daughter was on the Coast.
2. John hurried to the house and found that it was empty.
3. He opened his eyes and saw clouds and drenched trees and felt the drops splashing on
his face.
4. Bill had toured the world and understood how true the saying was which went, "East or
west, hom e is best."
5. W hen I came back I found the door locked and the key hanging from a nail in the hall.
6. He joined the Philharmonic Orchestra, where he soon becam e the leading violin soloist.
7. He tried to persuade her not to do so, but only broke dow n and stopped.
8. On entering the house she saw her son walking up and dow n in an agony of doubt.
9. He looked towards the door and saw the butler standing in the conventional attitude.
10. Olive heard the side gate open, and, looking out of the window, she saw John walking up
the garden.
11. After a long separation they met at last, and never did they part again.
51

Ex. 87 Com plete th e follow ing sentences using the infinitives as an adverbial o f purpose and

M odel:
■ as an adverbial of subsequent events.

In the m orning I awoke early....


In the m orning I awoke early to prepare breakfast for the whole fam'\\y.(purpose)
In the m orning I awoke early only to find out that everybody was having breakfast
already, (subsequent events)

1. She switched on the T V -s e t .... 4 . 1took a mouthful of juice ....


2. The w om an opened her bag .... 5. David opened the c e lla r....
3. One m orning I came into the room .... 6. M arion w ent to the East....

Ex. 88 Translate the follow ing into English.

Я проснулась и увидела, что нахожусь в больнице.


Елена приш ла в университет и узнала, что все лекции были отменены.
Дж ейк вернулся в свою родную деревню и никогда уже оттуда не уезжал.
Они приехали к друзьям на дачу и обнаруж или, что все двери закрыты и вокруг ни
душ и.
О днаж ды утром она проснулась знаменитой.
Придя в гараж, он обнаруж ил, что машины нет.
Она зашла в комнату и уви де ла , что мама плачет на д разбитой китайской вазой.

ADVERBIALS. MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

Ex. 89 M atch the identifiers w ith the nam e of the adverbial they specify.

An adverbial of purpose as if, as though, than


An adverbial of result in order, so as
An adverbial of comparison only, never, merely, simply
An adverbial of subsequent events enough, too, so... as, such... as

Ex. 90 Specify the types of the adverbials that the infinitives express in the following
sentences.

After work I was too tired to have dinner, so I went straight to bed.
W e read books to enlarge our horizons.
He took all the cards as if to shuffle them .
52

4. She didn't love W illy passionately enough to m arry him.


5. W rite to be understood, speak to be heard, read to grow.
6. He came to visit his relatives only to be left alone till the very evening.
7. You have to know the Dutch language so as to understand her.
8. He was so clever as to understand her.
9. I would rather love than be loved.
10. I could do nothing but agree.
11. Rob was not such a fool as to be unaware that w om en often liked him.
12. He left a faint aroma of something too pleasant to be called aftershave.

B.
1. He put his suitcase down and put his tw o hands to his face as if to cool it.
2. I've seen the Rocky Horror Show often enough to have learnt most of the words.
3. He defended himself so as to prove his innocence.
4. Is there anyone so wise as to learn by the experience of others?
5. To avoid my mother's questions, I went up to my room.
6. He took the advantage of this confusion to escape and ran up the stairs to the studio.
7. He took the picture down from the easel only to put it back against the wall.
8. Nothing is too small to know, and nothing is too big to attempt.
9. But I did not come here in order to gain anything.
10. He ran his hand through his hair as though to tidy it.
11. Tim e meanwhile flies, flies never to return.
12. She didn't live to see the end of the war.
13. He rarely went out except to take part in the social life of the town.
14. To hear him, one would think he was as poor as a church mouse.
15. These w om en have nothing to do but talk.

Ex. 91 Paraphrase the following sentences using the infinitives as adverbials.

1. W e got seats at the front so that we could have a better view.


2. She did not have enough courage, otherwise she would have said it to your face.
3. I prefer staying at this hotel to looking for something else.
4. I sat down and started watching but only then I realized that I had seen the film before.
5. It will be docum ented in such a way so that itprevents misunderstanding.
6. The man made in my direction as if he was going to stop me, then turned abruptly and
walked away.
7. W e arrived at the theatre and discovered that the leading actor was sick.
8. Miss Pinkerton did not know a word of French, but she was very proud and would not
confess it.
9. The girl waved her handkerchief so that she might be taken notice of.
10. The voices seemed so distant that they were meaningless.
11. If a new musical is going to be successful, it needs to have at least three great tunes.
12. If you hear him speak, you might think he had never been in the wrong.
S3

A ct as a teacher and correct the follow ing passage.

One day we w ent on a tour as to w ander around sleepy villages and enjoy the beautiful
countryside. We were captivated enough by the soft rolling hills, dramatic mountains and
inspiring landscapes as to utter a word. M y friend opened his m outh as if to w ant to ask our
guide something but kepi silent. I realized that I preferred to m eander around the picturesque
market towns with their unhurried atmosphere than to search fo r history in the city packed
with tourists. We were so tired to go back to the hotel to eat. So we spent some time looking
fo r a nice cheap café and only to find a Chinese takeaway. We had nothing to do b ut to eat
Chinese fo o d in the heart o f Great Britain.

mistakes

Ex. 93 Translate into English.

1. Она повернулась, словно д л я того, чтобы уйти.


2. Он надеялся, что Ф и ли пп приш ел, чтобы все объяснить.
3. М ой сын был достаточно взрослым, чтобы заметить мое настроение.
4. Я сказал, что я был слишком занят, чтобы разговаривать, и полож ил трубку.
5. Она посмотрела на меня так, как будто хотела сказать, что мне лучш е молчать.
6. Он д е ла л все возможное, чтобы подруж иться с нами.
7. Ребенок так устал, что бы л не в состоянии раздеться.
8. В то время он недостаточно хорошо себя чувствовал, чтобы путешествовать.
9. Я, наконец-то, нашел гостиницу, но мне там сказали, что номер д л я меня не
забронирован.
10. Он разозлился, когда услы ш ал об этом.
11. Он повернулся к окну, словно хотел сказать, что разговор окончен.
12. Послушать, как они разговаривают др уг с другом , так можно подумать, что они
одного возраста.
13. Дети начали смеяться все сразу, чтобы через минуту понять, как жестока была шутка.
14. Она не выходила из дома все выходные, не считая посещения церкви.
15. Она такая сплетница, что вряд л и сможет сохранить это в тайне.
54

THE INFINITIVE AS A PARENTHESIS

Ex. 94 Translate into Russian. Pay special attention to the use of the infinitives.

1. Her comments were tactless, to say the least.


2. She had broken precious china, one of her husband's wedding presents, and, to make
things still worse, she never told anyone about it.
3. To be fair (to him), he wasn't entirely to blame.
4. She had become one of those London girls to w h o m rest, not to say pleasure, is unknown.
5. Needless to say, it infuriated him.
6. To put it crudely, whatever a man's manner of life, such is his manner of thought.
7. To make a long story short, the company broke up, and returned to the more important
concern of the election.

Give the English equivalents for the follow ing phrases. M ake up sentences w ith th em .

• no правде говоря • не приходится и говорить


• в доверш ение ко всему • короче говоря
• д л я начала • как ни странно
• мягко говоря • откровенно говоря
• не говоря уже о • как назло

Ex. 96 Com plete the sentences. Choose the appropriate infinitive phrase fro m the list below.

to be frank to say the least


strange to say to say nothing of
needless to say to make things still worse
that is to say

1. The effort required was im m ense,___________________________________the cost.


2. The Romans left Britain in 410 A.D. — ______________________ , England was under Roman
rule for nearly 500 years.
3. Just imagine! W hen he climbed to the top of the mountain the sun scorched his face, he
broke his leg a n d ___________________________________ , he lagged behind the group.
4. _______________________________ , he had som ehow got the bone lodged in his throat.
5. ____________________________________ , I was thinking of going in for teaching.
6. After her marriage it was as if she'd got a new lease of life,__________________________.
7. ____________________________________ , less talented artists were totally eclipsed.
55

Ex. 97 Translate the sentences into English. Pay attention to the use of the infinitives as
parentheses.

1. Короче говоря, ей удалось это сделать.


2. Все требовало ухода: сад, конюшни, не говоря уже о дом е.
3. Как ни странно, но она никогда нам не звонит.
4. По меньшей мере, моя коллега поступила неразумно.
5. Мягко говоря, он редко сочувствует ей.
6. Он, так сказать, слишком м о ло д д л я такой карьеры.
7. Только однаж ды я забыл закрыть окна в машине. Не приходится и говорить, что
именно тогда пошел дож дь.
8. Проще говоря, если хотите присоединиться к нам, приезжайте рано утром, и мы
вас отвезем туда.
9. Д ом его сгорел, машину украли и, ко всему прочему, он потерял работу.
10. Д л я начала, тебе нужно повторить употребление артиклей с именами сущест­
вительными.

Ex. 98 W h a t do you think of the following? Use the following infinitive phrases in your
answers. M ake up other situations to use the given phrases parenthetically.

• M y brother is leaving fo r Ireland next Monday.


• Nancy is a shopaholic.
• You should work a lot and keep the nose to the grindstone.
• He is suffering fro m food poisoning.
° London is worth a visit.

to be quite frank to crown it all


to tell the truth to be more precise
to put it more plainly to say nothing of ...
needless to say to make things worse
to put it mildly to make a long story short

M ISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

Ex. 99 State the functions of the infinitives in the following sentences.

1. Gradually, she came to realize how wrong she had been.


2. To recover completely sounded almost impossible,
3. To recover completely you must begin your work, but it mustn't be hard work.
4. He returned to find his wife already home and seated with some work.
5. He was far too bright a boy tp be deceived.
56

6. Give me where to stand, and I will move the earth.


7. Her wish was to move to the Netherlands, though the weather there left much to be
desired.
8. The confusion that followed would be impossible to describe.
9. It does not need Sherlock Holmes to understand that something is up.
10. Th e offer came from out of the blue and she didn't w ant to ever discuss it.
11. To see how he is dressed one would never believe he is so rich.
12. And to make things worse, the children tried to open the door but it w o uldn't open.
13. Charity rider covered 3,500 miles only to have his bicycle stolen in Portland. (Newspaper
Headlines)
14. There is only one way to acquire a new idea. It is to combine tw o or more ideas you
know in such a manner as to discover a new relationship among them .
15. He bursts with health and the doctors say he'll live to be a hundred.

Ex. 100 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. The reason for their refusal is hard to be guessed.


2. Fold the paper so as to have the envelope.
3. The first thing to do was call the police.
4. The dog wagged its tail as if to want to say 'W elcome back!'
5. You give me reason to have lived, my dear.
6. The announcem ent wasn't enough loud to hear.
7. He was surprised to fire after working so hard.

Ex. 101 Translate the sentences into English and State the functions of the infinitives.

1. Он продолж ал напевать какую-то мелодию .


2. Ему да ли денег, чтобы он купил словари д л я всей группы.
3. Он встал, словно д л я того, чтобы пойти к гостям.
4. Самое важное в общении это услышать то, что не бы ло сказано.
5. Сказать правду бы ло невозможно, и поэтому ей приш лось придум ать историю.
6. Кто говорит, что жизнь скучна? Ведь есть книги, которые можно читать, картины,
которыми можно восхищаться, музыка, которая может соответствовать вашему
настроению (to meet your mood).
7. Я реш ил прогуляться, но пошел мелкий до ж дь , и мне приш лось вернуться дом ой.
8. Всегда бывает достаточно легко найти основание д л я того, чтобы ничего не
дела ть.
9. У нее есть власть управлять лю дьм и. И как же трудно иметь с ней де ло !
10. О дни м словом, мне ничего другого не оставалось, как принять их условия.
't î ' V i 57

THE FOR-TO-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

Study the following chart, compare the patterns and translate the sentences into Russian.

Simple / phrasal Complex

subject 1. It is necessary to go through a 1. It is necessarv for vou to eo through a


special test if you w ant to w ork in his special test if you w ant to work in his
laboratory. laboratory.
2. It's alwavs difficult to follow a strict 2. It's alwavs difficult for her to fo llo w a
diet. strict diet.
3. To see you was sheer enjoym ent. 3. For us to see vou was sheer
enjoyment.

predicative 1. Th e best thing is to m ove to the 1. The best thing is for YOU tQ move to
South. the South.
2. The plan was & j£d££i2EPta the 2. The plan was for them to, redecorate
house by summer. the house by summer.

part of 1. The address on the envelope was 1. The address on the envelope was hard
predicative hard to make out. for. me to. make out.
object 1.1 am waiting to sav something on the 1.1 am waiting for vou ttf sav something
subject. on the subject.
2. W e find it unusual to say such private 2. W e find it unusual for him to sav such
things in public. private things in public.

attribute 1. There is no need to leave so earlv. 1. There is no need for vou to leave so early.

adverbial 1. He repeated the words twice tfl. 1. He repeated the words twice fan
of purpose understand them better. everybody to understand them better.
2 .He opened the doors of the car to get 2. He ODened the doors of the car for us
in- to get in.

adverbial 1. The weather was too cold to eo out. 1. The weather was too cold for the
of result shildren to go out.
2. The article is easy enough i q_ 2. The article is easv enough for vou to
translate it w ithout a dictionary. translate it w ithout a dictionary.

adverbial of 1. It is easier to buy frozen food than 1. It is easier to buy frozen food than for
comparison cook from scratch. housewives to cook from scratch.
Ex. 103 Translate into Russian paying attention to the for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. For me to miss that concert was a crime.


2. She gave orders for all of us to stop panicking.
3. It would be a mistake for Susan to change her job right now.
4. There is no need for the conference to start so early.
5. W hen the young are together it is wise for an old man to be with other old men or to be
away — it is an old saying.
6. M anagem ent sometimes makes it difficult for employees to work.
7. It seemed impossible for either of us to remain much longer in the house.
8. It's a bad idea for John to go to Australia this year.
9. He was a very nice fellow. You had only to say you wanted something for him to give it to you.
10. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into
the kingdom of God.
11. It was early enough in the morning for both kerbs to be lined with parked cars.

Ex. 104 State the syntactic functions of the for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. For him to act so is rather unusual.


2. There is nothing for you to do but leave at once.
3. The best thing is for you to examine the pros and cons.
4. It was difficult for Bob to keep such a big family.
5. After all, we have known the man long enough for M ark to trust him.
6. Emma was a suitable child for them to adopt.
7. I've bought a tin of pastries for you to enjoy.
8. All she wanted was for her m other to come to terms with her past, gain peace of mind,
as well as a bit of happiness for once.
9. The worst thing for you to do now is to leave w ithout saying a single word.
10. I detest w hat you write, but I would give m y life to make it possible for you to continue
to write.
11. Teddy put the kettle on, stood near the stove waiting for the water to boil.
12. She spread jam for him and cut up the bread and butter into convenient slices for the
child to eat.
13. The hill was shaded with young trees, but there w asn't enough soil for them to grow to
any height.
14. For me to be 70 years young is better than for some people to be 40 years old.
15. I kept waiting for her to do it, but she wouldn't.
I n . ' l r ; ; 71/ 1. 59

Ex. 105 Transform the sentences according to the m o de l using the words fro m the box.

necessary im p o rta n t possible impossible

difficult traditional h a rd easy

M o d e l: You should think twice before you agree. ->


It is im p o rta n t fo r you to think twice before you agree.

1. Students should enjoy their student lives.


2. W e don't have to hurry. There's plenty of time.
3. A fish can't live out of water.
4. A child usually can't sit still for a long time.
5. Students have to budget their tim e carefully.
6. M y family always have turkey on Christmas.
7. I usually can't understand fluent.English.
8. Teachers should be competent.
9. The guests usually wait until the hostess begins to eat.
10. Th e bride usually feeds the groom the first piece of the wedding cake.
11. M ary should start thinking about her future.
12. Animals can't talk or think or plan something.
13. I can understand m y teacher most of the time.
14. A w riter should be imaginative.
15. M y parents are anxious I should enter the University.

Ex. 106 Practise the follow ing according to the m odel. State the functions.

M o d e l: There was nothing to do there, (he)


There was nothing fo r him to do there.

1. M y advice is to keep away from colds, (you)

2. There was nothing to argue about, (they)

3. I'm willing to start a business, (m y elder son)

4. It was a reasonable remark to make, (the m other)

5. W e have reached the age when It's necessary to think of the future, (all of us)
60

6. The best thing is to send them a telegram. (I)

7. It was an expensive present to buy. (she)

8. It is easier and faster to call a taxi than wait for the next bus. (the tourists)

9. W e are sorry to have to leave the seaside so soon, (o ur cousins)

10. There was no reason to get worried, (both of us)

11. He leaned to see the stage, (his wife)

12. Here's an example to follow, (everybody)

13. The situation was too embarrassing to describe, (she)

14. 1think it will be dangerous to go to the Crimea in this old car. (w e)

15. She has arranged to leave for Paris in the early morning, (her friends)

16. The idea was not clear enough to understand, (the young people)

Com bine the following sentences so as to use for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. The streets were too busy. W e couldn't drive fast.

2. Th e postman ought to come. It's almost time.

3. There was too little time left. 1couldn't think over the situation.

4. A w om an should be always dressed in good taste. It's important.

5. The climb was too dangerous. We could not risk our lives.

6. This landscape is easy to paint. A child can do it.

7. He has written an article. It seems strange.

8. I got away from home. It was a relief.


61

9. I closed the door. W e didn't want to be disturbed.

10. W e shouldn't stay here any longer. There Is no need in it.

11. He waited in the office. The secretary hadn't turned up yet.


108
Paraphrase the follow ing sentences so as to use for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. Sandy stood at the kitchen door waiting till Miss Brodie came for a walk by the sea.

2. It is tim e that you should go, Tom.

3. There was nobody w ho she could speak to.

4. Was It possible that she could forget him?

5. Here is a book that you will always keep on your writing-desk.

6. The best thing that you can do is to em ploy a real specialist to do the job.

7. W e remained at the station and waited till the storm passed.

8. This is a matter that you must see to personally.

9. Th e only thing that he could do was to burn the old rubbish.

10. Tha t day there was no business that 1had to attend to.

11. W e stopped the bus so that the tourists might get on.

12. He held the door open to let her come in.

Transform the sentences so as to use for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. The most im portant thing is that we should stay cool.

2. Let us wait till the parcel is delivered.


3. It's unbelievable that he should have really meant it.

4. This is the day which they shall rem em ber for a long time.

5. He is the expert w hom you should consult.

6. I stood there waiting when the door would open.

7. I shall leave some m oney so that they may spend it.

8. Martin sent his family to his parents' so that they could be having a good time there.

9. It is quite natural that she has refused his proposal.

10. W hat I w ant is that you should be given a visa.

11. Phone the office and we will be met at the station.

12. W hen I became a vegetarian, I had to wait for some time until m y organism got used
to it.

13. Mr. Marshall's suggestion was that the contract should be signed w ithout any delay.

14. The days have become too short, so we can't be walking for hours as we did in the
summertime.

Ex. 110 Com plete the following so as to use for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. The best thing for you ...


2. It was bad experience for me ...
3. That was for the boss ...
4. It is a joy for him ...
5. She was sitting and waiting for someone ...
6. The plan is for us ...
7. There will be many interesting people for you ...
8. 1am very anxious f o r ....
9. 1have arranged f o r ...
10. It took a m om ent for ...
11. The poem was hard f o r ...
12. It would be more sensible f o r ...
63

13. It was easy enough f o r ...


14. She cried out loud for
15. It would be much easier f o r ... than for...

Translate the following sentences using for-to-infinitive constructions.

1. Задача слишком сложна, чтобы вам справиться с ней одному.


2. Он попросил, чтобы ему выслали книги почтой.
3. Им необходимо отдохнуть, чтобы быть в хорошей форме на соревнованиях.
4. Тебе легко говорить, что я справлюсь с этой работой, а я не очень в этом уверен.
5. Поездка слишком интересная, чтобы нам ее упустить.
6. Они ж дали, когда п о да дут обед.
7. Д л я них бы ло обычным де ло м подвозить лю дей, идущ их на ярмарку.
8. Тебе нет необходимости работать так много и рисковать здоровьем.
9. План заключался в том, чтобы все его де ти и внуки собрались дома на Рождество.
10. Не им обсуж дать этот вопрос.
11. Он искал спокойное место, где бы его семья могла провести выходные.
12. М не легче сделать это самому, чем тебе оставаться после работы.
13. Тебе решать, кого назначить на этот пост.
14. Единственное, что ему остается сделать, это извиниться за свой поступок.
15. Нам бы ло трудно читать его неаккуратный почерк.
16. Я оставила письма на столе, чтобы мистер Питерс подписал их.
17. У него очень хорошая память. Ему достаточно только раз услышать слово, и он
запомнит его на всю жизнь.
18. М ашина проехала слишком быстро, чтобы я мог рассмотреть ли ц о водителя.
19. Не такая это игра, чтобы дети могли в нее играть.

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. I had a lot of letters and cards on my table to be answered.


2. Her attitude to this was hard to be explained.
3. He arrived at the station only to have found that the last train had left.
4. It couldn't do anything but to arouse Jack's suspicion.
5. It was an opportunity to speak for her to him.
6. She turned away to conceal her tears.
7. All we could do was take him to the station as soon as possible.
8. I think I will go to England in order to improve my English.
9. Goodness knows there is nowhere to be going in the old town.
10. Her name was Matilda, but she didn't like to call in this way.
11. I was one of the first to have been informed about that exciting news.
12. Antony claims to have an affair with her some years ago.
13. She made a gesture as if to have attracted his attention.
14. He is enough strong to lift it.
15. Th e man was so absent-minded to leave his hat at home every day.
16. His presence made impossible for him to take the chance.
17. I have too many wives not to know when the w om an is unhappy.

Ex. 113 1 Translate into English and state the functions of the infinitives.

1. Он кивнул, чтобы я вошел.


2. Такой концерт неинтересно слушать в записи.
3. Чтобы ничего не объяснять, она повесила трубку.
4. Я думаю, ей будет приятно получить духи в качестве подарка на де нь рождения.
5. Это лекарство, которое нужно принять нем едленно.
6. Она провела рукой по волосам, словно хотела поправить прическу.
7. Детям там совершенно нечего делать.
8. Софи умно поступила, что вовремя влож ила деньги в новое предприятие.
9. Проблема заключалась в том, как ей все объяснить.
10. Они рассчитывают продать весь товар к ноябрю.
11. Я не мог противостоять соблазну купить такую хорошую вещь за такую низкую
цену.
12. Д олж но быть, он смог ее переубедить.
13. Мама испекла пирог, чтобы мы съели его за ужином.
14. Зал недостаточно велик, чтобы вместить столько лю дей.
15. С этого удобно начинать.
16. Природа гор вдохновила композитора на написание новой симфонии.
17. Он прекратил навещать нас по выходным.
65

THE OBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

Translate into Russian and state the syntactic function of the predicative complexes.

Let us change the subject.


He likes his staff to eat well and to be paid enough.
W e got them to rebuild the house.
She made me change my clothes for dinner.
She expected me to have finished the book by then.
It is not safe for you to have such a dog.
I don't want that boy to be sent to prison for nothing.
The day is too hot for us to be out on the beach.
Those whose cars are stuck in the snow may consider themselves to be twisting in the wind.
I hate her to criticize me the way she does. But I'd hate her to think that her criticism
hurts me, so I just keep quiet.
I thought it was a strange thing for you to have done. I'm glad it wasn't you.
Webster imagined himself to have made a very clever suggestion.
He had to watch his five children grow up w ithout him.
His presence made it possible for me to avoid a quarrel.
I used to have my eye on her all the time in the old days, waiting for her to start something.

Let the music play, let the voices sing, let's stay together to the e n d !
I believe you to have liked me for my own sake and for nothing else.
M y father hated radio and could not wait for television to be invented so he could hate
that too.
After I'm dead I'd rather have people ask w hy I have no m onum ent than w hy I have one.
Th e easiest way for your children to learn about m oney is for you not to have any.
About the time we think we can make ends meet, somebody moves the ends.
W hen you lose someone you love, you die too, and you wait around for your body to
catch up.
Fall is my favorite season in Los Angeles, I like to watch the birds change color and fall
from the trees.
Airplanes are like diets. Th e y are wonderful things for other people to go on.
A lifetime is long enough for people to foul things up.
They reported her to have been planning the m urder of her husband for tw o years.
Everything changes. But this fact is difficult for us to accept.
«W h e n I use a w o rd ,» Hum pty Dum pty said in rather a scornful tone. «It means just what
I choose it to mean — neither more or less.» «T h e question is,» said Alice, «w h e th e r you
can make words mean so many different things.»
A man likes his wife to be clever enough to understand his cleverness, and stupid enough
to admire it.
66

15. Die? I should say not, dear fellow. No Barrymore would allow such a conventional thing
to happen to him.

Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitives.

1. I've never known a divorce (to do) any good.


2. I have to get my m em ory (to work), and it is like an old clock, rusty.
3. They believed the soldier (to take) unofficial leave.
4. Love doesn't make the world (to go) round, it makes the ride worthwhile.
5. I'll have someone (to come round) to look after the child while we are out.
6. He made no resistance but allowed himself (to shake) back and forwards.
7. The man w ho lets himself (to bore) is even worse than the bore.
8. He heard the door (to creak) and saw a shadow (to steal) into the room.
9. W e thought the worst rascals (to die out) already.
10. The burglars had the old lady (to show) them where she kept money.
11. The y must be thankful for your advice. I believe it (to do) them a lot of good.
12. Do not always expect good (to happen), but do not let evil (to take) you by surprise.
13. The optimist proclaims us (to live) in the best of all possible worlds; and the pessimist
fears this is true.
14. There are people w ho make things (to happen), those w ho watch things (to happen) and
those w ho w onder what happened.
15. He used tw o sets of manners — one if he wanted people (to impress), the other if he
considered his listeners (to be) unimportant.

Com plete the story using the verbs from the boxes. Specify the group each of the
verbs refers to.

allow, believed, felt, m ade, overheard, suppose, w o u ld hate, w o u ld think

While walking in the park Mrs Banks____________________ (1) tw o strangers say something about a
robbery. Mrs Banks______________(2) a shiver pass her heart. The words___________________ (3) her hair
stand up in panic fear. However, she d id n 't______________________ (4) her feelings to be noticed. She
was at a loss. She d id n 't_________________________ (5) anybody to believe her. She was afraid people
(6) her to have gone mad. She (7) people to laugh at her.
Th e next day Mrs Banks almost (8) the whole story to have been a bad dream.

claimed, expect, found, let, noticed, reported, w anted

But looking out of the w indow she ________ (9) the same men steal into her neighbors'
house. Mrs Banks d id n 't__________ (10) herself hesitate any more. She called the police.
She d id n 't_____________ (11) the police to come so soon. Ten minutes later everything was
over. The evening news (12) the burglars to have broken into the house in order to
steal precious jewellery. The mayor of the city (13) Mrs Banks to have acted like a
responsible citizen. However Mrs Banks didn't feel happy. She (14) the attention
of reporters and newsmakers to be too tiresome. S h e ________ (15) the whole
story to be forgotten as soon as possible.

Ex. 117 M ake up sentences w ith com plex objects.

1. everything, spring, filthy, makes, look.

2. you, feel, love, special, makes.

3. bygones, bygones, let, be.

4. what you can use, the rest, take, and let, go by.

5. a pessimistic general, win, a battle, never saw, 1.

6. to hear, sing, loves, each bird, himself.

7. to put big locks, you, want, the eyes of fear, on your door.

8. the best state, 1find, to live in, to be, loneliness.

9. for them , many people, the stars, believe, to rise and set.

10. forget summer, September, to have, tries its best, us.

11. deserves to be, w ho allows, he, himself, to be insulted.

12. others perceive, you, you are, only as wise as, to be.

13. make, respectable, economic forecasts, astrology, look.

Ex. 118 Construct the sentences using the elem ents in brackets in the appropriate form .

M odel: 1 heard (she, to sing) -> 1heard her sing.


D on 't allow (you, to f o o l) .-} D on 't allow yourself to be fooled.
1. Did he suppose (the story, to believe)?
2. 1suddenly felt (she, to kiss) me on the cheek.
3. Art is a lie that makes (we, to realize) the truth.
4. The doctor ordered (the ward, to air).
5. 1can't bear (he, to be alone) his first night home.
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6. Don't let (you, to forget) what It's like to be sixteen.


7. I didn't mean (he, to follow) the instructions so blindly.
8. I know (the man, to be) a star boxer in his younger days.
9. Marriage makes a housekeeper imagine (she, to be) a householder.
10. No w om an should read beauty magazines. Th e y only make (she, to feel) ugly.
11. Never write advertisements if you don't w ant (they, to read)by your own family.
12. Do put that telly down a bit. I can't hear (I, to think) in here.
13. He no doubt deserved his enemies, but I don't believe (he, to deserve) his friends.
14. He thought (he, to be) more intelligent than his chief.
15. Bishops move diagonally. That's why they often turn up where the kings don't expect
(they, to be).
16. A boss is a man w ho spends his time flattering, kissing and kicking people to get (they, to
do) what they are supposed to do anyway.
17. On the one hand, most people want (they, to save) from temptation, on the other hand,
they would like (it, to keep) in touch.

Ex. 119 Transform the sentences according to the m odel.

M o d e l: People argue about trifles. — I hate... -> I hate people to argue about trifles.

1. Everybody should tell me the truth. — I w a n t ...


2. The future should never disturb you. — Never le t ...
3. O ur good deeds should live even after we die. — W e would like ...
4. W hen you are in anger your mouth works faster than your mind. — Anger makes ...

5. It can't have happened! I can't believe it! — I can hardly believe ...

6. I am sure I am fit for the job. — I th in k ...


7. Nobody should mislead the public. It doesn't like it. — The public doesn't like ...
8. The actions of men are the best interpreters of their thoughts. — I have always considered .

9. Well, sir, your words should be taken back. — I w a n t ...


10. Trees like when kids climb on them . — Trees like to have ...
11. W hen you look at maps, anything seems possible. — Maps make ...
12. A philosopher will always contradict other philosophers. — You can alwaysrely on ...

13. The luggage should be labeled for Prague! — The passenger ordered ...

Ex. 120 Paraphrase the following sentences using com plex objects.

1. The earthquake measured only tw o. I just felt how my house shook.

2. People fail because they don't consider that their goals are achievable.
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I want to go to New York and see how people suffer.

W hen we returned we found that the w ork had been done already.

Every generation imagines that it is m ore intelligent than the previous one.

W om en in charge don't like when other w om en are in charge.

Do you suppose that love will last throughout all time?

A lot of people like snow. I find that it is an unnecessary freezing of water.

If I stay here I will just sit back and watch how the world goes by.

An optimist stays up to see how the New Year comes.

A pessimist stays up because he expects that the old year will leave.

M y wife says I never listen to her. At least I think she said something like that.

If God had really intended that men should fly, he'd make it easier to get to the airport.

W hen you hear how your friend speaks in public, you may discover a new side to him.

Scientists reported that some dolphins learned English. However, they never reported
that any human being learned dolphenese.

Distinguish between a com plex object and tw o successive objects.

I advised him to stay away from it.


I would like him to stay away from it.
She invited him to come to her birthday party.
She expects him to come to her birthday party.
I encouraged them to participate in the event.
I relied on them to participate in the event.
I hate him to come late.
Her parents forbade her to m arry him.
He persuaded himself to accept the job.
H ow do you want yourself to be remembered as?
Every day I remind myself to be thankful for what I have.
I noticed him frown.
Their unfriendliness tem pted me to leave the party.
70

14. Do you intend them to go?


15. Mrs. Blount warned me not to interfere.
16. No one is as horrible as we imagine them to be.
17. I told her not to wear heels with that skirt.
18. O ur spies report the troops to be moving to the border.
19. Scientists suppose large dinosaurs to have lived in swamps.
20. He ordered me to stand up.
21. Never allow yourself to blame people for your own faults.
22. Never allow yourself to be blamed for the faults of others.
23. She was not a w om an w ho would allow such trifle to stand in her way.
24. W e let her develop her musical talents.
25. W e let her musical talents develop gradually.
26. The host let himself be persuaded and gave him a room in an outhouse.

Ex. 122 Find and correct the mistakes if there are any.

1. Do horses sing? I have never heard a horse to sing a song.


2. A man is as old as he feels him to be.
3. If fate means you to lose, give it a good fight anyhow.
4. It's all right to have butterflies in your stomach. Just get them fly in formation.
5. I saw it with my own eyes but I still can't believe the miracle to happen.
6. I have never known him tell a lie.
7. I saw him to be proud of the place in which he lived.
8. W e expect them to learn the truth already.
9. W e think people sensible only if they are of our opinion.
10. The artist doesn't have time to listen to the critics to talk about his works.
11. I have never heard anyone to have spoken an ill word of Stephanie.
12. If one door closes, don't look upon it too long. You may not notice another door to be
open for you.
13. You risk tears if you let yourself be tamed.
14 They report the expedition to collect invaluable materials while working in Siberia the
previous year.
15. I saw many people to have died because they judged that life is not worth living.

Ex. 123 Translate the parts in brackets using complex objects.

1. I (подум ал, что это был) the signal to start.


2. I (хочу, чтобы вы бы ли) young, young all your life.
3. (Вы бы хотели, чтобы я д а л ) you a formula for success?
4. If you (ждете, чтобы лю ди вам доверяли), be trustworthy.
5. The fool (думает, что он мудр). The wise man (считает себя глупцом).
6. W e (знали, что ключ от ящика стола был утерян) some tw enty years before.
71

The desire for fame (заставляет лю дей работать) hard and (не позволяет им почивать)
on their laurels.
If you (не хотите, чтобы кто-нибудь знал), don't do it.
(Начальник приказал, чтобы работа была завершена) by Monday.
The only way to entertain some folks is (слуш ать их разговоры).
(Пусть ветер всегда дуе т) in your back and (дорога всегда идет) downhill for you I
I know a m other-in-law w h o sleeps with her glasses on (чтобы видеть, как ее зять
страдает) in her dreams.
(Плохие родители рассчитывают на то, что телевидение будет) a babysitter and the
only educator of their kids.
A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist (верит, что каждая
трудность да е т нам возможность).
The most difficult thing in the w orld is to know how to do a thing and to (наблю дать, как
кто-то дела е т) it wrong.
If a man doesn't share the life of his tim e, w e may (считать, что он и не ж ил).

Translate the sentences using complex objects after the verbs provided.

В темных очках ты выглядишь загадочно. М АК Е


Пусть кто-нибудь отнесет наверх его багаж! G ET
Нам всегда кажется, что другие счастливее нас. BELIEVE
Д о сих пор еще не бы ло случая, чтобы он меня подвел. K N O W
Он планировал, что это станет его последним выступлением. M EA N
Ей бы ло плохо оттого, что он уезжает. C A N 'T BEAR
Пусть он войдет. HAVE
Я надеюсь, ваш такт поможет нам достичь компромисса. RELY O N
С ним никогда раньше такого не случалось. HAVE
Я уви дел, что он гораздо моложе, чем я ож идал. FIND
Ваша поездка в Л о н до н не входила в наши намерения. IN TEN D
Постарайся ее разговорить. G E T
Насколько я знаю, не бы ло еще такого, чтобы это лекарство вызвало побочные
эффекты. K N O W
Он надеялся, что все произойдет без всяких усилий. EXPECT
Я не допущ у, чтобы студенты рисовали на стенах колледж а. HAVE

Translate into English.

Я думаю, это ваша вина.


Я спала и не слышала, как они уш ли.
Я хочу, чтобы мы встретились еще раз.
Не позволяйте детям играть со спичками.
Я никогда не видела, как танцует Дж ейн Бак.
72

6. Я почувствовал, как у меня заколотилось сердце.


7. Я рассчитываю на то, что вы сдержите свое слово.
8. Я в жизни не слышал, чтобы он так много говорил.
9. Ненавижу, когда ты опаздываешь.
10. Она бы хотела, чтобы я навестила их в воскресенье.
11. Ей не нравилось, когда родственники ее провожали.
12. Я считаю, что это было несправедливо с вашей стороны.
13. Вы действительно надеетесь, что умный человек в это поверит?
14. Он наблю дал, как жена налила ему кофе и поставила чашку на стол.
15. Иногда совершенно незнакомым лю дям легко понять д р у г друга.
16. Никогда не встречал человека, который так много говорит по телефону.
17. Я бы хотел, чтобы это бы ло сделано как можно тише.
18. Хорошая хозяйка всегда может сделать так, чтобы ее гости чувствовали себя как дома.
19. Всегда есть тот, кто лю бит, и тот, кто позволяет себя лю бить.
20. Вселенная полна неизвестных нам чудес, которые терпеливо ж дут, когда лю ди
станут умнее.

Ex. 126 Com plete the following using complex objects.

1. In spring I like to listen to... and to watch...


2. A day-dream er is a person w ho expects...
3. W hen the author writes a book, he imagines...
4. I hate public transport in the rush hour. I can't bear...
5. W hen a child is born, the parents want...
6. There is nothing more difficult than make...
7. If a stranger knocks on your door, never let...
8. If you have a true friend, you can always count on...

M atch the parts of the sentences.

1. A compromise is the art of dividing a cake in such a way a man of catch his own breath.
that everyone believes wisdom
2. Books are like a mirror. If a fool looks in, you can't expect eight cats feel safe.
3. Cats are smarter than dogs. You can't get themselves happen to you.
4. Friends seldom profit us but they make the reader to be.
5. Th e comma is not important. Let us to be happier.
6. You can't be brave if you've only had wonderful to have the biggest
things piece.
7. Th e most difficult thing to be is what other people want you to look out.
8. W hen others share your happiness, you think yourself to pull a sled through
snow.
73

THE SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

Translate into Russian and state the syntactic function o f the predicative complexes.

She happened to be near at the m om ent.


The house is believed to be haunted.
The weather seems to be improving.
She was likely to forget it quite soon.
He was understood to have left for Canada.
I watched the sun rise.
The sun was watched to rise.
M uch pastry seemed to have clouded the boy's mind.
It's difficult for unskilled people to find w ork these days.
He appeared to have been deceived.
I chanced to notice her.
Vicky heard someone close the door.
He was rum oured to be writing a new book.
The shop provides baskets for the customers to put their purchases in.
Everybody expected him to m arry at the end of the month.
She seemed to have been living on nothing but cake and sweets for three days.

Music is well said to be the speech of angels.


All appears to change when we change.
California is a fine place to live — if you happen to be an orange.
I don't believe that life is supposed to make you feel good, or make you feel miserable
either. Life is just supposed to make you feel.
Eat before shopping. If you go to the store hungry, you are likely to make unnecessary
purchases.
Never regret something that once made you smile.
A new epidemic of Google mania is reported to have been sweeping the world for the
past ten years.
It isn't easy for an idea to squeeze itself into a head filled with prejudice.
If the person you are talking to doesn't appear to be listening, be patient. It may simply
be that he has a small piece of fluff in his ear.
Say all you have to say in the fewest possible words, or your reader will be sure to skip
them and in the plainest possible words or he will be certain to misunderstand them.
Life is meant to be enjoyed, not endured.
M ost of the important things in the w orld have been accomplished by people w ho have
kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.
74

13. Everybody knows if you are too careful you are so occupied in being careful that you are
sure to stumble over something.
14. If you want your life to be more rewarding, you have to change the way you think.
15. W hen a book is greatly admired and often read, the language in which it is written is
likely to be imitated to some extent by those w ho read it.

Ex. 129 O pen the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitive.

1. He proved (to be) a very experienced worker.


2. He was seen (to cross) the street and (to turn) round the corner.
3. I rang the bell and the man answered; he seemed (to wait) for It to ring.
4. He was made (to eat) a Chester cake and was spoken to in a slightly more Edinburgh way
than usual.
5. The man appears (to know) practically all European languages; he is said (to learn) them
while travelling.
6. The river was reported (to overflow) the banks and (to advance) towards the suburbs of
the city.
7. The incident is likely (to forget) soon.
8. W e don't seem (to acquaint), at least I can't rem em ber you.
9. The Island of Britain is known (to reveal) to the Roman world by Julius Caesar in the year
55 B.C.
10. You have worked hard. The teacher is sure (to satisfy) with your report.
11. In the middle of the lecture Dr. Sommerville happened (to pause) and (to look) out of
the window.
12. They all turned out (to become) good fighters.
13. M y brother is certain (to arrive) the day after tom orrow.
14. Latin was supposed (to be) the only language worth of study, and it was studied for
practical purpose.
15. She is announced (to w in) in the race.

Ex. 130 Paraphrase the following sentences according to the m odel.

M o d e l: It is known that he is a great book-lover. ->


He is known to be a great book-lover.

1. It was understood that the parties had come to an agreement.


2. It is supposed that the playwright is working at a new comedy.
3. Everybody knows Bernard Shaw to have been a witty person.
4. They say that she is the best teacher at our school.
5. It is believed that John has arrived in Venice.
6. Nobody saw him slip the top-secret file into his briefcase.
75

7. People reported that the discussion had been tough.


8. It is announced that the Polish dancers are arriving next week.
9. Everybody heard him say that in so m any words.
10. It is thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall.
11. Nobody expected her to write often, for everyone knew that letter-writing came difficult
to her.
12. People consider the climate there to be very healthful.
13. It has been found that this mineral w ater is very good for the liver.
14. People presume the recommendations are radical.
15. Nothing could make him understand the situation.

Ex. 131 Transform the sentences according to th e m odel.

M o d e l: It appears that she knows everything about it.


