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Практическая грамматика

ГЕРУНДИЙ

En gl i sh Grammar Practice
THE GE R U N D
Учебное пособие для студентов специальности
«Современные иностранные языки»
учреждений, обеспечивающих получение высшего образования

2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное

Минск
Лексис
2013
УДК 811.111'367(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923
П69

Авторы:
старший преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ М. Е. Бендецкая,
старший преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ Т. В. Рахунок,
старший преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ Н. В. Федосеева,
преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ С. А. Лысенко,
преподаватель кафедры ТиПАР МГЛУ Ю. В. Кривко

Бендецкая, М. Е.
П69 Практическая грамматика: Герундий = English Grammar Practice: The Gerund : учебное посо­
бие / М. E. Бендецкая [и др.] — 2-е изд. — Минск : Лексис, 2013. — 128 с.
ISBN 978-985-6932-33-8.
Цель данного пособия - развитие и совершенствование грамматических знаний, навыков и умений студентов,
предусмотренных типовой учебной программой для ВУЗов по специальности "Современные иностранные языки" в рам­
ках изучения темы "Герундий".
Пособие состоит из взаимосвязанных разделов описательного и практического характера. Предназначено для
студентов языковых ВУЗов и факультетов, изучающих английский язык на продвинутом уровне, а также может быть
использовано широким кругом лиц, изучающих английский язык на курсах или самостоятельно.
УДК 811.111'367(075.8)
ББК 81.2АНГЛ-923

ISBN 978-985-6932-33-8 © Оформление. ООО "Лексис", 2012


© Оформление, с изменениями. ООО "Лексис",
2013
The Morphological Categories o f the Gerund 3

THE GERUND
Being honest may not get you lots of friends, but you will
always get the right ones.
Anonymous

Success is the ability to go from failure to failure without


losing your enthusiasm.
Winston Churchill

The gerund is a non-finite form of the verb that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. In other words,
the gerund is a verbal with some syntactic nominal features.

verbal characteristics nominal characteristics

morphological • Gerunds have the category


categories of time correlation.
• Gerunds of transitive verbs
have the category of voice.

syntactic • Gerunds can be modified • Gerunds can function as subjects, predicatives


features by adverbials. or objects.
• Gerunds can take prepo­ • Gerunds used as predicatives, objects,
sitional objects. attributes or adverbials can take prepositions.
• Gerunds of transitive • Gerunds can combine with nouns in the
verbs can take direct and possessive case or possessive pronouns.
indirect objects. • Gerunds can combine with the determiner 'no'.

Unlike a noun of verbal origin which tends to express the fact or the result of the action or state, the
gerund emphasises the process itself, it shows an action or state of being. Compare:
I spent two weeks in translating the article.
= Я провел две недели за переводом статьи.
They say that the translation is good.
= Говорят, что перевод хороший.

Without your helping me all those years, I would not have achieved my goal.
- Без твоей многолетней помощи я бы не достиг своей цели.
Thank you fo r your help.
= Спасибо за твою помощь.

I
ln this book we often use the phrase 'the action of the gerund' to describe a range of meanings the
gerund has: the process, state of being and action. This is done to save the reader's precious time and
® valuable space in the book.
4 English Grammar Practice

THE MORPHOLOGICAL CATEGORIES OF THE GERUND


The morphological characteristics of the gerund reveal its verbal nature. The four forms of the gerund
reflect two morphological categories: the category of time correlation and the category of voice.

ACTIVE PASSIVE
NON-PERFECT doing being done
PERFECT having done having been done

THE CATEGORY OF TIME CORRELATION


Gerunds do not have the category of tense and can not refer an action directly to the present, past
or future. Their time reference is relative: it can be understood through the reference of the action
expressed by the gerund to the time of the finite verb. This peculiarity is based on the category of
time correlation, which is revealed in the opposition of non-perfect and perfect forms.

N O N -P E R FE C T PER FECT
A C T IV E doing having done
P A SSIV E being done having been done

Ш The non-perfect gerund - often called indefinite - may describe


1. an action that takes place at the same time with the action of the finite verb.
He is / was / will be surprised at seeing us.
= Он удивлен / удивился / будет удивлен, увидев нас.

2. an action that follows the action of the finite verb.


She has an odd feeling about going to the party the following day.
= У нее странное чувство по поводу посещения вечеринки на следующий день.

3. an action that refers to no particular time.


Stretching exercises helped him to relax.
Упражнения на растяжку помогли ему расслабиться.

4. an action that precedes the action of the finite verb.


Non-perfect gerunds can be used to express actions that precede the actons of the finite verb

• after verbs of recollection: recall, recollect, remember, etc.


and their opposites: forget, overlook, disregard, etc.
Mason could not remember going to school fo r the first time.
Мейсон не помнил, как он впервые пошел в школу.

• after verbs / predicative word groups of gratitude: appreciate, be grateful for, be thankful for,
be glad about, thank for, express gratitude for, show gratitude for, etc.
The Syntactic Characteristics o f the Gerund 5
Thank you fo r helping us at that critical moment.
= Спасибо за то, что вы помогли нам в решающий момент.

• after verbs / predicative word groups of blame and reproach: accuse, blame, be responsible for,
hold responsible for, be accountable for, be guilty about / o f be sorry about / for, charge with,
criticize for, regret, scold for, etc. and their opposites: excuse for, forgive for, pardon for, etc.
He was sorry fo r arriving late.
= Он сожалел о том, что приехал поздно.

• after verbs of punishment: discipline for, fine for, penalize for, punish for, rebuke for, reprimand
for, etc.
He was fined for parking on the pavement.
= Его оштрафовали за парковку на тротуаре.

• after verbs of reward: admire, approve of, commend fo r / on, praise for, etc.
I cannot approve o f his leaving school when sixteen.
- Я не могу одобрить то, что он бросил школу в шестнадцать лет.

• after the prepositions on, upon, after and since.


Since winning the prize, he has gained world-wide recognition.
= С тех пор, как он выиграл приз, он получил всемирное признание.

Perfect gerunds in these cases emphasise the gap of time between the actions of the finite verb
and the gerund. Compare:
I regret saving that.
= Я сожалела, что сказала это.
Не bitterly regretted ever having mentioned it.
- Он горько пожалел, что вообще когда-то упомянул этот.

After returning home, he found the parcel unpacked.


= По возвращении домой, он нашел сверток распакованным.
After having been away for a year, I realized how much I missed him.
= После годового отсутствия я поняла насколько я соскучилась за ним.

Ш The perfect gerund describes an action that precedes the action of the finite verb.
Without having seen so much in his life, he would not be able to help you.
= He испытав так много в своей жизни, он бы не мог помочь вам.

His regret is having never been elected to the Senate.


= Он сожалел о том, что его никогда не избирали в Сенат.
6 English Grammar Practice

THE CATEGORY OF VOICE


f f l Gerunds of transitive verbs have voice distinctions.
I prefer reading to being read to.
= Я предпочитаю читать сама, а не чтобы мне читали.
I am tired o f being treated like a child.
= Я устал от того, что ко мне относятся как к ребенку.

f f l Gerunds are active in form, but passive in meaning after the predicative word group be worth and
the verbs deserve, need, require and want (in the meaning o f 'need’ in informal English).
The essay was not worth reading.
= Эссе не стоило читать.
The room needs redecorating.
- Комнате требуется ремонт.
The plants want watering daily.
= Растения нуждаются в ежедневной поливке.
The Syntactic Characteristics of the Gerund 1

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Ex. 1 1 State the forms of the gerunds and explain why they are used.

1. She waited a minute or two before speaking.


2. I'm sorry for disturbing you.
3. Raymond did not like being called Ray.
4. It is natural living like this alone with Nature.
5. She denies having met James yesterday.
6. On being told the news she gave a gasp of surprise.
7. The idea is worth considering.
8. Thorpe was terrified, terrified of having to touch something, and even more, of being
touched.
9. She kept eyeing Henry with interest.
10. All 1want is getting to the truth.
11. 1seem to remember being told not to grumble by someone.
12. After pausing for breath she announced, "1 have some excellent news."
13. 1gave no sign of having been informed of their arrival.
14. People will talk, there is no preventing it.
15. 1appreciate your helping me.

Ex. 2 Open the brackets using non-perfect forms of gerunds in the active and passive voice.

1. Why do you avoid (to see) me?


2. He tried to avoid (to see).
3. We insist on (to send) him there at once.
4. He insists on (to send) there instead of me.
5. He showed no sign of (to know) them.
6. She showed no sign of (to impress).
7. He had the most irritating habit of (to joke) at the wrong moment.
8. 1was annoyed at (to interrupt) every other moment.
9. He hated (to remind) people of their duties or (to remind) of his.
10. On (to introduce) they easily fell to (to talk).
11. The equipment must go through a number of tests before (to install).
12. The water requires (to filter).
13. Jack would have gone to his bedroom without (to see).
14. My sister would never leave without (to see) me.
15. The matter is not worth (to speak of).

E x ^ ^ l Open the brackets using the appropriate forms of gerunds.

1. I don't mind (to stay) here for a little while.


2. The boy was afraid of (to punish) and hid himself.
8 English Grammar Practice

3. She denied (to see) me at the concert though I'm sure I saw her in the stalls.
4. I want to thank her for (to look) after the children while I was out.
5. I remember (to take) to Paris when I was a very small child.
6. I sat on the doorstep thinking over my chances of (to escape) from home.
7. It's no good (to deny) that.
8. The coat showed evident signs of (to wear) on the preceding night.
9. Since Tom was their best friend, he helped them without (to ask).
10. He could not help (to know) that there were odious people who called him a snob.
11. I don't like (to spy) on.
12. I strongly suspect Gerald of (to know) all about it beforehand, though he swears he didn't.
13. The old man could not stand (to make) fun of.
14. The camera wanted (to adjust).
15. But I can't tell you how grateful I am to you for (to listen) to me. It was so kind of you.

Translate the fragments in brackets using gerunds.

1. He was afraid of (что его неправильно поймут).


2. I remember (что видела) this film before.
3. These towels need (стирать).
4. On (войдя) the hall she saw a lot of familiar faces.
5. Are you thinking of (купить) a PlayStation?
6. Jackie regrets (что сказала) that to Allie.
7. I really don't feel like (ужинать) tonight. Do you?
8. They're going to postpone (принятие) a decision until next month.
9. I hate (когда меня обманывают) by taxi drivers.
10. He gave no sign of (что узнал) us.

Translate into English using gerunds.

1. Я помню, что видел этого актера в какой-то другой пьесе.


2. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы меня выслушали.
3. Он подозревал меня в том, что я всех обманул.
4. Не стоит упоминать об этом.
5. Вы не против повторить то, что вы только что сказали?
6. Странно, что она избегает говорить на эту тему.
7. Терпеть не могу, когда со мной разговаривают таким тоном.
8. Посмотрев на мои часы, часовщик сказал, что они в порядке и нуждаются только в
чистке и смазке.
9. Он признался, что неверно информировал нас.
10. Он напомнил мне, что уже как-то отказался от этого предложения.
11. Она боялась испортить свое первое впечатление, посмотрев картину снова.
12. Меня упрекнули в том, что я опоздал и заставил всех ждать.
13. Услышав гудок автомобиля, сторож пошёл открыть ворота.
14. Бесполезно снова обсуждать этот вопрос.
15. Я думаю, что он несерьезно сказал, что хочет переменить профессию.
The Predicative Construction with the Gerund 9

THE PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTION WITH THE GERUND

Ш The predicative construction with the gerund is a construction in which a gerund or a gerund
phrase expresses the action or state of the nominal element. In other words, the gerund refers to
a subject of its own. The subject of the gerund is different from the subject of the sentence. The
elements of the construction are in secondary subject-predicate relation1. Compare:

It's no use arguing. It's no use NANCY'S / NANCY arguing.


The vital thing is keeping fit. The vital thing is YOUR keeping fit.
I was happy about coming to see them. I was happy about TOM / TOM'S coming to see them.
I like dancing. I like BOTH OF THEM dancing.

f f l The nominal element of the construction can be expressed by


• a noun in the possessive case.
I was happy about Emma's coming to visit us.
= Я была счастлива, что Эмма приезжает к нам в гости.