She appears to know everything a b ou t i t

1. It seemed that the discussion was coming to an end.


2. It is likely that the ship will arrive tonight.
3. It so happened that they missed the five o'clock train.
4. It turned out that the way we took was the longest one.
5. W hen she passed by it appeared that they looked at her attentively.
6. It was certain that they would come to an understanding.
7. It seemed that she had never tasted this fruit.
8. Surely a washing machine in the house will save a lot of time and effort.
9. It was unlikely that this w et weather would keep long.
10. It proved that my prediction was correct.
11. It turned out that the language of the article was quite easy.
12. It is sure that they will come to London.
13. It is definite that they will be here on Monday.
14. Do you, by any chance, know w here I can find him?
15. It seems that customers are not served here properly.

Ex. 132 Paraphrase the following w ith the help of the verbs or expressions in brackets so as to
usé subjective infinitive constructions.

1. He is the best candidate to the post, (to consider)


2. The truth will come out. (to be sure)
3. The negotiations are reaching a decisive stage, (to say)
4. This part of land was once under the sea. (to believe)
5. O u r ways never crossed, (to happen)
6. I don't think the answer will please him. (to be likely)
7. Their headquarters were a one-room flat, (to turn out)
76

8. M y fears were groundless, (to prove)


9. This test was to be the final one. (to suppose)
10. Th e company will be touring the country in the summer, (to announce)
11. One could see that she was in high spirits, (to appear)
12. The man's mind was working with extraordinary freedom, (to seem)
13. The m orning sun has more ultra-violet rays, (to find)
14. The air was growing colder, (to feel)
15. I would not have agreed to it but for the circumstances, (to make)

Ex. 133 Use you r ideas to complete the sentences w ith infinitives in the correct form .

1. The parties are reported ... the problem.


2. They seemed ... this fact already.
3. Lake Baikal is said ... the deepest lake in the world.
4. The parties are understood ... an agreement.
5. They are very likely... part in this work.
6. This plant seems ... such equipm ent since 1965.
7. He always appears ... so helpful, so considerate.
8. The results of the test seemed ... them .
9. I happened ... my office early that day.
10. She seemed ... for a long time.
11. After the crash the engine was found ... intact.
12. Th e y seem ... a good time at the seaside.

Ex. 134 Com plete the sentences w ith suitable w ords.

1. T h e y ____________to be getting on a bit better.


2. H e ___________ to have gained all he wanted.
3. H e ___________ to make a speech there and he wanted me to hear it.
4. S h e _________ to breathe heavily.
5. The experim ent___________ to be a success.
6. I t ____________to have been raining ever since we came here.
7. H e ___________ to be one of the best students at our faculty.
8. Susan is ill. S h e ___________ to be absent for another week.
9. H e __________to marry her.
10. W e _________ to have been flying over the sea for quite a time and there is yet no land
to see.
77

Find and correct the mistakes if there are any.

At one tim e the earth was believed to have been flat.


He appeared to be losing patience.
Charlie Chaplin is said to have been a great comedian.
The tourists is understood to be arriving later today.
They are certain to take the risk.
Th e flood is reported to not have caused much damage to the crop.
Some proposals are thought to have dropped.
The house was seemed not to have been lived in for a long time.
I happened to have seen them at the theatre.
Her retirement was rather a tragedy; she was made retire before time.
His pockets turned up to contain nothing except a packet of Turkish cigarettes, which he
usually smoked.
M oney not happen to interest me.
The dictionary seems to belong to my grandfather. It appears to be published ages ago.
W ould Soames be sure to tell him about this if he didn't ask him?
She is unlikely not to change her opinion.
W hy don't you say so? - I'm not supposed.

Translate the fragments into English.


i

He is said (что он бы л) a sailor in his youth.


I looked at the house with suspicious curiosity, and it seemed (что он смотрит) at me.
The boy was made (повторить) his story twice.
She didn't seem (зам етила) his unfriendly tone.
The num ber to which I had been directed turned out (бы л) a house standing a little by
itself, with its back to the river.
«H e appears (заснул), my lady,» said the butler.
Lady Franklin seemed (ж дет) an answer.
The poem is believed (бы ло написано) by an unknown soldier.
Professor Lee was expected (присоединится) the expedition in North Africa, but he had
fallen ¡11.
He was heard (как он сказал) that it would rain and ordered the door to the balcony to
be shut.
Three men (как говорят, бы ли арестованы) after the bank robbery.
He (похоже, собирает) stamps since he was a boy.
He (казалось, не слы ш ал) w hat had been said.
Everything (наверняка, будет) all right.
Laughter (как полагают, излечивает) anything.
78

Ex. 137 j Translate the sentences into English.


1. Говорят, что он лучш ий доктор в нашем городе.
2. Видели, как он перевернул страницу и начал читать.
3. Слы ш али, что он вскоре поднялся наверх.
4. По-видим ом у, он не собирается стать врачом.
5. Предполагалось, что мы встретимся в шесть часов около школы.
6. С того времени вы, кажется, не сильно изменились.
7. Его заставили обратиться к врачу.
8. Известно, что Христофор Колумб открыл Америку.
9. Я случайно услышала последню ю фразу, сказанную вами.
10. Она, кажется, разучивает упражнения на пианино все утро.
11. Я хотел, чтобы он пошел дом ой вместе со мной, но он отказывался.
12. Они сказали, что подобное вряд ли случится дваж ды .
13. Я не знала, что эту информацию предполагалось держ ать в секрете.
14. Оказывается, он ничего об этом не слышал.
15. Здесь нет никого, с кем мог бы поиграть ребенок.
16. Ож идаю т, что он не будет возражать.
17. Считается, что этот дом был построен около двухсот л е т назад.
18. Подтвердилось, что он прав.
19. Все понимают, что Лом оносов был самым крупным ученым своего времени.
20. Выяснилось, что они настоящие друзья.
21. Если вы случайно встретите его, скажите ему, что он мне очень нужен.
22. Сообщ алось, что космический корабль благополучно приземлился.
23. Родители всегда хотят, чтобы их дети выросли честными лю дьми.

i i3;y SJifTi Read these extracts from an interview w ith som eone w h o has returned to th eir hom e
to w n after living abroad for nearly tw e n ty years. Com plete this story w ith ideas of
I your o w n , using subjective infinitive constructions.

I've only been back a couple of days and already I've met lots of old friends. Th e y d o n 't seem to have
changed very much — they're as friendly as e v e r ...

As far as the place itself is concerned, it definitely appears to be a more prosperous, lively place than
it was when I le ft...

to see to know to report to prove


to hear to mean to say to turn out
to believe to suppose to make to happen
to consider to think to seem to be likely
to expect to understand to appear to be sure
79

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE
Ex. 139 |State the functions of the infinitives in the follow ing sentences.

1. The only thing she could do was to give advice.


2. We used to spend a lot of tim e in a Greek club.
3. They planned to spend their tw o weeks' sum m er holiday in London.
4. I'd better come round and see what 1can do for you.
5. He had other things to think of.
6. It is depressing to read about depression.
7. 1 know 1ought not to have come here.
8. He was too timid to speak.
9. He was not the man to take back the offer he had made.
10. Do you want me to read to you?
11. His boots stood in front of the fire to warm .
12. The horse was quiet to ride.
13. "W e are very sorry to have disturbed you," began Peter.
14. He began to describe in detail the beauties of the picture.
15. To dine there on a June evening was a delight.
16. 1don't think 1look strong enough to drag a baby up.the mountain.
17. Well, funny things seem to be happening here.
18. Everybody lives for something better to come.
19. 1once ordered a flat white because it was on the blackboard, only to be told they don't
actually do flat whites.

Ex. 140 Choose the appropriate form of the infinitive in brackets.

1. He must (to read) something funny; he is smiling all the time.


a) to have read c) to be read
b) be reading d) have been reading

2. They seemed (to learn) the news; they looked excited.


a) to have been learnt c) to learn
b) to have learnt d) be learning

3 . 1 am glad (to introduce) to you.


a) be introduced c) to be introduced
b) to have been introducing d) to introduce

4. This book is said (to sell) out already.


a) to be selling c) have been sold
b) to have been sold d) sell
80

5. Look how animated they are! It must be nice (to dance) like that.
a) to be dancing c) be dancing
b) to have been danced d) to be danced

6 . 1 am sorry (to disappoint) you but I did not mean anything of the kind.
a) have been disappointed c) to disappoint
b) to have disappointed d) disappoint

7. He is happy (to award) the first Landscape Prize for his picture.
a) to have been awarded c) to be awarding
b) to award d) be awarding

8. He was anxious (to take) the first place in the figure skating competition.
a) to have been taken c) to have taken
b) to be taken d) to take

9. The poem can (to mem orize) easily.


a) to be memorized c) to memorize
b) be memorized d) memorize

10. This poem is easy (to memorize).


a) to be memorized c) to memorize
b) be memorized d) memorize

1 1 .1 meant (to ask) you about it long ago but I had no opportunity.
a) to have asked c) have asked
b) ask d) to be asked

1 2 .1 did not expect (to ask) this question.


a) to be asked c) to have asked
b) be asked d) have asked

13. Don't you w orry about him, he is sure (to have) a good time at the mom ent.
a) to have c) to be having
b) to have had d) be having

14. W hy (to go) into that matter at all?


a) to go c) to have been gone
b) go d) have been gone

15. Some girls are catty and difficult (to live) with.
a) to live c) to have lived
b) be lived d) to be lived
81

16. The teacher expected him (to give) a better answer at the examination.
a) to be giving c) have given
b) have been given d) to have given

17. Th e y are supposed (to experiment) in this field for about a year and are believed
(to achieve) good results.
a) to have been experimented, to achieve c) to experiment, to be achieving
b) have been experimenting, to have d) to have been experimenting, to have
achieved achieved

18. There were so many things (to do), so many experiments (to try).
a) to do, to try c) to have done, to have tried
b) do, try d) to be doing, to be trying

19. This man must (to sit) here for about an hour. W h o can he (to wait) for?
a) be sitting, be waiting c) have been sitting, be waiting
b) to sit, to be waited d) have sat, be waiting

20. Her mood seems (to change) for the worse. W e had better not (to speak) to her now.
a) to have changed, speak c) to change, to speak
b) to have been changed, have spoken d) have been changing, speak

21. The first thing (to do) was (to get) som ebody (to take) the luggage to the station.
a) to do, to get, take c) to have been doing, to get, to take
b) to be done, to get, to take d) be done, to get, take

22. The box was (to handle) with care. You should (to ask) someone (to help) you. This might
not (to happen).
a) to be handled, ask, to help, c) to have handled, have asked, help,
have happened happen
b) to have been handled, have asked, d) to handle, ask, to help, happen
to help, have happened

Ex. 141 Replace w h a t is given in bold typ e by infinitive phrases.

1. The house w hich will be built here is designed for the workers of our plant.
2. 1am glad that 1was able to assist you.
3. He was so astonished that he could not speak.
4. 1left the w indow open that 1 m ight hear the music.
5. How thoughtful it was of him that he had sent me the souvenirs.
6. She looked quickly at him as though she w anted to ask him for an explanation.
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7. He came there and was told that he might as well not have come at all.
8. Th e lecture was interesting, and the students kept quiet lest th ey should miss a w o rd .
9. M y idea is that w e should make a stop there for one or tw o days on our w a y back.
10. There was nothing in the article that m ight interest him .
11. She read her composition a third tim e for fear that she m ight overlook a mistake.
12. It made me feel sad w h en I saw him in distress.
13. I went back to the stern and showed her h o w she should hold the oar.
14. M y younger sister is the kind of person w h o makes a party go w ith a swing!

Ex. 142 Translate the fragments into English using infinitives.

1. I am glad (что узнал правду).


2. This question was too complicated (чтобы она могла решить) it by herself.
3. He is not such a person (от которого можно ож идать помощ и).
4. The children (кажется, уже забыли) about that sad event.
5. You (следовало бы предупредить) me beforehand. N ow I am in an awkward situation.
6. Do you rem em ber w ho (первый вошел в) the room?
7. You heard (как он сказал) that.
8. He knew that his presence was obligatory but he couldn't (заставить себя войти).
9. I kept silent as I (нечего было сказать).
10. He (до лж н о быть, читал) this novel not long ago. He remembers a lot of details.
11. I would rather (сделала) Christmas shopping last week, now I don't have time.
12. W e pretended (что не заметили) his mistake (чтобы не смущать) him.
13. Не turned to me (как будто хотел попросить меня) to repeat my question.
14. Helen reached the hospital (и нашла) her brother a little better than when she had last
seen him.

Translate into English

A. stating the function of the infinitives.

1. Я буду счастлива путешествовать.


2. Она собрала недостаточно денег, чтобы поехать в путешествие.
3. Эту страну бы ло бы интересно посетить.
4. Я, пожалуй, поеду в эту страну.
5. Она отправилась путешествовать и вскоре поняла, что не может до лго жить без
родных мест.
6. Я хочу путешествовать.
7. Путешествовать по разным странам интересно.
8. У меня есть мечта путешествовать каждый год
9. По правде говоря, она собирала деньги, чтобы поехать в путешествие.
10. Мы надеялись поехать в путешествие, но не смогли себе это позволить.
83

11. М оя мечта — путешествовать каждый год по разным странам.


12. Она бы предпочла путешествовать, чем жить на даче все лето.
13. О н начал путешествовать с 15 лет.
14. Она взяла с собой четыре чемодана, словно хотела остаться в Вене на все лето.
15. О н первым прочитал эти книги.

В. stating the function of the infinitive predicative constructions.

1. Я хочу, чтобы ты зашел к нам сегодня вечером.


2. Я видел, как она вернулась.
3. Видели, что он вернулся дом ой.
4. Сообщают, что он уже вернулся в страну.
5. Кажется, он не вернется сегодня.
6. Мы случайно встретили его на вокзале.
7. Он сделал все, д л я того чтобы она была счастлива.
8. Его единственное желание — чтобы она была счастлива.
9. Самое лучш ее бы ло бы вам не видеться некоторое время.
10. Я был рад, что ты приш ел.
11. Он заставил меня пойти с ним.
12. О н не такой человек, на которого ты можешь положиться.
13. Практически не бы ло ничего, что бы я мог сделать, чтобы помочь им.
14. Было невероятно, что мы смогли увидеться перед его отъездом.

***

&~| Translate the follow ing sentences into Russian. C om m ent on the use o f the infinitives.

1. A problem is a chance for you to do your best.


2. To live long, it is necessary to live slowly.
3. I would rather not know how to write and have something to say than know how to
write and have nothing to say.
4. To do tw o things at once is to do neither.
5. Old w ood is the best to burn, old wine is the best to drink, old friends are the best to
trust, and old authors are the best to read.
6. People may forget what you said, but they will never forget how you made them feel.
7. Blessed1is the person w ho is too busy to w orry In the daytime and too sleepy to w orry at
night.
8. It usually takes a long tim e to find a shorter way.
9. M any things have fallen only to rise higher.
10. As If to put the icing on the cake, the bank announced about bonuses to employees.
11. If you make it plain you like people, it's hard for them to resist liking you back.
12. In a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must
be something for me to do.
13. The spoken word has ceased to be a vehicle, only to become an obstacle.
84

14. In order for people to be happy, sometimes they have to take risks.
15. Any fool can tell the truth, but it requires a man of some sense to know how to lie well.
16. The sun, the moon and the stars would have disappeared long ago, had they happened
to be within reach of predatory human hands.

Ex. 145 1 Complete the sentences by using an infinitive in the appropriate form .

1. That man seems trouble with his car. W h y don't you give him a push?
2. Mr. Roberts is much too old climbing like he used to.
3. Before the interview 1was required an application form.
4. 1am sorry you. 1shouldn't have called you so late.
5. Let me be the first you on your remarkable success.
6. He says he would rather by train to London than
his m other's old car. It broke down on the highway.
7. 1always used to as a child.
8. Harry ought the highest score by the officials.
He got offended that his freestyle programme had been underestimated.
9. She hoped a holiday. But she had to work for another 2 months.
10. It is important for not under too much stress.
11. This exercise isn't easy
12. The Milsons planned on a Mediterranean
cruise but it was not to be.
13. The hijackers are said . That is w hy all the airports
in the area are on the alert.
14. The robbers are hiding in an em pty building.
15. The parents felt her upset to learn about their attitude.
16. He found it a lot harder inspiration from that kind of music.
17. Mr. Burton had his son off the light and to bed.

I Paraphrase the following sentences

A. using infinitives.

1. Passing by a shop he suddenly remembered that he should buy some CDs.


2. He waved his hands as if he wanted to express his intense distaste.
3. The man was not the one w ho could think rapidly.
4. He prefers enjoying the delights of the parks to covering obvious attractions in the crowd
of people.
5. Later in the evening they went to the club and were joined by the young artist they had
met at the studio.
6. I rose so that I could receive my guests.
7. If you saw the tow n, you would never believe that it was raised from ruins.
85

8. It made our mouths water when we heard him talk about such tasty things.
9. There are a great many things which should be taken into consideration.
10. He didn't allude to a mystery in his past — he was careful that way.
11. He must have been very tired if he came and fell asleep like that.

B. using predicative constructions w ith the infinitive.

1. People believe aromatherapy can relieve stress.


2. Lanny watched how Mabel w ent away.
3. They report that four people have been injured.
4. He waited till she would speak but it seemed that her answer would never come.
5. Th e best thing Lanny could do was clear: he should get out of there.
6. It seems that he is satisfied to be doing nothing.
7. Th e expedition was too much long; I wasn't able to do it.
8. He saw how it fell, he heard how it struck the pavement.
9. Everybody believes that the burglar entered the house through an open window.
10. It was not unusual that dinner parties would end in that way.
11. It was supposed that I should be working towards my A-levels.
12. It turns out that Mr. Major's political judgm ent is faulty.
13. The wind was so strong that we could not go outside.
14. It is certain that the Tories will win every future election.
15. I want that you should tell me what you know of the East End.
16. Experts think that the polar ice caps are melting.

Ex. 147 Paraphrase the underlined parts using infinitives o r the predicative constructions
w ith infinitives. Th e first is done for you.

a) W hen people savthattourism is a m ajorthre atto the environment, this is no exaggeration.


-> To sav that tourism is a major threat to the environment Is no exaggeration.
b) Nobody nowadays can hope that they can visit a famous 'sight' w ithout being part of a
huge crowd.
c) It is a rare pleasure indeed if vou find a deserted beach.
d) And when you see the enormous crowds of tourists w ho come to Venice because they
want to see the most romantic place in the world, you w onder how that great city has
n o t already sunk into the sea.
e) It would be foolish if anv of us imagined that we can stop people wanting to travel.
f) If we do nothing about this, there will soon be nothing left that we can preserve.
g) But we urgently need measures that will protect both historic buildings and the countryside.
h) One possible solution is that governments should set u p new bureaucracies with armies
of officials w ho could direct visitors to 'suitable' sights.
i) Another possibility, that we should relv on the price mechanism, would probably be simpler.
j) People will just have to pav more if they want to see the more popular tourist attractions.
k) Already some English cathedrals charge tourists admission — so that they can repair
some of the damage caused by trampling feet and w et breath.
I) Serious tourists would not be the only ones w ho would benefit from smaller crowds,
m) Th e local people w ho live in or near these places would be happier if their towns were
not overrun.
n) If we do not act soon, we shall wake up one day and find it is too late.

Ex. 148 Find and correct the mistakes if there are any.

1. It was raining hard, we had no umbrellas, and, to do things worse, we missed the last
bus and had to walk home.
2. M an spent 7 years solving the jigsaw puzzle — only to have found one piece missing!
3. A man does not have to be an angel so that to be a saint.
4. Even sheep should have such brains not to follow the wolf.
5. Gifts allow us demonstrate exactly how little we know about a person.
6. The im portant thing is to know when to smile.
7. He hoped to win the trophy back but his rival was much stronger.
8. Mr. Hutton found very difficult to distinguish what she was saying.
9. "Get someone put all these things back in their places". Lord Badgery commanded.
10. W h y not to invite him to do some reviewing?
11. She leaned forward, aimed, so to speak, like a gun, and fired her words.
12. The secretary was to remind them of our departure time but she didn't.
13. He saw his son to leap over the net and shake hands with the American champion whom
he had just defeated.
14. A badly-paid job is always easy to give it up.

Ex. 149 Translate the fragments into English, using infinitives.

1 I (не мог не рассказать) him everything about the past tw o months.


2. An onion can (заставить лю дей плакать), but there isn't s a vegetable (чтобы заставить
их смеяться).
3. Не (казалось, что пробежал) all the way. Не was completely out of breath.
4. They (кажется, еще не уехали). Look, there's light on in the house.
5. His telephone num ber (легко запомнить).
6. I (случайно повернул) the wrong turn and, (нет нуж ды говорить), I got lost.
7. There was (нечего делать, как только ж дать) for the next express, which was due at
four.
8 Tom w ho lived farthest of all (ушел первым).
9. Every time you open your mouth you (позволяеш ь лю дям взглянуть) into your mind.
87

Не (дум ал в его власти нанимать) the employees he wanted.


(Слы ш али, как она сказала) that none of them can be trusted.
He (не мог себе позволить купить) this rare book.
The railway (которая будет открыта) this year will connect distant regions w ith many
industrious centres.
(Послуш ать, как он рассуждает), you can think that he has lived a long life.

Translate into English.

Известно, что Британия полна волную щих мест, которые стоит посетить, и вели­
колепных замков, где историю можно про следить вплоть д о норманнских времен.
Я хочу, чтобы мы п обродили по сонным деревушкам и насладились сельским
ландш афтом.
Дувр с его белыми утесами, несомненно, прослуж ит воротами в Англию еще
2000 лет.
Городская жизнь меня слишком мало привлекает, чтобы я захотел жить в столице.
Кажется, что маленькие, изящные деревуш ки и оживленные города соревнуются
за внимание туристов.
Сообщается, что союзные войска захватили более 300 солдат противника.
Я была сильно впечатлена, когда увидела Озерный край, с его ош еломляющ им
сочетанием гор и озер.
Посещение Стоунхенджа бы ло одним из самых ярких моментов поездки.
Быть в Глазго — это значит быть в культурной столице Ш отландии с его полными
веселья фестивалями, пользующимися мировой известностью.
Валлийцы взяли себе за правило создавать хор в каждой деревушке.
Я был пленен, увидев этот захватывающий дух вид.
Он был единственным, кто посетил Эмпайр Стейт Б и лди нг — известную до сто ­
примечательность (исторический памятник) на нью-йоркском небосклоне.
Мы остановились, чтобы полюбоваться видом.
У меня мечта посетить Кардиф, столицу Уэльса, и насладиться богатой палитрой
культуры и истории.
Говорят, этот город был построен как римское поселение и с ранних времен служ ил
торговым центром д л я близлежащ их районов.
Мы намеревались посетить военный парад в Эдинбурге, но мы приехали слишком
поздно, чтобы купить билеты.
В Л о н до н е так многое нужно увидеть, что необходимо тщ ательно спланировать
свой день.
88

Ex. 151 Choose the right variants.

1. W hat forms of the infinitive show that the action is posterior to that of the predicate?

a) the indefinite infinitive b) the perfect infinitive c) the continuous infinitive

2. W hat forms of the infinitive show that the action refers to no particular time?

a) non-perfect forms b) perfect forms

3. The category of aspect is revealed in the opposition of

a) com m on and continuous b) non-perfect and perfect c) active and passive forms
forms forms

4. W hat forms of the infinitive show that the subject is acted upon?

a) active forms b) passive forms

5. In which of the following examples is the active infinitive used in its passive meaning?

a) He is difficultto persuade, b) He is brave to say this.

6. In w hat function the infinitive is always active in form but passive in its meaning?

a) object b) part of a predicative c)predicative

7. The infinitive without TO is called

a) the split infinitive b) the bare infinitive

8. W hich sentence pattern with the infinitive in the function of a subject is characteristic of everyday
language?

a) the infinitive subject is introduced b) the infinitive subject is placed first


by a formal subject IT

9. The predicate of an infinitive subject takes the form of

a) the third person singular b) the third person plural


89

10. A predicative is part of a

a) com pound verbal modal b) com pound verbal aspect c) com pound nominal predicate
predicate predicate

11. The infinitive In the function of part of a predicative follows:

a) adjectives and nouns b) link verbs c) modal verbs

12. In com pound verbal modal predicates the structural part can be expressed by

a) link verbs b) aspect verbs c) modal verbs and modal expressions

13. In com pound verbal aspect predicates the structural part can be expressed by

a) link verbs b) aspect verbs c) modal verbs and modal expressions

14. In com pound nominal predicates the structural part can be expressed by

a) link verbs b) aspect verbs c) modal verbs and modal expressions

15. Perfect infinitives in the function of an object express unfulfilled actions after

a) attempt, expect, hope, intend, mean,plan, try b) claim, fail, hate, like, omit, swear

16. In which of the following sentences is the infinitive used In the function of an object?

a) It is difficult to believe her. c) He Is difficult to persuade.


b) He thought it difficult to believe her. d) He is brave to say this.

17. The infinitive can N O T be used in the function of an attribute after

a) class or abstract nouns c) adverbs e) ordinal numerals


b) pronouns d) verbs f) expressions of quantity

18. In which of the following sentences is the infinitive used in the function of an object?

a) I advised him to read more. c) I like to read books.


b) Here is a book to read on your way back. d) He reads books to become clever.
19. W hat forms of the infinitive are mainly used in the function of adverbials?

a) indefinite forms c) perfect forms


b) continuous forms d) perfect continuous forms

20. In which of the following sentence is the infinitive used in the function of an adverbial of purpose?

a) He is so clever as to follow their advice. b) He did everything so as to follow their advice.

21. The objective infinitive construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation
to the nominal elem ent expressed by

a) a noun in the com m on caseor a pronoun in the objective case


b) a noun in the com m on caseor a pronoun in the nominative case

22. Th e subjective infinitive construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation
to the nominal element expressed by

a) a noun in the com m on caseor a pronoun in the objective case


b) a noun in the com m on caseor a pronoun in the nominative case

23. The for-to-infinitive construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to
the nominal element expressed by

a) a noun in the comm on case or a pronoun in the objective case introduced by the preposition FOR
b) a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case introduced by the preposition FOR

24. In which of the following sentences is the infinitive used in the for-to-infinitive construction?

a) To speak about this was impossible for her.


b) It was Impossible for her to speak about this.
c) The impossible thing for her was to speak about this.
THE PARTICIPLE
FORMS OF THE PARTICIPLE

Provide the forms of participle I and participle II for the following verbs.

agree ________________________________ ________________________

begin ________________________________ ________________________

buy _______________________________ ________________________

develop ________________________________ ________________________

drop _______________________________ ________________________

forget ________________________________ ________________________

guarantee _______________________________ ________________________

hurry _______________________________ ________________________

jog ----------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------

knit ________________________________ ________________________

marry _______________________________ _________________________

omit _______________________________ ________________________

play ----------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------

pursue _______________________________ ________________________

realize ___________________________ __ ________________________

refer _______________________________ ________________________

say _______________________________ _____________________ ___

slam _______________________________ ________________________

study _______________________________ ________________________

sue _______________________________ ________________________

swim _______________________________ ________________________

tidy _______________________________ ________________________

win _______________________________ ________________________

write
92 ' [ ' Jt ‘ tJL

Com plete the charts.

ACTIVE PASSIVE NON-PERFECT PERFECT

catching having argu ed

being rescued havin g died

being tied shining

carrying having preferred

being dyed having lied

shrinking entering

holding havin g continued

being w orried occurring

NON-PERFECT NON-PERFECT PERFECT PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE II


ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE
figh tin g

being hurt

striking

having hung

shot

having been lit

teaching

having hit

lent

having been fe d •
laying

read

seating

biting

relying

Ex. 154 N am e the forms of participles.

1.’ Ann fell asleep watching TV.


2. Feeling tired, 1went to bed early.
3. Being out of a job, he hasn't got much money.
4. Arriving at the station, he didn't find anyone to meet him.
5. Hearing the announcem ent, 1got puzzled.
: _ P w t ic p e 93

6. Putting on her new elegant coat, she looked in the mirror.


7. Every mind is a building filled with old furniture.
8. Having said so, he grasped the map firmly with both hands.
9. Having been examined by the doctor, they were allowed to join the sports club.
10. The worst prison would be a closed heart.
11. A bore is a person who, when asked how (s)he is, tells you.
12. Water, taken in moderation, cannot hurt anybody.
13. As he came out he noticed in the middle distance som ebody being carried on a stretcher.
14. Having grown up in a small tow n, Lora couldn't get used to the hectic city life.
15. W hat captain could sit unm oved and see his team being beaten in the most important
match of the season?

Ex. 155 M ake up phrases according to the m odels and translate them into Russian.

M o d e l A : Letter (to write) a written letter;


Expression (to surprise) -> a surprising / surprised expression

Door (to close) -> Temple (to ruin) ->


Vase (to break) Battle (to lose)
Paper (to burn) -> Silence (to disturb)
Key (to lose) Milk (to spill) - »
Frost (to bite) - » Treasures (to steal) ->
Sun (to r is e )-» Ship (to sink) - »
Showers (to scatter)

M odel B: To excite (film; crowd) -> an exciting film; an excited crowd

To hurt (remark; look) -> To disappoint (trip; tourists)


To promise (student; prize) To fall (star; angel)
To exhaust (work; worker) -> To embarrass (joke; child) ->
To knit (w om an; scarf) -> To distort (picture; mirror)
To invite (guest; smile) -> To beat (heart; road) ->
To injure (victim; tool) -> To shake (hands; cocktail) ->

Ex. 156

A. Choose betw een passive and active forms of participle I


1. Speaking / Being spoken to her, I always made my meaning clear.
2. They w ent along the path le a d in g / being led to the river.
3. B adly w o u n d in g / Being badly w ounded, he recovered slowly.
4. S trikin g/ Being struck by the news he could hardly utter a word.
5. Fearing / Being feared that the police would recognize him, he never went out in daylight.
6. Having caught /H a vin g been caught red-handed, the robbers had no chance to escape.
7. W e stood on the hill top a d m irin g / being a dm ired the panorama below.
94

B. Choose between perfect and non-perfect forms of participle I

1. R ising/ H avin g risen from the table, he left the room.


2. S leeping/ H aving slept tw o hours, I felt refreshed and rested.
3. She went out closing / having closed the door behind her.
4. Finding / H a vin g fo u n d a hotel, they looked for som ewhere to have dinner.
5. He fired w o u n d in g / having w ounded one of the bandits.
6. N oticing / H avin g noticed me from the other side of the street, she rushed to me.
7. W e wasted a whole afternoon tryin g / h a ving tried to repair the car.
8. D riv in g / H a vin g driven five hours to the meeting, I learned that It had been cancelled.

C. Choose between participle I and participle II

1. The horror movie was terrifying / terrified.


2. Falling / Fallen leaves were dancing slowly in the air.
3. I cannot forget the story being told / t o l d by the old man.
4. Turning / T u r n e d back she saw her mother on the porch.
5. The wom an w ent to the car being p a rk e d / parked in the back yard.
6. Some paintings belonging / belonged to the Queen were stolen from the palace.
7. M any archaeologists hate A tla n tis , refusing to believe in the vanishing / vanished
civilization s w a llo w in g / s w a llo w e d by the sea.

Ex. 157 Fill in the correct form of participle I or participle II.

1. Madagascar is a (to live) zoo.


2. All men in the band had (to shave) heads.
3. (To hear) Lizzy, he turned a sleepish eye upon her.
4. (To open) the parcel, she saw a large box of chocolates.
5. She reappeared (to carry) red and white checked tablecloths.
6. N ow (to sell) everywhere, this product is very much in demand.
7. (To train) in electronics, the new worker saw the problem immediately.
8. He looked intently at the gate, as if (to expect) to read amessage on it.
9. W e live on a planet (to lose) in a galaxy in some (to forget) corner of a universe.
10. An hour she sat (to turn) her ring in water and (to count) the days of happiness.
11. A friendship (to found) on business is better than business (to found) on friendship.
12. He was not very good at gardening, (to bring up) with a back yard and a few sinking
geraniums.
13. O ur heart is like a ship on a stormy sea (to drive) about by winds (to blow) from all four
corners of heaven.
14. A key-(to wind) alarm clock is one of the most traditional ways of waking up in the
morning.
T h v P a r u e , .c 95

Form participles of the follow ing verbs and use th em to complete the sentences.

blow call Invite live offer post read ring sit study wait work

1. I was woken up by a b e ll....


2. All letters ... today should arrive tom orrow .
3. None of the people ... to the party can come.
4. Sometimes life must be very unpleasant for people ... near airports.
5. S o m e b o d y... Jack phoned while you were out.
6. There was a tree ... down in the storm last night.
7. A few days after the interview, I received a le tte r... me the job.
8. Tom has got a b ro th e r... In a bank in London and a siste r... economics at university in
Glasgow.
9. W hen I entered there was nobody ... except for a young man ... by the w indow ... a
magazine.

Ex. 159 sTranslate the sentences into English.

1. Мэри села на упавшее дерево.


2. Д ети играли в разрушенном коттедже.
3. Услышав знакомую м елодию , она улы бнулась.
4. Потеряв книгу, он не смог подготовиться к уроку.
5. О ни провели вечер, рассматривая семейный альбом.
6. Он дотронулся д о горячего чайника, тут же отдернув руку.
7. Быстро взглянув на часы, она поняла, что опаздывает.
8. Читая статью, студентка выписала много новых выражений.
9. Оглянувшись, он заметил таксиста, стоявшего у своей машины.
10. Женщина посмотрела на забор, который красили ее сыновья.
11. Придя в магазин, она поняла, что оставила дома список покупок.
12. Из-за выцветших чернил мы не смогли прочитать письмо целиком.
13. Приняв окончательное решение, он рассказал родителям о своих планах.
14. Вернувшись в Англию после кругосветного путешествия, Чарльз Дарвин
опубликовал свою знаменитую работу.
15. Так как дом не рем онтировали более пятидесяти лет, он выглядел ужасающе.
16. Оставшись один, я огляделся.
96

PARTOCIPIES AS ATTRIBUTES

Ex. 160 Translate the sentences into Russian and com m ent on the use of participles.

1. He looked dow n at the dog lying at his feet.


2. Th e y came to a tree broken by the recent storm.
3. The tune being played by the band brings back the sweet memories of my youth.
4. A barking dog woke him up.
5. If you stand still outside you can hear the sound of falling leaves.
6. They talk about the play being staged now at the local theatre.
7. John, fishing next to Mark, caught a big fish.
8. He could hardly recognize the wom an standing before him.
9. There was a noise of furniture being moved upstairs.
10. Just before the show the square filled up with drunk youngsters.
11. W e sat there charmed by the song being sung by an unseen girl.
12. W e saw an overturned truck and a policeman being kicked by half a dozen youths.
13. To know the road ahead, ask those coming back.
14. She had a hand on his shoulders and was including herself in the pictures being taken.

B.
1. Friends are kisses blown to us by angels.
2. All the world is a laboratory to the inquiring mind.
3. W hat is a friend? A single soul dwelling in tw o bodies.
4. I am made entirely of flaws stitched with good intentions.
5. The Internet is just a world passing around notes in a classroom.
6. England and America are two countries divided by a com m on language.
7. A book is like a garden carried in the pocket.
8. A diplomat is a man remembering a woman's birthday but never remembering her age.
9. Some have half-baked ideas because their ideals are not heated up enough.
10. Income tax returns are the most imaginative fiction being written today.
11. W e have too many high sounding words and too few actions that correspond with them.
12. Sometimes the shortest distance between tw o points is a winding path walked arm in
arm.
13. Beautiful and graceful, varied and enchanting, butterflies lead you to the sunny side of
life.
14. The music being played at this wedding ceremony reminds me of the music of soldiers
going into battle.
1h e P a r f a ^ . e 97

Give attribute phrases using participles, rephrase th em and translate into Russian.

M o d e l: a) a fish; to fly a flying fish = a fish that can fly (that flies); л е т а ю щ а я рыба
b) a letter; to write -> a written letter = a letter that was written; написанное письмо

1. children; to laugh 9. a thought; to disturb 17. a look; to question


2. a look; to understand 10. colours; to glow 18. ground; to forbid
3. a building; to burn 11. a book; to seal 19. light; to blind
4. fruit; to forbid 12. indifference; to seem 20. beauty; to fade
5. a man; to know 13. a crowd; to cheer 21. a face; to draw
6. interest; to grow 14. a page; to miss 22. a remark; to cut
7. winter; to come 15. eyes; to search 23. a story; to touch
8. sheep; to lose 16. a lamp; to stand 24. a thought; to sober

Ex. 162 O pen the brackets using participles.

1. Rats desert a (to sink) ship.


2. A (to watch) pot never boils.
3. (To steal) pleasures are sweetest.
4. Beauty of face is a (to pass) flower.
5. Adversity (to overcom e) Is the greatest glory.
6. A book tightly (to shut) is nothing but a block of paper. 1
7. There Is no fool so great as a (to know ) fool.
8. W hen a thing is funny, search it for a (to hide) truth.
9. A (to tear) jacket is soon mended; but hard words bruise the heart.
10. W hat do you think of this new gadget (to sell) everywhere now?
11. An ambassador is an honest man (to send) abroad to lie for his country.
12. The shampoo (to advertize) now will make your hair full and silky.
13. The world breaks everyone and afterward many are strong In the (to break) places.
14. W e behaved in the customary fashion of people (to show) over houses.
15. Nobel Prize money is a lifebelt (to th ro w ) to a swim m er w ho has already reached the
shore in safety.
16. W hen there are tw o (to conflict) versions of a story, believe the one in which people
appear at their worst.
Ex. 163 Use the participles to make up com pound adjectives.

1. This jam was not bought in a shop. It is h o m e -.... built


2. Housework is a n e v e r-... task. catching
3. 1 hate t im e -... paperwork. consuming
4. Her whisper was h a ir -.... It made him shiver. curling
5. S a n d -... castles fall in the sea eventually. employed
6. W e walked down the dark t r e e -... road. ending
7. The climate in this region is m u c h -.... lined
8. Isn't it time to help your lo n g -... parents? made
9. Brad needs an e y e -... slogan for his campaign. maligned
10. There are no paid holidays or sick leave if you are a s e lf-... author. raising
11. 'All The Best' is a r i b - ... comedy. suffering
12. 1saw the worst com edy I've ever seen last night, absolutely t o e -...! tickling

Ex. 164 Make up com pound adjectives using the participles of the verbs given in brackets.

1. It was like remembering a half-{forget) dream.


2. He thought about it in the same way as all other nght-(think) folk.
3. Th e y warned us that this was not a well-(trove/) road.
4. They're a well-(frave/) couple.
5. This is an entertaining yet thought-(p/-ovo/ce) film.
6. She w ent to the henhouse to fetch some new-(/oy) eggs for breakfast.
7. Th e train's whistle made an ear-(split) noise.
8. On all sides of them were trucks and autos, with here and there a horse-(d ra w ) vehicle.
9. He glanced up at the candle-(//g/?t) portraits hanging on the dark walls.
10. The old long-(p/ay) records were on their way out.
11. Spending a week in the jungle was a m ind-(b lo w ) experience.
12. She walked through the wind-(sweep) park.
13. She always played to well -(fill) houses.
14. Panic-(str/ice), she rushed out of the room.
15. \Ne\\-(mean) friends may even try to stop you!

Ex. 165 A. Form participles I from the verbs in the box and com plete the sentences.

tease sprawl chat blind ask contain ache cross

1. I found myself with an ... head.


2. Late at night he received a telegram from his fa th e r... him to come home at once.
3. In the room there were four men ... over their coffee.
4. In the drawer he kept the envelopes ... his children's letters.
■ ■: Purtir'u.e 99

5. John busied himself with the complex of a ... city.


6. He saw the bright anger in her eyes and the confusion ... Jack's face.
7. He made a few ... remarks.
8. A ... sun in a deep blue sky sparkled on the new snow that blanketed the mountains.

B. Form participles II from the verbs in the box and com plete the sentences.

ask deliver freeze force injure learn make share (2) use

1. A question ... in the right way often points to its answer.


2. Lessons w e ll... in youth are never forgotten.
3. Architecture is ... music.
4. A trouble ... is a trouble halved. A joy ... is a joy ... double.
5. Words are, of course, the most powerful drug ... by mankind.
6. Cats always listen to accusations with an air o f ... innocence.
7. Most conversations are simply monologues ... in the presence of witnesses.
8. A ... kindness deserves no thanks.

Ex. 166 Replace the clauses w ith participles II.

M o d e l: The only m an w ho was injured was quickly taken to hospital.


- The only m an injured was taken to hospital.

1. The animals that were caught in the trap struggled furiously.


2. Tennis is one of the most popular games which is played all the year round.
3. The thing you've bought isn't w orth the money you've spent.
4. His words, which he uttered in an undertone, reached my ears.
5. The guests w ho arrived recently were taking off their coats.
6. The moon which rose seemed so close, I could have touched it.
7. And the answer that had so long been expected came at last.
8. There was a peculiar silence in the room, which was broken only by the crackle of paper.
9. They are an example of a love story which has gone wrong.
10. He smiled the happy smile of a voyager w ho arrived at last in safe haven.
11. The theatre we all loved much w ent up in flames one night.

Ex. 167 Replace the clauses w ith the appropriate form of participle I.

M o d e l: a) The m an who bent over her is her director.


- The m an bending over her is her director.
b) The bike which they repair now / which is n o w repaired cost m e a fortune.
- The bike being repaired no w cost me a fortune.

1. The children w ho came to the farm every Sunday helped her about the house.
2. The crew w ho are shooting now a new film refuse to give any interviews.
100

3. The film they are shooting now is a typical thriller.


4. The secretary w ho was typing letters looked very busy.
5. The letter she is typing now is strictly confidential.
6. Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London.
7. The problem which is discussed now is of vital importance.
8. Peter seated himself in a leather chair which faced the desk.
9. He speaks like a man who has an opinion of everything.
10. Th e party which M ary organizes is likely to be a success.
11. There are thousands of people who are now held in a traffic jam in Bridle Street.