• a noun or nouns in the common case. A noun is used in the common case when the agent is
emphasised or when it denotes a lifeless thing. When the nominal element is expressed by
two nouns, they are used in the common case.
I was happy about Emma coming to visit us.
= Я была счастлива, что (именно) Эмма приезжает к нам в гости.

Не mentioned m v clock being slow.


= Он упомянул, что мои часы опаздывают.

I was happy about Emma and Brenton coming to see us.


= Я была счастлива, что Эмма и Брентон приезжают к нам в гости.

• a possessive pronoun or a personal pronoun in the objective case.


I admire his / him crossing the channel on a stormy night.
= Я восхищаюсь тем, что он пересек пролив в бурную ночь.

The climbers talked about lightning and its being dangerous.


= Альпинисты разговаривали о молнии и о том, что она опасна.

• some other pronoun: all (of), both (of), each (of), this, that, something, everybody, etc.
He was conscious o f something unusual going on around himself.
= Он осознавал, что нечто необычное происходило вокруг него.

1 The primary subject-predicate relation is the relation between the subject and the predicate of a sentence.
10 English Grammar Practice

The boss insisted on both o f them coming in time.


= Босс настаивал, чтобы они оба пришли вовремя.

I rely on all o f vou arriving on time.


= Я надеюсь, что все вы приедете вовремя.

Ш Predicative constructions with the gerund are often rendered into Russian by nouns or subordinate
clauses introduced by ‘как’; ‘что’; ‘то, что’; ‘тем, что’; ‘после того, как’; ‘несмотря на то,
что’; ‘для того, чтобы’; etc.
Everybody was sad after his leaving.
= Всем стало грустно после того, как он ушел/его ухода.

I remember your playing an old piano.


= Я помню, ка к /ч т о вы играли на старом пианино.

Ted's leaving so early surprised us.


= To, что Тэд ушел так рано, нас удивило.

Щ Any form of the gerund can be used within the construction.


We all know o f this group designing a new vehicle.
Joshua knew nothing about her being sent to London.
His having studied physics contributed to the success o f our research.
The key to success was our having been trained for the tournament.

Щ The elements of the construction form a syntactic complex that operates as one syntactic whole.
Thus, we find complex subjects, complex predicatives, complex objects, complex attributes and
complex adverbials expressed by predicative constructions with the gerund.

Our arrivina so late at niaht reallv bothered her.


complex subject It's no use vour trvina to avoid me.
There is no his deceivina us anv lonaer.
complex predicative What worries me most is their beina late.
complex object We are worried about the kid travelina on his own.
complex attribute He liked the idea o f our aoina to Paris on the weekend.
On his comina on staae we broke into aoolause.
Pam passed bv without our noticina her.
He did it for our learnina the truth.
complex adverbials
In case o f vour followina mv advice, we will achieve the aoal.
In spite o f his beina late, we manaaed to finish the work.
1am nervous because o f their stavina out late.
The Predicative Construction with the Gerund 11

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Translate the following sentences into Russian. Point out syntactic complexes with
gerunds. Pay attention to the ways of expressing the nominal element.

1. Don't think she'll approve of your telling me this.


2. She turned round on his entering the room.
3. Of course, I should insist on your accepting the proper professional fee.
4. She was startled by the noise of the outer door being opened.
5. His friends'betraying him filled him with bitterness.
6. We knew nothing of his being a humorous writer.
7. It was no good your leaving this case unsettled.
8. Do you agree to our taking her up to town and putting her under the best control?
9. His breathing heavily when he greeted her was the result of running up two flights of
stairs.
10. Someone might have gone to the table without your noticing.
11. I don't like the idea of you all going off from early morning till late at night. I don't like
being alone.
12. Nick was very much excited about his favourite cake getting spoiled.
13. Your advertising yourself continually is vulgar.
14. I can't bear the thought of your deserting your post when your presence is so necessary.
15. There is no doubt of his having mastered English thoroughly.

Supply both the possessive and object form of the words provided.

Model: The firm doesn't m ind_______ arriving at ten o'clock. (I) ->
The firm doesn't mind m y/ me arriving at ten o'clock.
1. I can't excuse________________ not answering our invitation. (Sally)
2. They tried to sto p _________________ singing, (we)
3. I'm worried about taking so much money, (she)
4. I'm bored w ith _________________ complaining, (you)
5. Do you know the reason fo r________________ stopping work? (they)
6. What do you think about________________ resigning? (Tom)
7. Do you m ind________________ smoking? (I)
8. I can't im agine_______________ approving the plan! (my boss)
9. What do you think o f ________________ leaving the country like that? (they)
10. I can think of no reason fo r saying that, (she)
11. They don't understand________________ leaving home when he did. (John)
12. She's worried about_________________being arrested, (we)
13. They resented_______________ winning the prize. (I)
14. Who told you about_________________being sacked? (he)
12_______________________________________________ English Grammar Practice

Paraphrase the sentences using complexes with the gerund according to the model.

Model: They objected to applying this method into practice. ->


They objected to this method being applied into practice.

1. We don't mind mentioning the fact.


2. You are responsible for doing this work in time.
3. She was quite unaware of being watched by the people.
4. He never confessed to having sent the letter.
5. The director of the library insisted on binding the books before they were given out to
the readers.
6. Father hated being contradicted by any one of us.
7. She never referred to having been assisted by anybody.
8. When a small boy, he liked being taken out hunting by his father.
9. During an air raid some prisoners of war managed to escape without being noticed by
the guards.
10. She was distressed at having spoilt all the fun by one silly remark.

Use the elements in brackets to construct complexes with the gerund. Insert
prepositions if necessary.

1. It is not worth while (vou, to worrv).


2. The functioning of the mechanism depends (it, to handle) properly.
3. 1won't stand (anvbodv, to talk) to Mother like that.
4. You must forgive (the bov, to be so curious).
5. We were surprised (he, to take) the whole affair into his own hands.
6. 1 count (Mr. Dunne, to come) to the committee tomorrow.
(He, to be) there will carrv more weight.
7. She won't believe (1, to be) to France.
8. Ratterer's idea (Clvde, to go) to his uncle Samuel not onlv pleased but
also annoyed him.
9. 1heard (the committee, to turn down) the proposal.
10. 1understand perfectly___ (the girl, not to want) to leave.
11. David was in constant fear (his step-father, to punish) him for something.
12. Emily was confused (we all, to observe) her. and hung down her head.

Ex. 10 Paraphrase the following so as to use complexes with the gerund.

1. I remember that the children looked through the album last Sunday.
2. There is a chance that my family will move to another city.
3. Do you mind if they join us?
4. We were all surprised that the project had not yet been put into practice.
5. Fancy how Boris appeared here all of a sudden!
The Predicative Construction with the Gerund 13
6. I'm trying to tell you I have no objection if you see Jim.
7. Mother will be terribly disappointed if Harry doesn't get the job.
8. Rita realized that she must be going; her parents might be worried if she stayed out later
than usual.
9. Nancy insists that her father should allow her to keep a monkey as a pet.
10. My sister is very displeased that I have broken her favourite cup.
11. The police have no objection that the man should be set free.
12. That he had been away for so many years made him feel quite a stranger in that big
city.
13. I couldn't bear the idea that anybody should interfere with what I thought to be my
personal affair.

Complete the following sentences using complexes with the gerund.

1. 1didn't mind... 7. 1don't like the idea...


2. They objected... 8. Do you think there is any use... ?
3. She prevented ... 9. 1can't bear the thought...
4. 1don't remember... 10. There was no point...
5. He entered the room w ithout... 11. It was good...
6. They insisted... 12. He could no more resist...

Translate the sentences into English using complexes with the gerund.

1. Мы полагаемся на то, что все придут вовремя.


2. Он настаивает, чтобы я держала окна открытыми независимо от погоды.
3. Все мое будущее зависело от того, поддержат ли меня близкие.
4. Я удивлена, что вы оставили маленького мальчика одного дома.
5. Она отвечает за то, чтобы все документы были в порядке.
6. Ему не нравилась идея мне одной ехать на Кавказ.
7. Не отрицайте, что Чарльз вмешался в это дело.
8. Я не могу себе представить, чтобы вы так долго сидели в читальном зале.
9. Я не выношу, когда люди плохо говорят о других за их спиной.
10. Представь себе, ей хотелось знать, что его беспокоит.
11. Не могу понять, почему они не переписываются. Я хорошо помню, что они
расстались друзьями.
12. Профессор предложил нам взять новую тему для исследования.
13. Все знали, что он очень добрый человек, несмотря на то, что он выглядел суровым.
14. Я совсем не возражаю против того, чтобы вы пользовались моим принтером.
15. Интересно, как она вошла в дом так, что мы не видели ее.
14 English Grammar Practice

Insert a pronoun where necessary.

1. I rem em ber______ meeting her once.


2. I can't rem em ber______ ever meeting each other. They live in different countries.
3. I object t o _______interfering in their family life. It's none of my business.
4. I object t o interfering in my personal life. They are just neighbours.
_

5. They were keen o n _____ winning the match. We deserved it.


6. We are keen o n ______ winning the game. They are a nice team.
7. Simon never m entioned_____ letting him down. He just forgave them.
8. Daniel once m entioned letting them down. He still felt guilty.
9. Excuse me fo r______ calling you so late. But I need you badly.
10. Excuse calling you in the middle of the night. They needed you urgently.
11. We could not prevent happening.
12. Nothing could prevent them from gossiping.
13. My friends forgot______promising to call on me. I had a lonely evening.
14. They came but there was no one at home. She fo rgo t promising to drop in and
went for a walk.
15. His strong capable hands showed no signs o f being used for hard manual work.

Щ Translate the fragments into English using complexes with the gerund where necessary.

1. I don't remember
a) (чтобы он сказал) anything of the kind.
b) (чтобы я сказал) anything of the kind.

2. She suggested
a) (связаться с ним).
b) (чтобы мы связались с ними).

3. What annoyed us most was


a) (то, что им отказали в визах).
b) (то, что нам отказали в визах).
4. I count on
a) (что скоро вас увижу).
b ) (что мы скоро с вами встретимся).

5. She brought her apologies for


a) (что причинила им так много беспокойства).
b ) (что её ребёнок причинил им так много беспокойства).

6. The new assistant is unable to prepare everything for the experiment


a) (если его не проинструктируют).
b) (если вы его не проинструктируете).
The Predicative Construction with the Gerund 15
7. а) (Несмотря на то, что им было очень холодно), they would not stop their observations,
b) (Несмотря на то, что было очень холодно), they would not stop their observations.

8. We are greatly thankful to them for


a) (что нам была предоставлена) such ample opportunity.
b) (что мы имели) such ample opportunity.
c) (что они предоставили нам) such ample opportunity.

9. He was conscious of
a) (что его ввели в заблуждение).
b) (что он ввёл их в заблуждение).
c) (что эти слова ввели их в заблуждение).
d) (что они ввели его в заблуждение).

Ex. 15 Translate the sentences into English using gerunds or complexes with the gerund.

1. Можем ли мы рассчитывать на то, что вы пришлёте эти сведения вовремя?


2. Мы рассчитываем, что получим эти сведения вовремя.
3. Они, должно быть, рассчитывали, что им пришлют эти сведения вовремя.
4. Вам не следует рассчитывать на то, что нам пришлют все эти сведения вовремя.
5. Трудно рассчитывать на то, что эти сведения будут присланы вовремя.
6. Он настаивал на том, чтобы его туда отправили.
7. Он настаивал на том, чтобы нас туда отправили.
8. Он настаивал на том, чтобы мы его туда отправили.
9. Он настаивал на том, чтобы отправить туда кого-нибудь.
10. Не могу себе представить, чтобы вам отказали.
11. Он боялся, что вы ему откажете.
12. Она не привыкла, чтобы ей в чем-либо отказывали.
13. Он не соглашался, чтобы ему делали прививку.
14. Родители согласились, чтобы ребёнку сделали прививку.
15. Не стоит повторять всё сначала.
16. Я думаю, нам не стоит повторять всё сначала.
16 English Grammar Practice

THE SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF THE GERUND

Ш Syntactically, the verbal character of the gerund is expressed in its combinability.


1. Gerunds can be modified by adverbials expressed by adverbs or prepositional phrases.

I enjoy walking slowly in the park.

2. Gerunds can take prepositional objects.

I have no objections to hearing about his travel again.

3. Gerunds of transitive verbs can take direct and indirect objects.

His hobby is watching TV.

Thank you fo r providing us shelter.

Ш The nominal character of the gerund reveals itself in its syntactic functions and combinability.
1. Gerunds can function as subjects, predicatives or objects.
It is so nice meeting you, [a subject]
What pleased him was dancing with the princess, [a predicative]
I like dining out, [an object]

2. Gerunds used as predicatives, objects, attributes or adverbials can take prepositions.


The way to achieve success is by joining our effort, [a predicative]
Fear sometimes stops you from doing stupid things, [an object]
Robinson never lost hope o f leaving the island, [an attribute]
On taking off the plane disappeared in the clouds, [an adverbial of time]

3. Gerunds can combine with nouns in the possessive case or possessive pronouns.
I am proud o f my students' coming first in the tournament.
Excuse my calling so late. Jess.

4. Gerunds can combine with the determiner 'no'.


There is no avoiding the fight.

Ш Gerunds perform their syntactic functions alone or in combination with other words. They form:
• gerund phrases that operate as a syntactic whole. Thus, we find phrasal subjects, phrasal
predicatives, phrasal objects, phrasal attributes and phrasal adverbials.
Thinking hard over so many things bored him to death.[a phrasal subject]
What I hate is beina constantly told what to do. [a phrasal predicative]
The Syntactic Features of the Gerund 17
Never aet tired o f doing little things for others, [a phrasal prepositional object]
I have no intention o f leaving this comfortable cottaae. [a phrasal attribute]
You can't make an omelette without breaking eaas. [a phrasal adverbial of
condition]

• gerund predicative complexes / constructions that operate as a syntactic whole. Thus,


we find complex subjects, complex predicatives, complex objects, complex attributes and
complex adverbials expressed by predicative constructions with the gerund.
Jane's thinking so Iona bored him to death, [a complex subject]
What worries me most is their being late, [a complex predicative]
We are worried about the kid traveling on his own, [a complex object]
He liked the idea o f our aoina to Paris on the weekend, [a complex attribute]
On his coming on stage we broke into applause, [a complex adverbial of time]
I am nervous because of their staving out late, [a complex adverbial of reason]

THE GERUND AS A SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE

Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.


Sir Richard Steele

It's no good crying over spilt milk.


Everybody says

There is no accounting for tastes.


They say
f f l Gerund subjects follow three patterns.

PATTERN 1.
Gerund subjects precede the predicates; they are placed first. Any form of the gerund can be
used as a subject in this pattern.
Learning without thought is labour lost.
= Учение, лишенное мысли, - напрасный труд.

Being bothered all the time does not help me to complete the task.
= To, что меня все время беспокоят, не помогает мне выполнить задание.

Having once failed at the exam still upsets me.


= To, что я однажды завалил экзамен, до сих пор огорчает меня.

The lecturer's having been interrupted shows their lack o f manners.


= To, что лектора перебили, демонстрирует их невоспитанность.
18 English Grammar Practice

PATTERN 2.
The introductory IT is placed first to emphasise the meaning of the gerund subject. Any form of
the gerund can be used in this pattern. Common predicates in such cases are: be (of) no use; be
no good; be useless; be worth (while); make all th e / n o difference and the like.
It was (of) no use trying to forget her.
= Бесполезно было пытаться ее забыть.

It is no good beating about the bush.


= Бесполезно ходить вокруг да около / говорить обиняками.

It makes all the / no difference his having been invited.


= To, что его пригласили существенно меняет / не меняет дело.

PATTERN 3.
The introductory THERE is used to emphasise gerund subjects preceded by NO. Only non-perfect
gerunds follow this pattern.
There is no avoiding the fight.
= Борьбы не избежать.

There is no accounting for her moods.


= Невозможно объяснить смену ее настроения.

Ш Structurally, gerund subjects can be


• simple - expressed by a single gerund.
Studying is important.

• phrasal - expressed by a gerund phrase.


Studying computers becomes important nowadays.

• complex - expressed by a predicative complex with a gerund.


Irene's studying foreign languages will do her a world o f good.
The Syntactic Features o f the Gerund 19

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds. Point out syntactic
complexes with gerunds.

A.
1. Coming to class on time is important.
2. There's no denying that he's intelligent.
3. It's no good trying to persuade her to come with us.
4. Their being so keen on flying surprises me.
5. It's no use doing things by halves.
6. Cooking a soft-boiled egg takes three minutes.
7. It made no difference trying to reason with him.
8. Your not having heard from Molly is disappointing.
9. Is living in an apartment expensive?
10. It's worth while touring your native land.
11. There's no denying that travelling broadens the horizons.
12. The student's reading authentic literature improved his English.
13. It made all the difference having been given that one extra day off.

B-

1. It's no use crying over spilt milk.


2. Being in love shows a person who he should be.
3. Having been poor is no shame, but being ashamed of it, is.
4. Saying and doing are two things.
5. Maybe it's what's inside that counts, but being told you look good feels good!
6. Once you do something really mature, there is no turning back.
7. Your being born in a duck yard does not matter, if only you are hatched from a swan's egg.
8. Talking mends no holes.
9. Without emotion, there is no transforming darkness into light and apathy into movement.
10. Laughing at our mistakes can lengthen our own life. Laughing at someone else's can
shorten it.
11. There is no good his arguing with the inevitable.
12. Walking is man's best medicine.
13. It's no use your worrying about everything.
14. I am an optimist — it does not seem to be much use being anything else.
20 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 17 Complete the sentences using the gerunds from the right column as subjects. Note
the patterns gerund subjects follow.

1. ____________ personal calls from the office is forbidden. a) continuing


2 . I'm afraid it's no u se ____________ this discussion. b) learning
3. by boat is fun. c) making
4. There was no _ how his father would react to the news. d) talking
5. You know, her _ cleverer than her husband was half the trouble, e) travelling
6 . It's no go o d __ to him — he never listens. f) being
7. about other cultures is interesting. g) telling

Ex. 18 Transform the sentences according to the model.

Model A: It's very difficult to windsurf properly. ->


Windsurfing properly is very difficult.

1. It takes a long time to learn a foreign language.


2. Grow your own food, it's less expensive.
3. Give up smoking: it will make you feel better.
4. A good way of keeping fit is to swim every day.
5. It's impossible to park your car during office hours.
6. Ann is often late. It makes the teacher very cross.
7. The police try to find evidence at the crime scene. If they do,it'llbe very convenient.

Model B: I'll call to Vienna. Is it worth it? ->


Is it worth while my calling to Vienna?
8. Don't tell me to take it easy. It's useless.
9. Why are you getting angry? It's no good. That won't help solvethe problem.
10. Don't even try to make excuses. It's no use because she won't believe you.
11. I know that he has been informed but it makes no difference.
12. If your organization requires frequent reports, standardize the framework for them. It's
worth it.

Model C: You can never tell what he may do next.


There's no telling what he may do next.
13. Once he started talking on his favourite subject, nothing would stop him.
14. No one would have denied the strength of the argument.
15. When they are together they must quarrel, and it is impossible to avoid it.
16. She is so unbalanced. It is hardly possible to account for her moods.
17. The old man is very shrewd. You won't deceive him.
18. He was ready to gratify her every wish, but she was not to be easily satisfied.
The Syntactic Features o f the Gerund 21

Open the brackets using the appropriate form of gerunds. Point out complexes with
gerunds if there are any.

1. (To keep up) friendship is difficult.


2. Venice is a city where (to walk) is not merely desirable but inevitable.
3. His (to fail) at the entrance examination was a great disappointment to
his mother.
4. For a woman. (to need) is everything in life.
5. It's no use vour (to spend) money on impractical household items.
6. There is no (to stand) still when everyone is dancing.
7. It's no good (to ask) Tom to help you.
8. Jack laughed. Their (to bother) about something amused him.
9. It was great fun (to ski) in the wood.
10. There was no (to mistake) the sound.
11. It's no use (to pump) a dry well.
12. Peter's (to complain) didn't do him any good.
13. Isn't it heaven (to say) good-bve and (to know) we shall meet
again in an hour?
14. It's wonderful (to achieve) so much by the age of 25.

Complete the following sentences using gerunds as subjects.

1. There is no .... 6. It will make no difference ....


2. It was no good .... 7. ... was a great pleasure.
3. ... was not a simple matter. 8. It was no use ....
4. It is useless.... 9. It is worth w hile....
5. ... is a must for me. 10. ... has become a daily ritual with me.

Ex. 21 Speak about your hobbies, likes and dislikes, your everyday activities. What is a must
for you and what is not? Use gerunds as subjects.

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. It's no deceiving him, he can read my face like a book.


2. Since you know everything, it's no use my telling you.
3. Mary's having put in an awkward position irritated both of us.
4. It's no well complaining about it.
5. Having a good teacher has made all the difference for Alex.
6. It's useless of your telling me not to worry.
7. There is no being denied his talent.
8. Sitting in a train for 24 hours isn't her idea of bliss. Sunbathing in the garden is more her line.
22 English Grammar Practice

Translate the fragments in brackets.

1. (Работать) with him was fun.


2. (To, что ты пришла) has done him good.
3. (Стоит посмотреть) the ballet.
4. (To, что ты так равнодушна) irritates me a great deal.
5. It was quite unexpected (что он пришел) so soon.
6. She felt exhilarated, (невозможно было отрицать) it.
7. (Бесполезно обсуждать) it now, we must act.
8. (Жить) in a foreign country can be very difficult.
9. (Нехорошо сплетничать) about other people.
10. (Водить) a car and (разговаривать) on the car phone at the same time demands care.
11. (Его невозможно убедить), as he is too stubborn.

Translate the sentences using gerunds as subjects.

1. Мы знали, что с ним было бесполезно спорить.


2. Нехорошо так думать о своих друзьях.
3. Было бесполезно пытаться встретить его у Петровых.
4. Быть с друзьями на экскурсии — большое удовольствие.
5. Когда он начинает шутить, его невозможно остановить.
6. То, что он такой медлительный, меня раздражает.
7. Ловить рыбу в Черном море — увлекательное дело.
8. Бесполезно звонить ему: его в это время никогда не бывает дома.
9. Сон на открытом воздухе очень полезен.
10. Он хороший певец; его стоит послушать в опере.
11. Нет смысла делать перерыв, нам всего на полчаса работы.
12. Переходить реку в этом месте опасно.
13. Невозможно угадать, какие подарки он получит от Деда Мороза.
14. Так приятно встречаться со старыми друзьями!
15. Нехорошо, что ты постоянно опаздываешь.
16. Игра в компьютерные игры отнимает значительную часть его времени.
17. Не стоит тратить много денег на солярий. Это вредно для здоровья.
Gerunds in Predicates 23

GERUNDS IN PREDICATES

The gerund can function as part of a compound nominal predicate (predicative), part of a compound
verbal modal predicate or part of a compound verbal aspect predicate. It should be reminded
that a compound predicate consists of a structural and notional parts. The structural part carries
grammatical information - the person, number, tense, voice, mood, modality of the predicate. It is
expressed by a finite verb - a link verb, phasal / aspect verb, modal verb or modal expression. The
notional part is the bearer of lexical meaning. It can be expressed by a gerund.

OF A COMPOUND NOMINAL PREDICATE (PREDICATIVE)


Seeing is believing.

THE GERUND AS PART ^ OF A COMPOUND VERBAL MODAL PREDICATE


I can't help admiring her.

OF A COMPOUND VERBAL ASPECT PREDICATE


The child began crying bitterly.

THE GERUND AS A PREDICATIVE


My personal hobbies are reading, listening to music, and silence.
Edith Sitwell

link verb + PREDICATIVE = compound nominal predicate

Creativity is seeing something that doesn't exist yet.

Ш The notional part of a compound nominal predicate - the predicative - can be expressed by any
form of the gerund. The link verb 'BE' is used as the structural part of the predicate.
Napoleon's mistake was attacking Russia in 1812.
= Ошибкой Наполеона было нападение на Россию в 1812.

What I hate is beina told what to do.


- Вот что я не люблю, это когда мне говорят, что делать.

My regret is having missed the first night.


= Я сожалею о том, что пропустила премьеру.
24 English Grammar Practice

Your problem is having been spoilt as a child.