Ex. 168 Paraphrase the sentences changing attribute clauses into participial phrases.

M odel: a) His words had the effect which he desired.


- His words had the desired effect.
b) Passengers who travel on planes shouldn't smoke.
- Passengers travelling on planes shouldn't smoke.
c) I always read the poems which are published in Sunday Times.
- 1 always read poems being published / published in Sunday Times.

1. The book which describes his entire life has become an instant bestseller.
2. The events and characters which the book describes are purely fictional.
3. He acted on the plan which he had worked out long time ago.
4. W hat do you know about the plan which we are working out right now?
5. The movie which the newspapers are discussing will be a smash hit, I'm sure.
6. Stephen, w ho was listening to the unspoken speech behind the words, said nothing.
7. Customers w ho complain about the service should see the manager.
8. I couldn't understand the expression on the face of a boy w ho was bullied by his
classmates.
9. It's probably the only thing that keeps me alive.
10. Chris looked at him with hope which brightened his face.
11. She felt like a wife w ho was constantly deceived by her husband.
12. Joe, w hom m y words shook more than he wanted to admit, shrugged his shoulders.
13. He listened to the tinkling of the ice cubes which she was shaking in her glass.

Ex. 169 Paraphrase the sentences changing attribute clauses into participial phrases w here
possible.

1. Something in the car that was going by seemed strange to him.


2. He thought there was something strange in the car that just had passed him.
3. W ho is the man w ho phones you every M onday?
4. The man who phoned you yesterday is waiting for you downstairs.
5. He looks like a man w ho is pulling a rabbit out of his hat.
Г h e P a r t ic ip ie 101

6. He looks like a man w h o has just pulled a rabbit out of his hat.
7. He looks like a rabbit which has just been pulled out of ahat.
8. He looks like a rabbit which is being pulled out of a hat.
9. The man w ho made a report yesterday is not here.
10. They looked like a pair of buddies w ho fished off a river bank.
11. The w om an w ho had seen the m urderer decided to go to the police.
12. He wondered if it was a desert mirage which had been brought on by heat.
13. He had a big massive gold watch, which used to belong to his father.
14. It was nothing but applause for a job which is well done.
15. The picture that fascinated her at the museum turned out to bean 18th-century masterpiece.
16. The newspapers carried reports of a storm that had ruined several villages.
17. Th e newspapers carried reports of several villages that were ruined by a storm.
18. Jack almost dropped the leather bag on which he had been writing.
19. I went to the hall and swallowed something that had been wanting to be swallowed for
ten minutes.

Ex. 170 Com bine the sentences using participial phrases w here possible.

1. He looked at the Tower. It dominated the surrounding buildings.


2. He looked at the buildings. Th e y were dominated by the Tower.
3. We are going to see our friends tom orrow . They have just returned from a voyage.
4. W e are going to meet our friends tom orrow . Th e y return from a voyage.
5. A proverb is a short sentence. It is based on long experience.
6. The dog barks every night. W h a t can we do about it?
7. She jum ped out of bed. A loud sound awoke her.
8. I have just met him. He was coming through the back door and he was dressed as a
waiter.
9. M y m other is making marmalade in the kitchen. This marmalade is especially good on
toast.
10. M y m other has made marmalade. This marmalade is especially good on toast
11. The millionaire bought a picture. The painter was Picasso.
12. He applied for a job. The advertisement for the job was in the paper.
13. Chip had been watching him with unease. The unease grew.

Ex. 171 Translate the w ords in brackets choosing between participle I and participle II.

1. The sight of (накрываемого стола) made my m outh water.


2. The sight of (накрытого стола) made my mouth water.
3. Suddenly I heard a sound of а (ключа, поворачиваемого) in the lock.
4. Suddenly I heard a sound of а (ключа, поворачивающегося) in the lock.
5. (Бутылка вина открываемая) now by my husband has been kept in our family for many
years.
6. (Бутылка вина открытая) by my husband has been kept in our family for many years.
7. If dreams die, life becomes а (птицей со сломанными крыльями).
8. Forbidden pleasures are like (отравленны й хлеб).
9. They stood at the (заправляемой машины) and watched the meter.
10. It is the (письмо, которое не отправили) that is often the most valuable.
11. Her manner was of а (кошки, которой д а л и ) an unexpected saucer of cream.
12. Th e y are now at а (конференции, которая проходит) at the University.
13. Unable to attend the (конференцию, проходившую тогда) at the University, we asked
to be sent reports.
14. Th e y were sharing impressions of the (прошедшая конференция).
15. (Каждый портрет, который был написан) with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not of
the sitter.
16. (Кость, которую бросили) to the dog is not charity. Charity is the (кость, которой
поде ли лись) with the dog when you are just as hungry as the dog.

Ex. 172 Translate into English the words in brackets using participles as attributes w here
possible.

1. The num ber of apartm ent houses (строящихся) in the city is growing.
2. W hat is the num ber of apartment houses (построенных) in the past few years?
3. The workers (строивш ие) this house used new construction methods.
4. The workers (построивш ие) this house are working in another city now.
5. Here are some samples of our products (посылаемы е) to different parts of the
country.
6. These are the samples of products (посланных) last month.
7. Here is the list of plants (посылающих) the samples of their products to us.
8. Here is the list of plants (приславш их) the samples of their products to us.
9. He was looking at the boy (сидевшего) on a chair in the garden.
10. The boy (сидевш ий) on a chair in the garden left.
11. Did you see in what direction the man (стоявший здесь) went?
12. We came up to the man (стоявшему на углу) and asked him the way.
13. The people (ожидаю щ ие доктора) have been sitting here for a long time.
14. The people (ожидавш ие вас) have just gone.
15. The tourists (прибы вш ие) yesterday are having breakfast on the terrace now.
16. Th e tourists (прибывающие) in the m orning will be put up on the second floor of the
hotel.
17. The surgeon (сделавш ий эту операцию) promised the patient a speedy recovery.
18. Th e dress (висевшее) in the shop w indow has mysteriously disappeared.
19. The dress (висевшее) in the shop w indow was admired by everybody.
The Participle 103

Ex. 173 Choose the best variant for each of the sentences.

1 knowing; known; w ho know

1. Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa depicts a w om an ... for her famous half-smile.
2. W e hate people ... more than w e do.
3. She stammered and he gave her a slow ... smile.

2 raising; raised; who raised

1. People ... by loving parents feel secure through the whole of their lives.
2. People ... small children have no spare time.
3. People ... me died long ago.

3 convincing; convinced; who convinced

1. A successful leader can always find a ... argument.


2. There is nothing m ore dangerous than a man ... in his being absolutely right.
3. Today, after so many years, I can say I am thankful to my teacher... me to follow this career.

4 inspiring; inspired; who inspired

1. She was a w om an o f ... beauty.


2. W om an ... countless poets and artists now looked ugly, even sinister.
3. An ... poet can forget about the necessity to eat and sleep.

5 seating; seated; w ho seated

1. W hen I entered, there was nobody in the cafe except for a w om an ... her old companion
into the chair.
2. The w om an ... near the w in d ow enjoyed herself watching people in the street.
3. The w om an ... her old companion into the chair ran away to fetch some tea.

6 solving; solved; who solved

1. A problem which is well stated is a problem h a lf....


2. You look so happy — like a man ... a complex problem.
3. You seem to be concentrating on something — like a man ... a complex problem.

7 closing; closed; w ho close; who closed

1. The boy ... in the attick started crying.


2. I don't understand people ... their eyes on problems.
3. The m a n a g e r... the plant last month decided to pay the workers some compensation.
4. W e could hardly wait until the ... shots of the film.

8 sending; sent; who sends; who sent

1. W ho is the man ... me this postcard? I can't imagine w ho it can be.


2. W ho is the man ... me these postcards? I receive them every Monday.
3. W here is the man ... for the postcards? W hy is he still here?
4. The post office is crowded with people ... Christmas cards.
104

9 preparing; prepared; who prepares; who prepared

1. He went ahead ... for any surprise.


2. The man ... birthday parties is not here at the mom ent.
3. W e have come to offer help to the w om an ... your birthday party.
4. Unfortunately, M a r y ... the whole party, couldn't come and enjoy the results of her work.

10 welcoming; welcomed; who welcomed

1. The hostess stood on the porch with a ... smile.


2. Th e guests ... into the house took off their coats.

11 retiring; retired; who retired

1. ... people often go travelling.


2. A colleague of mine ... a month ago is going to Tibet.

12 leaving; left; who left

1. The girls ... for the railway station ran downstairs.


2. Th e girls ... for the railway station must be on the train already.

13 writing; written; who wrote

1. Few w om en ... letters can finish them w ithout adding a PS.


2. A man ... his first letter can't help re-reading it again and again.

14 filling; filled; who fills

1. ... with disgust, she shuddered.


2. W here is the man ... this barrel with beer?

15 eating; eaten; w ho eat(s); who ate

1. People ... fast food in childhood find it difficult to control their weight in adult life.
2. I smiled at a homeless man ... his breakfast outside of a soup kitchen.
3. Dennis got up and left his breakfast h a lf....

16 giving; given; who gives; who gave

1. John is a man a lw a ys... wise advice.


2. J o h n ,... wise advice, finally saw the solution to his problem.
3. I w ant to thank John ... me wise advice. It was very helpful.

Ex. 174 Som e of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. M oney spended is money lended.


2. The contract signed now will be profitable to our company.
3. Dance is the hidden language of the soul.
4. She opened the envelope with trembling hands.
5. The decision arrived was to everybody's satisfaction.
е 105

Some questions having touched upon in the report are w orth considering.
The suspect having been questioned for several hours finally confessed his crime.
She sat into the armchair at the w indow looking at the mountains lighting by the sun.
Every man's life is a written by God's fingers fairy-tale.
Th e red chamber was a spare room very seldom slept.
Th e girl having sat opposite him suddenly got up and left.
Art is a science having been made clear.
Life is a moderately good play with a written badly third act.
Illusions mistaking for truth are the pavement under our feet.
I have seen gross intolerance showed in support of tolerance.

Translate into English.

Он говорил на лом аном английском.


Он повел нас к ожидавш ей нас лодке.
О н оглядел сад с довольной улыбкой.
Завядшие цветы все еще стояли в вазе.
Вы задаете мне вопросы, смущающие меня.
Старик, работавший в саду, не сразу заметил меня.
Мальчика, продававшего газеты, уже не бы ло видно.
Гости, приведенные моим другом , всем понравились.
Всходившее солнце освещало своими лучами комнату.
Взошедшее солнце освещало лучами комнату.
Только что приехавшие родственники смеялись в прихожей.
Хорошо одетый незнакомец сразу привлек наше внимание.
Человек по имени Гарри пообещ ал вывести нас из лабиринта.
Душ а, никого не любившая, — как дом , в котором никогда не ж или.
Картины, висевшие в зале номер пять, сейчас реставрируются.
Картины, купленные музеем, находятся в зале номер пять.
О ди н из четырех человек, игравших в бридж , попросил чашку чая.
Человек, принесший письмо от Артура, хотел поговорить с ней наедине.
Они часто дум а ли о своих друзьях, работавших на Дальнем Востоке.
Наши друзья, работавшие на Дальнем Востоке, недавно вернулись дом ой.
М альчик, которого сейчас осматривает доктор, был доставлен в больницу час
назад.
Человек, дремавш ий у окна, вдруг проснулся и спросил, какая эта станция.
Человек, дремавш ий у окна, улыбался во сне.
Новая книга, о которой сейчас много говорят, была написана молоды м талантливым
автором.
106

PARTICIPLES IN PREDICATES

Ex. 176 Translate the sentences into Russian and com m ent on the use of the participles.

A.
1. She looked worried.
2. A cold shower is always stimulating.
3. I felt refreshed and rested.
4. He looked threatening.
5. He seemed delighted to see me again.
6. In cold weather water becomes frozen.
7. He remained sitting at the table and listened.
8. Look at the house being built over there.
9. Los Angeles seems held between light and dark.
10. I used to tell all my trouble to Mrs Winkshap,our neighbor living next door.
11. W hen I get bored I get distracted and when I get distracted, I become depressed.
12. Sometimes small weaknesses seem charming and engaging.
13. W e discussed the attempts being made to correct the situation.
14. Her achievements remained underestimated.
15. Ideas can't go to jail. Books w on 't stay banned for ever.
16. Hollywood doesn't matter much anymore. The magic is gone.

B.
1. Don't go for the looks. They are deceiving.
2. A poem is never finished, only abandoned.
3. The days of the digital watch are numbered.
4. We shall see the sky sparkling with diamonds.
5. Holidays are tempting only for the first week or so.
6. A dollar saved is a dollar earned.
7. Hope is faith holding your hand in the dark.
8. Life in continual chaos seems exhausting and frightening
9. Answers to big questions don't remain stone-written.
10. Th e only thing that comes to a sleeping man are dreams.
11. The most astonishing thing about miracles is that they happen.
12. Th e only reason some people get lost in thought is because it'sunfamiliar territory.
13. There is nothing better than to return to a place that remains unchanged since your
childhood.
14. A kiss is a lovely trick designed by nature to stop words when speech becomes tiring.
15. Sunshine is delicious, rain is refreshing, snow is exhilarating, there is no such thing as
bad weather.
16. If we disguise ourselves to others, in the end we become disguised to ourselves.
17. Freshness is important. If a thing seems new, intriguing, challenging and enchanting, it
will sell, and sell well.
!r: ? P a r ? r jp e 107

J Choose the correct variant. Point ou t the variety of link verbs.

1. I grew tirin g /tire d and w ent to bed.


2. She felt relaxed/ relaxing In the hot sun.
3. Her experience sounded terrified/ terrifying.
4. The old lady gets easily confusing/ confused.
5. The police seemed puzzled / puzzling by the clues.
6. The children were thrilled/ thrilling with the clown's tricks.
7. The students looked fascinating / fascinated by the exhibition.
8. He got terribly excited/ exciting to be asked to play for Wales.
9. If fear alters your behaviour, you are already defeating / defeated:
10. This is really tirin g /tire d . I have become exhausting/ exhausted.
11. The increase in the num ber of car thefts looks alarm ed/ alarming.
12. He was very surprising / surprised by her sudden change of attitude.
13. He was disturbing / disturbed by the threatened/ threatening phone calls.
14. He felt slightly em barrassed/ embarrassing at being the center of attention.
15. W h y do people get frig h te n in g/frig h te n e d of new ideas? I get frigh te n in g/frig h te n e d
of the old ones.

Choose the correct variant.

On Saturday I took my children to the circus. I thought I would have a b o rin g /b o re d time, but actually
I was quite astonishing / astonished by the am azing / am azed acts. W e were stunning / stunned by
the acrobats. Th e y balanced on top of each other with incredible ease. W e were really impressing
/ impressed by their performance. The children found the lion-tamer's act exciting / excited. I felt
terrifying / terrified when he put his hands into the lion's m outh, but the children were amusing /
amused and clapped loudly. A magician performed incredible tricks; it was fascinating /fa scina ted
to watch him make various objects disappear and reappear. The children were more interesting /
interested in the elephant act. W hen the huge animals came into the arena, the audience cheered.
The elephants were very well-trained and their tricks were entertaining / entertained. Some children
from the audience were invited to ride on the elephants' backs. M y children were disappointing /
disappointed when they were not chosen, but their disappointment faded when the clowns took
the center ring. It was quite a captivating / captivated show. By the time w e got home we all felt
exhausting / exhausted.

Ex. 179 | O pen the brackets using participles.

1. His ignorance was (to horrify).


2. The cool breeze seems so (to refresh).
3. The roar of the crowd sounded (to deafen).
4. If it w eren't for the last minute, nothing would get (to do).
108

5. He w ho abandons the field stays (to beat).


6. The money in his pocket felt (to earn out) already.
7. This year's sales figures look (to encourage).
8. W ar does not determine who is right — only w ho is (to leave).
9. The instructions on the box sounded (to confuse).
10. The film about the homeless was (to depress).
11. I don't care where I sit as long as I get (to feed)
12. The idea of a trip abroad seemed (to appeal) to us.
13. All these years I have been growing into myself. Finally Ifeel (to grow ).
14. Some books are undeservedly (to forget); none areundeservedly (to rem em ber).
15. Last night I dreamed I ate a huge marshmallow, and when I woke up the pillow was (to go).

Ex. 180 Com plete the sentences using the suitable participles form ed fro m the verbs in the
colum n on the right.

1. This lemon cake looks very .... a. accuse


2. In a war of ideas it is people w ho g e t .... b. cast
3. The journey was ro u g h ,... and took us eleven days. c. pay
4. Her dedication to the family was .... d. go
5. The world is a stage, but the play is badly .... e. intrigue
6. W here is my purse? — It is ... 1Oh no, not again! f. kill
7. W hat she did was so ... that 1can hardly describe it. g- praise
8. People stay in love because they remain ... with each other. h. shock
9. You don't pay back your parents. The debt gets ... by your children. i. tem pt
10. If you live long enough, first you g e t ... of things you never did, and j- tire
later you g e t ... for virtues you never had. k. touch

Ex. 181 Com plete the sentences w ith the link verbs and participles. M o re than one variant is
possible.

frightening
be inspiring
look insulting
remain satisfying
seem startling

1. He was rude and his remarks _______________________________


2. Her monologue _______________ so that it kept the audience on the
edge of their seats.
3. The results of the e x p e rim e n t____________ r e a lly _______________ . Nobody expected
anything of the kind.
The Partie ¡j e 109

4. The tiger is in the cage, but it still___________________ ________________


5. W hen we saw the waiters we feared the worst but, surprisingly, the meal
quite ____________________ .

be
become disappointed
feel distracted
get excited / thrilled
grow exhausted
look hurt
remain irritated
seem relieved
sound satisfied
stay worried / disturbed
turn
1. Having passed the exam with flying colours s h e __________________
2. He worked at the com puter for fourteen hours running. H e _____
3. I had to listen to his annoying voice for tw o hours and finally I ___
4. It was past midnight. The children were still outside. The m o th e r. more and
more
5. Many young teachers______________ _____________ . with their profession.
6. Seeing Jane safe and sound w e ______________
7. The lecture was boring and the student gradually
8. Though Hugh apologized to her, Elisabeth ______
9. W hen Peter broke the exciting news w e __________ greatly

Ex. 182 Translate into English using the prom pts given and different link verbs.

A.
1. В дом е оказалось больш е лю дей, чем обычно. T O CROW D
2. Ваша история поразительна. T O AM AZE
3. Я не склонен играть в игры. T O INCLINE
4. Его ответ был невразумительным. T O CONFUSE
5. Сама идея вызывала беспокойство. T O DISTURB
6. Спектакль был завораживающим. T O MESMERIZE
7. Глаза его, казалось, видели насквозь . T O PENETRATE
8. Запах из столовой очень соблазнительный. T O ENTICE
9. Окна были закрыты ставнями от солнца. T O SH UTTER
10. Меры, к которым они прибегли, казались возмутительными. T O SHOCK
11. Финч выглядел отрешенным, погруженным в собственные мысли. TO DETACH, TO LOSE
12. Она приш ла в недоумение. T O BEWILDER
13. Эти вопросы сбивают с толку. T O EMBARRASS
14. Он так и остался несносным. TO EXASPERATE
110

в.

COM FO RT C O N V IN C E FASCIN ATE FR U STR A TE H U M IL IA T E IN V ITE


OVERW HELM PEN ETR A TE SATISFY SPOIL TER R IFY W EA R O U T

1. Все обаятельные лю ди становятся испорченными.


2. Путешествие бы ло поистине захватывающим.
3. М оре вы глядит так заманчиво. П ойду поплаваю.
4. Д е ло движется м едленно, и это огорчает.
5. Запах чеснока в душ ном купе становился все сильнее.
6. Казалось, что счастье ее безгранично.
7. Она не чувствует себя настолько уверенной, насколько хочет казаться.
8. Проигрыш в битве был д л я него позором.
9. Скорость, с которой они ехали, приводила в ужас.
10. Она осталась вполне довольной собой.
11. Такое утешение — знать о вашей поддерж ке.
12. Ты себя не бережешь. Похоже, ты совсем вымотался.

Ex. 183 Translate into English and state the functions of participles.

1. Новости были шокирующими.


2. У него был очень испуганный вид.
3. Ф р е дд и почувствовал облегчение.
4. Его последнее письмо казалось таким трогательным.
5. Рано или поздно преступник оказывается пойманным.
6. Страшно даж е подумать, что он может предпринять.
7. Все важные вопросы решались при закрытых дверях.
8. Ее голос был как журчащий ручеек.
9. М оя бабушка, рассказавшая мне эту семейную историю, живет в другом городе.
10. Некоторые сцены этого боевика просто ужасают.
11. О н ни за что не хотел тратить деньги, отложенные на поездку.
12. В его голосе все еще была неудовлетворенность.
13. Век рыцарей ушел.
14. Это похоже на письмо, которое показал мне д я д я Джек.
15. В дом е, который сейчас строится на площ ади, будет новый магазин.
Trie Pariic p e 111

PARTICIPLES AS ADVERBIALS
Ex. 184 Translate the sentences into Russian and state the functions of participles.

A.

1. She fell when skiing downhill.


2. Jum ping out of bed, he dressed very quickly.
3. Sally spends all her time going to parties.
4. Confused, the girl didn't know what to answer.
5. He fell from the chair, knocking over the tea things.
6. Having missed the train I decided not to go there at all.
7. Although told to go, Maxwell hesitated at the door.
8. She listened attentively while pretending not to.
9. She sank into the armchair as if totally exhausted.
10. Entering the station I saw a hurrying man followed by a porter.
11. Th e furniture was to be stored in Madrid until sent for.
12. Lying he spoke more quickly than when he told the truth.
13. Even a shy person forgets his fears if occupied by something.
14. Having been once found on the beach, now the stone was one of the table's decorations.
15. Having received only one letter from him, she felt disappointed.
16. She turned round as if having heard her name from somewhere.
17. The boy was wearing a cap similar to those being worn by other jockeys.
18. He arrived after the wedding, having seen Lord Brideshead on his way through Paris.

B.

1. Change always comes bearing gifts.


2. Although defeated, never feel discouraged.
3. Youth would be an ideal state if coming a little later in life.
4. True friendship, like sound health, is seldom valued until lost.
5. Th e moon above the square looked as if made of the same stone.
6. Once stretched by a new idea, man's mind never goes back to its original size.
7. Having once decided to achieve a certain task, achieve it at all costs of tedium and distaste.
8. M any exciting ideas are not important. And many important ideas are not exciting.
9. All speech is vain and em pty unless accompanied by action.
10. A man with love is alive. Having been alive, he w o n 't consider it so hard in the end to lie
down and rest.
11. A penny will hide the biggest star in the Universe if held close enough to your eye.
12. Life is not always fair. Sometimes you can get a splinter even sliding down a rainbow.
13. If we say a little, it is easy to add, but having said too much we find it impossible to take
the words back.
14. A painter looks at the old scenes as though seeing them for the first time.
15. If I had my life to live over, I would start barefoot in the spring staying that way later in the fall.
16. Weekends do not count unless you spend them doing something completely pointless.
112

17. Every man is wise when attacked by a mad dog, only the wisest survive when attacked
by a mad idea.
18. I was lying in bed this morning contemplating how amazing it could be if som ehow Oscar
W ilde could tw itter from the grave.
19. W hen in doubt, tell the truth.

Ex. 185 Paraphrase the sentences so as to use participles in the function of an adverbial of
tim e according to the m odel.

M o d e l: While he was walking down the avenue he wished to m eet her. ->
(W hile) walking down the avenue he wished to m eet her.

1. M ark opened the door and closed it softly.


2. W hen he saw them , he stopped to let them catch up with him.
3. W hen he said so, he left her and turned towards Soho.
4. While she was clearing the table she thought of the uselessness of such parties.
5. W hen gloomy thoughts attack me I run to my books.
6. W hen he reached the hotel, he went to their sitting-room and rang for tea.
7. As he pulled up at the house, he was surprised to see no light in the windows.
8. He bowed to the Chairman and walked out.
9. The girl took a sheet of paper and wrote the first words that came into her head.
10 . Once the words are printed, they have a life of their own.
11 . Never make a defence or an apology until som ebody accuses you.

r W Paraphrase the sentences so as to use participles in the function of an adverbial of


reason according to the model.

M o d e l: She asked fo r help because she didn't know w hat to do. - )


N ot knowing w hat to do, she asked fo r help.

As he was exhausted by work he threw himself on bed. ->


Having been exhausted/ Being exhausted/ Exhausted by work he threw himself on bed.

I. As he was busy, he refused the invitation.


2 She stopped, she didn't know which way to follow.
3. Mel stopped as he realized he was talking to himself.
4. As he was sure he was right, he felt calm and undisturbed.
5. He didn't notice me because he was absorbed in his thought.
6. I didn't want to sit down as I knew there were ants in the grass.
7. They had nothing to say because they were taken by surprise.
8. The dog began to howl because the thunder frightened it.
9. She was unable to sleep so she took a couple of sleeping pills.
10. The student forgot the meaning of the word so he had to look it up in the dictionary.
II. She didn't want to hear the story again as she had heard it before.
113

12. I don't know w hether I like it or not because I haven't tried it before.
13. As the book was written w ithout thought, it required no thought from those w ho read it.
14. Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work.

Ex. 187 Translate the parts in brackets using participles I as an adverbial of tim e or reason.

1. (Будучи довольны м сделкой), the boss let his employees leave the office early that day.
2. (Будучи оптимисткой), she hoped for the better.
3. (Будучи в Риме), they couldn't but visit Piazza di Spagna.
4. (Будучи суеверной), she believed that a broken m irror could bring bad luck.
5. (Будучи ш кольником), he used to read his favourite books in history classes.
6. (Будучи оскорбленной его поведением ), she slapped him on the face.
7. (Будучи в командировке), he missed his family a lot calling them twice a day.
8. (Будучи в кругосветном путешествии), we were carried away by the dramatic beauty of
Norway.

Ex. 188 Paraphrase the sentences so as to use participles I in the function of an adverbial
of attendant circumstances, m anner or subsequent events according to the m odel.

M o d e l: Robert stood motionless, he was leaning against the table. ->


Robert stood motionless leaning against the table, (an adverbial o f m anner)

1. He left the room, he tried not to wake up his nephew.


2. He sat by the open w indow and watched the people passing by. 1
3. She answered all my questions calmly and tried to look indifferent.
4. He left the room again and closed the door behind him with a bang.
5. I spent hours, I was balancing pros and cons of either course of action.
6. The servant entered the room, he was carrying the coffee for Mrs.Davids.
7. She smoked all the time and usually lit a fresh cigarette from the end of the last.
8. He stood before the house where he grew as a child and thought of many things.
9. In the evening they caught some fish, ate part of it and saved the rest for breakfast.
10. Excited, she poured herself a cup of coffee, but put it aside untouched a minute later.

Ex. 189 Paraphrase the sentences so as to use participles in the function of an adverbial
of com parison, concession or condition according to the m odel.

M odel If a b o o k is w ritte n w it h o u t e ffort, it w ill b e re a d w it h o u t p le a s u re . ->


I f w ritte n w it h o u t effort, th e b o o k w ill be r e a d w it h o u t p le a su re , (a n a d v e rb ia l o f c o n d itio n )

1. I cannot sleep unless I am surrounded by books.


2. Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it into small jobs.
3. She nodded as if she was convinced by w hat he was saying
4. Natali gave me a very long look as if she saw me for the first time.
5. Even if she is asked, she will give only a vague answer.
114

6. He listened as though he was brooding.


7. A thought often remains original though you have uttered it a hundred times.
8. He lived there for a long time, but he knew very few people in the neighbourhood.
9. A beautiful w om an could look good even if she is dressed in a potato sack.
10. Daisy took her face in her hands as if she was feeling its lovely shape.
11. A complicated problem becomes still more complicated if you look at it in the right way.
12. If you have knowledge, apply It; if you don't have it, confess your ignorance.

Ex. 190 O pen the brackets using the appropriate form of participle 1o r participle II.

1. He couldn't join his friends (to be) still busy In the laboratory.
2. (To visit) the museum before, 1knew my way easily.
3. (To forget) by everybody he felt lonely and unneeded.
4. Though (to live) away from home, he still felt part of the family.
5. (To work) as a taxi-driver for twenty years, he knew every corner.
6. (To look) out of the window, she saw there was a man working in the garden.
7. (To do) all that was required, she was the last to leave the office.
8. The reporter rose as if (to sting).
9. A lie runs until (to overtake) by the truth.
10. 'Tell you what,' said Gideon, as if (to strike) with a new idea.
11. W hen (to catch) between tw o evils, 1take the one I've never tried.
12. (N ot to wish) to discuss the problem, he changed the conversation.
13. (To get) out of bed she ran to the w indow and drew the curtain aside.
14. (To return) from the expedition he wrote a book about Central Africa.
15. Once (to throw ) into the world, man is responsible for everything he does.
16. The carriage was almost full, and (to put) his bag up in the rack, he took his seat.
17. Even if not (to overcome) at once, many problems will give in when (to take) little by little.

Ex. 191 Com plete the sentences using the w ords from the boxes.

as if; as though; if; though; unless; until; when

1. He did not hurry ... pressed for time.


2. He was in a h u r r y ... pressed for time.
3. He w ouldn't hurry even ... pressed for time.
4. ... playing, play h a r d ;... working, don't play at all.
5. Carter rubbed his little hands ... washing them .
6. Vanity and pride are different th in g s,... often used synonymously.
7. Courage is doing what you are afraid to do. You can't be courageous ... scared.
8. Most people would succeed in small things ... not troubled with great ambitions.
9. A book may be called good ... opened with expectation, read with delight and closed
with profit.
10. Be not too hasty either with praise or blame; speak always... giving evidence before the Gods.
115

debating; fighting; fulfilled; hurt, kept; napping; opened; seen

She screamed as though badly ....


A promise accounts to little unless ....
The man stood still for fully a minute as i f ... with himself.
M inds are like parachutes — they only function when ....
Be careful when ... the monsters, lest you become one.
Life is a tragedy when ... in close-up, but a com edy in long-shot.
In each of us there is a private dream which, i f ..., can benefit everyone.
I catnap now and then, but I think while ..., so it's not a waste of time.

as if surprised; as though seeing; if collected, if destroyed; if done; if not expected;


though cut; unless accompanied; when pursued; when unattended; while loading

She stopped in the doorway ... to see me there.


She looked down at the f lo o r... something there.
Husbands are like fires — they go o u t ....
Small d e e d s ,... together, become a great deal.
Do not do to others what will hurt you ... to you by others.
Vegetables lack a sense of purpose ... by a good cut of meat.
Tre e s ,..., grow up again quickly, but m e n ,..., are not quick to rise again.
W h e r e ,... his ark, did Noah find penguins and polar bears in Palestine?
Happiness is like a butterfly which, ..., is beyond our grasp, b u t ... may sit suddenly on
your shoulder.

Paraphrase the sentences using participles instead of underlined clauses.

/45 h e h a d w itn e s s e d th e c rim e , h e w a s e x p e c te d to g iv e e vid e n c e in c o u rt. ->


H a v in g w itn e s s e d the c rim e , he w a s e x p e c te d to g iv e e vid e n ce in c o u rt.

W h e n a p e s s im is t is g iv e n t w o b a d choices, h e ch o o s e s b o th .
W h e n g iv e n (H a v in g b e e n g iv e n ) t w o b a d ch oices, a p e s s im is t chooses b o th .

She moved her lips, as if sh e c o u n te d s o m e th in g .


W h e n I take a c h ild to th e circus. I always know I'm going to enjoy myself.
A s sh e h a d n o t h a d lu n c h , she wanted her tea badly.
W h e n I e n te re d th e r o o m . I felt some change in the atmosphere at once.
He had sprung to action as if s o m e th in g fr ig h te n e d h im .
When he hgd passed the last exgm. he began to look around for a job.
He liked doas. but he never let them come into his house.
Can a deed be right if it is done for the w rong reason?
As she hgd been walking most o f the night, she felt tired and sleepy.
I declined his offer of a loan a n d s a id t h a t I d id n 't like o w in g p e o p le m o n e y .
N o w th a t I h a v e h e a rd v o u r sid e o f th e q u e s tio n . I am more inclined to agree with you.
W e shall go by train as far as Odessa, then take a boat to Batumi, a n d finally retu rn b v p la n e .
13. A s the ship's c a p ta in h a d b ee n w a rn e d th a t b a d w e a th e r la v a h e a d , he changed the course.
14. W h e n h e w a s to ld that he would go there by plane, he felt excited, as h e h a d n e v e r
tra v e lle d b v a ir b e fo re .

Ex. 193 Join the sentences using participles and making any necessary changes in the w ord order.

1. She grinned from ear to ear. But she was furious.


2. He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner.
3. Th e world disappointed him. He became a monk.
4. 1turned on the light. 1was astonished at what 1saw.
5. The newspaper can't go to press so far. It is not signed by the editor yet.
6. She entered the room suddenly. She found them smoking.
7. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we'd got lost.
8. They found the treasure. Th e y began quarrelling how to divide it.
9. She was discouraged by the lack of support. But she w ent on trying.
10. This letter was addressed to the wrong house. It never reached my friend. (2)
11. He had to put off buying a house. He was unable to borrow money from any bank.
12. 1 have looked through the fashion magazines. 1 realize that my clothes are hopelessly
out-of-date.
13. M any people will fight over some idea today. To m o rro w they will have an entirely
different view point.
14. Th e man lost interest in his work. He hasn't been offered a higher post.

Ex. 194 Com plete the sentences using the prom ts from the box.

climb up the tree not to try it before to lose the election


to be unable to sleep to be embarrassed to feel out of place
to enjoy the book not to find enough evidence to lose the key
to be late for work for the third time to overwhelm with feelings to promise assistance
to build in the 15th century
M o d e l:

1. ........................... 1 left the party early.


2. ........................... the little boy tore his trousers.
3. ........................... she took a sleeping pill.
4. ........................... the church is in need of repair.
5. ........................... the police couldn't arrest him.
6. ........................... 1decided to see the film.
7.
8. ........................... he had to climb through the window.
9.
10.
11.
12.
J; , ?ЦГГ - ^ t 117

Com plete the sentences using pariciples in the function of an adverbial.

1................................he wears contact lenses.


2................................they decided to stay at home.
3. He began to s ta m m e r...........................
4 ................................he hopes to get promotion.
5................................they will never come.
6. The letter looked as i f ..........................
7 ................................she didn't show her true feelings.
8. The lady in a black hat was staring at us as i f ............................
9................................. we visited many sights popular with tourists.
10 ............................. he returned his attention to the m orning mail.
11. It is dangerous to be shaving w h ile ...........................
1 2 ............................. he will never forgive the offender.
13.....................................................he managed to collect his thoughts.
14 ............................. she was always surrounded by photographers.

Ex. 196 Make up sentences using the follow ing conjunctions and pariciples as adverbials.

W H ILE IF ONCE (A L )T H O U G H
W HEN UNLESS U N TIL AS IF

awoken assisted beaten apologizing


being introduced being changed deceived being engaged
being used being followed dropped being hunted
cooking being warned found being pushed
criticized lost hidden changed
following occuppied hurt crying
looking through stolen invited dancing
quarrelling stopped left fighting
stealing travelling opened realizing
using wearing signed warned

Ex. 197 Translate the fragments in brackets using participles, if possible.

1. (Узнав меня), she cried for me to stop and wait for her.
2. (Опустив монету и подняв трубку), he began to dial the number.
3. He smiled (как будто хранил) some fatal secret.
4. (Будучи веселым человеком) he could cheer up other people.
5. Words can be like baseball bats (когда их использую т) for evil purpose.
6. Each time (рассказывая об этом случае) he could not help a smile.
7. (Будучи в Риме), they stayed at Aunt Agatha's.
8. (Постучав дваж ды и не получив ответа), he decided that there was nobody in.
9. (Толкнув дверь), he felt that it was not locked, and (открыв ее) he looked inside.
10. (Закончив лекцию ), the Professor looked over the students (ож идая) questions.
11. She didn't go with us, (потому что ее попросили присмотреть за) a sick relative.
12. (Если ее потревожить), the bird may abandon the nest, (и оставить) the chicks to die.
13. The weather cock, (хотя и сделан из железа), will soon be broken if refuses to turn to
every wind.
14. He stood, (словно громом пораженный).
15. W e took a trip down the river and spent the whole day on the water, (приехав обратно)
when it was dark.
16. (Будучи в хорошем расположении духа) he was cheerful and talkative. But that wasn't
his usual state.

Ex. 198 Translate into English using participles in the function of an adverbial.

1. Они бы ли заняты тем, что упаковывали вещи.


2. Выйдя из автобуса, мы направились в булочную.
3. Обнаружив, что дом пуст, она вышла на улицу.
4. Не зная, что делать, она решила, что попытается выиграть время.
5. Истратив все деньги, он начал брать в долг.
6. Она побежала к дом у, как будто пытаясь скрыться.
7. Слава приходит, когда ее заслужили.
8. Дав ему обещание, я не смог не прийти.
9. Мы пробыли весь де нь в городе и уехали вечером. (2)
10. Включив свет, Кейт увидела, что в комнате кто-то был.
11. Никогда не давай советов, если тебя не попросили.
12. Книги еще не прибы ли, хотя их заказали дв е недели назад.
13. Он вспомнил, что не долж ен курить, пока ему не предложат.
14. Поскольку я уже видел этот фильм, я реш ил переключить на другой канал.
15. Когда она была на работе, она получила факс от их зарубежного партнера.
16. Он смог бы сделать гораздо больше д л я вас, если бы бы л лучш е осведом лен.
17. Она рассказывала мне о своем детстве, как будто листая страницы детской книги.
18. Застигнутый врасплох, мальчик спрятал руки за спину.
119

PARTICIPLES AS PARENTHESES

Ex. 199 Translate the sentences into Russian and co m m en t on the use of the participles.

1. Summing up, it's clear that the future holds great opportunities.
2. Having told the truth, leave immediately after.
3. Frankly speaking, first memories are most lasting.
4. Broadly speaking, the short words are the best, and the old words are best of all.
5. It is astonishing how little one feels alone when one loves.
6. If people are fallen angels, they have indeed fallen far.
7. To live is so startling, it leaves little time for anything else.
8. Mildly speaking, there are a lot of lies going around the world and the worst is half of
them are true.
9. Family faces are magic mirrors. Looking at people w ho belong to us, we see the past,
present and future.
10. In mathematics you don't understand things. You just get used to them .
11. Being a philosopher, I have a problem for every solution.
12. A life spent making mistakes is more useful than a life spent doing nothing.
13. Inanimate objects are divided into those not working, those breaking down and those
that get lost.
14 It is frightening and unnerving to watch a stone melt.
15 Opera is a place where a guy, when stabbed in the back, sings instead of bleeding.
16. Unless planted while you are young, knowledge will give you no shade when you grow old.
17. History, although sometimes made up of the few acts of the great, is more often shaped
by the many acts of the small.

Ex. 200 Com plete the sentences w ith suitable parentheses. M o re than one variant is possible.

strictly speaking broadly speaking


roughly speaking m ildly speaking
generally speaking allowing fo r
as mentioned above putting it mildly
put bluntly ju d gin g by (from )
frankly speaking saying nothing of
personally speaking taking everything into consideration

M odel: Judging from w hat you say, he ought to succeed.

1. Secrets,.......................... are not very well kept nowadays, with reporters and television
cameras all around us.
2................................, it might have been said that youth and hope in w om en touched him.
3.............................. .. I'm sick and tired of this nonsense.
4 .............................. .. she is just a bit inquisitive.
5................................. these studies were done in Colombia.
6.............................. .. dogs are more faithful than cats.
7 .............................. his expression, he is in a bad mood.
8 .............................. .. they ought to be given another chance.
9 .............................. , I don't like spicy food.
10............................ .. she's not nearly as smart as she seems to think she is.
1 1............................ past experience, he will be late again.
12. It will take you half an hour to get to the sta tio n ,.........................the traffic delays.
13............................ .. I couldn't care less what happens to him.
14 ............................ , he's not qualified for the job.
15. Her knowledge and experience were invaluable,.........................her kindness and courtesy.

Make up sentences using participles as parentheses.

For exam ple: He is a very competent employee, saving nothing o f his personol quglities.

la m T iM Translate into English and state the functions of participles.

1. Честно говоря, этот цвет неприятен глазу.


2. Мягко говоря, замечание было обидны м.
3. В общем говоря, я не совсем поддерж иваю ваши планы.
4. Он посмотрел на дом , который строили на противополож ном берегу реки.
5. Судя по тому, как он себя ведет, он знает, о чем говорит.
6. У него бы ли редкие волосы, гладко зачесанные назад.
7. Строго говоря, эксперимент, который сейчас проводится, будет очень важен д л я
будущ ей работы.
8. Голос в темноте звучал ужасающе.
9. Если говорить прямо, я не чувствую ничего, кроме презрения.
10. Д л я разбитого сердца нет лекарства.
11. Как уже отмечалось, древние рим ляне много позаимствовали у греков.
12. Вещи, которые бы ли уже упакованы, леж али на по лу около дверей.
13. Фотограф, сделавш ий этот снимок, известен за рубежом, не говоря уже о своем
родном городе.
14. Дж им был слишком подавлен, чтобы слуш ать их разговор.
15. Она не ответила, хотя и знала ответ.
16. Книга вы глядит так, как будто ее повредил дож дь.
121

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

Ex. 203 Arrange the given parts into sentences.

1. sleeping, The child, on his back, lying, was.