= Твоя проблема в том, что тебя в детстве избаловали.

f f l Gerund predicatives can be introduced by prepositions: like, by, in, for, etc.
Swimming is like fivina in the sea.
= Плаванье подобно полету в море.

The only way to achieve success is bv working hard.


= Единственный способ досстичь успеха — это упорный труд.

Your failure was in wasting time.


= Твоя неудача - результат потери времени.

Be quiet! A library is fo r studying, not fo r socializing.


= Тише! Библиотека предназначена для учебы, а не для общения.

f f l Structurally, gerund predicatives can be


• simple — expressed by a single gerund.
His favourite pastime is cooking.

• phrasal — expressed by a gerund phrase.

The only remedy fo r such a headache is aoina to bed early.

• complex — expressed by a predicative construction with a gerund.


The main problem is vour staving out late.
Gerunds in Predicates 25

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds. Point out syntactic
complexes with gerunds.

A.
1. My favourite form of exercise is jogging.
2. What he really enjoyed was getting rare stamps.
3. One solution to the large number of cars on the roads will be taking a bus.
4. What tired him greatly was being questioned by newspaper correspondents.
5. My ideal summer job would be guiding tourists around the city.
6. After Roberto completes his English studies, the next step will be entering the
university.
7. What surprises me most is his knowing the route so well. He must have visited the place
several times without us.
8. It would really make a difference having a bit of extra money.
9. What annoyed me most was his having been invited there.
10. Rooming with Fred was like sharing a telephone booth with a hippopotamus.

B.
1. Seeing is believing.
2. Ambition is putting a ladder against the sky.
3. Generosity is giving more than you can, and pride is taking less than you need.
4. The worst thing of all is standing by when folks are doing something wrong.
5. The only thing that makes life possible is our not knowing what comes next.
6. There is no accounting for tastes.
7. The greatest pleasure in life is your doing what people say you cannot do.
8. Marriage is not just spiritual communion, it is also remembering to take out the trash.
9. Writing about music is like dancing about architecture.
10. Character is doing the right thing when nobody's looking.
11. Living is having ups and downs and sharing them with friends.
12. There is a distinction between achievement and success. Achievement is knowing that
you have studied and worked hard and done the best. Success is being praised by
others.
13. Feeling gratitude and not expressing it is like wrapping a present and not giving it.
14. Part of the pleasure of friendship is trusting without absolute evidence and being
rewarded for that trust.
26 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 26 Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the gerund. Point out complexes with
gerunds if there are any. Pay attention to the ways of expressing the nominal element.

1. The key in life is (to set) goals.


2. What teachers usually dislike most is their pupils'_____________ (to cheat).
3. My biggest nightmare is _____________ (to forget) to turn up for the exams.
4. The really important thing w a s_____________(to save) the children.
5. My hobby is _____________ (to cook).
6. The most important part is _____________ (to help) people to live normal lives.
7. All I want is h e r (to get) to the truth.
8. What he loves best in the world is (to meet) old friends.
9. Her worst habit is _____________ (to lie).
10 To discuss the international situation with them was like som eone_____________ (to
,

play) the piano only with the family to listen to him.


11 , What annoys me most of all is h is (to accept) their proposal quite
readily.
12 . He didn't know what to talk to him about. It was lik e ______________(to meet) an
unknown brother.
13. Her only fun w a s_____________ (to read) books.
14. To love John was like_____________ (to burn) alive.

Ex. 27 Complete the following using gerunds as subjects or predicatives according to the model.

Model: (He likes to read books.)


... was his favourite pastime. -> Reading books was his favourite pastime. OR
His favourite pastime w a s.... -> His favourite pastime was reading books.

1. (Why go into every detail?)


I think it's no use ....

2. (You must keep strict hours of meals.)


... must do you a lot of good.

3. (The children watched the monkeys go through different tricks.)


It was such fun ....

4. (We could not get in that night.)


All tickets were sold out, there was no ....

5. (I see you are going to assemble your bicycle.)


Is it worth while ... so long before the beginning of the season?

6. (It was so very pleasant to be free and alone.)


What I enjoyed most in that quiet corner after the noise of the city and strain of the last
two months was ....
Gerunds in Predicates 27
7. (The boy cried over the broken toy.)
"is it any good ... ?" the mother said to the child. "Tears are no help in sorrow."

8. (I did not expect to find you there.)


It was quite unexpected ....

9. (You distort facts and turn things upside down.)


What you do is ... and ....

10. (He liked to collect postage stamps.)


a ) ... was a hobby with him.
b) His hobby was ....

11. (When one reads without paying attention to the language, one robs oneself of great
intellectual pleasure.)
... is ....

12. (Did he realize what risk he was running when he tried to land the plane on such a small
clearing in the wood?)
He knew only too well th a t... was ..., but there was no alternative.

Ex. 28 Ц Answer the questions using the gerund as a predicative. Develop the situation.

Model: What is the best way of travelling? (to travel by air) ->
In my opinion, the best way o f travelling is travelling by air. It is more
comfortable, more convenient and of course fa r quicker than any other
method.

1. What is the cheapest method of travelling? (to walk)


What troubles people most of all when they are travelling? (to change from train to
steamer, then to another train)
What is the means of travelling which combines speed, comfort and pleasure? (to go by
train)
What is the best way to see the country at leisure? (to walk, to hike, to hitch-hike)
What is the best change from the dust, smells and hustle and bustle of the city? (to go
to a quiet country place)
What is the best way to get to know and understand other people? (to meet them in
their own homes)
What is the best way of making fair judgements about nationalities? (to travel, to learn
foreign languages)
28 English Grammar Practice

Complete the following using gerunds as predicatives.

1. What I like is .... 5. My only hope is....


2. Her hobby has always been.... 6. The most difficult thing in life is ....
3. His favourite pastime w as.... 7. The secret of happiness is ....
4. What worries me most is .... 8. Man's highest aim should be....

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. My first job was having delivered flowers to people. You've never seen so many smiles
on so many faces.
2. The secret to a good life is being happy with what you have.
3. What he loves best in the world is going to the theatre.
4. My only hope is having won the lottery.
5. Part of being a Master is being learned how to sing in nobody else’s voice but your own.

Translate the sentences into English.

1. Моим делом было обучать их грамматике английского языка.


2. Её любимое времяпрепровождение — это чтение комиксов.
3. Его обычные занятия — это написание писем и игра в шахматы с друзьями.
4. Единственной проблемой было то, что надо было убедить родителей дать свое
согласие.
5. Любить — значит прощать и верить.
6. Бесполезно спрашивать её. Она ничего не знает.
7. Слушать его рассказы — это еще раз переживать волнующие события тех дней.
8. Вязание успокаивает нервы.
9. Нехорошо пытаться убедить её поехать с нами.
10. Она понимала, что отказаться в такой ситуации — значит потерять лучшую
подругу.
11. Мои увлечения — это чтение и танцы.
12. Спорить с ним — это только понапрасну терять время.
13. То, что она проиграла, заставило её попытаться ещё раз.
14. Тебе бы лучше не рассчитывать на неё. Невозможно предугадать её настроение.
15. Самым важным было сдать экзамены.
Gerunds in Compound Verbal Predicates 29

GERUNDS IN COMPOUND VERBAL PREDICATES


THE GERUND AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL MODAL PREDICATE
If you can't help being selfish all the time, try going to bed earlier.
My best friend
Non-perfect gerunds, active and passive, form compound verbal modal predicates with the modal
expression can not help. Gerunds in such predicates can be used alone or within phrases. Predicative
constructions are not used in this function.
The audience could not help laughing.
= Публика не могла удержаться от смеха.
I can not help being excited about the news.
= Я не могу не быть взволнованной новостями.

THE GERUND AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL ASPECT PREDICATE


Don't give up trying to find someone who will love you - they are
looking for you.
Somebody wise
f f l Non-perfect gerunds form compound verbal aspect (phasal) predicates with verbs denoting
various stages of a process, action or state:
• its beginning - begin, burst out, commence, start,
• its continuation - carry on, continue, keep (on), go on (with) [= continue], etc.,
• its ending - cease, give up, finish, leave off, quit, stop, discontinue, etc.
Gerunds in compound verbal aspect predicates can be used alone or within phrases.
Predicative constructions are not used in this function.
Karen burst out laughing.
= Карен рассмеялась.
The ladies kept on talking in a most serious wav about biogeocoenosis.
-Д а м ы продолжали серьезнейшим образом беседовать о биогеоценозе.
Be quiet! Не has not finished speaking yet.
= Тише! Он еще не закончил говорить.
f f l There are stylistic and lexical restrictions on the use of gerunds in compound verbal aspect
predicates. We use infinitives rather than gerunds when
1. the subject denotes a lifeless thing.
The soup began to boil.
2. the notional part of a compound verbal aspect predicate is expressed by an infinitive of a
stative verb: feel, know, understand, see [= understand], etc.
He began to understand what was going on.
3. the structural part of a compound verbal aspect predicate is used in the continuous form.
We are beginning to read a new article.
30 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Ex. 32 Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds.

A.
1. The audience burst out applauding.
2. The buses usually stop running before midnight.
3. John says he's given up trying to do the crossword.
4. Just keep stirring the mixture until it boils.
5. Have you finished typing that letter?
6. Her favourite pastime is daydreaming.
7. People began leaving the theatre before the end of the play.
8. Being polite to other people is very important.
9. Matilda said she was OK, but I couldn't help noticing how upset she looked.
10. Carry on trying. You'll succeed sooner than you think.

B.
1. I told the doctor I broke my leg in two places. He told me to quit going to those places.
2. Historians are like deaf people who go on answering questions that no one has asked
them.
3. Happy is the man who has given up worrying once and for all.
4. The secret of greatness is simple: do better work than any other man in your field — and
keep on doing it.
5. You don’t stop laughing because you grow old. You grow old because you stop laughing.
6. It's no use carrying an umbrella if your shoes are leaking.
7. You can't help getting older, but you don't have to get old.
8. Knowing is half the battle.
9. Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening.
10. I cross the Rubicon. I know there's no turning back.
11. Everyone who has achieved success kept going regardless of the obstacles they met.
12. My personal hobbies are reading, listening to music, and silence.
13. Politeness and consideration for others is like investing pennies and getting dollars
back.
14. Once you replace negative thoughts with positive ones, you'll start having positive
results.
Gerunds in Compound Verbal Predicates 31

Complete the sentences using gerunds from the right column.

1. Teddy continued Jean in his paintings. a. pacing


2. He began the words aloud to himself. b.shaking
3. They went on their dinner. c. saying
4. The old man stopped his fist and stick. d. reproducing
5. Sandy kept ahead, Mary tried to keep up with her. e. eating
6. Two weeks old, this child was, and the lady had just finished f. chatting
her pram-cover in stripes of white and blue. g- knitting
7. The twins started about their school life.

Open the brackets using gerunds. Note the verbs and expressions the gerunds follow.

1. His friends suddenly burst out (to laugh).


2. I've iust started (to learn) German.
3. Mv sister kept on (to ask) me question after question.
4. Thev encourage younger people to auit (to smoke).
5. He continued (to type) while he spoke.
6. You may com m ence___ (to read), Jeremy.
7. 1couldn't help (to think) he was asking for trouble.
8. You'd better stop (to talk) on the phone for hours.
9. 1left school in 1990 and began (to work) in mv present job.
10. She had just finished__ (to dress) the children when the phone rang.
11. We all carried on (to sing) as if nothing odd was happening.
12. Leave off (to shout)! 1can't hear myself think in here.
13. She can't go on (to pretend) that everything is fine when it clearly isn't.
14. I've given up ___(to expect) him to change.
15. 1keep (to forget) to put the answering machine on.
16. The company ceased__ (to trade) at 6 pm today.

Complete the following sentences using gerunds as parts of compound verbal predicates.

1. She kep t.... 8. The doctor continued ... .


2. They ceased .... 9. When will you finish ... ?
3. He has given up ... . 10. Before the band started ...
4. They commenced .... 11. The children couldn't help
5. The boy kept on ... . 12. Tell him to q u it... .
6. Has it stopped ...? 13. The audience burst o u t....
7. We must go on .... 14. Leave o f f... I
32 English Grammar Practice

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. In spite of the noise she carried writing.


2. The leaves have started fallen off the trees.
3. Keep taking the vitamins.
4. His wife finally persuaded him to give out smoking.
5. Last year he ceased in being a player and moved into management.
6. They continued being talking after the meal.
7. I wish he'd leave of moaning about everything.
8. I couldn't help but laughing.

Translate into English.

1. Люди практически перестали писать письма друг другу.


2. Дождь пошел, как раз когда мы выходили из дому.
3. Он перестал улыбаться и внимательно на меня посмотрел.
4. Она не могла не думать о родителях.
5. Она продолжала вязать и смотреть телевизор.
6. Ты уже закончил составлять контракт?
7. Он рассмеялся, когда я рассказал ему о нашей охоте в тайге.
8. Он поздоровался с друзьями и начал рассказывать о занятиях в университете.
9. Она то и дело смотрела на часы.
10. Ждать не было никакого смысла, и я пошел домой.
11. Прекрати шуметь. Ты разбудишь соседей.
12. Когда вы закончите спорить?! Спорить — это попусту тратить время.
13. Вы постоянно делаете одну и ту же ошибку.
14. Думаю, стоит поспать минут двадцать, и вы восстановите силы.
15. Он продолжал что-то читать и смеяться.
The Gerund as an Object 33

THE GERUND AS AN OBJECT


Mistakes, obviously, show us what needs improving.
Peter M cW illiam s

I have often regretted saying something, never my silence.


Publilius Syrus

DIRECT
f
^ -%4 J remember staving with them.

( OBJECT \
PREPOSITIONAL "
4 j was conscious of being watched.

Q Any form of the gerund can be used in this function.


She enjoyed olavina the guitar a lot.
= Ей очень нравилось играть на гитаре.
I could hardly recollect ever having met such a person.
= Я едва ли мог вспомнить, чтобы я когда-либо встречал такого человека.
Не could not bear being questioned about that dreadful accident.
= Он терпеть не мог, когда его расспрашивают об этой ужасной аварии.
Bella denied the message having ever been sent.
= Бэла отрицала, что это сообщение когда-либо было отправлено.

f f l Non-perfect gerunds can express actions that precede the actions of the finite verb after
• verbs of recollection; recall, recollect, remember, etc.
and their opposites; forget, overlook, disregard, etc.
Mason could not remember going to school fo r the first time.
= Мейсон не помнил, как пошел в школу первый раз.
• verbs/ predicative word groups of gratitude; appreciate, be glad about, be grateful for, be thankful
for, express gratitude for, show gratitude for, thank for, etc.
Thank you fo r helping us at that critical moment.
- Спасибо за то, что вы помогли нам в решающий момент.
• verbs / predicative word groups of blame and reproach; accuse; blame; be hold responsible for,
hold responsible for, be accountable for, be guilty about / of, be sorry about / for; charge with,
criticize for; regret, scold for; etc. and their opposites; excuse for, forgive for, pardon for, etc.
Не was sorry fo r arriving late.
= Он сожалел о том, что поздно приехал.
34 English Grammar Practice

• verbs of punishment; discipline for, fine for, penalize for, punish for, rebuke for, reprimand for, etc.
He was fined fo r parking on the pavement.
= Его оштрафовали за парковку на тротуаре.
• verbs of reward; admire, approve of, commend fo r / on, praise for; etc.
I cannot approve of his leaving school when sixteen.
= Я не могу одобрить то, что он бросил школу в шестнадцать лет.
Perfect gerunds in these cases emphasise the gap of time between the actions of the finite verb and
the gerund. Compare:
I regret saving that.
- Я сожалею, что сказала это.
Не bitterly regretted ever having mentioned it.
= Он горько сожалел, что когда-то упомянул это.
Щ Structurally, gerund objects can be
• simple — expressed by single gerunds.
Did you talk about painting?
• phrasal — expressed by gerunds in phrases.
Did you talk about painting a picture of mv cousin?
• complex — expressed by predicative constructions with gerunds.
Did you talk about his painting a picture o f mv cousin?

GERUNDS AS DIRECT OBJECTS


f f l Direct objects expressed by gerunds follow
• monotransitive verbs.
adore deserve hate postpone resent
appreciate detest imagine practise resist
avoid dread (dis)like prefer risk
celebrate enjoy mention recall suggest
consider face mind recollect understand
delay fancy miss remember want, etc.
deny forgive need require
I don't mind vour coming late.
= He возражаю против того, чтобы ты поздно пришел.
• the predicative word group be worth. Compare:

The film is worth seeing, [object]


= Фильм стоит посмотреть.
It is worth (while) seeing the film, [subject]
= Посмотреть этот фильм - стоит.
• expressions can (not) bear, can (not) stand.
Who could stand being laughed at?
= Кто может терпеть, когда над ним смеются?
The Gerund as an Object 35
f f l After be worth, deserve, need, require and want [= need] gerunds are active in form, but passive
in meaning.
The essay was not worth reading.
= Эссе не стоило читать.
The room needs redecorating.
= Комнате требуется ремонт.
The plants want watering daily.
= Растения нуждаются в ежедневном поливе.
Ш Gerund objects can be introduced by IT + adjective. They are found after the verbs: believe,
consider, find, hold, judge, presume, reckon, think, etc.
They thought it natural helping each other.
= Они считали естественным помогать друг другу.
I fin d it strange his coming home on time.
= Я нахожу его возвращение домой в назначенное время странным.

GERUNDS AS PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS


Gerunds used as prepositional objects follow
• monotransitive verbs and phrasal verbs.

agree to confess to insist on persist in


approve of consist in learn of put off
boast of count on look forward to rely on
complain about / o f depend on think about / o f speak about / of
concentrate on hear of object to succeed in, etc.
We are looking forward to going on this exciting trio.
= Мы предвкушаем то, как мы отправимся в эту увлекательную поездку.
ditransitive verbs.
accuse o f blame fo r prevent from stop from
assist in help in punish fo r suspect of
congratulate on praise fo r sentence fo r thank for, etc.
You can not accuse him o f beina lazy - he is just relaxing.
= Нельзя обвинять его в том, что он ленится - он просто отдыхает.
predicative adjectives / participles II.
be accustomed to be certain of be ignorant of be responsible for
be afraid of be clever at be indignant at be sorry about
be aware of be engaged in be interested in be sure of
be busy in be fond o f be keen on be surprised at
be capable of be good at be (dis)pleased at be tired of
be conscious of be guilty of be proud of be used to, etc.
Have you ever been keen on doing any sport?
= Ты когда-нибудь увлекался каким-либо видом спорта?
36 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds. Point out syntactic
complexes with gerunds.

A.
1. We'll have to practise throwing the ball into the basket.
2. When I find something new on the menu, I just can't resist trying it.
3. I don't like being asked about my private life.
4. Many visitors to Britain aren't used to driving on the left.
5. She insisted on Tom's telling us all about United's win.
6. Do you fancy going out for a meal?
7. I can't face getting up at five tomorrow.
8. I've succeeded in getting hold of the CD I wanted.
9. I couldn't deny both of them having made a reasonable excuse.
10. The most difficult thing in life is choosing.
11. There's no improving on nature.
12. The runners didn't mind the rain. They just kept on running.
13. He was aware of Jack's watching him attentively.
14. The carrying out of these plans depends on the documents being signed in time.
15. I couldn't help staying in a hotel when on a business trip.
16. I was irritated with him having been put in an awkward position.
17. I think they've promoted Tom, but he didn't mention having been promoted when we talked.
B.
1. The only person worth envying is the person who doesn't envy.
2. Love does not consist in gazing at each other, but in looking together in the same direction.
3. Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.
4. It is impossible to imagine Goethe or Beethoven being good at billiards or golf.
5. Don't put off being happy until some future date.
6. Good manners sometimes means simply putting up with other people's bad manners.
7. Stupidity is not a sin, the victim can't help being stupid.
8. How far you go in life depends on your being tender with the young, compassionate
with the aged, and tolerant of the weak and the strong — because someday you will
have been all of these.
9. If you succeed in judging yourself, you're truly a wise man.
10. Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep.
11. A conclusion is the place where you got tired of thinking.
12. Living in California adds ten years to a man's life. And those extra ten years I'd like to
spend in New York.
13. Nobody objects to a woman being a good writer or sculptor or scientist if at the same
time she manages to be a good wife, a good mother, good-looking, good-tempered and
well-dressed.
14. Live in the present, and make it so beautiful that it will be worth remembering.
The Gerund as an Object 37

Complete the sentences using the gerunds given as direct and prepositional objects.

1. 1remember her complain to Joe. a) sitting


2. The box was stoutly made and resisted b) opening
3. 1intend it tomorrow. c) hearing
4. Would vou mind over here? d) being (2)
5. Now 1 had resolved, if possible, to avoid alone with any of these e) doing
men, these strangers. f) calling
6. She was afraid of Miller in the crowd. g) drinking
7. He was fond of : "The superstition of todav is the science of yesterday." h) missing
8. Thank you for i) dealing
9. 1assure you 1am quite capable of with the matter. i) saying
10. 1am sick and tired of , tea without milk.
11. Surely that prevents the dav from ordinary.

Open the brackets using gerunds as objects.


_ J
1. 1enjoy (go) to her parties. But 1dislike (take) there by my boyfriend.
2. 1haven't finished correcting my composition. It still needs (brush up).
3. Sue admitted to (tell) a lie. And she didn't mind (reprimand) for it.
4. We insist on (do) the work right now.
5. The customers insist on the work (do) at once.
6. The incident isn't worth (mention).
7. 1am used to (remind) by my mother that life is great and 1should keep smiling.
8. They accused me of (mislead) them.
9. He confessed to (forget) that he was to come on Friday.
10. Ted couldn't imagine (abuse) anyone, or (abuse) by anyone.
11. He wasn't used to (ignore).
12. They suspected the inspector of (get) some more evidence.
13. He considers (buy) a used car.
14. 1remember (punish) once by my elder brother for cheating.
15. He is very secretive. He avoids (ask) any personal questions or (ask) any even by his
closest friends.
16. My boss hates (push) into doing things.
17. 1must congratulate you on (pass) your exam.

Use the appropriate form of the gerund. Insert prepositions where necessary.

A.
1. You can't blame m e _________________-(try)
2. I'm so rry________________ . (complain)
3. He's fo n d ________________ .(sail)
4. We're keen _ — • (ride)
5. I was afraid __ _ you. (disturb)
6. I'm worried _ _ the train, (miss)
7. I'm surprised you in. (find)
8. Thank y o u __ me this book, (give)
9. You are very quick . (understand)
10. She b e lie v e s ______ __ herd, (work)
11. Excuse m e _______ you. (bother)
12. She insisted______ the bill, (pay)
13 . After a long time we eventually succeeded ___ - a (find)
14 . I've been thinking________________ for a new job. (look)
15 . His parents didn't approve his out so late, (stay)

B.

1. I wonder what prevented him _______ (come) to the party.


2. I'm getting hungry. I'm looking forward ________(have) dinner.
3. I've always dreamed_______________ (live) on a small island in the Pacific.
4. The cold water didn't stop her _ ________(have) a swim.
5. Have you ever been accused___ (commit) a crime?
6. We have decided _______ _ (buy) a new саг. (2)
7. She's tired______________ (work)for the company.
8.
I hate_______________ (be) iii and_______________ (stay) in bed.
9. I'm not used _ (receive) Christm as presents.
10 . I rem em ber (go) to the British M useum once.
11 . I'm looking fo rw ard __ _______ (work) with you.
12 . Jane, your nose wants _ _________ (blow).
(iearn) it before and _ (try) tc
13 . We all suspected him
conceal it from us.
(unpack) the books and _ (put)
14 . They were all b u sy ___
them on the shelves,
(see) Rome and London, Paris and Athens.
15 . Now I can boast
(work out)
16 . Newton, the famous scientist, was sometimes engaged
difficult problems.

'm not interested (hear) your excuses.