2. arrived, The, promised, never, telegram.
3. depressing, a dream, A life, unless, can be, inspired, by.
4. flooding, The water, came, the valley.
5. asleep, the boy, Slipping, immediately, fell, into bed.
6. guilty, innocent, until, Everybody, proved, is.
7. left, gaily, The company, the café, chattering
8. lost, is, liberty, lost, Once, forever.
9. no answer, We, receiving, a cable, sent.
10. seeing, it, Though, the bravest, to meet, go out, the danger.
11. the bus, will arrive, at noon, You, in time, leaving, to catch.
12. They, into the forest, soon, the boundary, moved, reaching.
13. upon, History, a set of, is, agreed, lies.
14. passing over, to any decision, the matter, the committee dropped, Not having come, to
the next item.

Ex. 204 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. Having returned hom e from work, she rushed into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
2. Erika felt boring and left the party.
3. Having built long ago, the plant is in bad condition now.
4. The man, having left the bank, got into the car and drove away.
5. Standing by the window, a noise attracted her attention.
6. The kids were listening to the fairy tale told by grandfather.
7. The pupil's answer at the exam was disappointed.
8. She shrugged her shoulders as if not understanding him.
9. W hen being given permission the girl left at once.
10. W hen written a letter he sealed the envelope and attached a stamp.
11. W hen writing a letter she stood up and looked out of the window.
12. Coming down the steps, all this passed through his mind.
13. If decided, the re-check will take half an hour.
14. Eating his dinner he rushed out of the house.
15. W he n being in a new city, she always bought souvenirs to bring little gifts for the
friends.
Ex. 205 Translate the sentences into English using participles where possible. State their functions.

1. Заметив меня, она остановилась.


2. Будьте осторожны, пересекая улицу.
3. Утопаю щ ий за солом инку хватается.
4. В его голосе звучало разочарование.
5. Его доводы были весьма убедительны ми.
6. Помни, утраченное время не возвращается.
7. Объяснив все подробно, он сел на свое место.
8. Эта вещь хрупкая. Если ее уронить, разобьется.
9. Он поклонился, когда его представили хозяйке.
10. Проводив сына, они м едленно возвращались с вокзала.
11. Мягко говоря, не все были согласны с таким опасным планом.
12. Человек, спрашивавший дорогу к вокзалу, вдруг куда-то исчез.
13. Оставшись оди н, он начал распаковывать вещи.
14. Оставляя пальто в гардеробе, вы получаете номерок.
15. Оставив вещи на вокзале, мы пошли осматривать город.
16. Вещи, оставляемые в камере хранения, хранятся двадца ть дней.
17. Вещи, оставленные в трамвае, можно получить на конечной станции.
18. Человек, оставивший свой чемодан на вокзале, только что вернулся.
19. Пассажиры, оставляющие свои вещи в камере хранения, получают квитанцию.
20. Я не мог переодеться, так как оставил вещи на вокзале.
21. Так как его пре дупр е ди ли заранее, он смог подготовить блестящ ий отчет.
22. Он выглядел озадаченным, как будто ему рассказали о чем-то невероятном.
23. Когда он был на сцене, он ощущал себя самым выдающимся актером в мире.
24. Сбежав с лестницы , она остановилась на мгновение, как бы колеблясь, куда пойти.
25. Сидя в саду, мы говорили о нашей поездке в Венецию, словно переживая каждый
миг заново.
123

THE OBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION

Ex. 206 Point out objective participial constructions and translate the sentences into Russian.

A.

1. I love to watch my city waking up.


2. She heard her name mentioned.
3. She found the lock broken.
4. She caught them eating jam.
5. She had her car serviced.
6. Suddenly he noticed a shark coming towards him.
7. I want this watch repaired quickly.
8. I overheard them quarreling.
9. He is so slow, he never gets his work done.
10. He kept me waiting for tw o hours.
11. W e all considered him killed in the battle.
12. He had me swimm ing in a week.
13. I prefer my breakfast served hot.
14. They heard a key being turned in a lock.
15. I will get the house looking nice.
16. He left Kate sitting silent at the desk.
17. They have friends coming at the weekend.
18. Tennison hated his poems illustrated.
19. He felt his arm being taken in a grip.

B.

1. I feel my ears burning, somebody must be talking about me.


2. I fell in love and found my senses lost.
3. Laws are like sausages. It's better not to see them being made.
4. Only Robinson Crusoe had everything done by Friday.
5. If we caught a man lying, we will not believe him when he tells the truth.
6. People count up the faults of those w ho keep them waiting.
7. I like my money right where I can see it - hanging in my closet!
8. I will not eat oysters, i don't want my food wounded. I want it dead.
9. W hen you are really loved you see yourself reflected in the other person's eyes.
10. That's the problem with dreams. Sometimes, when you get them fulfilled, you don't
need them anymore.
11. Inspiration does exist, but it must find you working.
12. For a happy marriage, he should leave his checkbook opened and she should keep her
m outh shut.
13. I like to see a man proud of the place he lives in; and to see a man living so that his place
is proud of him.
124

14. I don't want someone's ideas being pushed down my throat, unless they are covered in
a crunchy candy shell.
15. After you leave home you may find yourself feeling homesick, even if your new home
has nicer wallpaper and a more effective dishwasher.

Ex. 207 Open the brackets using participle I or participle II in objective participial constructions.

1. The Dixons had guests (to come) at the weekend.


2. I saw him (to take away) by the police.
3. He watched Jane (to wipe) her tear-wet face.
4. I don't want to find anyone (to hurt).
5. I am not going to have you (to paint) in the gallery.
6. I spoke loudly to make myself (to hear) above the dance music.
7. I looked in, found my wife (to sleep) and closed the door.
8. W hen the minister got up to speak, he had eggs (to th ro w ) at him.
9. I want the world (to hand) to me on a silver platter.
10. You may find truth (to conceal) in nature or (to hide away) in books.
11. Let us consider all the taboos (to break) and all the totems (to overthrow).
12. Any man with great ideas must be prepared to see them (to misunderstand).
13. One afternoon in August I saw something that surprised me and left me (to think).
14. I heard Julia (to try) to trace the marriage connections of her Hungarian and Italian cousins.
15. I feel the past and the future (to press) me so hard on either side that there is no room
for the present at all.

Ex. 208 O pen the brackets choosing between participle I and the infinitive.

1. A: Is Ann in the room? - B: Yes. I can see her (dance) with her husband over there.
2. A: Did you see the robber? - B: Yes. I saw him (get) into the car and (drive) away.
3. A: Is John here today? - B: Yes. I heard him (talk) on the phone as I walked past his office.
4. A: Js Colin good at public speaking? - B: Yes. I heard him (make) a speech last month. It
was excellent.
5. A: Did he steal the watch? - B: Yes, I saw him (put) it in the pocket and (leave) the shop
w ithout paying.
6. A: Have you ever heard Mary (sing)? She's got a very good voice. - B: Actually, I overheard
her (sing) as I came in tonight, but I've never had a chance to hear her (sing) a whole song.
7. Mr. Johnson caught a boy (pick) flowers in his garden last night.
8. I've been watching you (play) for half an hour, Pat, and I must admit you're not bad at
tennis. However, I'll have to see you (play) a complete match before I decide.
125

Ex. 209 O pen the brackets using participles or infinitives.

1. Diana had the table (to lay) on.


2. We have salesmen (to call) every day.
3. Edward soon made his views (to know).
4. W hen are you going to start him (to work)?
5. He found himself (to tear) between the alternatives.
6. W hen we called for him, we found him already (to go).
7. She felt her voice (to trem ble) and tried to control herself.
8. She had never heard philosophy (to pass) those lips before.
9. I saw the cup (to slip) from the hand and (to fall) to the floor.
10. He suddenly felt all the responsibility (to throw ) on his shoulders.
11. A m om ent later they heard her bedroom door (to shut) with a bang.
12. W e saw him (to open) the envelope and (to read) something hastily.
13. "Some stairs here," said Calvin. Hunter saw him (to vanish) down a twist of stone stairs.
14. He found them (to sit) together and (to talk) peacefully. They did not notice him (to approach).
15. I saw him (to unfold) the telegram slowly as though he expected it (to contain) some
bad news.

Ex. 2 10 Transform the sentences using participles or infinitives in objective constructions.

M odel: O u r roof was blown off in the storm. HAVE ->


We had our roof blown off in the storm.

1. Jacob arrived at the house in Malta Street, but the house was deserted. FIND
2. We'll do our best and soon you will be walking again. HAVE
3. M y house will never be turned into a hotel. I am not going to allow it. HAVE
4. W hen is your luggage to be brought downstairs? W O U LD LIKE
5. Someone slammed the door in the middle of the night and woke me up. HEAR
6. He stood at the door when I arrived. FIND
7. It's never pleasant when a rifle is pointed at your back. HAVE
8. Next m orning his cheque was cashed. G ET
9. The accident happened when I was there. SEE
10. 1w o n 't allow you to tell me what to do. HAVE
11. We were in the street when the tw o cars collided. SEE
12. I expect you will work hard when I get back. FIND
13. W hile there was nobody around, the tw o men ran across the garden, opened a w indow
and climbed through it Into the house. NOTICE
14. They were near the place where the chorus sang. HEAR
15. W e did everything to arrange the matters. G ET
16. I looked up and found that water was dripping through the ceiling. HAVE
Ex. 211 Paraphrase using objective participial constructions.

1. I can smell that the smoke comes from behind the door.
2. I had heard how these topics were argued for years.
3. W hen I left he was talking to Bob.
4. Mrs M ooney watched how the table was cleared and the broken bread was collected.
5. I'd better not catch you again when you stub out a cigarette on a table top.
6. As a result of my efforts, you will be able to drive in three days.
7. If you don't feel that you are growing in your work, you have not found your place.
8. A person is always startled when he hears for the first time that he is called an old man.
9. If you give all-night parties your neighbours will complain.
10. No man likes when his intelligence is questioned. (Especially if he has doubts about
himself.)
11. W hen I hear how anyone argues for slavery, I feel an impulse to see how it Is tried on
him personally.(2)
12. W hen you make a sensible remark, you will often find that it has been reported in the
most grotesque form.

Ex. 212 Paraphrase the sentences so as to use objective participial or objective infinitive
constructions.

1. The plane touched down on the central runway. I watched it.


2. The man hesitated before he closed the door. I saw it.
3. The girl cried. Th e y have never seen it.
4. She touched my hand suddenly. I felt it.
5. The balloon burst when it flew over the roof. The children watched it.
6. The speaker took up his notes and made for the platform. They saw it.
7. His heart gave a sudden start. He felt it.
8. Someone watched me from a distance. I felt it.
9. Something burnt in the oven. I smelt it.
10. The flag submarine came to the surface. W e watched it.
11. M y word is not to be doubted. I w o n 't allow it.
12. Nothing should be changed here. We d o n 't want it.
13. He w o n 't sit down to dinner in his overalls. I am not going to let him do it.

Ex. 213 Open the brackets using participle I or the infinitive.

Last night I heard car breaks (to screech) and people (to shout) in the street. W hen I looked
out of the w indow I saw a crowd of about tw enty people (to stand) around a young boy in
the street. Next, I saw the driver of the car (to approach) the crowd and (to kneel dow n) by
the boy, he looked very anxious. Then a few minutes later, I saw a young w om an (to run)
127

towards the scene and I heard an ambulance siren (to scream) in the distance. Then I saw
the ambulance (to stop) in front of my house. I watched the ambulance men (to get out) and
(to run) to the injured boy. Minutes later I saw them (to run back) to their ambulance with
the boy on a stretcher followed by his mother. Luckily, the evening news reported the boy
(to be) off the danger list.

Make up sentences using predicative constructions.

1. it, 1, said, have, often, heard.


2. cleared, have, 1, must, the question, up.
3. everything, he, in perfect order, kept, liked.
4. heard, him, himself, 1, talking, to.
5. chatting, 1, left, outside the house, the others.
6. arrived, found, he, he, me, reading, when.
7. felt, he, his, knees, reaching, the water.
8. heard, 1, myself, singing, suddenly.
9. drawing up, for, the parade, the troops, watched, we.
10. didn't, into, nosed, their affairs, they, want.
11. yourself, never, liked, take steps, to make.
12. in a company, you, yourself, refreshed, find, of, cheerful people.
13. to keep, never miss, shut, a chance, your mouth.
14. the heart, keep, old age, to trium ph over, unwrinkled.

Ex. 215 Complete the sentences using the w ord(s) from the right column in the appropriate form.

A.

1. I d o n 't ... you arriving late.


2. I 'l l ... you informed. I promise. find
3. The recollection ... him thinking. get
4. The y could ... the child breathing quietly, asleep. have
5. W e could ... a sweet scent rising from the bushes. hear
6. The train started and William ... the little station sweeping away. keep
7 I would ra th e r... my mind opened by w onder than closed by belief. leave
8. W e all began talking at once, so that suddenly M r Samgrass ... see
himself talking to no one. set
9. He that blows the coals in quarrels has no right to complain if he ... smell
the sparks flying in his face. want
10. A critic is a person w ho ... no stone unturned and no turn unstoned.
128

B.
1. She felt the stranger... her slowly. following
2. He found Nora ... a novel In their bedroom. reading
3. The aim of every artist is to catch a m om ent and keep i t .... isolated
4. M odern man and w om an find themselves ... from the planet. waiting
5. He was silent, staring at her, and she could almost hear his mind .... working
6. The privilege of friendship is to talk nonsense and have this nonsense..... finished
7. False men have one th o u g h t... in the breast, a n o th e r... ready on the fixed
tongue. locked
8. W hen the effective leader has his work ..., the people say it happe­ respected
ned naturally.

C.
1. She felt as if she could hear his ... beating. head
2. As he walked along, he found ... humming a tune. heart
3. For the first time she found ... wondering about him. herself
4. If you read every day, it will make ... felt sooner or later. himself
5. Anyone who goes to a psychiatrist ought to have his ... examined. itself
6. I looked out of the w indow and saw the ... pouring down on the
messes
leafless garden.
problems
7. People don't want t h e ir ... solved and t h e ir ... cleaned up. Because
rain
what would they have left?
themselves
8. For most men life is search for the proper envelope to g e t ... put in.
us
9. Charm is the quality in others that makes ... satisfied with ourselves.

Ex. 216 Com plete the sentences using the w ord (s) fro m the columns in the appropriate form .

Verbs Nom inal elements Participles

find backs barking buttered


get bread pointing checked
hear conversation ringing punched
keep ears disappearing turned
watch love written
three fingers

1. From far away they su d d e n ly..................a d o g ..........


2. People would never fall in love if they h a d n 't...........
3. W e found it hard t o .................. t h e ................... going. There was nothing to talk about.
4. Those w ho stare at the past have th e ir....................... ................to future.
5. Don't join in their argument or you m ig h t................. . your n o s e ...................
6. Do not believe in anything simply because y o u ....... ..........i t ....................in your books.
129

7. They stood on the platform a n d ....................the train in the distance.


8. W hen you point your finger at someone, you still h a v e ..................................... back at you.
9. He has h is ......................................... on both sides - he has jobs with tw o firms.
10. True love comes quietly, without banners or flashing lights. If y o u .................. bells................... .
get y o u r ..........................................

Ex. 217 Com plete the sentences using objective participial constructions.

A.

1. Did anyone see you ...?


2. She w o n 't like him ....
3. The assistant kept the cu sto m e r....
4. W e all suddenly felt d a n g e r....
5 He heard his name ....
6. W here is my umbrella? I thought I left i t ....
7. The door closed too quickly and I had my f o o t ....
8. If you leave the d o o r ..., you will have the house ....
9. High on the mountain, he could perceive three small figures ....
10. If film stars put their num ber in telephone books, they would have everyone ....
11. I always kept my w hisky.... She must have had another key because one day I found h e r....

B.

1. His words s e t ....


2. I hope your friend didn't h e a r....
3. The work of a lazy man never gets ....
4. You'll ruin your reputation if they catch ....
5. The iron is far too hot! Can't you s m e ll...?
6. If someone touched a hot iron, he will have ....
7. The firemen arrived at last. A huge crowd watched ....
8. The w om an never trusted her husband. One day she c a u g h t....
9. "D on't w o rry!" said the doctor. This wheelchair is not forever. "I'll soon have ...

Ex. 218 Some people say they have seen a ghost. Imagine that you were in a haunted house.
Say w h a t you saw, felt, noticed, found, got, had o r heard. Make yo u r sentences as funny
as you wish.

For example-. Student A: In the haunted house I heard a ghost playing the piano.
Student B: In the haunted house I saw a candle floating through the air.
Student C: In the haunted house I noticed a skeleton in chains smoking a pipe.
Student D: In the haunted house I saw a chair drawn along the corridor by some
invisible hand.
130

Ex. 219 A . Translate the sentences using causative H A V E and GET.

1. М не нужно проверить зрение.


2. Сделайте анализ крови.
3. В мастерской мне сш или пальто.
4. Он уш ел мерить давление.
5. Тебе стоит починить часы.
6. Нам, наконец, покрасили дом.
7. Она пошла к стом атологу запломбировать зубы.
8. М не испекут в кондитерской торт ко дн ю рождения.
9. М оей собаке сде ла ли прививку.
10. Почему ты не уда ли л больной зуб?
11. Тебе давно стоило постричься.

B. Translate the sentences using prom pts.

1. Когда вам подать обед? W A N T


2. Из-за него мы смеялись весь обед. HAVE
3. Наталье п одали кофе и бутерброды. HAVE
4. М не приходится прятать от Генри деньги. KEEP
5. Пусть комнаты проветрят к нашему приезду. GET
6. Я не допущ у, чтобы что-нибудь о ней говорили. HAVE
7. У нас тут лю ди стоят на ступеньках каждый день. HAVE
8. У тебя сегодня собеседование? Скрещу за тебя пальцы. KEEP
9. Ты можешь что-нибудь сделать, чтобы радио заработало? G ET
10. Свободу легко не замечать, если ее никогда у вас не забирали. HAVE
11. Ты окажешься в полож ении человека, о котором все говорят. FIND ONESELF
12. Я не мог допустить, чтобы моего единственного сына исключили из колледжа. HAVE
13. Чем больше я хочу, чтобы что-то было сделано, тем меньше это похоже на работу. GET
14. У него не хватало опыта, и это давало о себе знать. МАКЕ

Ex. 220 Translate the sentences into English using objective constructions w ith participles or
infinitives.

1. Слышишь, ребенок плачет?


2. Было тяж ело видеть его побежденным.
3. Адвокат не считал это д е ло проигранным.
4. Обнаружить, что вас обманули - тяжелый удар.
5. Я случайно подслуш ал, как они говорили о тебе.
6. Войдя в комнату, я обнаруж ил, что Юля пакует вещи.
7. Клара хотела бы, чтобы картошку пожарили, а не сварили.
8. Татьяна застала всю семью в сборе.
9. На мне никогда не испытывали такой способ лечения.
131

10. Я заметил, что мама взглянула на меня и отвернулась.


11. Я не допущ у, чтобы он чистил свой велосипед в кухне.
12. Внезапно он почувствовал, что его стаскивают с лош ади.
13. Никогда не слышал, чтобы эта канарейка пела. С ней что-нибудь не так?
14. Наташа застала кота за попыткой стащить рыбу со стола.
15. Она улыбнулась, когда услышала, что ее описывают как женщину средних лет.
16. Если ты не хочешь, чтобы у тебя угнали машину, держи ее в гараже п о д замком.
17. Я чувствовал, что что-то двигалось в комнате, и увидел бабочку, летавшую под
лю строй.
18. По приезде дом ой хозяева обнаруж или, что собака накормлена, а вещи украдены.

M ISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

Translate into English using participles w h ere possible and state their functions.

1. Дж ордж у разбили нос в драке.


2. Я считаю проблем у решенной.
3. Он выстрелил и ранил одного из бандитов.
4. Она посмотрела на его понош енный костюм.
5. Она выглядела так, как будто ее кто-то обидел.
6. Если им да ть время, они, возможно, согласятся.
7. Строго говоря, это не совсем то, что я ож идала.
8. Я видел, как их машину остановил полицейский.
9. В его голосе все еще была неудовлетворенность.
10. Услышав шаги на пустынной улице, я побежала.
11. Интересно, почему она не хотела, чтобы меня им представили?
12. Водитель, вышедший из машины, вы глядел очень уставшим.
13. Хотя я не одобряю твои слова, я могу тебя понять.
14. Когда они были в круизе, они посетили много приморских городов.
15. Поедая пирожное, она выглядела так, как будто совершает преступление.
16. Он отказывался есть, потому что был убеж ден, что его пытаются отравить.
17. Хотя книга посвящена жизни Бэкхема, она интересна не только д л я болельщ иков.
18. Когда правило объяснили еще раз, оно показалось совсем легким.
THE SUBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION

Ex. 222 Point out subjective participial constructions and translate the sentences into Russian.

1. She was noticed running away.


2. The baby was found sitting on the floor.
3. She was heard talking to herself in a whisper.
4. I was left standing on the stage alone.
5. M ary was kept waiting for the bank clerk an hour or so.
6. Ted was caught teasing the cat.
7. Paul was seen working in the garden that afternoon.
8. The sports car was watched picking up speed.
9. The twins were left playing in the nursery.
10. The gangster was discovered murdered.
11. I realized I had been caught boasting and felt embarrassed.
12. W hen the door closed, M onty and I were left looking at each other in silence.
13. Th e old w om an was heard talking off her grandson for misbehaviour.
14. The girl was found all dressed up for the party.
15. He is considered disciplined and trustworthy.

Ex. 223 Com plete the sentences using the appropriate participles I from the box.

1. Rosa's voice could be heard ... above the noise. blowing


2. The young man was caught... at a beautiful girl sitting opposite him. cheating
3. The visitor was le ft... in the foyer. coming
4. A severe wind was f e lt... fiercely. marching
5. The cardinal was heard ... beautifully in the tree. rising
6. When they were getting into the car he was heard... good luck to the girl. singing
7. Soldiers were seen ... across the square. staring
8. Th e student was ca u g h t... at the exam. sleeping
9. Her little brother was found ... peacefully on the sofa. waiting
10. The outer door was open, and through the glass of the inner door wishing
tw o footmen were seen ... in the hall.

Ex. 224 Paraphrase the sentences using subjective participial and subjective infinitive
constructions. Some sentences m ay have tw o variants.

1. She was seen so: she entered the garden through a side gate.
2. The plane was watched: it took off, climbed up gracefully and disappeared in the white
clouds.
3. The sun was watched: it was sinking into the sea.
133

4. The telephone was heard: it was buzzing in the next room.


5. He was seen: he produced a key and opened the door.
6. It was felt: their indignation was mounting.
7. It was heard: the taxi was giving repeated signals down in the street.
8. It was heard so: Jim m y shouted something to the people on the bridge.
9. The wind was felt so: it was quieting down.
10. It was seen so: Clarence rose to her feet with an impatient sigh and left the table
11. The cat was seen so: it crept noiselessly down the staircase.
12. She was noticed: she wiped her eyes.
13. It was heard: he dropped something heavy on the floor.
14. It was seen: the truck was driving up the hill.

Ex. 225 Complete the sentences using subjective participial or subjective infinitive constructions,

1. M y neighbour was h e a rd .....................


2. The toys were le ft...............................
3. Tom was fo u n d ..................................
4. The electric appliance was f e lt........................
5. The doctors were w a tc h e d ..............................
6. The shoplifter was c a u g h t............................
7. The guests were k e p t..................................
8. The sportsmen were s e e n ..........................
9. The danger was f e lt.................................
10. The key was h e a rd .................................
11. The letter was f o u n d ...............................

Ex. 226 O pen the brackets using participles 1 or infinitives.

1. W hen the car was heard (approach), the people fled anywhere to avoid the police.
2. His book was found (be) a fine piece of writing.
3. She may have found the note because she was seen (look) through the book.
4. Lina was found (w arm ) herself by the fire.
5. Tw o constables were left (await) his arrival.
6. From the hill a man could be seen (run) half a mile away.
7. Renny was heard (whistle) gaily in his room.
8. M y neighbour was seen (leave) the house, (get) into his car and (drive away).
9. He was heard (walk) restlessly backwards and forwards.
10. Her anger was felt (grow ) as he continued to talk.
11. The moon was seen (com e) fully through a cloud and he suddenly saw her face.
12. The door was heard (open) quickly in the silence of the night.
13. He was seen (pass) the gate and (walk) down the street.
Ex. 227 Translate into English using subjective participial or subjective infinitive constructions.

1. Слышно было, как в ванной текла вода.


2. Было видно, как она кивнула в знак согласия.
3. Детей оставили играть на полу в детской.
4. Потерянный шарф нашли повязанным вокруг дерева.
5. М альчиков застали, когда они воровали клубнику.
6. М еня продерж али за работой до позднего вечера.
7. Чувствовалось, как их недовольство росло.
8. Слы ш али, как она сказала, что не знает этого человека.
9. Видели, как школьники выбежали из школы и направились на спортивную
площ адку.
10. Его застали за курением в общественном месте.
11. Видели, как каждую ночь в одной из комнат замка гуляло привидение.
12. Слышали, как она сыграла сонату Бетховена.
13. Чувствовалось, что до ж дь усиливался.
14. Видели, как он что-то показывает жестами человеку на другой стороне реки.

Ex. 228 Translate into English and state the functions of participles.

1. Приехав дом ой, он увидел, что его совсем не ж дали.


2. Услышав шаги, он поднял голову.
3. Твои новости просто удивительны. Я очень взволнован.
4. Будучи очень расстроенным, он решил уйти с вечеринки пораньше.
5. Проработав весь де нь на солнце, я очень устал.
6. Холодные лучи заходящего солнца освещали деревья.
7. Судя по тому, как ласково она на него смотрит, он ей нравится.
8. Женщина, открывшая мне дверь, выглядела очень приветливо.
9. Я дум аю , что заявление, которое сейчас рассматривается, может быть отклонено.
10. О н показал мне список товаров, экспортируемых этой фирмой.
11. Ученые, принимавшие участие в этой экспедиции, бы ли награждены.
12. Внимательно прочитав до к ла д, он заметил в нем несколько ошибок.
13. Как вам нравится книга, которую сейчас все обсуждают?
14. Не будите спящую собаку.
15. Будучи в Вене, он познакомился с Хелен и Томом.
T h e P a r t i d y , i. 135

ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS

Ex. 229 Translate the sentences into Russian and point p u t nom inative absolute participial
constructions.

1. Nobody having any more to say, the meeting was closed.


2. All the money spent, we started looking for work.
3. The lights having gone out, they had to go to bed.
4. Andrew followed the secretary, his heart pounding in his side.
5. It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs.
6. There being no further business, I declared the meeting closed.
7. Catherine studied the illustration, her head held on one side, her eyes narrowed slightly,
8. He being no more heard of, it was natural to forget everything.
9. I played the part of audience, my sole remark being 'Yes, sir' at fixed intervals.
10. This done and the dog having been unfastened, we turned toward home.
11. Occasionally, luck being with them , they would win a game or tw o.
12. He started about five, Riggs having informed him that It was two-hours' drive.

Ex. 230 Translate the sentences into Russian and point o ut prepositional absolute participial
constructions.

1. The old w om an stood up, with tears running down her face.
2. He sat in his bed with his feet tucked under him.
3. She stood on the rock ready to dive, with the green water below inviting her.
4. W ith all the windows lit, the house looked inviting.
5. Maxim suddenly stopped dead, with one foot poised on the step.
6. W ith the crowds cheering, the royal party drove to the palace.
7. W ith their arms linked, the tw o w om en walked over to the sofa and sat down.
8. Charlie stared at great stabs of chocolate in the shop windows, with his m outh watering
like mad.
9. Hard work spotlights the character of people, with some turning up their sleeves, some
turning up their noses, and some not turning up at all.

Ex. 231 Paraphrase the sentences using nom inative or prepositional absolute participial
constructions.

1. As the front door was open, she could see straight through the house.
2. The question was rather difficult, and I asked for permission to think it over.
3. It was the height of the season, so all the hotels were full.
4. There was very little tim e left, that's w hy we had to hurry.
5. W hen the reply was received, they started looking for a house.
136

6. She knew Wilson well by sight, as he was the captain of the school cricket team.
7. If the wind is favourable, our yacht will reach the island in no time.
8. W hen m y fears were laid to rest, I climbed into the plane for my first solo flight.
9. There was so much noise, I couldn't hear what was going on.
10. Rip had no desire to work on his farm, as it was the worst piece of land in the
neighbourhood.
11. O u r efforts to start the car failed, so we spent the night at a nearby village.
12. After the bedrooms were inspected and dinner was ordered, we left the hotel to look
round the city.

Ex. 232 Translate the fragments into English using nom inative or prepositional absolute
participial constructions.

1. O f an evening he read aloud, (а его маленький сын сидел рядом ).


2. (Так как муж обманул ее), she decided to get a divorce.
3. (После того, как программа закончилась), they w ent to bed.
4. (Так кэк вечер был холодны й), he had paced up and dow n in order to stay warm.
5. (Поскольку был выходной), the post-office was shut.
6. (Так как не было луны ), it was pitch dark in the forest.
7. One night, (когда жена ушла в театр), he sat down with a cigar to think.
8. A lot of people have given up smoking, (так как сигареты подорож али).
9. (Так как не бы ло никаких возражений), the plan was adopted.
10. (Раз вопрос бы л задан), the minister had to answer it somehow.

Ex. 233 | Translate the sentences into Russian and point o ut nom inative absolute constructions.

1. Eyes bright, Peggy shot up her head.


2. Chin on his chest, Finch dozed.
3. Th e visit over, they would set forth home.
4. Archie sat on a stool, his back against the fireplace.
5. The new engines were safely delivered, all of them in good order.
6. He sat alone, a cigar between his lips and a cup of tea on the table by his side.
7. She stood there, her body stiff with fury.
8. Meredith walked over to the window, stood looking out at the garden, her mind on her
mother.

Ex. 234 Translate the sentences into Russian and point out prepositional absolute constructions.

1. He walked by, with his dog by his side.


2. He stood with his hands in his pockets.
3. Constantia lay like a statue, with the sheet up to her chin.
4. Gary was silent, with his eyes intent on Donald.
’a rt-: 'о ,? 137

5. Then the bird fluttered away, with him in pursuit.


6. The stranger entered the room, a man with hardly a hair on his head.
7. Of course, you didn't hear any knocking, with your head under your bed clothes like that.

Я Translate the fragments into English using nom inative or prepositional absolute
| constructions.

1. I sit at my desk, (в руке у меня ручка), and trace figures.


2. He stood near the window, (спиной к свету).
3. He stood (держа руки за спиной).
4. N ow she stood at the front door, (полож ив пальцы на дверную ручку).
5. Не entered, (в руке шляпа, на губах улыбка).
6. (Когда все бы ли готовы), we could finally set off.
7. Rhett stood on the porch talking, (голос его был холодным имягким).
8. Не left the study, (настроение у него бы ло приподнятое).

Point out nominative absolute constructions, name their types and state their functions.

1. The naughty boy was carried upstairs, arms waving and legs kicking.
2. It being a hot day and all of us thirsty, she suggested having a glass of lemonade.
3. Four seconds later Dixon was on the way out of the hotel, with his shilling in his pocket.
4. Mrs. Baddle made the round of the room, candle in hand, to point out all its beauties.
5. Friendship restored, w e walked along together.
6. W ith his voice breaking with emotion, Ed thanked us for the award.
7. Horns honking, truck drivers whistling, the traffic inched along.
8. M en, their caps pulled down, their collars turned up, passed by.
9. W e go through life with our eyes half shut, with ears dull, with thoughts dozy.
10. The strain of his indecision over, he felt like a man recovering from an illness.
11. Man always claims for freedom. But freedom offered, he becomes frightened.
12. The appendix having been removed, there was no doubt of the patient's recovering
soon.
13. James was left alone, with his ears standing up like hare's and fear creeping about his inwards.
14. She had sunk into a chair and was sitting there, her fingers curling and uncurling
nervously.
15. Elbows on knees, she sat still, her eyes turned on the family of ducks on the surface of
the dark water.
16. Jack sat silent, his long face impassive and his long legs stretched out.
17. W ith the w indow broken, the rest was fairly easy, the only danger being the pieces of
glass.
18. The door being opened, and Bunter having produced a torch, the party stepped into a
wide stone passage.
138

Use the following sentences to fill in the schemes below.

1. T he door being locked , he-cou ld not get in.-


2. A car roared past with smoke pouring from the exhaust.
3. A room booked in advance, we didn't have to w orry about our accommodation.
4. All the family at home, w e could start celebrating.
5. All the guests gone, the hostess went upstairs.
6. He was slowly coming to us, with his hands up.
7. Head down, the bull charged straight at the man.
8. Nose in the air, she walked right past me.
9. Now, with tw o of my books lost, I am not going to let anyone take books from my library.
10. She hurriedly left the room with her eyes red.
11. She slowly w ent to the door, her leg still aching.
12. She stood mute, her lips pressed together.
13. She came into the room, her face pale.
14. Th e bathroom finally bright and shiny, she went to the kitchen to treat herself with a
cup of tea.
15. The ceremony over, we left the conference-room.
16. The dancers circle to the right with hands held high.
17. Th e text having been analyzed, she proceeded to write the summary.
18. They marched towards the square, with little flags in their hands.
19. Tim e permitting, I will stay there longer.
20. W ith the cost of living being so high, we are cutting down on luxuries.

Absolute Participial Constructions

Nominative Prepositional

a) Adverbial of reason e) Adverbial of reason / tim e

- with participle I [T ] - with participle I


- with participle II - with participle II

b) Adverbial of m anner / attendant f) Adverbial of m anner / attendant


circumstances circumstances
- with participle I Q - with participle I O
- with participle II - with participle II

c) A d ve rb ia l of tim e
- with participle I Qj
- with participle II

d) A d ve rb ia l of condition
- with participle I
Th'. P o rtif.ip le 139

Absolute Constructions w ith o u t a Participle

Nom inative Prepositional


a) Adverbial of tim e c) Adverbial of m anner / attendant
circumstances
with an adjective - with an adjective
with an adverb Q - with an adverb Q
with a prepositional phrase \ - with a prepositional phrase Q

b) Adverbial of m anner / attendant


circumstances

with an adjective □
•with an adverb
■with a prepositional phrase \

Ex. 238 Change the sentences according to the m odel.

M o d e l: Dinner over, everybody rose. ->


W hen dinner was over, everybody rose.

1. It being late, he w ent home.


2. Everybody in the room, she called in Molly.
3. The door ajar, 1could hear the steps.
4. Circumstances permitting, we'll visit you in May.
5. Her heart full of despair, she couldn't say a word.
6. 1w onder if you could do that with your eyes closed.
7. All things considered, there is nothing to be done now.
8. The car having stopped, the boys jum ped out onto the grass.
9. She danced light as a feather, eyes shining, feet flying, her body bent a little forward.
10. Life being what it is, one dreams of revenge.
11. N ow with peace and victory within their grasp, people began to think about the future.
12. If it w eren't for my lawyer, I'd still be in prison. It w ent a lot faster with tw o people
digging
13. Shoulders hunched, hair streaming in the wind, toes curled over the board edge, Jackie
rode the big wave.
14. W hen in love you can hear the Universal Symphony with God singing solo and the Holy
Ghost on drums.
140

Ex. 239 Change the sentences according to the m odel.

M o d e l: The weather was bad so we decided to go home. ->


The weather being bad, we decided to go home.

1. Th e castle was haunted, so nobody wanted to live there.


2. You cannot shake hands if your fist is clenched.
3. After the film started, everyone stopped talking.
4. There was no coffee left, so they had tea instead.
5. All the shops were closed because it was Sunday.
6. As the boss was out, the secretary took the message.
7. There was a queue so they had to wait.
8. You can set your mind at ease because everything is fine.
9. The bridge was swept away by the flood, that is w hy the train was late.
10. The wind was stirring among trees and bushes and we could hear nothing.
11. W hen the greetings were over, Old Jolyon seated himself in a wicked chair.
12. W e walked home very slowly, Agnes and I were admiring the moonlight.
13. After the operation had been completed, the patient was wheeled back to the ward.
14. A ndrew finished his omelette, his eyes were all the time fixed upon the microscope.
15. The snake had no company, only stupid people were drum m ing their fingers on the glass.
16. The mines were dusty and unhealthy, and many miners were suffering from tuberculosis.

M ake up sentences matching the parts from the tw o columns.

1. 'Bye', he said and walked away, a. each having a distinct character.


2. Drama is life b. every nerve upon the stretch.
3. Every piece of clothing can be attractive c. her hand on the brass knocker.
4. Everyone would like to behave like a pagan, d. his farewell unanswered.
5. Everything remained as she left it, e. jaws agape.
6. He was an old doting fool, f. the fire still burning,
7. Help others get to ahead. You will always stand g- with a beautiful w om an inside it.
taller h. with dull parts cut out.
8. 1waited, i. with everyone else behaving like
9. Life is made of sobs, sniffles and smiles, a Christian.
10. N ow she stood at the front door, j. with one foot already in the grave,
11. Th e fish attacked, k. with sniffles predominating.
12. There are many kinds of smiles, I. with someone else on your shoulders.
'rie Partie p:.i 141

Ex. 241 M ake up sentences using the following phrases as nom inative absolute constructions

1. The weather being unusually hot,


2. The situation being urgent,
3. This done,
4. It being rather frosty,
5. Introductions over,
6. , hands in pockets.
7. __ , with his eyes wide oper
8. There being no way out,
9. The experiment proving fruitless,
10. No one in sight,
11. There being no witnesses,
12. Th e circumstances being favourable,
13. __, his collar unbuttoned.
14. There being no chance of escape,
15. Th e sun having set an hour before,
16. __, her gaze fixed on the pianist's hands.
17. The inspection revealing new details,
18. The treaty having been signed,

Distinguish between participle phrases and absolute constructions, state their functions.

1. It being chilly, we thought it wiser to stay in.


2. Once completed, the task seemed an easy one.
3. The man stared at her, his face blushing with anxiety.
4. He stood leaning against the wall, his arms folded.
5. He shifted from one foot to the other, not knowing what to answer.
6. Taking the short cut we could have reached the villa much quicker.
7. W hen opened, the box revealed a meal, with everything wrapped in plastic.
8 But, the long luncheon being over, the business friend would bow and go his way.
9. She stood before him, her hands lying on his shoulders, reading his thought in his eyes.
10. He stopped his car and relaxed on his seat with his elbow sticking out of the window.
11. I must have been poor company, sitting in the com partm ent with head back and eyes
closed.
12. Forehead wrinkled, m outh pursed, watch ticking, Reese studied the board.
13. Being of a snobbish disposition, Mr. Starkey didn't allow himself to notice her pleading
glance.
14. The director stood at the window, his back turned to the light, leaning an elbow on the
brown cross-blind. *
Ex. 243 Join the sentences into a participle phrase or an absolute construction.

1. The deal was concluded. He sighed with relief.


2. There was nothing to wait for. W e got down to work.
3. It was late. W e decided to spend the night in the village.
4. Th e boy stood. He was looking intently at the attic window.
5. He slowed dow n his car. He turned into a narrow by-street.
6. He stopped abruptly. He heard his name called out from behind.
7. Th e lights were turned off. I groped my way through the passage.
8. He paced the living-room. His thoughts were confused and troubled.
9. Th e storm died dow n. The boats began to push off one after another.
10. The guests had arrived. The hostess invited them to the draw ing-room .
11. He left the house and was crossing the street. He came across his old friend.
12. The hunter was watching the deer over the sights. His finger was on the trigger.
13. The dog sat close to the table. His tail was thum ping now and again upon the floor.
14. He left early. Th e party was a boring affair, and his report was waiting for him on his
writing desk.
15. He came forward to meet me. His hands were outstretched, a sunny smile was lighting
up his face.

Ex. 244 Translate the fragments in brackets into English using absolute constructions.

1. He fell asleep, (окно оставалось открытым).


2. (Когда гости разъехались), the house became solitary again.
3. She sat half-dressed, (сжав руки и опустив голову).
4. Silence followed, (никто не произносил ни слова).
5. (Поскольку день был солнечный), the glass doors leading to the garden were thrown open.
6. He rushed into the room, (шапка в руках, пальто нараспашку).
7. (Раз не было никакого смысла все объяснять ему), I made up my mind to act on my own.
8. He sat lost in thought, (пер е д ним стоял нетронутый обе д).
9. (Когда письмо бы ло написано), Jane offered to send it.
10. (Когда солнце село), the light began to fail.
11. W e had a long talk, (он задавал мне вопросы, я охотно отвечал на них).
12. (Если условия позволят), I'll visit you this summer.
13. W e soon reached our destination, (поскольку д о него бы ло рукой подать).
14. (Было очень сыро), we could hardly find a dry place for the tent.
15. Tw e n ty minutes later he came out, (на ли це у него бы ло странное выражение).

Ex. 245 Translate into English using absolute constructions.

1. Так как все бы ло готово, она решила отдохнуть.


2. О н вошел без стука, так как дверь была открыта.
~ е Р а ’ tic - .'е 143

3. Так как бы ло тепло, мы спали на открытом воздухе.


4. Когда солнце село, туристы развели огонь.
5. Она стояла молча, губы ее были плотно сжаты.
6. Когда стол бы л накрыт, она пригласила всех к столу.
7. Он шел быстро с опущ енной головой, не глядя по сторонам.
8. Если погода улучш ится, мы сможем поехать завтра за город.
9. Когда о б е д был подан, миссис М арлоу позвонила в колокольчик.
10. Поскольку мой кошелек украли, я не смог купить б и ле т на поезд.
11. Она продолж ала слуш ать своих друзей с широко открытыми глазами.
12. Корабль м едленно плы л вдоль берегов, а н а д ним круж ились сотни птиц.
13. Когда мама предлож ила нам обедать в саду, все быстро вышли из дома.
14. Так как оставалось еще полчаса д о отхода поезда, мы решили поужинать на вокзале.

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE
Ex. 246 State the functions of participles.

1. Although frightened, he remained calm.


2. He looked up at me as though waiting for approval.
3. Not having finished the project on time, 1had to apologize.
4. Th e case being investigated at the m om ent looks puzzling.
5. An honest politician is one who, when bought, will stay bought.
6. Glancing at her, Patsy decided to say no more for the mom ent.
7. Weakened by successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe.
8. The best things may become wrong if carried to excess.
9. He shrank into his coat like a snail surprised while eating lettuce.
10. Success, when gained, should find you prepared to receive it and keep it.
11. 1like long walks, especially those taken by people w ho annoy me.
12. He sat for a long tim e wandering in a world of dream and memory.
13. Having been betrayed several times in his life M ark didn't trust anyone.
14. You get the grandeur of the trees lost when raking leaves.
15. Rob gave the photos a last lingering glance. Picking up his suitcase, he took a deep
breath and went out.
16. It is so annoying to have tw o people talking when you're busy interrupting.
17. Although feeling sorry for him, 1felt secretly pleased that he was having difficulties.
18. Hearing the rustling of a woman's dress Andy turned his head - and had his head turned.
19. You know, 1 racked my brains last night, trying to rem em ber the name of the man Kate
married.
20. If willing to compose the Requiem, M ozart was to promise to have it finished in the
shortest time.
21. 1 lay awake all night, trem bling with fear, eyes wide open in horror, imagining ghosts in
every corner.
22. I'm sick of following my dreams. I had better ask them where they're going hooking up
with them later.
23. M any of us heard opportunity knocking at our door, but by the time we had the chain
unhooked, the bolt pushed back, tw o locks turned and the burglar alarm shut off - it
was gone.

Ex. 247 O pen the brackets using participles w here possible or attribute clauses.

A.
1. W e sat in the kitchen (to s ip )... very hot tea and (to e a t )... cheese.
2. I found a penny (to lie )... on the pavement.
3. (To e n te r)... the hall you will see a staircase (to le a d )... to the basement.
4. He knows the language better than a foreigner usually does, (to liv e )... in France for a
long time.
5. W hen I caught them (to c h e a t)..., I stopped buying petrol from them .
6. (To see) ... so little of the country, I'm afraid I can't give extended answers to your
questions.
7. (To a s k )... what he thought of the innovation, the engineer said he approved of it.
8. She smiled (to re m e m b e r)... the joke.
9. (To b ite )... twice by our dog, the postman refused to deliver our letters.
10. It was clear to him that she would go back if (to g iv e )... half a chance.

B.
TH E CASE OF (T O P O ISO N ) M U S H R O O M S
W hile (to prepare) a meal for her guests, Mrs Grant got rather (to w o rry) about some unusual
mushrooms (to send) to her by a kind friend from the country. (To feel) suspicious, she gave
a mushroom to her dog. (To see) that the dog ate it with no ill effects, Mrs Grant decided to
cook the mushrooms for her guests. That evening the guests were greatly (to delight) to have
mushrooms for dinner, they enjoyed the mushrooms (to com m ent) on their unusual flavour.
Th e y quickly changed their minds when Mrs Grant's daughter, (to nam e) Jill, burst into the
dining-room (to announce) that the dog was dead. (To hear) the news, Mrs Grant, immensely
(to shock), phoned Dr Craig. W hen Dr Craig came, all the guests (to eat) the mushrooms had
their stomachs (to pum p out). It was a very (to depress) experience for them . (To decide) to
see the dog, Dr Craig w ent out of the house (to discover) a minute later that the dog was killed
by a (to pass) car. (N o t to know) anything of her m other's suspicions about the mushrooms,
Jill hadn't mentioned this fact when (to announce) the death of the dog.

Ex. 248 Paraphrase the sentences so as to use participles.

1. If you travel north, you must change at Leeds.


2. He ignored her question and went on reading.
3. I fell, struck my head against the door and cut it.
r' i >ur ■ ’ : i 145

4. He felt sleepy because he was exhausted by his journey.


5. Unless this law is changed, it will make life difficult for farmers.
6. They watched how the sun was setting and admired the sight.
7. There are people w ho would like to see how he is given a fair chance.
8. W hen he regained consciousness, Bernard found that he was covered with mud.

Ex. 249 | Com bine the sentences so as to use participles.

1. He had spent all his money. He decided to go hom e and ask his father for a job.
2. She took a deep breath. Then she banged the door open and stood back to wait.
3. 1 didn't know Chinese. So, 1had to turn to the guide for help.
4. The criminal removed all traces of his crime. He left the building.
5. W e were frustrated. W e had been interpreting since early morning.
6. The tw o men stopped suddenly. It was as though they were wondering which way to take.
7. 1had heard that the caves were dangerous. 1didn't want to go any farther without a light.
8. The boy sat in his chair and bit his lower lip. He was fighting the sudden rush of emotions
which filled his throat.

Ex. 250 Com plete the sentences w ith appropriate form s of participles of the verbs on the
right. O n e verb can be used twice.

ARGUE
I .................... the letters he put them in envelopes ARRIVE
2. I hope you'll write s o o n your intention. BUILD
3.................... at the gallery, he paid the entrance fee. BURN
4. Edward stood on the b e a c h over the ocean. EXPLAIN
5.....................about the bandits, he left his valuables at home. GO
6. It was a hot day. I could feel s w e a t down my back. KNOW
7. I f ...............with milk and sugar, it makes a delicious breakfast. LOOK
8 ....................to bed late the night before, she felt tired the next day. RUN
9 ....................the problem, you will find something new to w o rry about. SERVE
10..................dow n the stairs she remembered she had left the g a s ................ SETTLE
I I ................. him from school, I've never heard a n y o n e badly of him. SPEAK
12. The num ber of cin e m a s............ for our citizens today is rapidly growing. SPEND
13................tw o d a ys about where to go for the holidays, they decided TYPE
to stay at home. W AR N
146

Ex. 251 Choose the right variant.

1. All afternoon M olly lay in ham m ock__________ a magazine.


a) being read b) reading c) having read

_________by his elbow, M ary listened to their talk.


a) supported b) supporting c) having supported

3. ___________ m y entrance exams, I started working.


a) failed b) failing c) having failed

4. ____________ at 3 o'clock, the financial report then was sent to the director.
a) completed b) having completed c) completing

5. through all the mail he left the office.


a) looking b) having looked c) being looked

6. She walked out of the ro o m ,_______________ the door behind her.


a) having slammed b) slamming c) slammed

7. She used to say sharp a n d _________________ words to him.


a) wounded b) w ounding c) having wounded

8. the parcel, I w ent out at once to post it.


a) addressing b) addressed c) having addressed

9. The s u n _____________ , they continued their way.


a) having been risen b) being risen c) having risen

10. the news she was so that she didn't know what to do.
a) learning, shocking b) having learnt, shocking c) having learnt,
shocked
11. W ith Peter in Vienna, and Lucy most of the week, the house
seems empty,
a) having worked, having b) working, travelling c) working, have been
travelled travelling

12. She stayed. . in her ro o m ,. ___________ to come downstairs.


a) having locked,refused b) locked, refusing c) locking, having
refused
\ r d c i- j f 147

13. M y sister____________the key, we couldn't enter the house.


a) having lost b) lost c) being lost

14. __________ hard all day she fe lt___________.


a) working, exhausting b) having worked, c) being worked,
exhausted exhausted
15. F ru its ___________in hot houses are not so rich in taste as fru its _____________ in natural
conditions.
a) having grown, grown b) grown, growing c) growing, having grown

16. W hen w e , __________ from our day's outing, came into the kitchen, we found dinner

a) returned, serving b) returning, served c) returning, having


served

& I Com plete the sentences

A. using participles in the appropriate form .

1. He re tire d the laboratory in the hands of a talented successor.


2.....................his work he seemed more pleased than usual.
3. The w om an looked at me as i f her help and support.
4. He had a good practical knowledge of the language, as an interpreter for many years.
5.....................right we saw an imposing building.
6. Th e secretary le ft................she would be back in an hour.
7. W h ile about the country we visited a lot of sights.
8 .....................in the tow n ten years ago, he knew almost all of its inhabitants.

B. using complexes w ith participles.

1. The children were n o tice d ............... football in the park.


2. Can you smell the m e a t..............?
3. It was a joy to see my younger sister in the beauty contest.
4. She looked up and noticed a m a n .............. from the other side of the street.
5. The lost wallet was f o u n d among other things piled on the table.
6. He was having breakfast when he felt an insect...............up his leg.
7. Trying to fall asleep last night I could hear the n e ig h b o u rs about something
loudly.
8. W e found the d o g .................in the garden with his favourite toy.
9. The boss kept his e m ployees................in the office till midnight.
148

Ex. 253 j Find and correct errors in each sentence.


1. Waiting for the train, my bag was stolen.
2. W hen being in doubt, listen to your heart.
3. Having his meal he went for a stroll in the park.
4. Anything becomes wonderful when looked closely.
5. Having got off the bus, he helped his grandmother.
6. Having put it mildly, she had no chance of winning.
7. Driving along the road, a hare rushed right in front of our car.
8. Being a weekend, we decided to go to the countryside.
9. M oth er smiled looking at the children being playing in the garden.
10. Yesterday 1talked to one of the students having participated in the contest.
11. Finished breakfast, he stayed for some minutes in the dining room.
12. He moved his lips as though having debated the matter in his mind.
13. Being on the excursion she asked the guide a hundred questions.
14. Having heard her come into the house he w ent downstairs.
15. An Englishman is a person w ho does things having been done before. An American is a
person w h o does things not having been done before.

Ex. 254

A. Read the extract, open the brackets using participles and com m ent on their use.
(To arrive) that morning at the office at the (to appoint) tim e, I saw all the employees at their places
(to do) their jobs. A young girl, the secretary, I guess, was seen (to answer) the phone calls and (to
receive) faxes. The editor was heard (to discuss) the article for the front page with a lady (to speak)
with a slight accent. The atmosphere in the office was (to stimulate) but w ell-(to discipline). (To look)
around I understood that the agency was well-(to run) by the boss. Frankly (to speak), one could see
the people (to enjoy) their work. (To greet) the secretary I asked if Mr. Barret was in. (To ask) my name
and (to smile) at me, she showed me to his office. (N ot to see) Jack Barret for more than 15 years,
since w e graduated, I was a little bit (to w orry) and (to excite) if he would recognize me. (To knock) on
the door and (to hear) "yes" I entered...

B. W rite a short passage on any topic so as to use participles in every sentence.

Ex. 255 Translate the fragments into English.


1. (Заперев двер и ), he went to bed.
2. (Сняв ш ляпу), he went into his study.
3. (Будучи ребенком), she adored cartoons.
4. He was very grateful to the doctor (спасшему) his dog.
5. (Будучи богатой), she can afford expensive holidays.
6. He looked at her (как будто пытался вспомнить) something.
The i K v i к p ie 149

7. They complained to the manager (так как еда их разочаровала).


8 Не repeated it twice on purpose (словно насмехаясь надо мной).
9. I have tw o more questions, (и я хотел бы получить на них ответ).
10. (Так как дом был построен из бетона), we always felt cold in winter.
11. They came early in the m orning (и обнаруж или, что дверь заперта).
12. (Хотя я лю блю спорт), I'd rather not sit through another basketball game.
13. (Заказав билеты заранее), we were looking forward to the first performance.
14. (Пробы в в Париже больш е месяца), I can tell you a lot of intersting stories about it.
15. He had never been known to refuse to see a patient (если за ним посы лали).
16. (Хотя его перечитали несколько раз) the text contained a num ber of misprints.
17. (Когда вам дается выбор) between tw o theories, take the one which is funnier.
18. Silly things do cease to be silly (если их делаю т) by sensible people in an im pudent way.

Ex. 256 Translate into English and com m ent on the use of the participles.

1. Поняв, что он неправ, Роберт замолчал.


2. М не опять разбили окно.
3. Я часто видел, как это делается.
4. Она выглядела глубоко обиженной.
5. Когда ее попросили, она да ла свой адрес.
6. Это брелок, принесший мне удачу на конкурсе.
7. Я не хочу, чтобы об этом так часто упом инали.
8. У него сдуло ветром шляпу.
9. Она поймала себя на том, что опять дум ала о нем.
10. Спать он пошел поздно, хотя был очень уставшим.
11. Так как я только что плотно поел, я не бы л голоден.
12. Я ви дел, как ты танцуеш ь, и я никогда этого не забуду.
13. Она подош ла к столу и вынула запечатанный конверт.
14. Я получил письмо, написанное незнакомым почерком.
15. Он подм игнул мне, как будто предупреж дая меня о чем-то.
16. Было слышно, что кофе закипает, и мы поспеш или на кухню.
17. Не найдя нужной книги дом а, она вынуждена была идти в библиотеку.
18. Честно говоря, ваше замечание бы ло обидны м и унизительным.
19. Проработав над докла до м весь день, она чувствовала себя уставшей.
20. Когда я был на море, я каждый вечер гулял по набережной, наблюдая закат.
21. Так как вещи были упакованы, а гостиница заказана, им не о чем бы ло волноваться.
150 .‘ i ' . y L'r 'J c V l

Ex. 257 Choose the right variant(s).

1. Participles have the features of


a) verbs c) adverbs
b) adjectives d) nouns

2. The morphological characteristics of participles I include


a) their morphological categories c) their combinability
b) their functions in the sentence

3. Participle I has the categories of


a) tense c) aspect
b) voice d) time correlation

4. Participles can
a) take direct objects c) be modified by adverbs
b) be modified by adjectives

5. Participles may perform the following syntactic functions


a) subject d) attribute
b) predicative e) adverbial modifier
c) object

6. Perfect forms of participle I are used to denote


a) actions simultaneous with that of the finite verbs
b) actions prior to that of the finite verbs
c) actions posterior to that of the finite verb
d) actions referring to no particular time

7. Non-perfect forms of some participles I can denote actions prior to that of the finite
verb. These are participles of the verbs
a) of motion c) of feeling and emotion
b) of sense perception d) associated with motion

8. Non-perfect forms of some participles I can denote actions prior to that of the finite
verb when
a) there is a lapse of time between the tw o actions
b) the action expressed by the participle is durative
c) there is no lapse of time between the tw o actions

9. Th e category of voice is characteristic of


a) participles I of transitive verbs c) participles II
b) participles I of intransitive
verbs

10. Participles II are active in meaning if formed of


a) transitive verbs b) intransitive verbs

11. W hich of the following forms can N O T be used in the function of an attribute?
a) reading c) being read
b) having read d) having been read
Thf Partir'ple 151

12. To denote an action prior to that of the finite verb an attribute can be expressed by
a) perfect forms of participle I c) an attribute clause
b) non-perfect forms of participle I

13. Participles can N O T perform the function of an adverbial of


a) attendant circumstances d) reason
b) time e) condition
c) purpose f) concession

14. Participlesin the function of an adverbial of time can N O T be introduced by


a) when c) after
b) while d) until

15. Participle Iof the verb 'to be' can perform the function of an adverbial of
a) reason c) time
b) comparison d) concession

16. Participles in the following function(s) can denote an action prior to that of the finite verb
a) an adverbial of subsequent events c) an adverbial of reason
b) an adverbial of attendant circumstances d) an adverbial of time

17. Participles in the function of an adverbial of comparison are introduced by the


conjunctions
a) though and as if c) if and as though
b) as if and as though d) if and as if

18. Participles I can be found in the objective participial construction after verbs of
a) sense perception c) wish and preference
b) mental activity d) causative meaning

19. Unlike infinitives participles I are used within objective constructions to emphasize
a) the process b) the fact of an action complete

20 Tw o or more participles I used within objective constructions denote


a) a succession of actions b) parallel actions

21. The nominal element of the nominative absolute construction is expressed by


a) a noun in the com m on case c) a pronoun in the objective case
b) a pronoun in the nominative case

22. The nominal element of the prepositional absolute construction is expressed by


a) a noun in the com m on case c) a pronoun in the objective case
b) a pronoun in the nominative case

23. Absolute constructions can perform the function of an adverbial of


a) reason c) comparison
b) time d) attendant circumstances
152 <j'jrf-n c ’’ tx».‘

THE GERUWD
FORMS OF THE GERUND
State the forms of the gerunds and explain w h y they are used.

1. She waited a minute or tw o before speaking.


2. I'm sorry for disturbing you.
3. Raymond did not like being called Ray.
4. It is natural living like this alone with Nature.
5. She denies having met James yesterday.
6. On being told the news she gave a gasp of surprise.
7. The idea is w orth considering.
8. Thorpe was terrified, terrified of having to touch something, and even more, of being touched.
9. She kept eyeing Henry with interest.
10. All 1w ant is getting to the truth.
11. 1seem to rem em ber being told not to grum ble by someone.
12. After pausing for breath she announced, "1 have some excellent news."
13. 1gave no sign of having been informed of their arrival.
14. People will talk, there is no preventing it.
15. 1appreciate your helping me.

I Ex. 259 O pen the brackets using non-perfect forms of gerunds in the active and passive voice.

1. W h y do you avoid (to see) me?


2. He tried to avoid (to see).
3. W e insist on (to send) him there at once.
4. He insists on (to send) there instead of me.
5. He showed no sign of (to know) them .
6. She showed no sign of (to impress).
7. He had the most irritating habit of (to joke) at the wrong m om ent.
8. 1was annoyed at (to interrupt) every other mom ent.
9. He hated (to remind) people of their duties or (to rem ind) of his.
10. On (to introduce) they easily fell to (to talk).
11. The equipm ent must go through a num ber of tests before (to install).
12. Th e water requires (to filter).
13. Jack would have gone to his bedroom w ithout (to see).
14. M y sister would never leave without (to see) me.
15. The matter is not w orth (to speak of).

1 Ex. 260 | O pen the brackets using the appropriate forms of gerunds.

1. 1don't mind (to stay) here for a little while.


2. Th e boy was afraid of (to punish) and hid himself.
Gerund 153

3. She denied (to see) me at the concert though I'm sure I saw her in the stalls.
4. I want to thank her for (to look) after the children while I was out.
5. I rem em ber (to take) to Paris w hen I was a very small child.
6. I sat on the doorstep thinking over my chances of (to escape) from home.
7. It's no good (to deny) that.
8. The coat showed evident signs of (to wear) on the preceding night.
9. Since Tom was their best friend, he helped them w ithout (to ask).
10. He could not help (to know) that there were odious people w ho called him a snob.
11. I don't like (to spy) on.
12. I strongly suspect Gerald of (to know) all about it beforehand, though he swears he didn't.
13. The old man could not stand (to make) fun of.
14. The camera wanted (to adjust).
15. But I can't tell you how grateful I am to you for (to listen) to me. Itwas so kind of you.

Я Р Translate the fragments in brackets using gerunds.

1. He was afraid of (что его неправильно пойм ут).


2. I rem em ber (что видела) this film before.
3. These towels need (стирать).
4. On (вой дя) the hall she saw a lot of familiar faces.
5. Are you thinking of (купить) a PlayStation?
6. Jackie regrets (что сказала) that to Allie.
7. I really don't feel like (уж инать) tonight. Do you?
8. They're going to postpone (принятие) a decision until next month.
9. I hate (когда меня обманывают) by taxi drivers.
10. He gave no sign of (что узнал) us.

Ь Ш Translate into English using gerunds.

1. Я помню, что видел этого актера в какой-то другой пьесе.


2. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы меня выслушали.
3. Он подозревал меня в том, что я всех обманул.
4. Не стоит упоминать об этом.
5. Вы не против повторить то, что вы только что сказали?
6. Странно, что она избегает говорить на эту тему.
7. Терпеть не могу, когда со мной разговаривают таким тоном.
8. Посмотрев на мои часы, часовщик сказал, что они в порядке и нуждаются только в
чистке и смазке.
9. Он признался, что неверно информ ировал нас.
10. Он напом нил мне, что уже как-то отказался от этого предлож ения.
11. Она боялась испортить свое первое впечатление, посмотрев картину снова.
12. М еня упрекнули в том, что я опоздал и заставил всех ждать.
13. Услышав гудок автом обиля, сторож пошёл открыть ворота.
14. Бесполезно снова обсуж дать этот вопрос.
15. Я думаю, что он несерьезно сказал, что хочет переменить профессию.
154_______________________________________

THE PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTION WITH THE GERUND

Ex. 263 Translate the follow ing sentences into Russian. Point ou t syntactic complexes w ith
gerunds. Pay attention to the ways of expressing the nom inal elem ent.

1. Don't think she'll approve of your telling me this.


2. She turned round on his entering the room.
3. O f course, I should insist on your accepting the proper professional fee.
4. She was startled by the noise of the outer door being opened.
5. His friends’ betraying him filled him with bitterness.
6. W e knew nothing of his being a humorous writer.
7. It was no good your leaving this case unsettled.
8. Do you agree to our taking her up to tow n and putting her under the best control?
9. His breathing heavily when he greeted her was the result of running up tw o flights of
stairs.
10. Someone might have gone to the table without your noticing.
11. I don't like the idea of you all going off from early m orning till late at night. I don't like
being alone.
12. Nick was very much excited about his favourite cake getting spoiled.
13. Your advertising yourself continually is vulgar.
14. I can't bear the thought of your deserting your post when your presence is so necessary.
15. There is no doubt of his having mastered English thoroughly.

Ex. 264 Supply both the possessive and object form of the w ords provided.

M odel: The firm doesn't m in d . _arriving at ten o'clock. (I) ->


The firm doesn't mind m y / me arriving at ten o'clock.

1. I can't excuse_____ not answering our invitation. (Sally)


2. Th e y tried to s to p . singing, (w e)
3. I'm worried about. taking so much money, (she)
4. I'm bored with _ complaining, (you)
5. Do you know the reason f o r . _______________stopping work? (they)
6. W ha t do you think a b o u t___ . resigning? (Tom )
7. Do you m in d _______________ smoking? (I)
8. I can't im agine_____________ _ approving the plan I (m y boss)
9. W hat do you think o f ______ _________ leaving the country like that? (they)
10. I can think of no reason f o r . _______________ saying that, (she)
11. They don't understand____ ___________ leaving hom e when he did. (John)
12. She's worried a b o u t_______ being arrested, (w e)
13. They resented_____________ winning the prize. (I)
14. W h o told you about being sacked? (he)
Thv Gerund 155

Ex. 265 Paraphrase the sentences using complexes w ith the gerund according to the m odel.

M o d e l: They objected to applying this m ethod into practice.


They objected to this m ethod being applied into practice.

1. W e don't mind mentioning the fact.


2. You are responsible for doing this w ork in time.
3. She was quite unaware of being watched by the people.
4. He never confessed to having sent the letter.
5. The director of the library insisted on binding the books before they were given out to
the readers.
6. Father hated being contradicted by any one of us.
7. She never referred to having been assisted by anybody.
8. W hen a small boy, he liked being taken out hunting by his father.
9. During an air raid some prisoners of war managed to escape w ithout being noticed by
the guards.
10. She was distressed at having spoilt all the fun by one silly remark.

Ex. 266 Use the elem ents in brackets to construct complexes w ith the gerund. Insert
prepositions if necessary.

1. It is not w orth while . (you, to w orry).


2. The functioning of the mechanism d e pe n d s_______________ (it, to handle) properly.
3. I w o n 't sta n d (anybody, to talk) to M other like that.
4. You must forgive __ (the boy, to be so curious).
5. W e were surprised. (he, to take) the whole affair into his own hands.
6. I count ___________ (M r. Dunne, to come) to the committee tom orrow .
(He, to be) there will carry more weight.
7. She w o n 't believe ___________________ (I, to be) to France.
8. Ratterer's idea (Clyde, to go) to his uncle Samuel not only pleased but
also annoyed him.
9. I h e a rd ___________ (the committee, to turn dow n) the proposal.
10. I understand perfectly____________________ (the girl, not to want) to leave.
11 . David was in constant fear. (his step-father, to punish) him for something.
12 . Emily was confused______ (we all, to observe) her, and hung down her head.

Ex. 267 Paraphrase the follow ing so as to use complexes w ith the gerund.

1. 1rem em ber that the children looked through the album last Sunday.
2. There is a chance that my family will move to another city.
3. Do you mind if they join us?
4. W e were all surprised that the project had not yet been put into practice.
5. Fancy how Boris appeared here all of a sudden!
6. I'm trying to tell you I have no objection if you see Jim.
7. M other will be terribly disappointed if Harry doesn't get the job.
8. Rita realized that she must be going; her parents might be worried if she stayed out later
than usual.
9. Nancy insists that her father should allow her to keep a monkey as a pet.
10. M y sister is very displeased that I have broken her favourite cup.
11. The police have no objection that the man should be set free.
12. Tha t he had been away for so many years made him feel quite a stranger in that big
city.
13. I couldn't bear the idea that anybody should interfere with what I thought to be my
personal affair.

Com plete the follow ing sentences using complexes w ith the gerund.

1. 1didn't mind... 7. 1don't like the idea...


2. They objected... 8. Do you think there is any use... ?
3. She p re ve n te d ... 9. 1can't bear the thought...
4. 1don't remember... 10. There was no point...
5. He entered the room w ith o u t... 11. It was good...
6. The y insisted... 12. He could no more resist...

| Translate the sentences into English using complexes w ith the gerund.

1. Мы полагаемся на то, что все при дут вовремя.


2. О н настаивает, чтобы я держала окна открытыми независимо от погоды.
3. Все мое будущ ее зависело от того, поддерж ат ли меня близкие.
4. Я удивлена, что вы оставили маленького мальчика одного дома.
5. Она отвечает за то, чтобы все документы были в порядке.
6. Ему не нравилась идея мне одной ехать на Кавказ.
7. Не отрицайте, что Чарльз вмешался в это де ло .
8. Я не могу себе представить, чтобы вы так до лго сидели в читальном зале.
9. Я не выношу, когда лю ди плохо говорят о других за их спиной.
10. Представь себе, ей хотелось знать, что его беспокоит.
11. Не могу понять, почему они не переписываются. Я хорошо помню, что они
расстались друзьями.
12. Профессор п ре длож и л нам взять новую тему д л я исследования.
13. Все знали, что он очень добры й человек, несмотря на то, что он вы глядел суровым.
14. Я совсем не возражаю против того, чтобы вы пользовались моим принтером.
15. Интересно, как она вошла в дом так, что мы не видели ее.
1б е г и d 157

Ex. 270 Insert a pronoun w h ere necessary.

1. I re m e m b e r_________________meeting her once.


2. I can't re m e m b e r_______ ever meeting each other. They live in different countries.
3. I object t o ________ interfering in their family life. It's none of my business.
4. I object t o _______ interfering in my personal life. Th e y are just neighbours.
5. They were keen o n ______ winning the match. W e deserved it.
6. W e are keen o n _______ winning the game. The y are a nice team.
7. Simon never m e n tio n ed_______letting him dow n. He just forgave them .
8. Daniel once m e n tio n e d letting them down. He still felt guilty.
9. Excuse me f o r ___________ calling you so late. But I need you badly.
10. Excuse calling you in the middle of the night. They needed you urgently.
11. W e could not p re ve n t happening.
12. Nothing could prevent them f ro m gossiping.
13. M y friends fo rg o t_______promising to call on me. I had a lonely evening.
14. The y came but there was no one at home. She fo rg o t promising to drop in and
w ent for a walk.
15. His strong capable hands showed no signs o f being used for hard manual work.

Ex. 271 Translate the fragments into English using complexes w ith the gerund w here necessary.

1. I don't rem em ber


a) (чтобы он сказал) anything of the kind.
b ) ( ч т о б ы я с к а з а л ) a n y t h i n g of t h e kind.

2. She suggested
a) (с в я з а т ь с я с н и м ) .
b) (чтобы мы связались с ними).

3. W hat annoyed us most was


a) (т о , что и м о т к а з а л и в ви за х).
b) (то, что нам отказали в визах).

4. I count on
a) (что скоро вас увижу).
b) (что мы скоро с вами встретимся).

5. She brought her apologies for


a) (что причинила им так много беспокойства).
b) (что её ребёнок причинил им так много беспокойства).

6. The new assistant is unable to prepare everything for the experiment


a) (если его не проинструктирую т).
b) (если вы его не проинструктируете).
7. а) (Несмотря на то, что им было очень холодно), they would not stop their observations,
b) (Несмотря на то, что бы ло очень холодно), they would not stop their observations.

8. W e are greatly thankful to them for


a) (что нам была предоставлена) such ample opportunity.
b) (что мы им ели) such ample opportunity.
c) (что они предоставили нам) such ample opportunity.

9. He was conscious of
a) (что его ввели в заблуж дение).
b) (что он ввёл их в заблуж дение).
c) (что эти слова ввели их в заблуж дение).
d) (что они ввели его в заблуж дение).

Ex. 272 ! Translate the sentences into English using gerunds or complexes w ith the gerund.

1. Можем ли мы рассчитывать на то, что вы приш лёте эти сведения вовремя?


2. Мы рассчитываем, что получим эти сведения вовремя.
3. Они, до лж н о быть, рассчитывали, что им приш лю т эти сведения вовремя.
4. Вам не следует рассчитывать на то, что нам приш лю т все эти сведения вовремя
5. Тр удно рассчитывать на то, что эти сведения будут присланы вовремя.
6. Он настаивал на том, чтобы его туда отправили.
7. Он настаивал на том, чтобы нас туда отправили.
8. Он настаивал на том, чтобы мы его туда отправили.
9. О н настаивал на том, чтобы отправить туда кого-нибудь.
10. Не могу себе представить, чтобы вам отказали.
11. Он боялся, что вы ему откажете.
12. Она не привыкла, чтобы ей в чем -либо отказывали.
13. О н не соглашался, чтобы ему де ла ли прививку.
14. Родители согласились, чтобы ребёнку сделали прививку.
15. Не стоит повторять всё сначала.
16. Я думаю, нам не стоит повторять всё сначала.
U .e G e r u n d 159

THE GERUND AS A SUBJECT

Ex. 273 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds. Point o ut syntactic
complexes w ith gerunds.

A.

1. Coming to class on time is important.


2. There's no denying that he's intelligent.
3. It's no good trying to persuade her to come with us.
4. Their being so keen on flying surprises me.
5. It's no use doing things by halves.
6. Cooking a soft-boiled egg takes three minutes.
7. It made no difference trying to reason with him.
8. Your not having heard from M olly is disappointing.
9. Is living in an apartm ent expensive?
10. It's w orth while touring your native land.
11. There's no denying that travelling broadens the horizons.
12. The student's reading authentic literature improved his English.
13. It made all the difference having been given that one extra day off.

B.
I. It's no use crying over spilt milk.
2 Being in love shows a person w ho he should be.
3. Having been poor is no shame, but being ashamed of it, is.
4. Saying and doing are tw o things
5. M aybe it's what's inside that counts, but being told you look good feels good I
6. Once you do something really mature, there is no turning back.
7. Your being born in a duck yard does not matter, if only you are hatched from a swan's egg.
8. Talking mends no holes.
9. W ithout emotion, there is no transforming darkness into light and apathy into movem ent.
10. Laughing at our mistakes can lengthen our own life. Laughing at someone else's can shorten it.
II. There is no good his arguing with the inevitable.
12. Walking is man's best medicine.
13. It's no use your worrying about everything.
14. I am an optimist — it does not seem to be much use being anything else.
Ex. 274 Com plete the sentences using the gerunds fro m the right colum n as subjects. Note
the patterns gerund subjects follow.

1. personal calls from the office is forbidden. a) continuing


2. I'm afraid it's no u se ______ this discussion. b) learning
3. _____________ by boat is fun. c) making
4. There was n o . how his father would react to the news, d) talking
5. You know, her cleverer than her husband was half the trouble. e) travelling
6. It's no good ______________ to him — he never listens. f) being
7. about other cultures is interesting. g) telling

Transform the sentences according to the m odel.

M od e l A : It's very difficult to windsurf properly. ->


Windsurfing properly is very difficult.

1. It takes a long time to learn a foreign language.


2. G ro w your ow n food, It's less expensive.
3. Give up smoking: it will make you feel better.
4. A good way of keeping fit is to swim every day.
5. It's impossible to park your car during office hours.
6. Ann is often late. It makes the teacher very cross.
7. Th e police try to find evidence at the crime scene. If they do, it'll be very convenient.

M o d e l B: I'll call to Vienna. Is it worth it? - )


Is it worth while m y calling to Vienna?

8. D on 't tell me to take it easy. It's useless.


9. W hy are you getting angry? It's no good. That w o n 't help solve the problem.
10. D on't even try to make excuses. It's no use because she w o n 't believe you.
11. I know that he has been informed but it makes no difference.
12. If your company offers training courses, take them. It’s worth it.

M o d e l C: You can never tell w hat he m a y do next.


There's no telling w hat he m ay do next.

13. Once he started talking on his favourite subject, nothing would stop him.
14. No one would have denied the strength of the argument.
15. W hen they are together they must quarrel, and it is impossible to avoid it.
16. She is so unbalanced. It is hardly possible to account for her moods.
17. The old man Is very shrewd. You w on 't deceive him.
18. He was ready to gratify her every wish, but she was not to be easily satisfied.
161

Ex. 276 O pen the brackets using the appropriate form of gerunds. Point o ut complexes w ith
gerunds if there are any.

1. _______________ (To keep up) friendship is difficult.


2. Venice is a city w h e re ________________(to walk) is not merely desirable but inevitable.
3. H is ___________ (to fail) at the entrance examination was a great disappointment to
his mother.
4. For a w om an, , (to need) is everything in life.
5. It's no use your _ (to spend) money on impractical household items.
6. There is n o ____ (to stand) still when everyone is dancing.
7. It's no g o o d ____ _ (to ask) Tom to help you.
8. Jack laughed. T h e ir. _________(to bother) about something amused him.
9. It was great f u n ____ (to ski) in the wood.
10 . There was n o ______ (to mistake) the sound.
1 1 . It's no u s e _________ (to pum p) a dry well.
12 . Peter's (to complain) didn't do him any good.
13. Isn't it h e a ve n ___ (to say) good-bye a n d __________ (to know) we shall meet
again in an hour?
14. It's wonderful . (to achieve) so much by the age of 25.

Com plete the following sentences using gerunds as subjects.

1. There is no .... 6. It will make no difference ....


2. It was no good .... 7. ... was a great pleasure.
3. ... was not a simple matter. 8. It was no use ....
4. It is useless.... 9. It is w orth w h ile ....
5. ... is a must for me. 10. ... has become a daily ritual with me,

Ex. 278 Speak about your hobbies, likes and dislikes, yo u r everyday activities. W h a t is a must
for you and w h a t is not? Use gerunds as subjects.

Ex. 279 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. It's no deceiving him, he can read my face like a book.


2. Since you know everything, it's no use my telling you.
3. Mary's having put in an awkward position irritated both of us.
4. It's no well complaining about it.
5. Having a good teacher has made all the difference for Alex.
6. It's useless of your telling me not to worry.
7. There is no being denied his talent.
8. Sitting in a train for 24 hours isn't her idea of bliss. Sunbathing in the garden is more her line.
162

Ex. 280 Translate the fragments in brackets.

1. (Работать) with him was fun.


2. (To, что ты приш ла) has done him good.
3. (Стоит посмотреть) the ballet.
4. (To, что ты так равнодуш на) irritates me a great deal.
5. It was quite unexpected (что он приш ел) so soon.
б. She felt exhilarated, (невозможно было отрицать) it.
7. (Бесполезно обсуж дать) it now, we must act.
8. (Ж ить) in a foreign country can be very difficult.
9. (Нехорошо сплетничать) about other people.
10. (Водить) a car and (разговаривать) on the car phone at the same time demands care
И . (Его невозможно убедить), as he is too stubborn.

Ex. 281 j Translate the sentences using gerunds as subjects.

1. Мы знали, что с ним было бесполезно спорить.


2. Нехорошо так дум ать о своих друзьях.
3. Было бесполезно пытаться встретить его у Петровых.
4. Быть с друзьями на экскурсии — больш ое удовольствие.
5. Когда он начинает шутить, его невозможно остановить.
6. То, что он такой м едлительны й, меня раздражает.
7. Л овить рыбу в Черном море — увлекательное де ло .
8. Бесполезно звонить ему: его в это время никогда не бывает дома.
9. Сон на открытом воздухе очень полезен.
10. Он хороший певец; его стоит послушать в опере.
11. Нет смысла де ла ть перерыв, нам всего на полчаса работы.
12. Переходить реку в этом месте опасно.
13. Невозможно угадать, какие подарки он получит от Д е да М ороза.
14. Так приятно встречаться со старыми друзьями!
15. Нехорошо, что ты постоянно опаздываешь.
16. Игра в компьютерные игры отнимает значительную часть его времени
17. Не стоит тратить много денег на солярий. Это вредно д л я здоровья.
163

THE GERUND AS A PREDICATIVE

Ex. 282 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds. Point out syntactic
complexes w ith gerunds.

A.
1. M y favourite form of exercise is jogging.
2. W hat he really enjoyed was getting rare stamps.
3. One solution to the large num ber of cars on the roads will be taking a bus.
4. W hat tired him greatly was being questioned by newspaper correspondents.
5. M y ideal sum m er job would be guiding tourists around the city.
6. After Roberto completes his English studies, the next step will be entering the
university.
7. W hat surprises me most is his knowing the route so well. He must have visited the place
several times without us.
8. It would really make a difference having a bit of extra money.
9. W hat annoyed me most was his having been invited there.
10. Rooming with Fred was like sharing a telephone booth with a hippopotamus.

B.
1. Seeing is believing.
2. Am bition is putting a ladder against the sky.
3. Generosity is giving more than you can,and pride is taking less than you need
4. The worst thing of all is standing by when folks are doing something wrong.
5. The only thing that makes life possible is our not knowing what comes next.
6. There is no accounting for tastes.
7. The greatest pleasure in life is your doing what people say you cannot do.
8. Marriage is not just spiritual com m union, it is also remembering to take out the trash.
9. Writing about music is like dancing about architecture.
10. Character is doing the right thing when nobody's looking.
11. Living is having ups and downs and sharing them with friends.
12. The re is a distinction between achievement and success. Achievem ent is knowing that
you have studied and worked hard and done the best. Success is being praised by
others.
13. Feeling gratitude and not expressing it is like wrapping a present and not giving it.
14. Part of the pleasure of friendship is trusting w ithout absolute evidence and being
rewarded for that trust.
Ex. 283 Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the gerund. Point out complexes w ith
gerunds if there are any. Pay attention to the ways of expressing the nominal element.

1. The key in life is ________________ (to set) goals.


2. W hat teachers usually dislike most is their p u p ils'________________ (to cheat).
3. M y biggest nightmare is _______________ (to forget) to turn up for the exams.
4. The really im portant thing w a s ________________ (to save) the children.
5. M y hobby is ________________ (to cook).
6. The most important part is_______________ (to help) people to live normal lives.
7. All I want is her __________ (to get) to the truth.
8. W hat he loves best in the world is________________(to m eet) old friends.
9. Her worst habit is _______________ (to lie).
10. To discuss the international situation with them was like s o m e o n e ________________ (to
play) the piano only with the family to listen to him.
11. W h a t annoys me most of all is h i s ________________ (to accept) their proposal quite
readily.
12. He didn't know what to talk to him about. It was lik e ________________ (to meet) an
unknown brother.
13. Her only fun w a s _______________(to read) books.
14. To love John was like_______________(to burn) alive.

Ex. 284 Complete the following using gerunds as subjects or predicatives according to the model.

M od e l: (He likes to read books.)


... was his favourite pastime. -> Reading books was his favourite pastime. OR
His favourite pastime w a s .,.. -> His favourite pastime was reading books.

1. (W h y go into every detail?)


i think it's no use ....

2. (You must keep strict hours of meals.)


... must do you a lot of good.

3. (The children watched the monkeys go through different tricks.)


It was such fun ....

4. (W e could not get in that night.)


All tickets were sold out, there was no ....

5. (I see you are going to assemble your bicycle.)


Is it w orth while ... so long before the beginning of the season?
165

6. (It was so very pleasant to be free and alone.)


W hat I enjoyed most in that quiet corner was ....

7 (The boy cried over the broken toy.)


"Is it any good ... ?" the m other said to the child. "Tears are no help in sorrow."

8. (I did not expect to find you there.)


It was quite unexpected ....

9. (You distort facts and turn things upside dow n.)


W hat you do is ... and ....

10. (He liked to collect postage stamps.)


a ) ... was a hobby with him.
b) His hobby was ....

11. (W hen one reads w ithout paying attention to the language, one robs oneself of great
intellectual pleasure.)
... i s ....

12. (Did he realize what risk he was running when he tried to land the plane on such a small
clearing in the wood?)
He knew only too well t h a t ... was ..., but there was no alternative.

PfM A n sw er the questions using the gerund as a predicative. Develop the situation.

M o d e l: W hat is the best w a y of travelling? (to travel by air) ->


In m y opinion, the best w a y o f travelling is travelling by air. It is more
comfortable, m ore convenient and of course fa r quicker than any other
method.

1. W hat is the cheapest method of travelling? (to walk)


2. W hat troubles people most of all when they are travelling? (to change from train to
steamer, then to another train)
3. W ha t is the means of travelling which combines speed, comfort and pleasure? (to go by
train)
4. W hat is the best way to see the country at leisure? (to walk, to hike, to hitch-hike)
5. W hat is the best change from the dust, smells and hustle and bustle of the city? (to go
to a quiet country place)
6. W hat is the best way to get to know and understand other people? (to meet them in
their own homes)
7. W hat is the best way of making fair judgements about nationalities? (to travel, to learn
foreign languages)
Ex. 286 Com plete the follow ing using gerunds as predicatives.

1. W hat I like is .... 5. M y only hope is ....


2. Her hobby has always been .... 6. Th e most difficult thing in life is ....
3. His favourite pastime was .... 7. The secret of happiness is ....
4. W hat worries me most is .... 8. Man's highest aim should be ....