She's very good (listen) to what people say.
She fives on her own but she relies (the neighbours, help) her.
I expect he's very disappointed___ (lose) his job.
I think you should apologize (not te/IJ me the truth.
I warned th em _______ (rent) that apartment.
They plan ________ (expand) the company.
She was afraid „ (travel) by air.
"That child needs (take) care of," said Eliza.
The Gerund as an Object 39
10. I was aw are_________________(plunge) into a network of fresh difficulties.
11. I had not asked for advice, I was quite capable _________ (advise)myself.
12. He felt that his life was w orth_________________(take) care of.
13. Ann was such a friendly, pretty child, few people could resist_____________ (talk) to her.
14. The newborn baby had dark curly hair. "Fa n cy _________________ (she, have) hair. I
thought they were born bald," I said.
15. I don't lik e _________________ (wear) a black tie to movies. I e n jo y ________________
(see) my movies when I eat popcorn.
16. He was proud of her and her fame and proud (see) with her.
17. He never spoke________________ (reprimand) for it.

Paraphrase the following sentences using gerunds as objects according to the model.
Insert prepositions where necessary.

Model: Do you have to travel in your job? — Does your job involve... ? ->
Does your job involve travelling?
1. He can swim very well. — He is good....
2. Tom said 'Let's have fish for dinner'. — Tom suggested ... .
3. I don't want to go out this evening. — I don't fancy....
4. Are you sorry you didn't take the job? — Do you regret... ?
5. It's not a good idea to travel during the rush-hour. — It's better to avoid....
6. Could you turn the radio down please? — Would you mind...?
7. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn't have a license. — The driver of the
car admitted ....
8. The teacher said to the boy 'You didn't pay attention to what I said.' — The teacher
accused the boy ... .
9. Margaret said to you 'I'm sorry I didn't phone you earlier.' — Margaret apologized ... .
10. I'd visit the museum if I were you. The museum is worth ....
11. I said to Jack 'Don't stay at the hotel near the airport.' — I warned Jack ....
12. Tom said to Ann 'I'll drive you to the station. I insist.' — Tom insisted ....
13. George said to you "It was nice of you to help me. Thanks very much." — George thanked
m e....
14. The writer said that he had never dreamed his book would be so successful. — The
writer confessed....

Supply any suitable gerund in a suitable form.

1. Our neighbours are very considerate. They avoid___________________ a lot of noise.


2. Just im agine in a country where it is always warm and sunny!
3. Our front gate is falling to pieces. It really w ants__________________ .
4. The police questioned me at some length and I didn't enjoy__________________ .
5. What does the job involve? — It involves___________________the engine apart.
40 English Grammar Practice

6. I missed an interesting programme on TV last night. I really regret__________________ it.


7. Look at the state of those windows! They really need___________________!

Complete the second half of the sentence with gerunds and prepositions if necessary.
Add the name of a person in your class for whom you think this might be true. It
doesn't have to be serious!

1. ____________enjoys____________ (waste) time.


2. ____________hates____________ (watch) football matches.
3. ____________is interested____________ (learn) languages.
4. ____________likes____________ (sit) in the sun a n d ____________ (listen) to pop music.
5. ____________soon gets tired _____________(do) the same things.
6. ____________is go od____________ (organize) parties.
7. ____________loves____________ (argue) a n d _____________ (discuss) things.
8. ____________is fond ____________ (collect) things.
9. ____________is used ____________ (walk) everywhere. She enjoys it.
10. ____________doesn't approve_____________ (smoke).
11. ____________dislikes____________ (save) money.
12. ____________dread____________ (be) alone in a big house at night.
13. ____________can't stand (watch) romantic films.
14. ____________is thinking_____________(become) a rock star.

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. They were very keen about winning the bet.


2. She forgot promising to call and kept them waiting.
3. I can understand him not inviting John.
4. I don't remember having mentioned that they had moved to another flat.
5. I object against interfering in my work.
6. Excuse me for my calling you at this hour.
7. They blamed him for being missed such an opportunity.
8. I can't bear of people smoking.
9. His wife was sitting up in her deck chair, engaged about opening her white parasol.
10. He was always full of apologies for being so slow in recognizing who was there.
11. Standing still means running backwards.
12. I should have thought that yours living alone there has given you a lot of opportunities.
13. I am used eating salads and drinking juices.
The Gerund as an Object 41

Ex. 46 Translate into English the parts in brackets using gerunds and gerund complexes
as objects and complex objects (direct or prepositional). Insert prepositions where
necessary.

1. Excuse m e __ (что я вошел, не постучав).


2. Do you mind (если они тоже придут)?
3. She denied (что обещала что-либо подобное).
4. We hope he will succeed _______ (найти своё место в жизни).
5. I'm considering________ , (поехать на Гавайи).
6. I'm looking forw ard____ (снова встретиться со
своими друзьями).
7. I understand perfectly__ (что ты хочешь уйти).
8. I insist (чтобы Мэри и Кейт провели каникулы в Канаде).
9. I'm really ashamed _ ___________________ (что так давно вам не писал).
10 . Hecouldn'tgetused (чтобы его называл и дедушкой).
11 . Matthew admitted (что обещал помочь мне).
12 . Why do you avoid__ (называть вещи своими именами).
13. They were proud___ (что первые выдвинули эту теорию).
14. We counted_______ (что застанем его на месте).
15. I can't recall (чтобы меня с ним когда-нибудь знакомили).
16. She was quite unconscious (что пришла в
неудачный момент).

Complete the following sentences using gerunds as objects and gerund complexes as
complex objects.

A. DIRECT OBJECTS B. PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS


1. 1suggest... . 1. They were capable ....
2. You would not mind .... 2. He succeeded ....
3. His watch needed .... 3. 1was aware ... .
4. 1appreciate ... . 4. He never thought.....
5. The proverb is worth ... . 5. The boy is very clever ..
6. Everyone enjoyed.... 6. Does anyone o b je ct....
7. They denied.... 7. 1am not used ....
8. He never m entioned.... 8. He was quick ....
9. Just im agine.... 9. Did he confess ... ?
10. 1find it strange .... 10. Why do you persist... ?
11. She avoids.... 11. 1found them engaged .,
42 English Grammar Practice

( Э Т Я Translate into English.

1. Я подумываю о том, чтобы съездить в Швейцарию.


2. Я не привыкла, чтобы со мной так обращались.
3. Все настаивали на том, что проект должен быть финансирован комитетом.
4. Она избегала высказывать своё мнение.
5. Я недовольна, что ты опять сделала эту ошибку.
6. За ним нужно присматривать.
7. Я прекрасно могу управлять своей машиной.
8. Он рискует потерять деньги, если откроет это совместное предприятие.
9. Я устала слушать его советы.
10. Нас больше всего удивило, что ребёнок так хорошо помнил все эти события.
11. Забудьте об этом: не стоит из-за этого так огорчаться.
12. Когда дети вернулись из школы, я была занята приготовлением обеда.
13. Он был очень огорчен, что не нашел ее дома.
14. Я рассчитываю на то, что факс отправят сейчас же.
15. Сэм предложил прокатиться за город.
16. Отец не одобрял, что Фрэнк встречается с Мэри.
17. Замок был испорчен, но ей удалось его открыть.
18. Нет смысла пытаться объяснить ему всё. Он не понимает шуток.
19. Я помню, что он однажды был в Москве.
20. Его обвинили в краже автомобиля.
21. Не могу понять, как люди могут здесь загорать.
22. Дети с нетерпением ждали, когда они пойдут в цирк.
23. Мне не нравится, что ей приходится всё повторять.
24. Ничто и никто не помешает ему сделать всё так, как он хочет.
25. Все сердечно поздравляли пилота с установлением нового рекорда.

Write a letter to your friend about a frightening experience you had using gerunds in
the function of an object.

Model: DearAi,
I had the most frightening experience o f my life yesterday. Ann suggested
going out...
The Gerund as an Object 43

THE GERUND AS AN ATTRIBUTE


There is no duty we so much underrate as the duty of being happy.
Robert Louis Stevenson

A fishing rod is a stick with a hook at one end and a fool at the other.
Sam uel Johnson

Gerunds can function as attributes. They can be placed either before or after the modified nouns.
Ш When gerunds are used as postmodifiers, they are preceded by prepositions. The choice of a
preposition depends on the combinability of the modified word. For guidance study the following.

У art, chance, custom, duty, effort, fear, feeling, gift, habit, hope, idea, importance,
intention, manner, means, method, necessity, pleasure, point, possibility, problem, OF
right, risk, sense, sign, sound, tragedy, trouble, way, etc.
У apology, excuse, explanation, grounds, instruction, remedy, plan, preparation,
reason, rules, etc.
FOR
У difficulty, experience, harm, interest, skill, etc. IN
У astonishment, disappointment, surprise, etc. AT
У precaution, warning, etc. AGAINST
У confession, objection, etc. TO
She has a sense o f having lost something important.
= У нее такое чувство, словно она потеряла что-то важное.

Щ Any form of the gerund can be used as a postmodifier.


We'd better take precautions aaainst getting wet.
The spy had a feeling o f beina watched.
There is a possibility of her having arrived already.
She showed no disappointment at having been left all alone.
Ш Non-perfect active gerunds can be used as premodifiers. They show a person's occupation or
what an object is intended for.
a reading room = a room fo r reading = читальный зал
a sleeping bag = a bag fo r sleeping = спальный мешок
a swimming pool = a pool fo r swimming = плавательный бассейн
a writing table = a table fo r writing = письменный стол
walking shoes = shoes fo r walking - прогулочные туфли
Ш Structurally, gerund attributes can be
• simple: I hate the sound o f drilling.
• phrasal: Humour is a wav o f saving something serious.
• complex: Just think o f the tragedy o f our teaching children not to doubt.
44 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds. Point out syntactic
complexes with gerunds.

A.
1. He finds no use in sunbathing for hours.
2. He had a feeling of being watched.
3. They're talking about building a new swimming pool.
4. Julie expressed horror at the very thought of going out into the cold.
5. What is the reason for your being dissatisfied?
6. The doctor left three different medicines with instructions for giving them.
7. The fishing rods are put away in favour of hunting boots.
8. She gave no sign of having been informed of their arrival.
9. I hadn't any fear of having said too much.
10. He pointed out the way of avoiding complications.
11. Banning smoking in restaurants may help people avoid the risk of falling ill.
12. There's no point in buying an expensive computer unless you plan to use it a lot.
13. Julia couldn't help feeling the warmth of the reception.
14. He denied the message having been sent by post.
15. What did you apologize to the reading teacher for?
16. There's no denying that walking is the cheapest method of travelling.
17. They started clapping to show their appreciation of the acting.
18. Meeting new people is one benefit of taking evening classes.

B.
1. Diplomacy is the art of knowing what not to say.
2. We feel free when we escape — even if it is from the frying pan to the fire.
3. The most terrible poverty is loneliness and the feeling of being unloved.
4. Blessed are they who have the gift o f making friends.
5. Little minds are incapable of feeling the pleasure of forgiving their enemies.
6. My way of joking is to tell the truth. It is the funniest joke in the world.
7. Painting is just another way of keeping a diary.
8. The only reason for being a professional writer is that you can't help writing.
9. Acting is not being emotional, but being able to express emotion.
10. Anyone who takes himself too seriously always runs the risk of looking ridiculous.
11. I am scared or angry at the thought of a human brain being controlled remotely.
12. The disadvantage of being rich is that you have to live with rich people.
13. Concern for someone else is a good remedy for taking the mind off one's own troubles.
14. If you want peace, stop fighting. If you want peace of mind, stop fighting with yourthoughts.
15. We never live; we are always in the expectation of living.
16. Acting is merely the art of keeping a large group of people from coughing.
The Gerund as an Object 45

Ex. 51 Complete the sentences with the gerund in the function of an attribute and a suitable
noun.

Model: A place where you can fill your petrol tank i s ... . ->
A place where you can fill your petrol tank is a filling station.
1 A special room where you can wait is a ________________________ .
2 A pill which helps you to sleep is a ________________________ .
3. A glove which boxers wear is a ________________________ .
4. Oil you can cook with ______________________ .
5. A pool where you can swim is a ___________________ _ _ .
6. The hours you spend at work are called________________________ .

Ex. 52 Complete the sentences using gerunds from the right column.

1. The only way of to the dance was on our bicycles.


2 . They talked and laughed and shouted, and there was the clatter of a) eating
knives and forks, and strange sounds o f___________. b) meeting
3. Philip had few friends. His habit o f___________ isolated him. c) getting

“O
4. He could not bear the thought o f ___________ her attention. reading
5. There were cries o f ___________ from a dozen voices and they e) going
moved toward her. f) greeting
6 . Frank could never tell lies without embarrassment, and he was
scarlet when he finished his explanation for n o t___________us.