Ex. 287 | Som e of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct th em .

1. M y first job was having delivered flowers to people. You've never seen so many smiles
on so many faces.
2. The secret to a good life is being happy with what you have.
3. W hat he loves best in the world is going to the theatre.
4. M y only hope is having won the lottery.
5. Part of being a Master is being learned how to sing in nobody else's voice but your own.

I Ex. 288 Translate the sentences into English.

1. М оим де ло м бы ло обучать их грамматике английского языка.


2. Её лю бим ое времяпрепровождение — это чтение комиксов.
3. Его обычные занятия — это написание писем и игра в шахматы с друзьями.
4. Единственной проблем ой было то, что надо бы ло убе ди ть родителей д а ть свое
согласие.
5. Л ю б ить — значит прощать и верить.
6. Бесполезно спрашивать её. Она ничего не знает.
7. Слуш ать его рассказы — это еще раз переживать волную щ ие события тех дней.
8. Вязание успокаивает нервы.
9. Нехорошо пытаться убедить её поехать с нами.
10. Она поним ала, что отказаться в такой ситуации — значит потерять лучш ую
подругу.
11. М ои увлечения — это чтение и танцы.
12. Спорить с ним — это только понапрасну терять время.
13. То, что она проиграла, заставило её попытаться ещё раз.
14. Тебе бы лучш е не рассчитывать на неё. Невозможно предугадать её настроение.
15. Самым важным было сдать экзамены.
The G e iitr d 167

THE GERUND AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL PREDICATE

Ex. 289 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds.

A.

1. The audience burst out applauding.


2. The buses usually stop running before midnight.
3. John says he's given up trying to do the crossword.
4. Just keep stirring the mixture until it boils.
5. Have you finished typing that letter?
6. Her favourite pastime is daydreaming.
7. People began leaving the theatre before the end of the play.
8. Being polite to other people is very important.
9. Matilda said she was OK, but I couldn't help noticing how upset she looked.
10. Carry on trying. You'll succeed sooner than you think.

B.

1. I told the doctor I broke my leg in tw o places. He told me to quit going to those places.
2. Historians are like deaf people w ho go on answering questions that no one has asked
them .
3. Happy is the man w h o has given up worrying once and for all.
4. The secret of greatness is simple: do better w ork than any other man in your field — and
keep on doing it.
5. You don't stop laughing because you grow old. You grow old because you stop laughing.
6. It's no use carrying an umbrella if your shoes are leaking.
7. You can't help getting older, but you don't have to get old.
8. Knowing is half the battle.
9. Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening.
10. I cross the Rubicon. I know there's no turning back.
11. Everyone w ho has achieved success kept going regardless of the obstacles they met.
12. M y personal hobbies are reading, listening to music, and silence.
13. Politeness and consideration for others is like investing pennies and getting dollars
back.
14. Once you replace negative thoughts with positive ones, you'll start having positive
results.
Ex. 290 Com plete the sentences using gerunds fro m the right colum n.

1. Teddy continued Jean in his paintings. a. pacing


2. He b e ga n _______ the words aloud to himself. b. shaking
3. The y w e n t o n ___ their dinner. c. saying
4. The old man stopped his fist and stick. d. reproducing
5. Sandy k e p t__________ ahead, M ary tried to keep up with her. e. eating
6. Tw o weeks old, this child was, and the lady had just finished f. chatting
_____________ her pram -cover in stripes of white and blue. g- knitting
The twins sta rte d _____________ about their school life.

Ex. 291 Open the brackets using gerunds. Note the verbs and expressions the gerunds follow.

1. His friends suddenly burst out (to laugh).


2. I've just started (to learn) German.
3. M y sister kept o n ___ (to ask) me question after question.
4. They e n c o u r a e e y o u n e e r DeoD le to auit (t o s m o k e ).
5. He continued (to type) while he spoke.
6. You may com m ence _ (to read), Jeremy.
7. 1couldn't help (to think) he was asking for trouble.
8. You'd better s to p ____ (to talk) on the phone for hours.
9. 1left school in 1990 and began (to w ork) in my present job.
10. She had just finished (to dress) the children when the phone rang.
11. W e all carried o n ____ (to sing) as if nothing odd was happening.
12. Leave off ___(to shout) 11 can't hear myself think in here.
13. She can't go on (to pretend) that everything is fine when it clearly isn't.
14. I've given up (to expect) him to change.
15. 1keep (to forget) to put the answering machine on.
16. The company ceased (to trade) at 6 pm today.

Complete the following sentences using gerunds as parts of com pound verbal predicates.

1. She k e p t.... 8. The doctor continued ....


2. Th e y ceased.... 9. W hen will you finish ... ?
3. He has given up .... 10. Before the band started ...
4. They commenced .... 11. The children couldn't help
5. The boy kept on .... 12. Tell him to q u it ....
6. Has it stopped ...? 13. The audience burst o u t ....
7. W e must go on .... 14. Leave o f f ... I
The Gerund 169

y | | Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. In spite of the noise she carried writing.


2. The leaves have started fallen off the trees.
3. Keep taking the vitamins.
4. His wife finally persuaded him to give out smoking.
5. Last year he ceased in being a player and moved into management.
6. Th e y continued being talking after the meal.
7. I wish he'd leave of moaning about everything.
8. I couldn't help but laughing.

Ex. 294 Translate into English.

1. Л ю ди практически перестали писать письма др уг другу.


2. Д о ж дь пошел, как раз когда мы вы ходили из дому.
3. Он перестал улыбаться и внимательно на меня посмотрел.
4. Она не могла не дум ать о родителях.
5. Она продолж ала вязать и смотреть телевизор.
6. Ты уже закончил составлять контракт?
7. Он рассмеялся, когда я рассказал ему о нашей охоте в тайге.
8. Он поздоровался с друзьями и начал рассказывать о занятиях в университете.
9. Она то и де ло смотрела на часы.
10. Ж дать не бы ло никакого смысла, и я пошел дом ой.
11. Прекрати шуметь. Ты разбудишь соседей.
12. Когда вы закончите спорить?! Спорить — это попусту тратить время.
13. Вы постоянно делаете одну и ту же ошибку.
14. Думаю, стоит поспать минут двадцать, и вы восстановите силы.
15. Он продолж ал что-то читать и смеяться.
THE GERUND AS AN OBJECT

Ex. 295 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds. Point ou t syntactic
complexes w ith gerunds.

A.
1. We'll have to practise throwing the ball into the basket.
2. W hen I find something new on the menu, I just can't resist trying it.
3. I don't like being asked about my private life.
4. M any visitors to Britain aren't used to driving on the left.
5. She insisted on Tom's telling us all about United's win.
6. Do you fancy going out for a meal?
7. I can't face getting up at five tom orrow.
8. I've succeeded in getting hold of the CD I wanted.
9. I couldn't deny both of them having made a reasonable excuse.
10. The most difficult thing in life is choosing.
11. There's no improving on nature.
12. The runners didn't mind the rain. They just kept on running.
13. He was aware of Jack's watching him attentively.
14. The carrying out of these plans depends on the documents being signed in time.
15. I couldn't help staying in a hotel when on a business trip.
16. I was irritated with him having been put in an awkward position.
17. I think they've promoted Tom, but he didn't mention having been promoted when we talked.

B.
1. The only person worth envying is the person w ho doesn't envy.
2. Love does not consist in gazing at each other, but in looking together in the same direction.
3. Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.
4. It is impossible to imagine Goethe or Beethoven being good at billiards or golf.
5. Don't put off being happy until some future date.
6. Good manners sometimes means simply putting up with other people's bad manners.
7. Stupidity is not a sin, the victim can't help being stupid.
8. H ow far you go in life depends on your being tender with the young, compassionate
with the aged, and tolerant of the weak and the strong — because someday you will
have been all of these.
9. If you succeed in judging yourself, you're truly a wise man.
10. Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep.
11. A conclusion is the place where you got tired of thinking.
12. Living in California adds ten years to a man's life. And those extra ten years I'd like to
spend in N ew York.
13. Nobody objects to a woman being a good writer or sculptor or scientist if at the same time she
manages to be a good wife, a good mother, good-looking, good-tempered and well-dressed.
14. Live in the present, and make it so beautiful that it will be w orth remembering.
171

Ex. 296 Com plete the sentences using the gerunds given as direct and prepositional objects.

1. I rem em ber her complain to Joe. a) sitting


2 . The box was stoutly made and resisted _ b) opening
3. I in te n d ____________ it tom orrow . c) hearing
4. W ould you mind _____ over here? d) being (2)
5. N ow I had resolved, if possible, to a v o id _______ alone with any of these e) doing
men, these strangers. f) calling
6 . She was afraid o f _____________ Miller in the crowd. g) drinking
7. He was fond o f ________ : "Th e superstition of today is the science of yesterday." h) missing
8 . Thank you f o r _________ ¡) dealing
9. I assure you I am quite capable o f ____________ with the matter. saying
j)
10. I am sick and tired o f _____________ tea w ithout milk.
11. Surely that prevents the day f ro m ____________ ordinary.

Ex. 297 O pen the brackets using gerunds as objects.

1. 1enjoy (go) to her parties. But 1dislike (take) there by my boyfriend.


2. 1haven't finished correcting my composition. It still needs (brush up).
3. Sue admitted to (tell) a lie. And she didn't mind (reprim and) for it.
4. W e insist on (do) the work right now.
5. The customers insist on the work (do) at once.
6. The incident isn't worth (m ention).
7. 1am used to (rem ind) by my m other that life is great and 1should keep smiling.
8. Th e y accused me of (mislead) them .
9. He confessed to (forget) that he was to come on Friday.
10. Ted couldn't imagine (abuse) anyone, or (abuse) by anyone.
11. He wasn't used to (ignore).
12. They suspected the inspector of (get) some more evidence.
13. He considers (buy) a used car.
14. 1rem em ber (punish) once by my elder brother for cheating.
15. He is very secretive. He avoids (ask) any personal questions or (ask) any even by his
closest friends.
16. M y boss hates (push) into doing things.
17. 1must congratulate you on (pass) your exam.

E x . 298 Use the appropriate form of the gerund. Insert prepositions w here necessary.

A.
1. You can't blame me __________ -(tr y )
2. I'm s o rry ___________ (complain)
172

3. He's fond . (sail)


4. W e're keen . (ride)
5. 1was afraid you. (disturb)
6. I'm worried the train, (miss)
7. I'm surprised you in. (find)
8. Thank you me this book, (give)
9. You are very quick . (understand)
10. She believes hard, (work)
11. Excuse me you. (bother)
12. She insisted the bill, (pay)
13. Aftpr a long timp wp pventually succeeded a flat, (find)
14. I've been thinking for a new job. (look)
15. His parents didn't approve his out so late, (stay)

B.
1. I w onder what prevented h im ____________________ (com e) to the party.
2. I'm getting hungry. I'm looking forward ___________________(have) dinner.
3. I've always d re a m e d _________________ (live) on a small island in the Pacific.
4. The cold water didn't stop h e r____________________ (have) a swim.
5. Have you ever been accused t (com m it) a crime?
6. W e have d e cided___________________ (buy) a new car.(2)
7. She's tire d ___________________ (work) for the company.
8. I ha te ___________________ (be) ill a n d ____________________ (stay) in bed.
9. I'm not u se d ___________________ (receive) Christmas presents.
10. I re m e m b e r_________________ (go) to the British M useum once.
11. I'm looking fo rw a rd __________________ (w ork) with you.
12. Jane, your nose w a n ts __________________ (blow ).
13. W e all suspected h i m ________________ (learn) it before a n d _________________ (try ) to
conceal it from us.
14. They were all b u s y __________________ (unpack) the books a n d ____________________ (put)
them on the shelves.
15. N ow I can b oast___________________ (see) Rome and London, Paris and Athens.
16. Newton, the famous scientist, was sometimes e n ga g e d ____________________(work out)
difficult problems.

C.
1. I'm not interested___________________(hear) your excuses.
2. She's very g o o d ___________________ (listen) to what people say.
3. She lives on her own but she relies___________________ (the neighbours, help) her.
4. I expect he's very disappointed (lose) his job.
5. I think you should apologize___________________ (not tell) me the truth.
6. I warned th e m ___________________ (rent) that apartm ent.
7. Th e y plan___________________ (expand) the company.
173

8. She was afraid___________________ (travel) by air


9. "That child n e ed s___________________ (take) care o f" said Eliza.
10. I was a w a re __________________ (plunge) into a network of fresh difficulties.
11. I had not asked for advice, I was quite capable___________________ (advise) myself.
12. He felt that his life was w o r th ___________________ (take) care of.
13. Ann was such a friendly, pretty child, few people could resist________________(talk) to her.
14. The newborn baby had dark curly hair. " F a n c y ___________________ (she, have) hair.
I thought they were born bald," I said.
15. I d on 't lik e ____________________(w ear) a black tie to movies. Ie n jo y ____________________
(see) my movies when I eat popcorn.
16. He was proud of her and her fame and p ro u d ___________________ (see) with her.
17. He never spoke___________________ (reprim and) for it.

Ex. 299 Paraphrase the following sentences using gerunds as objects according to the m odel.
Insert prepositions w h ere necessary.

M od e l: D o y o u h a v e to tra v e l in y o u r j o b ? — D o e s y o u r j o b i n v o lv e ... ?
D oe s y o u r j o b in v o lv e tr a v e llin g ?

1. He can swim very well. — He is good ....


2. Tom said 'Let's have fish for dinner'. — Tom suggested ....
3. I d on 't w ant to go out this evening. — I don't fancy ....
4. Are you sorry you didn't take the job? — Do you re g re t... ?
5. It's not a good idea to travel during the rush-hour. — It's better to avoid ....
6. Could you turn the radio dow n please? — W ould you mind ...?
7. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn't have a license. — The driver of the
car a d m itte d ....
8. The teacher said to the boy 'You didn't pay attention to what I said.' — The teacher
accused the boy ....
9. Margaret said to you 'I'm sorry I didn't phone you earlier.' — Margaret apologized ....
10. I'd visit the museum if I were you. The museum is w orth ....
11. I said to Jack 'D o n 't stay at the hotel near the airport.' — I warned Jack ....
12. Tom said to Ann 'I'll drive you to the station. I insist.' — Tom insisted ....
13. George said to you "It was nice of you to help me. Thanks very much." — George thanked
m e ....
14. The w riter said that he had never dreamed his book would be so successful. — The
w riter confessed....

Ex. 300 Supply any suitable gerund in a suitable form .

1. O ur neighbours are very considerate. They a vo id ______________________ a lot of noise.


2. Just im agine ______________________ in a country where it is always warm and sunny!
3. O ur front gate is falling to pieces. It really w a n ts_____________________ .
4. The police questioned me at some length and I didn't e n jo y _____________________ .
5. W hat does the job involve? — It involves the engine apart.
6. I missed an interesting programme on T V last night. I really regret_____________________ it.
7. Look at the state of those windows! Th e y really n e e d ______________________I

Com plete the second half of the sentence w ith gerunds and prepositions if necessary.
Add the nam e of a person in your class for w h o m you think this m ight be true. It
doesn't have to be serious!

1. ______________e njoys_____________ (waste) time.


2. ______________hates______________ (watch) football matches.
3. ______________is interested_______________ (learn) languages.
4. _ ____________ likes______________ (sit) in the sun a n d ______________ (listen) to pop music.
5. ______________soon gets tire d ______________ (d o ) the same things.
6. ______________is g o o d _______________(organize) parties.
7. ______________loves______________ (argue) a n d _______________ (discuss) things.
8. ______________is fond ______________ (collect) things.
9. ______________is u sed _______________ (walk) everywhere. She enjoys it.
10. ______________doesn't a p p ro ve _______________ (smoke).
11. ______________dislikes______________ (save) money.
12. ______________d re a d ______________(be) alone in a big house at night.
13. ______________can't sta n d _______________ (watch) romantic films.
14. ______________is thinking_______________ (becom e) a rock star.

Ex. 302 Som e of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. They were very keen about winning the bet.


2. She forgot promising to call and kept them waiting.
3. 1can understand him not Inviting John.
4. 1 don't rem em ber having mentioned that they had moved to another flat.
5. 1object against interfering in my work.
6. Excuse me for my calling you at this hour.
7. They blamed him for being missed such an opportunity.
8. 1can't bear of people smoking.
9. His wife was sitting up in her deck chair, engaged about opening her white parasol.
10. He was always full of apologies for being so slow in recognizing w ho was there.
11. Standing still means running backwards.
12. 1should have thought that yours living alone there has given you a lot of opportunities.
13. 1am used eating salads and drinking juices.
The Gerufpi 175

3 Translate into English the parts in brackets using gerunds and gerund complexes
as objects and complex objects (direct or prepositional). Insert prepositions w here
necessary.

1. Excuse me (что я вошел, не постучав).


2. Do you mind (если они тоже придут)?
3. She denied (что обещала что -ли бо подобное).
4. W e hope he will succeed (найти своё место в жизни).
5. I'm considering (поехать на Гавайи).
6. I'm looking forward (снова встретиться со
своими друзьям и).
7. 1 understand perfectly (что ты хочешь уйти).
8, 1insist ___ (чтобы М эри и Кейт провели каникулы в Канаде).
9. I'm really ashamed (что так давно вам не писал).
10. He couldn't get used (чтобы его называли дедуш кой).
11. M atthew admitted (что обещ ал помочь мне).
12. W hy do you avoid (называть вещи своими именами).
13. The y were proud (что первые вы двинули эту теорию ).
14. W e counted (что застанем его на месте).
15. 1can't recall (чтобы меня с ним когда-нибудь знакомили).
16. She was quite unconscious (что приш ла в
неудачный момент).

Com plete the following sentences using gerunds as objects and gerund complexes as
com plex objects.

A . DIRECT OBJECTS B. PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS


1. 1suggest.... 1. The y were capable ....
2. You would not mind .... 2. He succeeded ....
3. His watch needed .... 3. 1was aware ....
4. 1 appreciate.... 4. He never th o u g h t......
5. The proverb is w orth .... 5. The boy is very c le v e r..
6. Everyone e n joye d .... 6. Does anyone o b je c t....
7. The y d e n ie d .... 7. 1am not used ....
8. He never mentioned .... 8. He was quick
9. Just im agine.... 9. Did he confess ... ?
10. 1find it strange .... 10. W hy do you persist... ?
11. She a void s.... 11. 1found them engaged .
Ex. 305 i Translate into English.

1. Я подумываю о том, чтобы съездить в Швейцарию.


2. Я не привыкла, чтобы со мной так обращались.
3. Все настаивали на том, что проект до лж е н быть финансирован комитетом.
4. Она избегала высказывать своё мнение.
5. Я недовольна, что ты опять сделала эту ошибку.
6. За ним нужно присматривать.
7. Я прекрасно могу управлять своей машиной.
8. Он рискует потерять деньги, если откроет это совместное предприятие.
9. Я устала слушать его советы.
10. Нас больш е всего удивило, что ребёнок так хорошо пом нил все эти события.
11. Забудьте об этом: не стоит из-за этого так огорчаться.
12. Когда дети вернулись из школы, я была занята приготовлением обеда.
13. Он был очень огорчен, что не нашел ее дома.
14. Я рассчитываю на то, что факс отправят сейчас же.
15. Сэм пре длож и л прокатиться за город.
16. О тец не одобрял, что Фрэнк встречается с М эри.
17. Замок был испорчен, но ей удалось его открыть.
18. Нет смысла пытаться объяснить ему всё. Он не понимает шуток.
19. Я помню, что он однаж ды был в Москве.
20. Его обвинили в краже автомобиля.
21. Не могу понять, как лю ди могут здесь загорать.
22. Д ети с нетерпением ж дали, когда они по й дут в цирк.
23. М не не нравится, что ей приходится всё повторять.
24. Ничто и никто не помешает ему сделать всё так, как он хочет.
25. Все сердечно поздравляли пилота с установлением нового рекорда.

Ex. 306 W rite a letter to yo u r friend about a frightening experience you had using gerunds in
the function of an object.

M od e l: D earAl,
I had the m ost frightening experience o f m y life yesterday. Ann suggested
going out...
rh e G e ru n d 177

THE GERUND AS AN ATTRIBUTE

Ex. 307 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds. Point o ut syntactic
complexes w ith gerunds.

A.

1. He finds no use in sunbathing for hours.


2. He had a feeling of being watched.
3. They're talking about building a new swim m ing pool.
4. Julie expressed horror at the very thought of going out into the cold.
5. W hat is the reason for your being dissatisfied?
6. The doctor left three different medicines with instructions for giving them .
7. The fishing rods are put away in favour of hunting boots.
8. She gave no sign of having been informed of their arrival.
9. I hadn't any fear of having said too much.
10. He pointed out the way of avoiding complications.
11. Banning smoking in restaurants may help people avoid the risk of falling ill.
12. There's no point in buying an expensive com puter unless you plan to use it a lot.
13. Julia couldn't help feeling the warm th of the reception.
14. He denied the message having been sent by post.
15. W hat did you apologize to the reading teacher for?
16. There's no denying that walking is the cheapest method of travelling.
17. They started clapping to show their appreciation of the acting.
18. Meeting new people is one benefit of taking evening classes.

B.

1. Diplomacy is the art of knowing what not to say.


2. W e feel free when we escape — even if it is from the frying pan to the fire.
3. The most terrible poverty is loneliness and the feeling of being unloved.
4. Blessed are they w ho have the gift of making friends.
5. Little minds are incapable of feeling the pleasure of forgiving their enemies.
6. M y way of joking is to tell the truth. It is the funniest joke in the world.
7. Painting is just another way of keeping a diary.
8. The only reason for being a professional writer is that you can’t help writing.
9. Acting is not being emotional, but being able to express emotion.
10. Anyone w ho takes himself too seriously always runs the risk of looking ridiculous.
11. la m scared or angry at the thought of a human brain being controlled remotely.
12. The disadvantage of being rich is that you have to live with rich people.
13. Concern for someone else is a good rem edy for taking the mind off one's own troubles.
14. If you want peace, stop fighting. If you want peace of mind, stop fighting with your thoughts.
15. W e never live; we are always in the expectation of living.
16. Acting is merely the art of keeping a large group of people from coughing.
178

Ex. 308 Com plete the sentences w ith the gerund in the function of an attribute and a suitable
noun.

M odel: A place where you can fill your petrol tank is ... .
A place where you can fill your petrol tank is a filling station.

1. A special room where you can wait is a _____________________________ .


2. A pill which helps you to sleep is a ____________________________ .
3. A glove which boxers wear is a ____________________________ .
4. Oil you can cook w it h ____________________________ .
5. A pool where you can swim is a ____________________________ .
6. The hours you spend at work are called_____________________________ .

Ex. 309 Com plete the sentences using gerunds from the right colum n.

1. The only way o f. to the dance was on our bicycles.


2. They talked and laughed and shouted, and there was the clatter of a) eating
knives and forks, and strange sounds o f ____________ . b) meeting
3. Philip had few friends. His habit o f _____________ isolated him. c) getting
4. He could not bear the thought o f _____________ her attention. d) reading
5. There were cries o f _____________ from a dozen voices and they e) going
moved toward her. f) greeting
6. Frank could never tell lies w ithout embarrassment, and he was
scarlet when he finished his explanation for n o t _____________us.

Ex. 310 Paraphrase the following sentences using gerunds as attributes. M ake use of the
suggested nouns w ith prepositions.

M od e l: He doesn't intend to tour the country on foot, (intention of) ->


He has no intention o f touring the country on foot.

1. I don't hope to get tickets for the train, (no hope of)
2. They don't find it reasonable to change their plans for the summer, (no reason for)
3. I'm not experienced in climbing the mountains, (no experience in)
4. He doesn't find it useful to sunbathe for hours, (no use in)
5. She doesn't find it possible to refuse their offer to spend a fortnight at the sea. (no
possibility of)
6. He was disappointed that we hadn't accepted his invitation to go fishing, (to show
disappointment at)
7. She was very skilful when she gathered mushrooms, (to demonstrate an unusual skill in)
8. I don't think it important to spend so much time discussing the route of the trip. ( to see
no importance of)
The G e r u n d 179

g J Paraphrase the sentences using gerunds as attributes according to the m odel.

M o d e l: I missed m y chance. I refused to meet Ken.


I missed m y chance o f m eeting Ken.

1. He rejected a very promising offer. Do you know the reason?


2. Mr. Fink gave false evidence in the court. W ill he be put the blame on?
3. Richard and Marylin were a young married couple, they wanted to buy their own house
or an apartment. But there was no such possibility at that stage of their life.
4. They kept saving to put more m oney dow n. That was their plan.
5. They were looking at houses in different areas to find the house they cared for. That was
their purpose.
6. Soon they had some experience. They visited the Real estate agency, talked to agents.
7. They went to the bank to get a loan. Th e loan officer let them know the ways to do it.
8. They had to make payments every m onth. That was the requirement of the bank.

Ex. 312 Com plete the sentences w ith one of the nouns from the right colum n.

1. There is a of entering university this year.


2. Do you know t h e ___ for his being late? a) hours
3. Dick has the of giving up his addictions. b) procedure
4. W hat is the of his working late at night? c) reason
5. There is a of going on business to Manchester d) purpose
as soon as possible. e) possibility
6. Working in different companies are varied. f) chance
7. The suspect attempted to use the of g) ability
justifying himself. h) necessity
8. The _ of hearing the case in the court started.

Ex. 313 Open the brackets using gerunds as attributes. Add prepositions if necessary.

1. This was Daphne's only chance____ (to tell) them of her college life.
2. She had the local habit (to place) the word "eh" at the end of her
remarks, questions and answers.
3. "1 don't see the use ____(to read) the same thing over and over again,"
said Philip.
4. His m other would not like the idea . (to eat) fruit unwashed.
5. "It seems to me an awfullv selfish wav (to look) at things." said Philip.
6. That's no reason (to give up).
7. Miss Brodie was greatly taken aback and suffered greatly from a sense
(to betray).
180

8. And then someone else entered the room and expressed his surprise________________
(to find) Griffiths there.
9. She was on the p o in t___________________ (to obtain) permission to go for walks alone.
10. His heart sank at the th o u g h t___________________ (to go) out into the bleak darkness.
11. Avoiding the use of perfect gerund is quite com m on If there is no fe a r________________
(to misunderstand).

Com plete the follow ing sentences using gerunds as attributes. Use prepositions
w here necessary.

1. Is there any hope ...? 10. Do you have any objections ... ?
2. W ha t are your grounds ...? 11. At the party 1had the pleasure ....
3. As he approached he gave no sign .... 12. He displayed no interest....
4. He got into the h a b it.... 13. You should have seen her surprise ....
5. I've no doubt she can change her w a y .... 14. I've got no experience ....
6. 1don't like the idea .... 15. W e took precautions ....
7. It was very kind of you to have taken the trouble .... 16. W hat is the most effective method ...?
8. 1can't make out the reason .... 17. There is no harm ....
9. He is well known for his skill.... 18. 1can see no sense ....

Ex. 315 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. She has a nasty habit of guessing, and the trouble is, she is often right.
2. Her father had an irritating way in taking it for granted that she knew everything.
3. He hates the very thought of being cleaned his room.
4. 1can't bear the thought of the children staying there alone.
5. She feels the need of pouring out her heart.
6. Derek had the gift of being talking as if no other person was in the room.
7. She didn't give up the idea of som ehow confirming the information.
8. W e have enough difficulty at paying the rent as it is!
9. There is no danger of his telling our secret to friends. He has no friends.
10. The police issued a warning of speeding.
11. They went into town with the intention to visiting the library.

Translate the follow ing phrases using gerunds as attributes. M ake up sentences w ith
these phrases.

1. мысль о том, чтобы научиться;


2. чувство, что уже видел;
3. мысль о том, что он до п усти л ошибку;
181

4. никаких признаков повреж дения;


5. боязнь подвести друзей;
6. честь быть приглашенным;
7. возражения против того, чтобы подним ать этот вопрос;
8. возможность продвиж ения по служ бе;
9. преимущество, что знал язык лучш е других;
10. признание того, что был неправ.

Ex. 317 Translate the sentences using gerunds.

1. Его опыт вождения машины пригодится ему в будущ ей работе.


2. Он никак не мог свыкнуться с мыслью, что ему придется пробыть там еще полгода.
3. В такое время года есть только одна возможность добраться туда — это самолетом.
4. Представьте себе их удивление, когда они узнали, что он получил премию за свой
проект.
5 Он пытался найти удобны й предлог, чтобы уйти пораньше.
6. Он был счастлив при мысли о том, что скоро опять ув и ди т своих друзей.
7. После завтрака я объявила о своем намерении пойти на прогулку.
8. Есть ли какая-нибудь надеж да застать их дом а сейчас?
9. Какие у вас основания разговаривать с нами таким тоном?
10. М не редко представляется случай повидать их всех вместе.
11. М е то д обучения мистера Броклхерста отбивал у детей всякую инициативу и
ж елание учиться.
12. Я не могу не восхищаться работами этого художника. С нетерпением ж ду его новых
работ!
13. Изучение иностранного языка — трудная, но интересная работа.
14. Самое приятное занятие — это выбирать и да р ить подарки.
15. Она никогда не уставала говорить о своих детях. Она так гордилась ими!
16. Я не помню, чтобы он когда-либо обращался ко мне с подобной просьбой.
17. Вы не возражаете, если я поработаю сегодня в вашем кабинете?
18. Истинная причина столь поспешного возвращения миссис Чивли в Л о н до н заклю­
чалась в ее личной заинтересованности в том, чтобы сэр Роберт снял свой д о к л а д в
парламенте. Она понимала, что только страх быть разоблаченным может заставить
его согласиться на это.
182

Read about yo u r star sign. Insert the missing prepositions. Define the functions of
the gerunds used in this horoscope. Add som e inform ation about y o u r star sign using
gerunds in the functions you know.

A Q U A R IU S PISCES ARIES
January 21 — February 19 February 20 — M arch 20 March 21 - April 20
You e n jo y being in d e p e n d e n t You love dancing and yo u are You hate follow in g a rou tine .
and like saying w h a t you think. fond w ritin g p o e try and m aking You e n jo y playing energetic
You have difficulty accepting m usic. You are no t v e ry good sports and you like taking p art in
o th e r people's opinions. You like organizing. You dislike planning. races. You d o n 't m in d taking
belonging to clubs and talking to You e n jo y helping people, but risks. You d o n 't w o rry
people. You have original ideas and yo u try to avoid taking h u rting th e feelings o f others.
are Rood inventing. responsibility.
CAPRICORN TAU RU S
December 22 — January 20 April 21 — M a y 21
You are capable w o rk in g v e ry You prefer doing quiet things,
hard. You dislike people being like painting and listening to
untidy. You c a n 't stand wasting m usic. You avoid doing things
tim e on unnecessary things. You like th a t are energetic. You d o n 't
organizing and you d o n 't m in d being m ind accepting routines and
alone. You e nio v reading. rules.
SAGGITARIUS G EM IN I
Novem ber 23 — December 21 M a y 22 — June 21
Being fre e is im p o rta n t to you . You are quick picking up
You hate being forced into a n e w ideas and are better
rou tine . You are capable doing m ental w o rk th a n m anual
p utting a lot o f enthusiasm into w o rk . You are easily bored
y o u r interests. You like w alking, doing th e sam e things. You
riding and doing o u td o o r sports. e n jo y discussing things w ith
people.
SCORPIO CANCER
October 24 — Novem ber 22 June 22 — July 23
You som e tim es have difficulty You like looking after and
controllin g y o u r tem p er. You are pro tecting people. Collecting is
a good detective. You love often a hobby. You love
finding o u t answers and solving s w im m in g and all w a te r sports.
puzzles. You like active sports
such as boxing, karate and
w a te r SDorts.
LIBRA VIRGO LEO
September 24 — October 23 August 24 — September 23 July 24 — August 23
You are g ood being diplom atic. You are not keen taking the You usually succeed getting
You hate quarreling. You prefer lead. But you always do things w h a t you w a n t. You are fond
q u iet activities, such as sunbathing, that need doing. M aking things is a playing gam es and you enjoy
p ainting, w ritin g and reading. favourite activity. You like taking risks. You are good
paying attention to detail. organizing. You often insist
doing w h a t you w ant. You like
acting.
e J rj 183

THE GERUND AS AN ADVERBIAL

Ex. 319 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds.

A.

1. Instead of working out at the gym the girls decided to go out and have some cake.
2. She made an apple pie for presenting it at the cooking contest.
3. Despite the child's moving all the time the photographer took good pictures.
4. Joshua spent the whole day in thinking about his beloved.
5. After watching a movie, we decided to have a walk In the park.
6. Tom left w ithout finishing his dinner.
7. Because of Hugh's playing com puter games all the time his eyesight got worse.
8. In checking the test Professor McM illan found 5 mistakes.
9. Besides reading in his spare time, he also enjoyed jogging.
10. It is your task to get across the river w ithout being seen.
11. But for your coming, I would feel lonely.

B.

1. Don't cook a hare before catching him.


2. You can't make an omelet w ithout breaking eggs.
3. Gardens are not made by sitting in the shade.
4. Instead of eating at hom e, we w ent to a restaurant.
5. I was once throw n out of a mental hospital for depressing the other patients.
6. Television is created for appearing on — not for looking at.
7. In spite of the play being very popular I wasn't impressed. It was rather boring.
8. After being turned down by numerous publishers, he had decided to write for posterity.
9. Enjoy your own life w ithout comparing it with that of another.
10. There are three rules for writing the novel. Alas, no one knows what they are.
11. Learning is finding out what you already know.
12. An orator is a good man w ho is skilled In speaking.
13. W hen real people fall down in life, they get right back up and keep on walking.
14. Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing.

Ex. 320 Paraphrase the follow ing sentences according to the m odel. Use prepositions of the
Adverbial of tim e: in, at, on (up on), after, before, since. Use predicative constructions
if necessary.

M odel: After we bought the book we left the shop. -5>


After buying the book we left the shop.
After Peter bought the book we left the shop.
After Peter's buying the book we left the shop.

1. W ith confidence, you have won even before you start.


2. While we are doing things we learn.
184

3. Directors shook hands and we got down to business.


4. After he broke our engagement I have nothing to do with him.
5. We haven't heard from him since he left for Madrid.
6. W hen Rose arrived at the music-hall she heard a great deal of noise made by the audience.
7. W hile talking of the past events, he never mentioned that he was married.
8. W hen the child entered the room, his parents happily smiled at him.
9. Don't say that it has been a fine day — wait until it is night.

Ex. 321 Translate the sentences into English using gerunds as adverbials of tim e.

1. Он подож дал полминуты, прежде чем ответить.


2. Позавтракав, он вернулся в свою комнату.
3. Выйдя из дома, он встретил своего школьного товарища.
4. Читая эту книгу, он нашел много интересных выражений.
5. Услышав о приезде Елены, я решила ее навестить.
6. Она сменила дв е работы с тех пор, как окончила учёбу.
7. Получив письмо от брата, он поехал к нему первым поездом.
8. Переписывая текст, она пропустила некоторые слова.
9. Услышав радостную новость, девушка не могла удержаться, чтобы не расплакаться.
10. После двухчасового чтения он положил книгу на колени и начал что-то писать.

Ex. 322 Transform the sentences so as to use gerunds as adverbials of manner, attendant
circumstances or condition. Add prepositions by, in, w ithout, b u t for, in case of.

M od e l: She ran five miles, she didn't stop. -> She ran five miles w ithout stopping.

1. He translated the article, he didn't use a dictionary.


2. It's nice to go on holiday if you don't have to w o rry about money.
3. You do a lot of reading, this way you can improve your English.
4. If you drive dangerously, you put people's lives at risk.
5. She got married; nobody knew about it.
6. George took more exercise and so lost weight.
7. If he hadn't noticed his friend in the crowd, they w ouldn't have met.
8. He climbed through the w indow ; nobody saw him.
9. You can't help someone get up a hill if you don't get closer to the top yourself.
10. You create your opportunities when you ask for them.
11. If he were not often late, we would be able to count on him.
12. Drink nothing if you don't see it; sign nothing If you haven't read it.
185

Ex. 323 Complete the following review of the opera 'Th e Queen of Spades' using gerunds as
adverbials of reason. Then w rite a review of your favourite performance using gerunds
as adverbials of reason introduced by prepositions because of, f o r fe a r of, for, from ,
o w in g to, through, on account of. Tell your friend about this performance.

M odel: Before the performance she repeated the words again and again fo r fear... (to forget
them). -> She repeated the words again and again fo r fear o f forgetting them.

Thorold Dickenson succeeded in writing a very good script through ... (to change the story a lot of times).
Though Yvonne Mitchel caused a sensation f o r ... (to do well at the rehearsal),she didn't feel like
coming onto the stage for fear o f ... (to laugh at).
But now we know that Miss Mitchel became a leading singer ow ing to ... (to sing the part of Lisa in
"Th e Queen of Spades" successfully).
The performance was a greatsuccess because of... (Anton Walbrookto play his part of Herman wonderfully).
The actors were given a standing ovation f o r ... (to make a deep impression on the public).

Ex. 3 24 Translate the fragments in brackets into English using gerunds as adverbials of
concession, attendant circumstances or purpose. State the function of the gerunds.

1. You should take regular exercise (вместо того, чтобы сидеть перед телевизором) all day.
2. Не died poor, (несмотря на то, что он тяж ело работал) all his life.
3. Can't we even laugh properly (и не создавать) trouble?
4. The story was changed (д л я постановки) at the theatre.
5. (Кроме того, что она работала врачом), she had an excellent background in literature.
6. (Несмотря на то, что я учу французский) for three years, I still find it difficult to speak.
7. The actor used his jokes (д л я того, чтобы развеселить) the audience.
8. A bore is a man w ho deprives you of solitude (и не составляет вам компании).

Ex. 325 Match the tw o halves of each sentence. State the functions of gerunds.

H O W T O S TU D Y EFFICIENTLY

1. Begin b y ... a) making plans you can't possibly keep.


2. Be realistic: you will be upset in case of... b) jum ping up to fetch things every five minutes.
3. Find a quiet place where you can work c) studying.
w it h o u t - d) marking each topic on your list as you
4. If possible, use it only for... complete it.
5. Check you have everything you need before... e) making a list of w hat you have to do.
6. This means you w o n 't waste time by... f) being interrupted.
7. Encourage yourself by... g) starting work.

W rite 5 sentences describing you r w a y of making efficient packing before a long holiday.
Use as m any gerund adverbials as possible. Share your ideas w ith yo u r friend. W ill you
take his / her m ethod as advisory?
186

Ex. 326 Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds in different functions.

1. Upon looking atthis planet any visitorfrom outerspace would say'I w antto seethe manager'.
2. Th e cloak-room serves for leaving the students' hats and coats there.
3. The humorist makes fun of himself, but In doing so, he identifies himself with people.
4. The spectators clapped and cheered for having been deeply impressed by the play.
5. Ow ing to her having acted inspiringly the play was a great success.
6. One does not blame an epoch; one congratulates oneself on not having belonged to it.
7. For any popular play you can't get tickets w ithout having booked them in advance.
8. Setting a good example for children takes all the fun out of middle age.
9. Tact is the art of making a point without making an enemy.
10. Physics cannot be held responsible for people falling in love.
11. Arithm etic is being able to count up to tw enty w ithout taking off your shoes.
12. If you can't sleep, get up and do something instead of lying there and worrying.
13. You begin saving the world by saving one man at a time.
14. The worst thing for me is being required to have fun.

Ex. 327 Paraphrase th e following sentences according to the m odel.

M od e l: She laughed but she did not reply. -> She laughed w ithout replying.

A . using gerunds as adverbials.


1. He went on and did not pay any attention to her interruption.
2. Th e younger man hesitated before he answered.
3. She bowed her head but she did not speak.
4. You will get nothing from him if you reproach him all the time.
5. Brian kept silent for fear that he might be misunderstood.
6. She was not only a talented professional violinist; she had a second career as a
musicologist.
7. She escaped danger as she listened to intuition.
8. Harry laughed far too long and he thought tw o of his ribs m ight already have cracked
from this.
9. He got into terrible trouble for he climbed the roof of the school kitchens.

B. using gerund predicative constructions as adverbials.

1. W hen he returned she w ent immediately into the dining-room.


2. His friends considered him very practical though he was so young.
3. The quietness of the house was broken when the children drove their toy cars on the floor.
4. Barbara felt much better after the doctor gave her tw o tablets of paracetamol.
5. M y house had been robbed, I installed the burglar alarm system.
6. The children were not allowed to leave the house uniess their parents gave permission.
7. It was her first performance and she worried a great deal.
8. He hired her even though she had never sung on stage.
Ihe Gerund 187

9. He invited Jill to the concert so that they could spend at least tw o hours together.
10. Since Mrs Reed arrived at their place, the girls have kept on calling her Auntie Ann Joyce.

C. using gerunds and gerund predicative constructions as adverbials.

1. Philip was tired because he had talked too much.


2. After he examined the patient, he said it was simply a case of nerve strain.
3. You suggested that Shankari should take part in the contest; you spoilt everything!
4. He w asn't reprimanded; the manager gave him a rise instead.
5. W hen she entered the room, Alec W arner addressed her w ithout preliminaries.
6. He came into the room very angry and didn't even greet us.
7. Andrew feels all right now. He was operated on a m onth ago.
8. Even though the headmaster was busy, the secretary promised to us to make an
appointm ent with him.
9. W hile she was writing the test, she made too many mistakes.
10. If he were not so bad-tempered, his wife would not have left him so soon after the marriage.

Ex. 328 Com plete the sentences using gerunds as adverbials.