Ex. 53 Paraphrase the following sentences using gerunds as attributes. Make use of the
suggested nouns with prepositions.

Model: He doesn't intend to tour the country on foot, (intention of) ->
He has no intention o f touring the country on foot.
1. I don't hope to get tickets for the train, (no hope of)
2. They don't find it reasonable to change their plans for the summer, (no reason for)
3. I'm not experienced in climbing the mountains, (no experience in)
4. He doesn't find it useful to sunbathe for hours, (no use in)
5. She doesn't find it possible to refuse their offer to spend a fortnight at the sea. (no
possibility of)
6. He was disappointed that we hadn't accepted his invitation to go fishing, (to show
disappointment at)
7. She was very skilful when she gathered mushrooms, (to demonstrate an unusual skill in)
8. I don't think it important to spend so much time discussing the route of the trip. ( to see
no importance of)
46 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 54 Paraphrase the sentences using gerunds as attributes according to the model.

Model: I missed my chance. I refused to meet Ken.


I missed my chance o f meeting Ken.
1. He rejected a very promising offer. Do you know the reason?
2. Mr. Fink gave false evidence in the court. Will he be put the blame on?
3. Richard and Marylin were a young married couple, they wanted to buy their own house
or an apartment. But there was no such possibility at that stage of their life.
4. They kept saving to put more money down. That was their plan.
5. They were looking at houses in different areas to find the house they cared for. That was
their purpose.
6. Soon they had some experience. They visited the Real estate agency, talked to agents.
7. They went to the bank to get a loan. The loan officer let them know the ways to do it.
8. They had to make payments every month. That was the requirement of the bank.

Ex. 55 | Complete the sentences with one of the nouns from the right column.

1. There is a __ of entering university this year.


2. Do you know the for his being late? a) hours
3. Dick has the of giving up his addictions. b) procedure
4. What is the of his working late at night? c) reason
5. There is a __of going on business to Manchester d) purpose
as soon as possible. e) possibility
6. Working _ in different companies are varied. f) chance
7. The suspect attempted to use the of g) ability
justifying himself. h) necessity
8. The of hearing the case in the court started. 1

Ex. 56 Open the brackets using gerunds as attributes. Add prepositions if necessary.

1. This was Daphne's only chance. (to tell) them of her college life.
2. She had the local habit _____ (to place) the word "eh" at the end of her
remarks, questions and answers.
3. "I don't see the u se ______________ (to read) the same thing over and over again,"
said Philip.
4. His mother would not like the idea __ (to eat) fruit unwashed.
5. "It seems to me an awfully selfish way (to look) at things," said Philip.
6. That's no reason_________________(to give up).
7. Miss Brodie was greatly taken aback and suffered greatly from a sense
(to betray).
8. And then someone else entered the room and expressed his surprise _
(to find) Griffiths there.
The Gerund as an Object 47
9. She was on the point________________ (to obtain) permission to go for walks alone.
10. His heart sank at the thought________________ (to go) out into the bleak darkness.
11 . Avoiding the use of perfect gerund is quite common if there is no fear_____________
(to misunderstand).

Complete the following sentences using gerunds as attributes. Use prepositions


where necessary.

1. Is there any hope ...? 10. Do you have any objections... ?


2. What are your grounds ...? 11. At the party 1had the pleasure ....
3. As he approached he gave no sign .... 12. He displayed no interest....
4. He got into the h a b it.... 13. You should have seen her surprise ....
5. I've no doubt she can change her way .... 14. I've got no experience ....
6. 1don't like the idea .... 15. We took precautions ....
7. It was very kind of you to have taken the trouble .... 16. What is the most effective method ...?
8. 1can't make out the reason .... 17. There is no harm ....
9. He is well known for his s k ill.... 18. 1can see no sense ....

Ex. 58 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. She has a nasty habit of guessing, and the trouble is, she is often right.
2. Her father had an irritating way in taking it for granted that she knew everything.
3. He hates the very thought of being cleaned his room.
4. I can't bear the thought of the children staying there alone.
5. She feels the need of pouring out her heart.
6. Derek had the gift of being talking as if no other person was in the room.
7. She didn't give up the idea of somehow confirming the information.
8. We have enough difficulty at paying the rent as it is!
9. There is no danger of his telling our secret to friends. He has no friends.
10. The police issued a warning of speeding.
11. They went into town with the intention to visiting the library.

Translate the following phrases using gerunds as attributes. Make up sentences with

■ these phrases.

1. мысль о том, чтобы научиться;


2. чувство, что уже видел;
3. мысль о том, что он допустил ошибку;
4. никаких признаков повреждения;
5. боязнь подвести друзей;
6. честь быть приглашенным;
7. возражения против того, чтобы поднимать этот вопрос;
48 English Grammar Practice

8. возможность продвижения по службе;


9. преимущество, что знал язык лучше других;
10. признание того, что был неправ.

Ex. 60 Translate the sentences using gerunds.

1. Его опыт вождения машины пригодится ему в будущей работе.


2. Он никак не мог свыкнуться с мыслью, что ему придется пробыть там еще полгода.
3. В такое время года есть только одна возможность добраться туда — это самолетом.
4. Представьте себе их удивление, когда они узнали, что он получил премию за свой
проект.
5. Он пытался найти удобный предлог, чтобы уйти пораньше.
6. Он был счастлив при мысли о том, что скоро опять увидит своих друзей.
7. После завтрака я объявила о своем намерении пойти на прогулку.
8. Есть ли какая-нибудь надежда застать их дома сейчас?
9. Какие у вас основания разговаривать с нами таким тоном?
10. Мне редко представляется случай повидать их всех вместе.
11. Метод обучения мистера Броклхерста отбивал у детей всякую инициативу и
желание учиться.
12. Я не могу не восхищаться работами этого художника. С нетерпением жду его новых
работ!
13. Изучение иностранного языка — трудная, но интересная работа.
14. Самое приятное занятие — это выбирать и дарить подарки.
15. Она никогда не уставала говорить о своих детях. Она так гордилась ими!
16. Я не помню, чтобы он когда-либо обращался ко мне с подобной просьбой.
17. Вы не возражаете, если я поработаю сегодня в вашем кабинете?
18. Истинная причина столь поспешного возвращения миссис Чивли в Лондон
заключалась в ее личной заинтересованности в том, чтобы сэр Роберт снял свой
доклад в парламенте. Она понимала, что только страх быть разоблаченным может
заставить его согласиться на это.
The Gerund as an Object 49

Read about your star sign. Insert the missing prepositions. Define the functions of
the gerunds used in this horoscope. Add some information about your star sign using
gerunds in the functions you know.

AQUARIUS PISCES ARIES


January 21 — February 19 February 20 — March 20 March 21 — April 20
You enjoy being independent You love dancing and you are You hate following a routine.
and like saying what you think. fond writing poetry and making You enjoy playing energetic
You have difficulty accepting music. You are not very good sports and you like taking part in
other people's opinions. You like organizing. You dislike planning. races. You don't mind taking
belonging to clubs and talking to You enjoy helping people, but risks. You don't worry
people. You have original ideas and you try to avoid taking hurting the feelings of others.
are good inventing. responsibility.
CAPRICORN TAURUS
December 22 — January 20 April 21 — May 21
You are capable working very You prefer doing quiet things,
hard. You dislike people being like painting and listening to
untidy. You can't stand wasting music. You avoid doing things
time on unnecessary things. You like that are energetic. You don't
organizing and you don't mind being mind accepting routines and

T У ft
alone. You eniov reading. rules.
SAGGITARIUS GEMINI
November 23 — December 21 May 22 — June 21
Being free is important to you. You are quick picking up
You hate being forced into a new ideas and are better
routine. You are capable doing mental work than manual

m fa §f
putting a lot of enthusiasm into work. You are easily bored
your interests. You like walking, doing the same things. You
riding and doing outdoor sports. enjoy discussing things with
people.
SCORPIO CANCER
October 24 — November 22 June 22 — July 23
You sometimes have difficulty You like looking after and
controlling your temper. You are protecting people. Collecting is

£I V *
a good detective. You love often a hobby. You love
finding out answers and solving swim m ing and all water sports.
w w
puzzles. You like active sports
such as boxing, karate and
water sports.
LIBRA VIRGO LEO
September 24 — October 23 August 24 — September 23 July 24 — August 23
You are good being diplomatic. You are not keen taking the You usually succeed getting
You hate quarreling. You prefer lead. But you always do things what you want. You are fond
quiet activities, such as sunbathing, that need doing. Making things is a playing games and you enjoy
painting, writing and reading. favourite activity. You like taking risks. You are good
paying attention to detail. organizing. You often insist
doing what you want. You like
acting.
50 English Grammar Practice

THE GERUND AS AN ADVERBIAL


We can only team to love by loving.
Iris Murdoch

Accept your past without regretting it;


handle your present with confidence;
face your future without fearing it.
Anonym ous

Single gerunds, gerunds in phrases or predicative constructions can be used as adverbials of

1. attendant circumstances 3. purpose 6. concession


2. manner 4. condition 7. time.
5. reason
Gerund adverbials always follow prepositions or prepositional phrases.

- NDIT Ь
ШШт case ж
г- tithoLч.
but fa

1. Gerund adverbials of attendant circumstances are found after BESIDES, INSTEAD OF and
WITHOUT. Non-perfect gerunds are used in this function.
Besides being clever, you have to be industrious.
= Нужно быть не только умным, но и трудолюбивым.
Now I can walk to work instead o f aoina bv car.
- Теперь я могу ходить на работу пешком, а не ездить на машине.
The Gerund as an Adverbial 51
She read the book without beina noticed.
= Она читала книгу, и ее никто не замечал.

2. Gerund adverbials of manner depend on BY, IN and WITHOUT. Mainly non-perfect gerunds are
used in this function.
We will succeed bv joining our effort.
= Мы добьемся успеха, объединив наши усилия,.

She spent the evening in packing.


= Она провела вечер, пакуя вещи.

Не lav without moving, which frightened me.


= Он лежал неподвижно, что меня испугало.

3. Gerund adverbials of purpose occur with the preposition FOR. Non-perfect gerunds are used in
this function.
He did it for encouraging his students.
- Он сделал это для того, чтобы поощрить своих студентов.

I came to ту teacher for beina given advice and guidance.


= Я пришел к учителю для того, чтобы получить советы и рекомендации.

4. Gerund adverbials of condition are preceded by BUT FOR, IN CASE OF and WITHOUT. Any form of
the gerund can be used in this function.
But for his joining us. we would have never managed the job.
- Если бы он к нам не присоединился, мы бы никогда не справились с работой.

In case o f following his advice, you will make a speedy recovery.


= Если вы последуете его совету, вы быстро выздоровеете.

Without working, you can not achieve any results.


= He работая, вы не сможете достичь каких-либо результатов.

5. Gerund adverbials of reason follow BECAUSE OF, FOR, FOR FEAR OF, FROM, ON ACCOUNT OF,
OWING TO, THROUGH. Any form of the gerund can be used in this function.

He became a good dancer through practicing every day.


= Он стал хорошим танцором, ежедневно практикуясь.

We are all wiser now for having been through that experience.
= Мы все теперь мудрее, поскольку уже это пережили.

She is running a fever because o f having been caught in the rain.


= У нее жар, поскольку она попала под дождь.
52 English Grammar Practice

Owing to beina called to see a patient. I can't stay with you.


= Поскольку меня вызвали к пациенту, я не смогу остаться с вами.

6. Gerund adverbials of concession require DESPITE or IN SPITE OF. Any form of the gerund can be
used in this function.
Despite beina a star, he is very approachable.
= Несмотря на то, что он звезда, он человек доступный.

In spite of beina laughed at. he will go fishing in this pond.


= Несмотря на то, что над ним смеются, он все равно ловит рыбу в этом
пруду.

In soite of having lived in London for many years, he loved rural life.
= Даже прожив в Лондоне много лет, он любил сельскую жизнь.

In soite of having been trained as a cook, he can not make soup.


= Несмотря на то, что он получил образование повара, он не умеет сварить суп.