1. His outlook has broadened a fte r________________


2. In _____________________________ she missed a line.
3. She took far too much upon herself b y _________
4. On _____________________________ she suddenly felt her nerves were at breaking point.
5. You will have to take my words on faith before ____________________________ .
6. He was so much irritated that on ____________________________ he banged down the
receiver w it h o u t ____________________________ .
7. I n _____________________________ the geological party struck upon a new oil deposit.
8. I don't w ant to raise false hopes b y ____________________________ .
9. He could tell the funniest joke w it h o u t _____________________________ .
10. In spite o f ____________________________ the sportsman pulled through to the finish.
11. Eventually Selvyn couldn't laugh for ______________ and again, he couldn't cough for

12. But f o r ____________________________the play would not have enjoyed such popularity.
13. B e sid e s ____________________________, she was also a wonderful mother.
14. The matter cannot be so easily dismissed w it h o u t ____________________________ .
15. She was afraid to say anything to them for fear o f ____________________________ .

Ex. 329 Some of these sentences w ith gerunds as adverbials contain errors. Find and correct them .

1. The overture is played 1fer introd u cin g an opera.


2. 'jn 2buving a programm e, she gave it to Mrs. Burlow, and looked about her brightly.
3. You should fill up with petrol b e fo re 2having Starting a car.
4. Fewer people got ill last year th ro u g h Vaccinating against the disease,
5. It's rude to borrow people's things W ith o u t 2not ^asking for permission.
188 tuaiyi Griittimar Practice

6. ‘On account of 2hurting his leg, he managed 3to win the race.
7. The actor w o n 't impress you ‘if not P e rfo rm in g his part realistically, true to life.
8. The parents sat quietly for a while ‘after 2their 3eettine rid of the unexpected visitor.
9. You must always thank people ‘for 2their 3having helped you.
10. ‘ Despite of 2havine had a back operation six months earlier, and 3despite “me P o in tin g
this out I was given some pretty rough treatment.

Ex. 330 Translate the sentences into English using gerunds as adverbials.

1. Я стала много писать, чтобы улучш ить орфографию.


2. О н вышел из зала, не дож идаясь окончания спектакля.
3. Увидев приближаю щ ийся поезд, мы поспеш или на платформу.
4. Просматривая журналы, он натолкнулся на очень интересную статью по экономике
Англии.
5. Помимо того, что он прекрасный актер, он еще и опытный режиссер.
6. Прежде чем писать об этих событиях, он решил посетить те места, где они происходили.
7. О н вы глядел бодры м и веселым как всегда, несмотря на то, что провел бессонную
ночь у постели больного.
8. Она продолж ала молчать, так как боялась обидеть его, если расскажет всю правду.
9. Мы бы д о сих пор не решили все эти вопросы, если бы с ним не бы лотак легко работать.
10. Нам не понравилось сидеть в задних рядах партера, так как нам было плохо видно сцену.
11. О н чувствовал себя не в своей тарелке, несмотря на то, что друзья предупреди ли
его заранее о ее визите.
12. С тех пор как я уви де л этот фильм, я не перестаю дум ать о нем.

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

Ex. 331 A. Define the functions of the gerunds used in this letter.

Dear friends,
M y hobby is flying. There is no persuading m e that there is another thing in the world
which is worth doing. I can't help being surprised when I hear that people are afraid
o f flying. There is no other w ay o f travelling I prefer. On becoming older I started
thinking o f having m y ow n plane. Instead of going on different trips I kept on saving
money. Very soon I realized that because o f going nowhere on holidays I deprive
m yself o f flying. So I m ade a decision o f finding a friend w ho has a plane. Since com ing
to this decision I have asked everyone I know but I am still unsuccessful in searching.
So if you know someone with a plane and w ho wants a friend f o r flying with, please
let m e know. I will be looking fo rw a rd to yo u r answering.

Best regards,

John Enalp
7he Gerund 189

B. W rite a paragraph to answer this letter. Please, add inform ation about yo u r hobby
using as m any gerunds in different functions as possible.

C. Tell yo u r friend about you r hobby.

u Translate into Russian and com m ent on the use of the gerunds.

1. Know your own faults before blaming others for theirs.


2. Besides doing the cooking I look after the garden.
3. It was definitely worth while going on our study trip to England. It was fantastic!
4. She couldn't help wishing that things were som ewhat different.
5. One becomes rich by spending oneself.
6. In spite of having lost a fortune, he is still rich.
7. If w e aren't capable of being hurt, we aren't capable of feeling joy.
8. Not a day w ent by w ithout her thinking of them .
9. But for his having apologized, I would still be mad at him.
10. There is no pleasure in having nothing to do; the fun is in havinglots to do and not doing it.
11. The trouble with having an open mind is that people willinsist on coming along and
trying to put things in it.
12. Speaking w ithout thinking is shooting w ithout aim.
13. I take m y wife everywhere, but she keeps finding her way back.
14. I owe my success to having listened respectfully to the very best advice, and then going
away and doing the exact opposite.
15. Being in a ship is like being in a jail, with the chance of being drowned.
16. One of the greatest creations of the human mind is the art of reviewing books without
having read them .

fl Fill in the correct form s of the gerunds. Insert prepositions if necessary.

1. It's not w orth w h ile .............. (pay) a lot of money just to see a film.
2. I apologise (not w rite) to you for so long.
3. His sister-in-law certainly n e e d e d .............. (look) after.
4. I'm s o rry .................(misunderstand) w hat you said.
5. Did you have any p ro b le m ................(find) the house? — No, but I had a lot of difficulty
............... (get) in.
6. For anyone w ho is k e e n .................(ride), there are organized pony trips every afternoon.
7. Michael o b je c te d .................. (I, stay) until the end of the party.
8. You should go to the optician's. I think your eyes re q u ire .................(test).
9. M ary a d m itte d .................. (her brother, eat) the whole cake.
10. I re m e m b e r.................(he, stay) a week-end with us. He is a pleasant fellow.
11.................... (I, be) there and then was good luck.
12. W hat annoyed me most w a s .................(he, invite) to the party.
13. I'd never felt anxious...............(fly) until the day when we were caught in an electrical storm.
190 Caalizh G r o m m u r Practice

14. Harry d e n ie d ................. (his escape, organize) by Herm ione and Ron.
15. I will never forget the city............... (it, make) deep and lasting impression on me.
16. Thank y o u ............... (not tire) me with enumeration of all the details.
17. A fte r.................(they, spend) a week in the cottage, he decided that he didn't really enjoy
.................(live) in the country and b e ga n ................. (think) of an excuse...................(sell) the
cottage a n d ............... (return) to London.

Ex. 334 Paraphrase the follow ing sentences using gerunds.

1. Stop asking them for help because it's no use


2. He had been with us for tw enty minutes but he didn't say a word.
3. 'Shall we go to the cinema?' David suggested.
4. Although he's got an English name, he is in fact German.
5. 1am sorry that 1 kept them waiting.
6. Th e y didn't w ant to go for a row — they w ent for a ride, instead.
7. He has packed a suitcase, he has just finished.
8. He made everything clear to me, he explained every detail.
9. She has a gift which enables her to make complicated things clear and simple.
10. Once in a while take a break and visit yourself, it's w orth it.
11. He surely risked — he might have broken his neck when he jum ped across the stream.
12. M y parents didn't notice me as they were so engaged: they were bedding out the flowers.

Ex. 335 Paraphrase the sentences using gerund predicative constructions.

1. M y m other regrets that 1left school at 14.


2. Harry heard the sound — the frying pan was put on the stove.
3. 1don't mind if m y husband lends money to my brothers and sisters.
4. She talked about food and It made him feel hungry.
5. They couldn't but be late as their train had been delayed due to the heavy fog.
6. He thought there was no chance that anybody might reach them here.
7. Aunt Petunia was tired that Harry always came back from the barber's looking as though
he hadn’t been at all.
8. Congratulations, you have won the prize 1
9. There was a possibility that the war would end by the end of the year.
10. I'd just have to put up with the fact that my friends went to another school.
11. The fear that they could take advantage of him never crossed his mind.

Ex. 336 Paraphrase the sentences using gerunds or gerund predicative constructions.

1. I don't recall that I met him in London.


2. W here do I find the tim e so that I could read so many books?
The Gerund 191

3. The doctor insists that ail the children should be vaccinated.


4. It was impossible to escape Dudley's gang, w ho visited the house every single day.
5. After m um had been cooking the meat for several hours, it turned out to be still tough.
6. In this thick fog she was afraid that she might be knocked down.
7. I taught them to drive, that was m y task.
8. You learn a lot about people when they are playing games with you.
9. He decided not to take up square dance and to his wife's greatest regret he gave up the
idea completely.
10. The words just came out; I hadn't planned to say them .
11. He is ambitious and this trait of character is the driving force to success.
12. M y brother chews bubble gum all the tim e which is a very irritating habit.
13. It's easy to get injured in a football match and not to know how it happened.
14. The reason that there are so few female politicians is that it is too much trouble to put
make-up on tw o faces.
15. The shower was the only place where he could sing so that the neighbours were not
banging on the walls.

Ex. 337 Translate the fragm ents in brackets into English using gerunds. State their functions.

1. He couldn't rem em ber (как он бы л) in the car when his parents had died.
2. (После того, как она спросила Гарри) furiously if he knew the man, Aunt Petunia had
rushed them out of the shop (ничего не купив).
3. It was just (бесполезно говорить) the Dursleys that Harry didn't make strange things
happen.
4. I decided to accept the job (несмотря на то, что была предлож ена низкая зарплата).
5. (Чувствуя себя больны м) Joe decided not to go to work that morning.
6. Brian hasn't shaved (с тех пор, как ле г в больницу).
7. I found it strange that Annette denied (что она принимала участие) in the beauty
contest last week.
8. At the sight of a broken doll the girl (расплакалась).
9. W hat I dream about is (чтобы ты была рядом всегда).
10. The snow (продолж ал падать) and the workm en grew tired (стараясь) to keep the
roads clear.
11. I can't see any reason (почему он скрывал правду так до лго ).
12. O ur guests showed little hesitation (приним ая) the invitation.
13. (И дти на риск) does not frighten me.
14. He was punished (за то, что его наш ли) in the kitchen at night.
15. Once he decides something, (его невозможно отговорить) out of it.
16. (И д я ) along the road, I (не могла не дум ать) of Mr. Rochester's despair (когда
обнаруж ит) himself abandoned.
192

Ex. 338 Translate the sentences into English using gerunds.

A.
1. Не зная пароль, не стоит пытаться открыть этот файл.
2. Было ясно, что мальчик заслуживает наказания.
3. Я бы л за то, чтобы ехать в Германию на поезде.
4. Я привыкла рано вставать, так как занятия в университете начинаются в 8.30.
5. Видя, что я подхожу, они перестали разговаривать.
6. Она подумывает о том, чтобы оставить работу и переехать в деревню .
7. Какой самый эффективный путь овладения иностранным языком? — Вы можете
получить хорошие знания, работая над ним регулярно, де нь за днем .
8. Когда ты прекратишь хвастать, что съездил в Л о н до н ?
9. Кроме того, что он занимается танцами, он еще ходит на тренировки по карате.

B.
1. Д а д л и не привык, чтобы его игнорировали.
2. Твое пальто нужно почистить щеткой.
3. Самый надежный способ улучшить память — стараться забыть что-то.
4. Я буду признателен, если вы мне поможете перевести эти предложения.
5. Его оштрафовали за то, что он перешел ули ц у в неполож енном месте.
6. Вы долж ны вовремя возвращать книги в библиотеку без напоминания.
7. М оя спутница поблагодарила меня за то, что я присмотрела за ее багажом.
8. Если бы не его плохое поведение, он бы получил подарок от ДеДа Мороза.
9. Не могло быть и речи о том, чтобы он получил доступ к документам.
10. Спасибо, что позвонили. Было так приятно поговорить с вами. Не зашли бы вы как-
нибудь д о отъезда? С нетерпением ж ду встречи с вами.

E x . 339 Com plete the follow ing sentences w ith gerund phrases to make up a story of yo u r
unforgettable sum m er holidays. Tell the story to yo u r friend, listen to his / hers and
com pare the stories. W hich one w ou ld seem m ore unbelievable?

Once I was invited to spend my sum m er holidays... I couldn't help...


M y suggestion was ... but... She/he was oblivious of...
I insisted on... After 2 or 3 days of... I w a s ...
In spite of... I decided... In the end...
[he Gerund 193

THE GERUND AND THE INFINITIVE


Ex. 340 Match the captions w ith the pictures.

1. a) I've stopped to eat a chocolate.

b) I've stopped eating sweets.

2. a) I regret to tell you that all of you have failed the

b) I regret telling them that they failed the exam.

3. b)
a)

4. a) Remember to visit Notre Dame!

b) Remember visiting Notre Dame fbrthe first time?

Ex. 341 Read each situation and use the w ords in brackets to w rite yo u r sentence w ith afraid.

M od e l: The streets are unsafe at night. (I / afraid / go o ut / alone)............


I'm afraid to go out alone.

1. I didn't like the look of the food on my plate. (I / afraid / eat / i t ) , (I / afraid / make
/ myself ill) ..........
2. I don't usually carry my passport with me. (I / afraid / lose / i t ) ...................
3. W e walked very carefully along the icy path. (W e / afraid / fa ll)..................
4. The sea was very rough. (W e / afraid / go / s w im m in g ).......................
5. I didn't tell Tom that I thought he had behaved foolishly. (I / afraid / hurt / hisfeelings)

6. In the middle of the film there was a particularly horrifying scene.(W e / afraid / look)

7. The glasses were very full, so Ann carried them carefully. (She / afraid / spill / the drinks)

Ex. 342 Tick the alternative w hich best fits the m eaning of each sentence.

1. A: Has your daughter got a role in that movie?


B: No, I regret to s a y /s a y in g that she hasn't. In fact, I think now she regrets to le a v e /
leaving school.
194 ’V v G ’ i i n v r i ' i r ! 'r a c t ic v

2. A: I'll never forget to dance / dancing with you, Alicia. It's been a wonderful evening!
B: Oh, Marco! You w o n 't forget to ph o ne/ phoning me tom orrow , will you?

3. A: Do you rem em ber to lock / locking the back door before we came out this evening?
B: No, I don't. I hope we haven't been burgled I
A: Oh, well. It's a good thing that I remembered to turn on /tu rn in g on the burglar alarm I

4. A : Stop to d rive/ driving so fast! W e've got plenty of time.


B: Sorry! Look, I'll have to stop at this garage to g e t/ g e ttin g some petrol, anyway.

5. Tom and I played tennis yesterday. The match lasted for ages; in fact, we w e n t on to play
/p la y in g until it got dark. I won the first tw o games but Tom w e n t on to win / w in n in g in
the endl

6. A: Sorry, I didn't mean to interrupt/interrupting you 11 didn't realise you were still working.
B: That's okay, I've nearly finished. I've got to have this project ready for tom orrow,
which m eans to check/ checking I haven't made any silly mistakes.

7. A: W hat's going on?


B: The car's broken down. Dad's trying to sta rt/ starting it.
A: Well, w hy d o n 't we try to p u sh /p u s h in g it? That often works.

Ex. 343 Com plete the sentences w ith gerunds o r infinitives of the verbs in brackets. Insert
prepositions w h ere necessary.

1. N E E D / W A N T
a) I'm going to the supermarket because I n e e d (buy) some shampoo.
b) Dad's gone to the garage because his car n e e d s (service).
c) "W h y is the baby crying?" "I think he w a n ts (feed)."

2. BE SORRY
a) I was s o rry (hear) about you failing the exam.
b) He said he was s o rry (speak) to you so rudely.

3. FORBID
a) Th e headmistress has forbid d en (answer) telephone calls in class.
b) Th e headmistress has forbidden children (answer) telephone calls in class.

4. HELP
a) Tom helped his m o th e r (get) the dinner ready.
b) W hen she told me that everybody had made fun of him, I couldn't h e lp (feel) sorry
for him.

5. BE SURE
a) You seem very s u re (pass) the exam. I hope you are right.
b) I see that he is in a very good shape, he is s u re (succeed).

6. LEARN
a) She goes to college twice a week to le a rn (type).
b) She le a rn t (to read) German at school, but she le a rn t (speak) it in Germany.
The Gerund 195

7. BE INTERESTED
a) I shall be interested (see) how long it lasts.
b) I am interested (w ork) in Switzerland. Do you know anybody w h o could help me?

Com plete the sentences putting the verbs into gerunds or infinitives.

1.
Caroline: W ould you like 1.... (go out) for a meal tonight?
Sandra: Yes, that would be nice. I just n e e d 2.... (wash) my hair first.
Caroline: Shall we go to Perry's?
Sandra: I'd p re fe r3.... (go) som ewhere else. Don't you rem em ber \ ... (send) the food
back last time w e w ent there? It was terrible.
Caroline: Oh yes, I'd forgotten. W e decided to s to p 5 .... (go) there, didn't we?
Sandra: Yes, we did. So I've got another suggestion. Sally recom m ended 6.... (try) that
new French restaurant, Chez Victor. She said It was very good. W e'll go there, shall we?
Caroline: OK. That's a good idea.

2 .
Dear Ms Walters,
Thank you for your application for the diploma in tourism but I re g re t7.... (inform ) you
that this course is now full. Should you wish to take the course elsewhere, 1would advise
you 8.... (apply) to Central College. Th e y started 9.... (run) a course in tourism a year ago
and I would recom m end y o u 10.... (consider) u ..„ (enrol) on that course rather than u ....
(wait) another year to do a course here. If you w o u ld p re fe r13..;. (wait) for this course,
then I would encourage you 14.... ( t r y ) 15.... (find) some work related to tourism so that
you can s ta rt16.... (acquire) some relevant experience.

Ex. 345 Translate the follow ing sentences into English. Use the prom pts given.

1. О ни позабыли пригласить меня. FORGET


2. Я пытаюсь читать, но меня постоянно отвлекают. TRY
3. Когда увидиш ь Тома, не забудь передать ему привет. REMEMBER
4. Мы пробовали экономить, но на отпуск все равно де не г не хватило. TRY
5. Несмотря на до ж дь , мы продолж али ж дать. G O ON
6. Возможно, М о лли пожалела, что так много болтала. REGRET
7. Жильцы этого дома предпочитали не интересоваться чужими делам и. PREFER
8. Ребенок хорошо себя вел, он заслуживает похвалы. DESERVE
9. Ремонт наверняка будет стоить больш е, чем ты думаешь. CERTAIN
10. Цветы совсем завяли, их требуется полить. REQUIRE
11. Я не разрешаю брать машину. М не необходимо уехать. PERMIT, NEED
12. Детям запрещено бегать по коридорам в школе. FORBID
13. Встретив Диану, я остановилась поговорить с ней. STOP
14. Извините, что мы опоздали. SORRY
15. Зимой Мистер Гарланд преподает катание на лыжах, а летом — скалолазание. TEACH
196

3 Choose betw een 'USED T O ' + infinitive and 'BE USED T O ' + gerund. Som etim es both
I variants are possible.

1. I _____________ (have) a lot of free time before I started working here.


2. S h e _____________ (not have) a car. Now she owns a 2003 Toyota Corolla.
3. The child ren ____________ (cook) for themselves when they get hom e from school.
4. T h is ____________ (be) an industrial area.
5. It's difficult for Tom to drive in England. H e ____________ (not drive) on the left.
6. H e _____________ (not enjoy) the Oscar Award Cerem ony as much as he does now.
7. I _____________ (have) eggs for breakfast.
8. C a ro line____________(have) a walkman, now she has an iPod.
9. T h e y ____________ (listen) to loud noise because they live in the city centre.
10. People from India usually find our food tasteless. T h e y ____________ (eat) spicy food.
11. C om p u ters____________ (be) very expensive. Now the prices are more reasonable.
12. English has become international. Businessmen____________ (speak) English at meetings.
13. M a ria ____________ (think) that she would never be able to live in New York.
14. D a rrin ___________ (smoke) cigarettes, but he never smoked cigars.
15. I ____________ (earn) a lot of money, but then I lost my job.
16. Tw enty years ago p e o p le ____________ (not browse) the Internet but now everybody
_____________ (surf) around like crazy.
17. The queue in the baker's____________ (be) bad but now it's terrible.
18. Susie____________ (study) night after night for her degree in Economics.
19. W hen you lived near that shopping centre, y o u ____________ (go) there very often?

Ex. 347 O pen the brackets. W ork in pairs, ask yo u r friend the follow ing questions. Share the
most interesting information about yo u r friend w ith y o u r class.

❖ W h o is a famous person you'd really like (m eet)?


❖ Have you ever tried (surf)? W ould you like to?
❖ Have you ever considered (work) abroad?
❖ W ha t kind of house do you hope (live) in when you are 60?
❖ Is there anything you can't stand (do)?
❖ Have you ever done something you regretted or have you
regretted (not do) something?
❖ Do you mind other people (smoke) next to you in public places?
❖ W hen was the last time you arranged (m eet) someone? W hat
happened?
❖ W hat are you thinking of (do) this weekend?
Ti e Gerund 197

Ex. 348 Complete the text w ith the verbs in the correct form inserting an infinitive or a gerund.

Liz, Laura and Fiona met on an exchange visit. One night they wanted (1) (dance), so they decided
(2) (go) out and agreed (3) (m eet) in the centre. They couldn't afford (4 ) (go) to
an expensive disco and were hoping (5) (find) somewhere cheap. They wanted (6) (dance)
to soul music. An English friend suggested (7) (go) to the 'Elektrik' club. Fiona insisted (8)_______
(walk) there to save money, but they got lost! Finally, they managed (9)________ (find) it. Inside, they
avoided (10) (talk) to any suspicious characters. They enjoyed (11) (dance) all night. It was
brilliant. They also met some boys w ho promised (12) (see) them again. One of the boys offered
(13)_______ (give) them a lift home in his car, but Liz suggested (14) (call) a taxi. They d id n 't mind
(15)_______ (share) a taxi because it was safer.

Ex. 349 Com plete these sentences w ith the verbs in brackets in the correct form .

1. Marco asked me (go o u t ) with him.


2. W ould you m ind (h e lp ) me to move this desk? It's really heavy.
3. They don't let us (u s e )............ the school tennis courts during the holidays, which is really
annoying.
4. M y teacher expects me ( d o ) well in the exams.
5. W e hoped (ta k e ) Grandma and Grandpa with us to the zoo, but Grandpa hurt his
leg and, unfortunately, they couldn't join us.
6. W e'll start early. I don't want to risk (a rriv e ) in the middle of the night.
7. I can't stand (w a it )......... in restaurants before the waiter comes.
8. I forgot (to p u t ) my name on the list for swimm ing. Remind me ( d o ) ........... it
tom orrow , will you?
9. O u r study trip to England was fantastic! It was definitely w o rth (ta k e ) I really
enjoyed (s e e ) all the places we'd read about in school. So at the end of the week,
I hated (le a v e ) all the friends I'd made.
10. W hen my grandparents were at school, their teachers m ade them ( w e a r )......... a
uniform. Pupils w ere m ade (le a rn ) everything by heart, too.
11. Do you fancy (c o m e ) to my house after school this evening?
198 •\ t'i c

Ex. 350 Paraphrase sentences according to the m odel using either infinitives o r gerunds,
choose the w ords given in the right colum n.

M od e l: W e’ve thought about whether we should m ove house. -> CONSIDER ->
W e've considered m oving house.

1. I'm on page one of 'W ar and Peace'. OFFER


2. 'I'm sorry 1lost your book, James,' said Tom. KEEP
3. ’It's me w ho broke the w indow ,1 Perla said. SUGGEST
4. 1said 1w ouldn't pay for Fred again. APOLOGISE
5. '1 can give you a lift to the party if you like, Pauli' TELL
6. We did some m ore work after lunch. HIGH T IM E
7. 1think you had better go home now. START
8. The boss asks you to retype these letters. REFUSE
9. She interrupts me all the time — it's really annoying. DEN Y
10. She is really eager to invite all the family to the party. A D M IT
11. The man claimed he was a governm ent official. INSIST
12. ’1did not break your watch, Jane,' Nadia protested. C O N TIN U E
13. ’W h y don't you phone your parents, George?' Alan said. PRETEND
14. 'Please, be home by 11 p.m., Lisa!' her dad said. REQUIRE

Ex. 351 Read the article and find out in w h at situations m en risk developing heart disease.
Com plete the gaps using gerunds or infinitives.

HOUSE H USBAN DS' H EAR T RISK

M ost people assume that life in the rat race is bad for your health. But (1) reversing (reverse) the
traditional gender roles is a stressful business, according to the latest research by American scientists.
By (2 )... (give)... up their jobs in order (3) ....(become).... house husbands, men risk (4) ....(develop)....
heart attacks or coronary disease much more often.
The key to the problem is that some men became stressed about (5) ....(perform ).... a role not
traditionally assigned to them by society. Men w ho stay at hom e don't tend (6) ....(have).... the same
levels of support from friends and family as w om en w ho do the same. Jack O'Sullivan, of the Father's
Direct group, was quoted as saying: 'Society expects the main caretaker (7) ....(be).... a wom an, and
society is structured around that. Daycare is called m other and toddler groups and some men feel
awkward about (8) ....(belong).... to those groups. Professor Gary Cooper said many men tend (9)
....(underestimate).... the task of (10) ....(care).... for a family. He said 'M ost men think (11) ....(be)....
a house husband involves (12) ....(put on).... a bit of washing, (13) ....(take).... the kids to school and
then (14) ....(put).... their feet up with a cup of coffee. They are crazy. M ost men are not used to
(15) ....(perform ).... a variety of activities simultaneously — the kind of multi-tasking which is second
nature to most w om en.' M en are reported (1 6 )... (take over).... the main homemaker's role in one in
seven homes, as increasing numbers of w om en start (17) ....(become).... the main breadwinner. The
The Gerund 199

study also found that w om en in high-powered jobs were more likely (18) ....(develop).... heart disease
than those in more junior positions.

W h a t is yo u r opinion on the issue? W ould you agree to let yo u r husband take care of the kids w hen
you are at w o rk / w o u ld you rather stay w ith yo u r children to let yo u r wife go to w ork?

Ex. 352 Use predicative constructions w ith gerunds or infinitives supplying prepositions if
necessary. Some of the sentences a llow both variants.

1. I would like .... (you, to u nd e rsta n d ).... me right.


2. I re m e m b e r.... (he, to s a y ).... something to this effect.
3. W e were all fast asleep and did not h e a r.... (she, to c o m e ).... home.
4. I don't like .... (people, to n a g ).... each other.
5. They very often th o u g h t.... (their friends, to work) ....in the difficult condltionsof Antarctica.
6. They never th o u g h t.... (the man, to b e ) .... such a pleasant companion.
7. He would not allow .... (any changes, to in tro d u c e )......
8. I am sure .... (it, to b e ) .... a mistake.
9. M y friends w ere very keen .... (I, to w i n ) .... the bet.
10. I am very anxious .... (they, not to m is s ).... this im portant discussion.
11. The father was opposed .... (anything, to c h a n g e ).... in the house.
12. W e stood at the door waiting .... (it, to o p e n )......
13. There is very little hope .... (she, to re co v e r).... soon.
14. It isn't worth while .... (you, to take u p ) .... the matter now; it can wait.
15. It is not necessary .... (w e, to look in t o ).... the matter; they will takecare of it.
16. He is responsible .... (the research work, to c o m p le te ).... before the end of the year.
17. May we rely .... (they, to a rra n g e ).... everything for our tour?
18. The other day w e heard .... (they, to c o m e ).... back after a long voyage.

Ex. 353 Choose betw een gerunds and infinitives to com plete the article.

T O O A N G R Y TO (re m e m b e r)1 TH E COM M ERCIALS?

According to a new study, (watch)2 violent T V shows makes it difficult (recall)3


brand names or commercial messages. Violence creates anger, and instead o f _________ (hear)4
the commercials, viewers are attempting (calm)5_________ themselves down after violent
scenes. The conclusion:______ (sponsor)6 violent programs may not be profitable for advertisers.
This conclusion is good news for the parents, teachers, and lawmakers w ho are struggling
(lim it)7 the am ount of violence on U.S. television. They had a small victory in 1997, when
lawmakers and the television industry designed a T V ratings system. Unfortunately, Congress did not
ask parents (participate)8 in (create)9 the system, and the industry does not
Invite parents (p re view )10 shows before it assigns ratings. As a result, parents are still
guessing about the content of the shows their kids watch.
200 Practice

W h y are we worrying a b o u t (reduce)11 television violence? Th e numbers tell the


story: a typical child will see 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence between the ages of three
and twelve! It's impossible (believe)12 that this input w o n 't affect young children. In fact,
researchers have noted three possible effects o f (v ie w )13 this much violence:

1. Children may become less sensitive to other people's suffering.


2. They may also become fearful of (interact)14 with other people.
3. Th e y may be more likely (behave)15 in a way that's harmful to others.
Studies show that a huge majority of people want commercial T V (produce)16 more
educational and informational programs. M ore than 75% believe in (lim it)17 the num ber
of hours of T V that children watch. And the American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend
(p erm it)18 children (w atch)19 T V more than one to tw o hours per day.
It's hard (understand)20 w hy the entertainment industry resists (m ake)21
changes. Parents, teachers, and doctors are urging the industry (develop)22 clearer
ratings and (get rid of)23 violence in children's shows. In addition, violence doesn't seem
(m ake)24_________money for advertisers. Even artists in the industry are warning the industry
(not continue)25______________ (avoid)26_______ change.
Th e industry may choose (not pay)27 attention to the public, but it will not be able
to ignore Congress. Lawmakers w a n t (investigate)28________ the way networks market violent
shows to teenagers. They are also asking the industry (offer)29 violence-free hours, when
no violent content is allowed. Hopefully, parents in the United States will someday feel good about
their children (turn on)30 the family TV.

Ex. 354 Read this student's essay. Find and correct mistakes in the use of gerunds and
infinitives. Tell yo u r friend w h a t you think of T V influence on the young generation.
W rite a paragraph on this topic using infinitives and gerunds.

Nadine Jayewardene
English 220
May 30
Violence on T V
I ’m tired of hear that violence on T V causes violence at home, in school, and on the streets.
Almost all young people watch T V , but not all of them are involved in committing crimes! In fact,
very few people choose acting in violent ways. To watch T V , therefore, is not the cause.
Groups like the American Medical Society should stop to t r y to tell people what to watch. I f
we long living in a free society, it is necessary having freedom of choice. Children need learn
values from their parents. I t should be the parents' responsibility deciding what their child can
or cannot watch. Th e government and other interest groups should avoid to interfere in these
personal decisions. Limiting our freedom of choice is not the answer. I f parents teach their
children respecting life, children are sure of watching T V without any negative effects.
l m G erund 201

Ex. 355 A. W ork in pairs or groups:


G roup A — com plete letter 1 using the verbs in brackets in the correct form , supply
prepositions if necessary.
G roup B — com plete letter 2 using the verbs in brackets in the correct form , supply
prepositions if necessary.

LETTER ONE

Dear Aggie,
W hen I firs t met M a rc we got on really well — and he seemed (1 )... (e n jo y) my company.
W e liked (2 )... (d o ) th e same things and we were both keen (3 )... (go ) to football together.
H e was my best frie n d at th a t tim e, and I dropped my o th e r frien d s (4 )... (spend) more
tim e w ith him. H e hasn’t changed, but I have. I can't bear (5 ) ... (h e a r) the same jokes
every tim e we go out, and I hate (6 )... (to have to ) watch football on T V all weekend.
I know he'll be upset — but nothing can (7 )... (m ake) me (8 )... (change) my mind — I miss
(9 ) ... (see) my o th e r frien d s and I'd ra th e r not ju s t (1 0 )... (s ta y ) w ith him all th e time.
I'v e trie d (11)... (te ll) him, but I can’t — I ’m afraid (12).. (h u rt ) him. W h a t can I do?
Stephanie

LETTER T W O

As soon as 1 fw&t SUphmbei, I lomt&d he* ( 1 ) ... (be>) tug be/st (¡Ao&nd. I didn't hcwe> thcut tnmg
othe/A faidKds - m d I uas pfoase/d ( £ ) ... (have*) so m o m to do thongs ubth. wm both
oHtbMsteid ( 3 ) ... (d o ) M the> sq/M things - Ube> ¡oarfohbng (¡ootbM. Qi/e pnam'md ( 4 ) ...
(su,ppQkt) bC№h otheiA, - m d l mM c
] mcont ( 5 ) ... (kw p ) my pootn’m .
'Bitt nou)I'o& got the> ohmoe>(6>)... (tnov&) cubwad ( 7 ) ... (tooth) ¿atm bntmnatbona/b ootopantj,
a d d l'd M/My( 8 ) . . . (a&o&pt) the>job. 'But I'fn Q^JMbdSfophmbei uon 't l&t m ( Q ) ... (go)
ui/thoo/b ( 1 0 ) . . . (to got) wpstit o/bou/t the/ od&a/. I'm KbMy Im m ( 1 1 ) . . . (tcoM the> oppofittMbty,
though. Q4ou M f t I tM he/A i/t's U m (¡oh me> ( 1 2 ) ... (tnow o n )?
QK oao

B. W ork in n ew pairs, one from Group A and one fro m Group B.


1. Tell your partner what is in your letter you have just completed.
2. Decide what advice to give the writer of each letter.
202 u .V ." " .u r Pructicv

Ex. 356 Translate the sentences using infinitives or gerunds. T h e prom pts are given.

1. Весна — это когда хочется петь, даже когда обувь в грязи, (feel like)
2. Иногда быть хорошим другом значит быть жестоким, (m ean)
3. На прош лой неделе ты упом янул, что привез мне эту книгу. Не забудь принести ее.
(m ention, rem em ber)
4. Бесполезно ей говорить о чем-то, она ничего не желает слушать, (use)
5. Родители всегда поощ ряли его изучать музыку и иностранные языки, (encourage)
6. Сьюзан приш лось переехать в свой новый до м д о того, как там закончился ремонт,
(finish)
7. Я с нетерпением ж ду поступления в университет, но мне очень не нравится то,
что мне придется попрощаться с друзьями из моего родного города, (look forward,
hate)
8. Ему просто приш лось смириться с переездом в другой город, (put up)
9. Большая часть его сведений оказалась точной, (turn out)
10. Я не бы л достаточно заинтересован в том, чтобы продолж ать спор, (interested)
11. Если вы реш или сходить в Лондо н ский зоопарк, мы рекомендуем сначала
прогуляться по парку. Не премините покормить животных, (decide, recommend,
miss)
12. Нет смысла в том, что он реш ил бросить есть сладости, т.к. он продолж ает есть
гамбургеры, (use, make up one's mind, quit, keep)
13. О н не постеснялся использовать такие методы, (hesitate)
14. О н потрудился, чтобы его фотография попала во все газеты, (take the trouble)
15. Хоть она и отрицала свое участие в этой истории, она избегала видеться наедине с
Дж оном , (deny, avoid)
16. Все мы склонны отклады вать жизнь на потом. Мы все мечтаем о чем-то, вместо
того, чтобы наслаждаться жизнью сейчас, (tend, put off)
Get u • 1 203

THE GERUND AND OTHER -ING FORMS

'V I State w h e th e r the -ing form is a participle or a gerund. Specify th eir syntactic functions.

A.

1. I cut myself opening a tin.


2. In spite of feeling tired, we decided to go out.
3. I asked her to leave for being exhausted.
4. W e use the red button for turning the machine off.
5. Having finished the work, he seemed more pleased with himself than usual.
6. One should always play fairly when one has the winning cards.
7. A friend is the one walking in when the rest of the world walks out,
8. A week later I returned from school and found the house empty, my m other being at
the shops.
9. Father said that we were not to let the fact of his not having had a real holiday for three
years stand in our way.
10. He was a great man for getting lumps on his head, generally owing to being hit with
bottles.
11. There was always a very short.period between his head hitting the pillow and sleep
hitting his head.

B.

12. Feeling tired is no excuse for being rude to your children. Feeling tired, I decided to go to
bed.
13. I fell asleep reading a dull book and dreamed I kept on reading, so I awoke from sheer
boredom .
14. Be nice to people at going your way up because you'll need them while going your way
down.
15. Being short-sighted, she wears contact lenses. Being short-sighted can cause problems.
16. Reaching the top of the hill took all my strength. Reaching the top of the hill, we stopped
to admire the view.
17. Upon fastening their seat belts, they prepared to land. Fastening your seat belt is a must
when the plane takes off and lands.
18. The truest mark of being born with great qualities is being born without envy.
19. Looking back upon that time was like remembering something that had happened long
ago, when he was much younger. Looking back upon that time, I thought that all might
have been different had it not been for the interference of my parents.

C.
20. I hate not being able to communicate — it is so frustrating.
21. Though knowing what was there, he took the paper out and walked to the w indow for
reading it.
204 na'.'-h G r jrrn n a r r!<ic'Ju:

22. M ost Englishmen are not overfond of soup, remarking that it filis them w ithout leaving
sufficient room for the more important meat course.
23. If we are lucky, we can give in and rest w ithout feeling guilty. W e can stop doing and
concentrate on being.

Ex. 358 Replace participle I by a gerund w ith o u t changing the function.

1. W hile buying something, use your eyes, not your ears.


2. Th e y simply w ant to earn their living doing advertisements for Vogue.
3. Though being badly pronounced, the sound could still be identified.
4. "W h at was your route?" I asked, wishing to be agreeable.
5. Mr. Hutton splashed along, not caring if he got wet.
6. Being so nervous she cannot bring herself to speak to him.
7. W hile enjoying the reputation of the author of brilliant short stories, he was also a
talented playwright.
8. Fearing that he might say something inopportune, he preferred to keepsilent.
9. Looking his friend straight in the eye, he said that was his only interest in the riding
school.
10. You will do nothing but irritate him if nagging him all the time.

Ex. 359 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form . Insert prepositions or conjunctions
w here necessary. Use both a participle and a gerund if possible.

1. I re gre t________________ (not be) a diligent student at university.


2. She left________________(not say) good-bye to anyone, which was very rude of her.
3. _______________ (see) his m other the boy rushed forward with outstretched arms.
4. _______________ (spend) tw o d a y s ________________ (argue) about where to go for their
holidays, they d e cid e d _______________ (not go) anywhere.
5. _______________ (find) them in so short a time would have been next to impossible.
6. Th e y stared at each other, Dan s till_______________ (stand) with his tea cup and W illy
_______________ (stretch) out in the chair.
7. _______________ (ask) whether he would go to the South he answered he hadn't yet made
up his mind.
8. _______________ (not read) your letters, I haven't the faintest idea w hat you're talking
about.
9. W hen engaged________________(eat), the brain should be the servant of the stomach.
10. _______________ (recover) the balance he discovered that he had risked ________________
(break) his n e ck _______________ (fall) into the well of the stairs.
11. "I cannot see w hat m y _______________ (divorce) three times has to do with my books,"
she said.
The berur-' J 205

12. He tempted me to write this s to ry ________________ (assure) me that it would be read by


only a few of his colleagues.
13. Your son is well able to take care of him self________________(ask) favours of anybody.
14. The old miser spent all his t i m e ________________ (count) his money a n d ________________
(think) up new hiding-places. He k e p t________________ (m ove) it about because he was
terrified________________(rob).

Ex. 360 Paraphrase the following sentences. Insert prepositions or conjunctions where necessary.

1. W hile John was w ritin g his report, he rem em bered that he had forgotten to mention
some facts.
2. She felt as if she was giving evidence in court.
3. W he n the girl entered the room , she glanced a little wonderingly at the faces of the
three men.
4. A door that creaks hangs long.
5. W e climbed down the mountain, although it was dangerous.
6. He felt much better after he had been operated on.
7. Th a t I was on the spot was a bit of luck for him.
8. Just before I got into m y apartm ent I was approached by a man w ho asked me if I was
a doctor.
9. W h e n Rose saw him she stopped reading at once and put the letter away and even did
not com m ent in any w a y upon w h a t she was reading.
10. The whole neighbourhood was so dreary and run-dow n that he hated the thought that
he w ou ld have to live there.
11. Even though I was late, the examiner allowed me to take the exam.
12. Sophie did not feel as if she w o u ld go o ut that day.
13. After Samuel Griffiths had concluded several agreements in Chicago, he was inclined to
feel very much at ease and on good terms with the world.
14. The only thing that makes life possible is that one does not know what comes next.
15. I have never heard of anyone w h o stum bled on som ething w h ile th e y w e re sitting
down.
16. M y hope still is to leave the world a little bit better because I have been here.

Ex. 361 Translate the following sentences. Distinguish between the non-finite forms of the verbs
and state their functions. Pay attention to the expression of negation in the sentence.

1. Not knowing quite how to begin, she started in a roundabout way.


2. Having no money, they decided to stay at home.
3. The boy made it home for not running into more trouble.
4. The cause of your tiredness is an emotional problem. O r you could be depressed w ithout
knowing it.
206

5. The mother w o n 't feel relaxed without her son sending her a text message telling that
he has arrived safely.
6. Teddy crept gingerly up the stairs, having no wish to disturb his aunt
7 Closing her eyes, she tried to push the fear away, not understanding w hy she was so
frightened.
8. Not willing to take "no" for an answer, Norris came up with a plan.
9. W ithout ever having been told, he knew intuitively that Irina would be closely tied to
the movement.
10. Meredith walked rapidly to the elevator, not giving him a chance to say another word.
11. On the doorstep, Harry Potter rolled over inside his blankets w ithout waking up. The
boy slept on, not knowing he was special, not knowing he was famous, not knowing he
would be woken in a few hours' time by Mrs. Dursley's scream as she opened the front
door to put out the milk bottles.

Ex. 362 Insert n o t / w ith o u t before the -in g form , thus using a participle or a gerund. In some
sentences tw o variants are possible.

1. She never did a thing ... asking somebody's advice.


2. I left him a lo n e ,... wanting to distract him from his work.
3. Th e door stood ajar, and we entered . .. knocking.
4. ... having recognized me, she passed b y ... answering my nod.
5. ... speaking the language, he was questioned through an interpreter.
6. Th e girl looked innocently about h e r,... realizing w hat the joke was.
7. I stood as if petrified, ... believing my eyes.
8. He never signed a p a p e r... having thoroughly read it through.

Ex. 363 Translate the follow ing sentences into English, paying attention to the expression of
negation.

1. He зная ни имени, ни адреса девуш ки, он боялся, что никогда ее не найдет.


2. Ребенок разбирал новую игрушку, не скрывая своего лю бопытства.
3. Она никогда не может вымыть посуду, чтобы чего-нибудь не разбить.
4. Его направили в полицейский участок без предъявления каких-либо обвинений.
5. То, что у меня не бы ло друзей, ослож нило ситуацию. За меня некому бы ло поручиться.
6. Альпинисты двигались к вершине, не обращая внимания ни на палящее солнце, ни
на снежные лавины.
7. Нельзя купить эту картину, прежде чем она будет выставлена на вернисаже.
8. Не желая привлекать чьего-либо внимания, агент затерялся в толпе.
The G tru m i 207

g 2 * ra i Read the text. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be
J there. If a line is correct, put a tick (V) in the space by the number. If a line has a word which
should not be there, write the w ord in the space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

ALIEN ENCOUNTER

0 i?& In New Mexico, USA, a police officer called Zamora he was following
1 ..... a speeding motorist. W hile his driving among the deserted hills near
2 ..... the main tow n, he heard a sudden roar. Looking it round, he saw a blue

3 ..... flame in the sky ahead. He left the road and drove up the hill. Then, when
4 ..... having spotted something that looked like an overturned car about 150
5 ..... metres off the road, he stopped. Getting him out of the car, he went
6 ..... to investigate. As he came closer, he saw the 'car' was an oval, silvery
7 ..... object of four feet. Tw o small human-like figures, w ho wearing white
8 ..... clothes that looked as like overalls, were moving around near the
9 ..... object. Zamora approached them , because intending to offer them
10 ..... some help, but the 'aliens' did not respond. For looking alarmed, they

11 ..... jum ped into their mysterious vehicle. Zamora then heard a roar of
12 ..... growing up louder and louder. Trem bling with fear, the police officer y 'T S v ''5
13 ..... turned over and fled. Th e sighting has never been explained. The US ^

14 ..... Airforce made a statement which suggesting that the UFO may have
15 ..... been a test flight. But this seems like improbable, as no m an-m ade 0 J
16 ..... oval object has ever flown successfully until now. >

feri Sffg State w h ethe r the -ing form is a participle, a gerund or a verbal noun.

A.
1. Something tells me that these young men should have a talking to.
2. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time.
3. Then the clapping grew louder and the singing became more enthusiastic.
4. I saw there wooden cabin with beds, electric light, running water.
5. Alison began singing. W hile the singing was under way, Teddy sat in a chair near the fire.
6. I found him in exactly the position I had left him, staring still at the foot of the bed.
7. In tw o or three years with the proper coaching she could be brought up to university
standard.
8. Although the world is full of sufferings, it is full also of the overcoming of it.
208

B.
1. Anybody watching the comings and goings at the house would have thought it was a hotell
2. The insistent ringing of the telephone awakened M eredith with a sudden start.
3. Stephanie walked slowly across the campus enjoying the Saturday afternoon luxury of
walking w ithout hurrying.
4. Waiting was all she could do now. But there were times, like this morning, when she
could hardly bear the waiting.
5. Neither spoke for a m om ent, then he said, "Congratulations again on winning the Oscar
for Best Actress. I did drop you a note in April, I hope you received it." "Yes, thank you,"
Camilla replied, smiling, and then she began telling him about the making of the movie
for which she had w on the Oscar.
6. The people around began applauding. The roar of the crowd and the cheering were
deafening.
7. She left off ringing, and, sitting down at the top of the stairs, buried her face in her
hands.
8. The evening meal goes under various names: tea, 'high tea', dinner or supper depending
upon its size and also social standing of those eating it.
9. I didn't mind getting old when I was young. It's the being old now that's getting to me.
10. Through spaces of the unfinished house, shirtsleeved figures worked slowly, and sounds
arose — spasmodic knockings, the scraping of metal, the sawing of wood.

C.
1. Dave lived there like a rent-paying tenant, his comings and goings being of small concern
to the others.
2. Th e distraught Jenny, sitting by her sleeping child, was at last made to realize, by its
peaceful breathing, that all danger was over.
3. W ith a sudden tightening of the muscles he became aware of a figure walking noiselessly
beside him.
4. There was the sound of rocking a chair in the room, and of a w om an singing.
5. He cursed himself for having come, and at the same time resolved that, happen what
would, having come, he would carry it through.
6. Having exhausted all the possible combinations of his vocabulary, the sailor quieted
down to hard thinking.
7. The sufferings that fate prepares for us should be borne with patience.
8. There's a pounding on Matthew's door, and Am anda flings the door open, her heart
beating violently.
9. Th e decision making was on a much more personal level and people were excited about
making exciting programmes.
10. As to his stooping, it was natural when dancing with a small person like myself, so much
shorter than he.
The Gerund 209

Ex. 366 Translate the sentences using verbal nouns of the underlined w ords. D o n 't forget to
use articles, of-phrases or plural form s w here necessary.

1. Колледж и обеспечивают специализированную п о д го то в к у .

2. По моему мнению, декорации бы ли восхитительными.


3 Я очень доволе н окружающей местностью.
4. Суть интернета — обмен информацией.
5. Получение виз в эту страну — сложная процедура.
6. Благодаря Ф реду у нас больш е не бы ло проблем с Финансированием.
7. Лай и вой собаки разбудили меня.
8. У нас есть шанс собраться сегодня.
9. М онотонное тиканье часов напом нило Дине, что у нее осталось мало времени.

Ex. 367 Translate the fragments in brackets. Specify the verbals you use.

1. (Отправляя тебя) to this school, Henry, I'm making a sacrifice. I can't really afford it.
2. The girl hesitated (как будто не знала) what to do.
3. Clare looked at him steadily (п ер е д тем, как ответить).
4. I bum ped into a man. (He подним ая глаз) I apologized and proceeded on my way.
5. He had not written to her (с тех пор как уехал).
6. I felt (как дрож али ее руки) when she was putting her coat on.
7. (Когда она засмеялась) she half closed her eyes and a dimple danced on her cheek.
8. The musicians vanished (а он не уви де л) them go.
9. You are guilty (в том, что спровоцировали) that fight.
10. (Вернувшись до м о й ) from school I noticed a small jade statuette on our living-room
shelf.
11. He had scarcely ever drunk tea at all (до тех пор, пока не познакомился с) Gwen.
12. I took my temperature and, (обнаруж ив) it was a hundred point four, w ent back to bed
again.
13. I showed my boredom (отказываясь) to find any interest in the view.
14. They began to m ount the path, Joseph (освещал дорогу).
15. She had many little things to do (кроме того, чтобы сидеть) idly in her house while
waiting to be taken out by her boarder.
16. W e strolled back to the camp, (бы ло около) tw enty minutes to six.
210 'riQlah G r j n n n a r Practice

Ex. 368 Translate the follow ing sentences into English.

1. Бесполезно спрашивать его об этом.


2. Она привыкла вставать рано.
3. Он на секунду поколебался, прежде чем пересечь мост.
4. О н слуш ал, не прерывая меня, кивая и иногда улыбаясь.
5. Вбежав в прихожую, она начала рассказывать, что с ней произош ло.
6. О н двигался очень м едленно, как будто плы л.
7. Она воздержалась от упоминания имен своих знакомых.
8. Она без конца подним ала одну и ту же тему.
9. Вы совершенно уверены, что эти слова относятся к моей сестре?
10. Они реш или не посылать ему телеграмму.
11. Я не буду тратить свои дн и , стараясь п ро длить их.
12. Так как дверь и окно комнаты бы ли открыты, мы заглянули в нее.
13. Услышав это, он повернулся и вышел, хлопнув дверью.
14. Наиважнейшая польза де не г — это экономия времени. Подумайте, сколько
времени вы тратите, если идете пешком, вместо того, чтобы ехать на автобусе, и
если едете на автобусе, вместо того, чтобы взять такси.
15. Будучи занятым, Дж ек отказался от предлож ения.
16. Мы рассчитываем, что они вернутся через несколько дн е й .
17. Как можно уехать из Л о ндон а, не побывав в Н ациональной Галерее!
18. Я против того, чтобы Боб вел машину.
19. Я буду признателен, если вы мне перезвоните.
20. Кроме того, что он преподавал физику в школе, он прекрасно рисовал.
21. Несмотря на то, что я все хорошо спланировала, многое пош ло не так.
22. Она почувствовала, что вся заливается краской.
23. Это не помеш ало ему обм ануть их. Но он был пойман и отправлен в тю рьму за
кражу.
24. Вы не возражаете, если мы останемся здесь на ночь?
25. Она не стала бы так расхваливать эти товары, если бы не получала за это деньги.
The Q c r u r d 211

REVISION AND CONSOLIDATION

Ex. 369 State the functions of the non-finite form s of the verbs in the following sentences.

A.
1. You don't need to win every medal to be successful.
2. Mistakes, obviously, show us w hat needs improving,
3. Browsing in our local bookshop, I came across this great book on computing skills.
4. Human beings are the only creatures that let their children come back home.
5. Being a w om an is a good excuse not to play football.
6. Sometimes the facts in my head get bored and decide to take a walk in my mouth.
Frequently this is a bad thing for them to do.
7. Never look dow n to test the ground before taking your next step; only he w h o keeps his
eye fixed on the far horizon will find the right road.
8. Having read the minutes of the meeting, I w rote a report
9. Having read the minutes of the meeting, I knew what they were talking about.
10. Being of an affectionate nature, this cat always liked to have a man to rub itself against.

B.
11. I recom m end you to take care of the m inutes, for the hours will take care of
them selves.
12. Though having admitted that he had bought the stolen jewellery, he denied having taken
part in the robbery.
13. A perfect method for adding drama to life is to wait until the deadline looms large.
14. The person waiting for something to turn up might just as well start with their shirt
sleeves.
15. You are definitely a deadline surfer: when the deadline arrives, washing every crashed
surfer on shore, the experienced riders like you swim out to catch the next one.
16. The past is finished. There is nothing to be gained by returning to it.
17. The bars are packed with people throw ing their lives away; their plans having been
washed away by vodka years ago.
18. Cats regard people to be w arm -blooded furniture.
19 Few things in life are more embarrassing than the necessity of having to inform an old
friend that you have just got engaged to his fiancée.
212 ■ 'V ■",;riw Practice

Read the follow ing passage, tick the right variant.

Mr. and Mrs. Dursley, of num ber four, Privet Drive, were proud to sav / saving that
they were perfectly normal. Th e y were the last people to involve / to be Involved in
anything mysterious, because they just didn't hold with such nonsense. Th e Dursleys
shuddered to think /a fte r thinking that the Potters may be arriving / arrive in the street.
Th e Dursleys knew that the Potters had a small son Harry. This boy was another good
reason o f keeping / for keeping the Potters away; they didn't want their ow n son Dudley
mixing / to have been m ixing with a child like Harry.
As Mr. Dursley sat in the usual morning traffic jam , he couldn't help notice / noticing
that there seemed to hove been / to be a lot of strangely dressing / dressed people
about. People in cloaks. Mr. Dursley was enraged to see / in seeing that a couple of them
w eren't young at all. He also noticed the owls flying / be flvina past in broad daylight.
He hurried up to his office, told his secretary not to disturb / not disturb him, seized his
telephone, and had almost finished to digI / dig ling his hom e num ber when he changed
his mind. There was no point in w orrying / to w o rry Mrs. Dursley. He found it a lot
harder to hove concentrated / to concentrate on drills that he sold that afternoon. In the
evening trvina / for trying to pull himself together, he let himself entering / enter the
house. He was still determined o f not m entioning / no t to mention anything to his wife
Petunia. Even if the Potters were involved, there was no reason for them to come / for
them to hove come near him and Mrs. Dursley. H ow very wrong he was! .

Ex. 371 O n special occasions, people often make toasts beginning Here's to . . . . Com plete the
toasts below w ith a suitable non-finite form of the verb. Th e first is done for you.

Here's to...
a) an old friend — someone w ho remembers all the secrets of our
youth, but is discreet enough not to mention (not m ention) them .
b) bobies — they make our days shorter, nights longer, the p a s t...
(forget) and the future w orth ... (live) for.
c) hgppiness — the only thing which is increased b y ... (share).
d) m yhusb gnd — w ho buys football tickets six months in advance,
but waits until Christmas Eve ... (buy) Christmas presents.
e) m y dgrling wife — since I met you, I have known what it is to love someone, and to
see that love ... (return).
f) m ypgrents — fo r ... (spoil) me ever since I was a little baby. Please feel fre e ... (continue).
g) success — it takes time ... (be) a success, but tim e is all it takes.
' '. ; ’.i - ’V ’
213

h) true love — which we find n o t ... (look for) a perfect person, but ...(find) an imperfect
person and ... (not see) their faults.
i) your retirement — and while you're sitting at hom e with nothing ... (do), think of us all
at work — w e're sure ... (do) the same.

Ex. 372 M atch the half-sentences to make four gram m atically correct sentences in each box.

a) Mayor Bloodstone would like to introduce a new traffic scheme. But not everyone agrees with his plans.

He has plans ... of introducing a new traffic scheme,


He is likely to have trouble ... about introducing a new traffic scheme,
Not everyone sees the advantages ... to introduce a new traffic scheme,
M any members of the public have doubts ... introducing a new traffic scheme.

b) Ali has decided to continue his studies abroad.

Ali's parents are convinced of the importance ... about finding the right place to study,
His parents are giving Ali the opportunity ... finding the right place to study,
Ali's having a few problems ... of studying abroad,
Ali has to make some difficult decisions ... to study abroad.

c) Herbert is in prison, but he doesn't like life in jail.

He likes the idea ... about escaping,


In fact, he's already made several attempts ... escaping,
He and his cellmates often have arguments ... of escaping,
He'd probably have difficulty ... to escape.

Ex. 373 Choose the verb w hich completes each sentence correctly. Change the verb patterns
in the right colum n to make correct sentences w ith the other verbs, use prepositions
if necessary.

1. We are trying / have decided / are thinking of / had better selling our flat,

2. She didn't feel like / made me / couldn't help / promised not to laugh,

3 .1 object to / happened / confessed to / arranged for you to meet her.

4. W hy didn't you dare / were you made / are you threatening / were you resigning?
forced into

5. He enjoys / used / is used / would rather to be a soldier.

6. They stopped / wanted / hoped / let us to go.

7. Did you mind / see him / remind him / manage open the car?

8. He can't afford / is keen / helped me / can't stand learn English.


214

Ex. 374 In the sentences below, only three of the verbs are gram m atically possible. Cross out
the tw o verbs th a t are incorrect.

1. It was m y father w ho ... me to ride a motorbike.

a) allowed b) attempted c) encouraged d) persuaded e) prevented

2. She ... me for causing the accident.

a)accused b) blamed c) condemned d) criticised e)suspected

3. Did they ... you go upstairs?

a)ask b)see c) let d) make e) perm it

4. Did you ... Frank to make that phone call?

a) advise b) ask c) hear d) rem em ber e) remind

5. W e ... travel by bus.

a) daren't b) had better c) need d) regretted e) would rather

6. Th e authorities... people from travelling abroad.

a) avoid b) discouraged c) forbid d) prevented e) stopped

7. W e c a n 't ... everyone to take part.

a) force b) invite c) have d) resist e) tell

8. James ... talking to her.

a) has forgiven me b) has stopped c) is looking forward d) remembers e) saw me

9. He ... to be left alone.

a) is used b) begged c) ordered d) resents e) would like

10. He ... for taking the money.

a) apologises b) suspects c) thanked her d)reproached her e) admits

11. W e ... them unloading the van.

a) commanded b) observed c) found d) assisted e) watched

12. The police are ... people to stay at home.

a) recommending b )su re of c) surprised at d) urging e) warning


ïhi? Gerund 215

13.Robbie is ... for causing trouble again.

a) guilty b)excused c) made to compensate d) tempted e) punished

1 4 .1... to ask my parents for more money.

a)suggest b) got used c) meant d) forgot e)chose

1 5 .1... the matter settled.

a) consider b) forbade c) was afraid of d) had e) got

Ex. 375 Paraphrase the follow ing sentences

A . using the w ords given as prom pts.

1. It wasn't my intention to w o rry you. M EAN


2. Their parents w ou ld n 't allow them to go to the party. LET
3. I don't mind studying during the holidays. OBJECT
4. I would prefer not to go to the concert. RATHER
5. W ould you like to come for a cup of tea with me this evening? FANCY
6. Please don't let me forget to post this letter. REMIND
7. I'd like to buy a mountain bike. INTERESTED
8 Though Laura was terrified She w ent towards the space ship. DESPITE
9. I wish I could speak Spanish. REGRET
10. Scotland is one possibility for our holiday this year. CONSIDER
11. I don't think you should go out tonight. BETTER
12 I think it's great when I don't have to get up early on holiday I ENJOY / N O T

B. using non-finite form s of the verbs.

1. Literature is the most noble of professions and it is impossible to take me away from
this path.
2. The mission of artists is that they make people appreciate that they are alive.
3. The police officers hadn't seen a UFO before. They stared in astonishment.
4. She was very much disappointed. She had not received any letters.
5. I regret it but I have to say that he's clean forgotten that he had promised me a job.
6. If ostrich meat is cooked in a red wine sauce, it can be delicious.
7. W ithout emotion, it is unreal to transform darkness into light and apathy into m ovem ent.
8. The cat stole a pound of meat and hid in the attic.
9. I have enough m oney that will last me the rest of my life, unless I buy something.
10. As he was taken from his m other as a child, he's always had difficulty establishing
relationships.
11. The secret of staying young is that one should live honestly, eat slowly, and lie about
their age.
12. Every m orning I am woken up by the sun. It streams through my window.
216

13. She left and did not say a word as if she was offended by all this.
14. W hy are you sitting idle? You ought to take the initiative into yo u r hands.
15. He was not at all helpful. M ore than that, he was a burden to us.

C. using predicative constructions w ith non-finite forms of the verbs.


1. In a world where there is so much to be done, there must be something that I can do.
2. Th e tailor is making a new suit for Tom.
3. Catch your people when they are doing something right and allow them to know that
you appreciate it.
4. She sang out of tune. It annoyed me immensely.
5. They think that the criminals are not carrying weapons.
6. W e have no objections. They may leave earlier.
7. M y knuckles were white, my hair was standing on end, my stomach was heaving, i
gripped the wheel of the skidding car.
8. Roberta insisted that Clyde should marry her for she wanted to give a name to her child.
9. Now, as it was a melodrama, there was, of course, a m urder and a burglary scene in the
third act.
10. This woman's face attracted his attention as familiar for he rem em bered that she had
passed by him several times.
11. She told them to take off their shoes so that their footsteps could not be heard in the
flat below.
12. As long as the God is in charge, I believe everything will work out for the best in the end.
13. It is certain that those w ho look only to the past or presentwill miss the future.
14. I stood on the deck; the wind was whipping my hair.

Ex. 376 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. Sometimes a preposition is required.

1. 'I was lonely at first/ the old man admitted, 'but after a tim e I got used t o ___________
(live) alone and even g o t___________ (like) It.'
2. I m eant___________ (buy) an evening paper but nobody was seen_________ (sell) them.
3. Tom : I w a n t___________ (catch) the 7 a.m. train tom orrow.
Ann: But that m eans___________ (get) up at 6.00; and you're not very g o o d ___________
(get) up early, are you?
4. He accepted the cut in salary without complaint as he was afraid____________(complain).
He was afraid___________ (lose) his job.
5. Next time we g o ____________(house-hunt), rem em ber____________ (ask) the agent for clear
directions. I wasted hours___________ (look) for the last house.
6. Th e hunters expected___________ (be paid) by the foot for the snakes they caught. This
m e a n t___________ (take) the snakes out of the sack a n d ___________ (measure) them. They
seem ed___________ (expect) m e ____________ (do) it; but I wasn't anxiogs____________ (be)
the first___________ (die).
7. I was just a b o u t____________(leave) the office when the phone rang. It was my wife; she
wanted m e ___________ (call) at the butcher's on my way home.
Th? Gerur d 217

8. I said, 'It doesn't matter at all,' but he went o n ____________ (apologize) for nearly five
minutes!
9. The lecturer began b y ___________ (tell) us where the island was, and went o n ____________
(talk) about its history.
10. M y father thinks I am not capable___________ (earn) my own living, but I m e a n ____________
(show) him that he is wrong.
11. Tom : I can't get my c a r___________ (start) on cold mornings.
Jack: Have you trie d ___________ (fill) the radiator with hot water? That sometimes helps.
12. Did he m anage___________ (carry) the trunk upstairs? ~
No, he didn't. He isn't strong e n oug h___________ (move) it, saying nothing o f___________
(carry) it upstairs.
13. Peter: Wouldn't it be better___________ (ask) T o m ____________(leave) his camera at home?
Jack: It would be no g o o d ___________ (ask) T o m ____________ (do) that. It would be like
___________ (ask) a w o m a n ___________ (travel) without a handbag.
14. Th e y p e r m it___________ (park) motorcycles here but they w o n 't allow u s ____________
(park) cars.
15. W ould you children m in d ____________(keep) quiet for a m om ent? I'm try in g ___________
(fill) in a form. — It's no use___________ (ask) children____________ (keep) quiet. They can't
h e lp ___________ (make) a noise.
16. L e t's ___________( g o ) ____________ (fish) today. W hat a b o u t_____________(com e) with us,
Ann? — No, thanks. I'm very w illin g ____________ (cut) sandwiches for you but I've no
intention o f ___________ (waste) the a fte rn o o n _____________ (sit) in a b o a t ___________
(watch) you t w o ___________ (fish).

I
Com plete the follow ing using gerunds or infinitives. Insert prepositions w here
necessary. If possible, make up a detective story, using these phrases at random .

1. There is no .... 16. In spite of the late hour they went on ....
2. There is not much .... 17. Th e y were in a hurry, they could not stop ....
3. ... is out of the question. 18. He was struck by the beauty of the scenery; he
4. ... would have been a mistake. could not stop ....
5. It is no good .... 19.1 am used ....
6. It is very good .... 20. W hen a student 1 used ....
7. His duty was .... 21. 1can't b e a r... .
8. His work was .... 22. They couldn't afford ....
9. There is no reason .... 23. W ha t about your report? Have you finished ... ?
10. There is no need .... 24. On hearing the footsteps he ceased ....
11. Your television set does not need ... . 25. He began ... only when the noise subsided.
12. You n e e d n 't.... 26. W e never intended ....
13. He was looking for an o p p o rtu n ity.... 27. No matter how often 1tried ....
14. Then the article goes on .... 28. The weather looks like ....
15. It was very nice .... 29. The climate seems ....
218

Ex. 378 Read the story and decide if the underlined part has an erro r or not. If yes, correct
the mistake.

Deciding the Future

Now Mr. Rochester was becoming angry, and he looked as if he were about losing
control. But I knew I still had the power o f calming him. So I took his hand and stroked
it, saving. "I do love you, but there is only one thing for m e to be done. I must leave
you. If I live with you like that, I will be your mistress." "Jane, I w ant you listening to
my story. M y father loved money very much and he hated the idea to divide the family
property, so he left it all to my elder brother. I had to have m arried a rich girl. Very soon
I discovered that my bride's m other was mad and that it ran in the family. W e lived for
four years. She was coarse and stupid, and her madness also made her violent. Well,
in mom ents of despair I intended to have been shot myself, but in the end I decided to
bring the mad w om an here. Once she nearly burnt me in my bed, and the second time
she visited you. She must be reminded of her own wedding day at having seen your
wedding dress. I travelled all over Europe, Jane, gt looking for an ideal, fo ro wom on to
hove loved. Finally, bitter and disappointed, I returned to Thornfield on a frosty winter
afternoon. And when my horse slipped and fell on the ice, a little figure appeared and
insisted to help me. Soon I began depend on you for my happiness."
"D on't talk any more of the past, sir," I said, while wiping a secret tear from my eye.
"No, Jane, it was stupid of me to be married you like that w ithout exoloining. I should
confess everything earlier as I do now. I promise to love you forever." "N o, sir, it will be
wicked to do w hat you want. You can only trust in God and yourself. Live w ithout hoving
done w rong, and die to hope to go to heaven." "But you have no family being offended
to live with m e !" He was beginning sounding desperate. I knew that what he said was
true. However, in m y heart I also knew I had the right o f leaving. He seemed be reading
m v thoughts. Hgving rushed furiously across the room, he stared fiercely into my eyes. I
stared firmly back at him. He could hgve broken me in tw o with one hand, but he could
not break my spirit. "Goodbye, my dear master!" I said. "M a y God protect you!"
(gfter Chgrlotte Bronte)

u
Г h с Gerund 219

Ex. 3 7 9 Take turns to talk for th irty seconds on the topic on the square. Do not forget to put
the verb in brackets into the correct form .

. __ . j
ш т т A jo b y o M hops
A song you keep A eo yn tiv VoU
START ^ (have) In five
(sing) to yourself long(vlslt)
* years time - ✓

A t v program i Something you ( lomethingyou


you try (watch) taught yourself really should
much each day (do) stop (do)

Something VOW
you I Any household j , k | .K Arty sport! you
always dread , jobs you can't \ T n jo v i» i.c h )
(do ) stand (d o ) evening J but not (play)

' " ' ' “T ~


A job you'd < . something you Something
never consider often forget you really hate
(do ) (d o ) (do)
». №Mi»Bua..

Ex. 3 8 0 Translate the phrases given in brackets using infinitives or participles.

1. He raised up his head


a) (с удивленны м видом ).
b) (чтобы посмотреть, кто вош ел).
c) (и уви дел, что кто-то наблю дает за ним).

2. W e have many people


a) (которые нам помогают).
b) (которые могут нам помочь).

3. The first party of the goods


a) (посланны х) to the fair has arrived.
b) (посылаемых) to the fair is on the way to the port of delivery.
c) (которые будут посланы) to the fair is ready for transportation.

I shivered
a) (при одной мысли об этом).
b) (подум ав об этом).
220

5. He must be a great authority on the subject


a )(р а з он н а п и с а л)such a book.
b) (проработав) in the field for so many years.

6. He had a wisdom
a) (которая была приобретена) through his experience.
b) (которая может быть приобретена) only through experience.

7. He settled at the new place


a) (и уже не покидал его).
b) (и никто не знал об этом).
c) (надеясь) that it would become his home forever.

8. H ow many rooms are reserved for the delegates


a) (прибывающих) for the conference?
b) (которые долж ны прибыть) for the conference?
c) (прибы вш ими) for the conference?

9. The scientists brought from the expedition some pictures of deep water fishes
a) (невиданны х ранее).
b) (чтобы показать их коллегам).

10. That is one of the greatest discoveries


a) (когда-либо сделанных человеком).
b) (которое помогает) people fight against AIDS.

Ex. 381 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Когда он пишет письма, он не любит, чтобы его беспокоили.


2. У нас нет надежды увидеться с ним в скором времени.
3. Она отрицала, что была в тот вечер на станции.
4. Прочитав газету, он написал несколько деловых писем.
5. Ож идая, когда оф ициант вернется, Дж ек разглядывал посетителей.
6. Половина приглашенных на вечеринку лю дей не приш ла.
7. Хозяйка наблю дала, как ее гости упаковывали чемоданы, и видела, что им было
очень жаль уезжать.
8. Она провалила экзамен, несмотря на то, что усердно занималась. Она заслуживает
того, чтобы ее пожалели.
9. Увядш ие цветы никто не выкинул, так как давно никого не бы ло дома.
10. Яблоки такие спелые, что их можно уже собирать.
11. М ой брат, только что получивший степень магистра в Оксфорде, собирается
писать там докторскую диссертацию.
12. Когда мы были в круизе по Средиземноморью, мы прекрасно про водили время.
13. Мы слышали, что она прекрасно станцевала во вчерашнем спектакле «Щ елкунчик».
221

14. Госпожа приказала подать обед.


15. Только что передали, что из зоопарка сбежал лев, и что сейчас он разгуливает в
центре города.
16. Когда говорит сердце, разум считает неприличны м возражать.
17. Блюз легко играть, но нелегко чувствовать.
18. Эксперт знает все ответы — если ты случайно задашь правильные вопросы.
19. Рассказывать шутки — настоящее искусство, наилучшие шутки могут быть опасны,
т.к. они д о некоторой степени правдивы.
20. Говорят, что Дж ефри уже полгода путешествует по Европе.
21. Судя по твоему состоянию, тебе надо измерять давление каждый день, не говоря
уже о том, что давно пора проконсультироваться с врачом.

Ex. 3 8 2 Translate into English.

1. После того, как капельдинер показала нам наши места, и мы пош ли по проходу к
ряду С.
2. Их вдохновенная игра имела оглуш ительны й успех.
3. Комик заставил зрителей кататься по полу от смеха.
4. Несмотря на то, что новое шоу пользовалось успехом у зрителей, отзывы критиков
бы ли плохие.
5. Здравствуйте, я хотел бы заказать два места в бельэтаже на завтрашнюю премьеру.
— Извините, мы не принимаем заказы по телефону.
6. Так как игра актеров была до в о льн о посредственная, мы уш ли в антракте.
7. Известно, что этот театр прославился своими творческими постановками.
8. Если билеты заказаны на спектакль, их можно забрать в кассе в лю бое время не
позднее, чем за полчаса д о начала.
9. Когда актеры забывают текст, они полагаются на то, что им поможет суфлер. А если
случится так, что суфлер тоже забудет текст?
10. Зрители, казалось, бы ли совсем скованы.
11. Д уб ле р долж ен быть способен заменить актера в лю бую минуту.
12. Поскольку она мечтала стать актрисой, она вступила в лю бительский драмкружок.
13. Этот душ ещ ипательны й фильм наверняка будет пользоваться успехом у зрителей.
14. О н предпочитает сидеть впереди, она лю б и т сидеть сзади, а я, пожалуй, сяду в
середине.
15. Как только занавес опустился, раздались бурные аплодисменты .
222

Ex. 383 Choose the right variant(s).

1. Th e gerund has the categories of


a )tense c)aspect
b) voice d) time correlation

2. Prior actions or states can be expressed by non-perfect gerunds after verbs of


a) sense perception, motion c) blame and reproach
b) recollection, gratitude d) punishment, reward

3. Prior actions or states can be expressed by non-perfect gerunds after prepositions:


a) at, after, on/upon, since c) in, at, after, before, on/upon, since
b) in, at, after, on/upon, since d) for, in spite of, from

4. Gerunds are active in form but passive in m eaning after:


a) be worth c) require, want
b) deserve, need d) excuse, forgive, rem em ber

5. Gerunds can
a) take direct objects c) be modified by adverbs
b) be modified by adjectives

6. Gerunds as part of a com pound predicate can function as


a) a predicative c) part of a com pound verbal modal predicate
b) part of a predicative d) part of a com pound verbal aspect predicate

7. N on-perfect gerunds can form com pound verbal m odal predicate w ith the modal
expression(s):
a) cannot help c) cannot choose but
b ) cannot but

8. Th e gerund can be used as


a) a direct object c) prepositionalobject
b) an indirect object

9. G erund predicative constructions cannot be used in the function(s) of


a) a complex subject c) complex part of a compound verbal aspect predicate
b) a complex object d) a complex adverbial

10. A n y form of the gerund can be used in the function of


a) a subject d) part of a com pound verbal aspect predicate
b) an object e) part of a com pound verbal modal predicate
c) a predicative f) an attribute

11. Th e preposition FOR introduces adverbials of


a) purpose c) concession
b) reason d )tim e
223

12. Th e preposition W IT H O U T introduces adverbials of


a) attendant circumstances c) condition
b) manner d) reason

13. Gerunds as adverbials of concession follow prepositions


a) instead c) despite
b) besides d) in spite o f

14. Infinitives and gerunds share some


a) nominal features c) adjectival features
b) verbal features

15. Th e choice betw een a gerund and an infinitive after the verbs REGRET, FORGET, REM EM BER
depends on
a) the time reference c) whether the verb is followed by an indirect
b) w hether the meaning is active or object
passive d) whether a general or particular action is
expressed

16. Th e choice between a gerund and an infinitive after the verbs G O O N , TRY, M E A N depends on

a) the meaning of the verb c) w hether the meaning is active or passive


b) the time reference d) w hether the verb is followed by an indirect
object

17. Attributes as prem odifiers w hich denote the actions of the modified nouns are
a) participles b) gerunds ;

18. Attributes as prem odifiers w hich show a person's occupation or w h at an object is intended
for are
a) participles b) gerunds

19. Attributes as postmodifiers preceded by prepositions are


a) gerunds b) participles

20. Th e participle as an adverbial


a) takes a preposition c) is preceded by a conjunction
b) is used independently

21. Th e verbal noun takes


a) an article d) an adjectival attribute
b) a direct object e) adverbs / prepositional phrases
c) an o/-phrase attribute
224

REFERENCES
1. А р а к и н В .Д . П р а к ти ч е с к и й курс а н гл и й с к о го язы ка. — М о с к в а : В л а д о с , 20 0 3 .
2. Б л о х М .Ю ., Л е б е д е в а А .Я ., Д е н и с о в а B.C. П р а к ти к ум п о а н гл и й с к о м у я зы ку: Грам м ати к а. С б о р н и к
у п р а ж н е н и й . — М о с к в а : А с т р е л ь A C T, 2003.
3. Гордо н Е .М ., К р ы ло в а И .П .. Грам м атика с о в р е м е н н о го а н гл и й с к о г о язы ка. — Книж ны й Д о м
" У н и в е р с и т е т" , 2 0 0 9 .
4. Дроздова Т.Ю., Б ер есто ва А .И ., М а и л о в а В.Г. English G ra m m a r. R eference and pra ctice. — С а н к т-
П е т е р б у р г, 20 0 6 .
5. К а уш а н ск а я В .Л ., К о в н е р Р.Л., К о ж е в н и к о в а О .Н ., П р о к о ф ь е в а Е.В ., Р а й н е с З .М ., С кв и р ска я С .Е .,
Ц ы р л и н а Ф .Я. Гр а м м атик а а н гл и й с к о го языка. — С П б : А й р и с -п р е с с , 2 0 0 8 .
6. Кобрина Н .А ., Корнеева Е .А ., О ссо в ска я М .И ., Гузеева К. А . Грам м атик а а н гл и й с к о го языка.
М о р ф о л о г и я . — М .: П р о с в е щ е н и е , 1985.
7. К р у ти к о в Ю .А ., К узьм и н а И .С ., Р а б и н о в и ч Х .В. У п р а ж н е н и я п о гр а м м а ти к е с о в р е м е н н о го а н гл и й с к о го
язы ка. — М о с к в а : «В ы с ш а я ш к о л а » , 1971.
8. Л е щ е в а Л . М . , Б а х та дзе Е .А ., С и м а н о в и ч О .С . П р а кти ч е ск а я гр а м м а ти к а а н гл и й с к о го язы ка. — М н .:
А к а д . у п р . п р и п р е з. Респ. Б е ла р у сь , 2008.
9. П е тр а ш к е в и ч Н .П ., Ш е л е г Л .А ., Д м и т р и е в а И .В . Ф у н к ц и о н а л ь н а я гр а м м а ти к а а н гл и й с к о го язы ка. —
М н . О О О "Л е к с и с ", 20 0 9 .
10. С а а к ян А .С . Exercises in M o d e r n English G ra m m a r. — С П б : А й р и с -п р е с с , 2 0 0 6 .
11. A le x a n d e r L. L o n g m a n English G ra m m a r. Pearson E d u ca tio n , Ltd, 2 0 0 5 .
12. C ollins C o b u ild English G ra m m a r, H a rp e r Collins P ublisher, 20 0 5 .
13. D o o le y J., Evans V. G ra m m a rw a y . — Express Publishing, 1999.
14. E a s tw o o d J. O x fo rd Practice G ra m m a r. In te rm e d ia te . — O x fo rd U n iv e rs ity Press, 20 0 8 .
15. Evans V. R o u n d -U p . English G ra m m a r Practice 6. — L o n g m a n , 20 0 1 .
16. Evans V. FCE U se o f English 2. — Express Publishing, 20 0 1 .
17. F ole y М ., Hall D. A d v a n c e d Le arners' G ra m m a r. — Lo n g m a n , 20 0 3 .
18. F o w le r R., A a ro n , J., Lim b u rg . K. T h e Little, B ro w n H a n d b o o k . 6 th ed. — H a rp e rC o llin s : N e w York. 1995
19. G e o rg e Y. O x fo rd Practice G ra m m a r. - O x fo rd U n iv e rs ity Press, 2 0 0 8 .
20. H a ine s S., N e ttle M . - A d v a n c e d G ra m m a r in U se. - C a m b rid g e U n iv e rs ity Press, 20 0 7 .
21. H e w in g s M . A d v a n c e d G ra m m a r in U se. — C a m b rid g e U n iv e rs ity Press, 1999.
22. Leech G ., S va rtik J. A C o m m u n ic a tiv e G ra m m a r o f English. - M o s c o w , P ro svesch eniye, 1983.
23. Q u irk R, G re e n b a u m S. A U n iv e rs ity G ra m m a r o f English. — L o n g m a n G ro u p : Essex, E n g la n d . 1993.
24. Side R. a n d W e llm a n G . G ra m m a r a n d V o ca b u la ry fo r C a m b rid g e A d v a n c e d a n d Pro ficiency. L o n g m a n ,
2000 .
2 5. S w a n M . Practical English U sag e. — O x fo rd U n iv e rs ity Press, 1997.
26. S w a n М ., W a lk e r C. H o w English W o rk s . A G ra m m a r Practice B o o k . — O x fo rd U n iv e rs ity Press, 1997.
27. T h o m s o n A .J., M a rtin e t A.V. A Practical English G ra m m a r. — O x fo rd U n iv e rs ity Press, 1988.
28. V in c e M . M a c m illa n English G ra m m a r in C o n te xt. A d v a n c e d . — 2 0 0 8 .
29. V in ce М ., S u n d e rla n d P. A d v a n c e d Language Practice. English G ra m m a r a n d V o ca b u la ry. — M a c m illa n ,
20 0 3 .
30. W a lk e r E., E ls w o rth S. G ra m m a r Practice fo r U p p e r In te rm id ia te S tu d e n ts . — Pearson E d u ca tio n Lim ite d,
2000 .
31. Yule G . O x fo rd Practice G ra m m a r. A d v a n c e d . — O xfo rd U n iv e rs ity Press, 20 0 6 .
The Gerund 225

C O N TEN TS

THE INFINITIVE

FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE .............................................................................................................................. 3


THE BARE INFINITIVE AND THE TO -IN F IN IT IV E ............................................................................................ 6
THE INFINITIVE AS A SUBJECT .................................................................................................................... 10
THE INFINITIVE AS A PREDICATIVE AND PART OF A PREDICATIVE ..................................................... 15
THE INFINITIVE AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBALMODAL PREDICATE .............................................. 21
THE INFINITIVE AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL ASPECT PREDICATE .............................................. 26
THE INFINITIVE AS AN OBJECT ................................................................................................................. 29
THE INFINITIVE AS AN ATTRIBUTE ......................................................................................................... 39
THE INFINITIVE AS AN ADVERBIAL .......................................................................................................... 45
THE INFINITIVE AS A PARENTHESIS ......................................................................................................... 54
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE .......................................................................................................................... 55
THE FOR-TO-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................................... 57
THE OBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................................. 65
THE SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION ........................................................................................... 73
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE ........................................................................................................................... 79

THE PARTICIPLE

FORMS OF THE PARTICIPLE ...................................................................................................................... 91


PARTICIPLES AS ATTRIBUTES ..................................................................................................................... 96
PARTICIPLES IN PREDICATES ............................... 106
PARTICIPLES AS ADVERBIALS ..................................................................................................................... Ill
PARTICIPLES AS PARENTHESES .............. 119
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE ........................................................................................................................ 121
THE OBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION ....................................................................................... 123
THE SUBJECTIVE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION ..................................... *.............................................. 132
ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTIONS ............................................ 135
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE .......................................................................................................................... 143

THE GERUND

FORMS OF THE GERUND ............................................................................................................................... 152


THE PREDICATIVE COSTRUCTION W ITH THE GERUND ......................................................................... 154
THE GERUND AS A SUBJECT ........................................................................................................................ 159
THE GERUND AS A PREDICATIVE ................................................................................................................. 163
THE GERUND AS PART OF A COM POUND VERBAL PREDICATE.............................................................. 167
THE GERUND AS AN O B JE C T ........................................................................................................................... 171
THE GERUND AS AN A T T R IB U T E .................................................................................................................... 177
THE GERUND AS AN ADVERBIAL ................................................................................................................... 183
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE ........................................................................................................................ 188
THE GERUND AND THE IN F IN ITIV E ............................................................................................................... 193
THE GERUND AND OTHER - I N G F O R M S ..................................................................................................... 203
REVISION AND CONSOLIDATION ................................................................................................................ 211

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................................ 224


Учебное издание

Федосеева Н а та л ь я В а с и л ь е в н а
Лысенко С в е тл а н а А л е к с а н д р о в н а
Рахунок Та ть я н а В л а д и м и р о в н а
Кривко Юлия В а с и л ь е в н а

Практическая грамматика английского языка


УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ НЕЛИЧНЫХ Ф О РМ ГЛАГО ЛА

English Grammar Practice


VERBALS IN USE

У ч е б н о е п о с о б и е д л я с т у д е н т о в с п е ц и а л ь н о с т и « С о в р е м е н н ы е и н о с тр а н н ы е я з ы к и »
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О ф о р м ле н и е облож ки А. Г. Островский
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