7. Gerund adverbials of time are introduced by IN, AT, BEFORE, AFTER, ON, UPON and SINCE.
The prepositions IN and AT show simultaneity, they are followed by non-perfect gerunds.
I n / At checking this report, he found several errors.
= Проверяя этот доклад, он нашел несколько ошибок.

The actions of non-perfect gerunds introduced by BEFORE follow the actions of the finite verbs.
Get your CV ready before aoolvina for a job.
= Подготовь резюме перед подачей заявления о приеме на работу.
The Gerund as an Adverbial 53

The non-perfect gerund after the prepositions ON, UPON, AFTER and SINCE can express an action
that precedes the action of the finite verb.
On / Upon returning home, you will be able to finish the book.
= По возвращении домой ты сможешь закончить книгу.

Sin ce/A fter winning the prize, he gained recognition.


= После того как он выиграл приз, он получил признание.

The perfect gerund after these prepositions emphasises the gap of time between the action of the
finite verb and the action of the gerund. Compare:
After reaching the end o f the street, he unfolded the map.
- Дойдя до конца улицы, он развернул карту.

After having reached the Pole, the explorers could not go any further.
= Когда исследователи достигли полюса, они не могли двигаться дальше.

Ш Study the following to compare the use of prepositions with gerund adverbials of different types.

PREPOSITION ADVERBIAL OF EXAMPLE


1. reason 1. / can not write for havina broken an arm.
= Я не могу писать из-за того, что сломал руку.
FOR
2. purpose 2. The vet has come here for heloina the doa.
= Ветеринар пришел сюда для того, чтобы помочь собаке.

1. time 1. We were seasick in crossina the channel.


= Мы страдали от морской болезни, пересекая пролив.
IN
2. manner 2. Malcolm spent a few davs in readina her letters.
= Мальком провел несколько дней, читая ее письма.
1. manner 1. Не does evervthina without makina a sliahtest effort.
= Он все делает без малейшего усилия.

2. condition 2. 1 will foraet evervthina 1know without oractisina.


WITHOUT
- Я позабуду все, что знаю, если не буду практиковаться.

3. attendant 3. Nellv left without exolainina anvthina.


circumstances - Нелли уехала и ничего не объяснила.
54 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Ex. 62 Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds.

A.
1. Instead of working out at the gym the girls decided to go out and have some cake.
2. She made an apple pie for presenting it at the cooking contest.
3. Despite the child's moving all the time the photographer took good pictures.
4. Joshua spent the whole day in thinking about his beloved.
5. After watching a movie, we decided to have a walk in the park.
6. Tom left without finishing his dinner.
7. Because of Hugh's playing computer games all the time his eyesight got worse.
8. In checking the test Professor McMillan found 5 mistakes.
9. Besides reading in his spare time, he also enjoyed jogging.
10 . It is your task to get across the river without being seen.
11 . But for your coming, I would feel lonely.
B.
1. Don't cook a hare before catching him.
2. You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs.
3. Gardens are not made by sitting in the shade.
4. Instead of eating at home, we went to a restaurant.
5. I was once thrown out of a mental hospital for depressing the other patients.
6. Television is created for appearing on — not for looking at.
7. In spite of the play being very popular I wasn't impressed. It was rather boring.
8. After being turned down by numerous publishers, he had decided to write for posterity.
9. Enjoy your own life without comparing it with that of another.
10 . There are three rules for writing the novel. Alas, no one knows what they are.
11 . Learning is finding out what you already know.
12 . An orator is a good man who is skilled in speaking.
13. When real people fall down in life, they get right back up and keep on walking.
14. Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing.

Ex. 63 Paraphrase the following sentences according to the model. Use prepositions of the
adverbial of time: in, at, on (upon), after, before, since. Use predicative constructions
if necessary.

Model: After we bought the book we left the shop. ->


After buying the book we left the shop.
After Peter bought the book we left the shop. ->
After Peter's buying the book we left the shop.
1. With confidence, you have won even before you start.
2. While we are doing things we learn.
The Gerund as an Adverbial 55
3. Directors shook hands and we got down to business.
4. After he broke our engagement I have nothing to do with him.
5. We haven't heard from him since he left for Madrid.
6. When Rose arrived at the music-hall she heard a great deal of noise made by the
audience.
7. While talking of the past events, he never mentioned that he was married.
8. When the child entered the room, his parents happily smiled at him.
9. Don't say that it has been a fine day — wait until it is night.

Translate the sentences into English using gerunds as adverbials of time.

1. Он подождал полминуты, прежде чем ответить.


2. Позавтракав, он вернулся в свою комнату.
3. Выйдя из дома, он встретил своего школьного товарища.
4. Читая эту книгу, он нашел много интересных выражений.
5. Услышав о приезде Елены, я решила ее навестить.
6. Она сменила две работы с тех пор, как окончила учёбу.
7. Получив письмо от брата, он поехал к нему первым поездом.
8. Переписывая текст, она пропустила некоторые слова.
9. Услышав радостную новость, девушка не могла удержаться, чтобы не расплакаться.
10. После двухчасового чтения он положил книгу на колени и начал что-то писать.

Transform the sentences so as to use gerunds as adverbials of manner, attendant


circumstances or condition. Add prepositions by, in, without, but for, in case of.

Model: She ran five miles, she didn't stop. -> She ran five miles without stopping.

1. He translated the article, he didn't use a dictionary.


2. It's nice to go on holiday if you don't have to worry about money.
3. You do a lot of reading, this way you can improve your English.
4. If you drive dangerously, you put people's lives at risk.
5. She got married; nobody knew about it.
6. George took more exercise and so lost weight.
7. If he hadn't noticed his friend in the crowd, they wouldn't have met.
8. He climbed through the window; nobody saw him.
9. You can't help someone get up a hill if you don't get closer to the top yourself.
10. You create your opportunities when you ask for them.
11. If he were not often late, we would be able to count on him.
12. Drink nothing if you don't see it; sign nothing if you haven't read it.
56 English Grammar Practice

Complete the following review of the opera 'The Queen of Spades' using gerunds as
adverbials of reason. Then write a review of your favourite performance using gerunds
as adverbials of reason introduced by prepositions because of, fo r fear of, for, from,
owing to, through, on account of. Tell your friend about this performance.

Model: Before the performance she repeated the words again and again for fear... (toforget
them). She repeated the words again and again for fear o f forgetting them.
Thorold Dickenson succeeded in writing a very good script through... (to change the story a lot of times).
Though Yvonne Mitchel caused a sensation for ... (to do well at the rehearsal), she didn't feel like
coming onto the stage for fear o f ... (to laugh at).
But now we know that Miss Mitchel became a leading singer owing to ... (to sing the part of Lisa in
"The Queen of Spades" successfully).
The performance was a great success because of... (Anton Walbrookto play his part of Herman wonderfully).
The actors were given a standing ovation f o r ... (to make a deep impression on the public).

Ex. 67 Translate the fragments in brackets into English using gerunds as adverbials of
concession, attendant circumstances or purpose. State the function of the gerunds.

1. You should take regular exercise (вместо того, чтобы сидеть перед телевизором) all day.
2. Не died poor, (несмотря на то, что он тяжело работал) all his life.
3. Can't we even laugh properly (и не создавать) trouble?
4. The story was changed (для постановки) at the theatre.
5. (Кроме того, что она работала врачом), she had an excellent background in literature.
6. (Несмотря на то, что я учу французский) for three years, I still find it difficult to speak.
7. The actor used his jokes (для того, чтобы развеселить) the audience.
8. A bore is a man who deprives you of solitude (и не составляет вам компании).

Match the two halves of each sentence. State the functions of gerunds.

HOW TO STUDY EFFICIENTLY


1. Begin by ... a) making plans you can't possibly keep,
2. Be realistic: you will be upset in case of... b) jumping up to fetch things every five minutes,
3. Find a quiet place where you can work c) studying.
without... d) marking each topic on your list as you
4. If possible, use it only for... complete it.
5. Check you have everything you need before... e) making a list of what you have to do.
6. This means you won't waste time by... f) being interrupted,
7. Encourage yourself by... g) starting work.

Write 5 sentences describing your way of making efficient packing before a long holiday.
Use as many gerund adverbials as possible. Share your ideas with your friend. Will you
take his / her method as advisory?
The Gerund as an Adverbial 57

Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds in different functions.

1. Upon looking at this planet any visitor from outer space would say 'I want to see the
manager'.
2. The cloak-room serves for leaving the students' hats and coats there.
3. The humorist makes fun of himself, but in doing so, he identifies himself with people.
4. The spectators clapped and cheered for having been deeply impressed by the play.
5. Owing to her having acted inspiringly the play was a great success.
6. One does not blame an epoch; one congratulates oneself on not having belonged to it.
7. For any popular play you can't get tickets without having booked them in advance.
8. Setting a good example for children takes all the fun out of middle age.
9. Tact is the art of making a point without making an enemy.
10. Physics cannot be held responsible for people falling in love.
11. Arithmetic is being able to count up to twenty without taking off your shoes.
12. If you can't sleep, get up and do something instead of lying there and worrying.
13. You begin saving the world by saving one man at a time.
14. The worst thing for me is being required to have fun.

Paraphrase the following sentences according to the model

Model: She laughed but she did not reply. -> She laughed without replying.

A. using gerunds as adverbials.


1. The younger man hesitated before he answered.
2. He went on and did not pay any attention to her interruption.
3. She bowed her head but she did not speak.
4. You will get nothing from him if you reproach him all the time.
5. Brian kept silent for fear that he might be misunderstood.
6. She was not only a talented professional violinist; she had a second career as a
musicologist.
7. She escaped danger as she listened to intuition.
8. Harry tried not to smile. He thought two of his ribs might already havecracked from
this.
9. He got into terrible trouble for he climbed the roof of the school kitchens.

B. using gerund predicative constructions as adverbials.


1. When he returned she went immediately into the dining-room.
2. His friends considered him very practical though he was so young.
3. The quietness of the house was broken when the children drove their toy cars on the floor.
4. Barbara felt much better after the doctor gave her two tablets of paracetamol.
5. My house had been robbed, I installed the burglar alarm system.
6. The children were not allowed to leave the house unless their parents gavepermission.
58 English Grammar Practice

7. It was her first performance and she worried a great deal.


8. He hired her even though she had never sung on stage.
9. He invited Jill to the concert so that they could spend at least two hours together.
10. Since Mrs Reed arrived at their place, the girls have kept on calling her Auntie Ann
Joyce.

C. using gerunds and gerund predicative constructions as adverbials.


1. Philip was tired because he had talked too much.
2. After he examined the patient, he said it was simply a case of nerve strain.
3. You suggested that Shankari should take part in the contest; you spoilt everything!
4. He wasn't reprimanded; the manager gave him a rise instead.
5. When she entered the room, Alec Warner addressed her without preliminaries.
6. He came into the room very angry and didn't even greet us.
7. Andrew feels all right now. He was operated on a month ago.
8. Even though the headmaster was busy, the secretary promised to us to make an
appointment with him.
9. While she was writing the test, she made too many mistakes.
10. If he were not so bad-tempered, his wife would not have left him so soon after the
marriage.

Complete the sentences using gerunds as adverbials.

1. His outlook has broadened after________________________ .


2. In she missed a line.
3. She took far too much upon herself b y _________________________.
4. On ________________________ she suddenly felt her nerves were at breaking point.
5. You will have to take my words on faith before _______ .
6. He was so much irritated that on _________________________ he banged down the
receiver without ________________________ .
7. In the geological party struck upon a new oil deposit.
8. I don't want to raise false hopes b y ________________________ .
9. He could tell the funniest joke w ith o u t_________________________ .
10. In spite o f ________________________ the sportsman pulled through to the finish.
11. Eventually Selvyn couldn't laugh for ____________ and again, he couldn't cough for

12. But f o r ________________________the play would not have enjoyed such popularity.
13. Besides ________________________, she was also a wonderful mother.
14. The matter cannot be so easily dismissed w ith o u t________________________ .
15. She was afraid to say anything to them for fear o f ________________________ .
The Gerund as an Adverbial 59

Some of these sentences with gerunds as adverbials contain errors. Find and correct
them.

1. The overture is played 1for introducing an opera.


2. in 2buving a programme, she gave it to Mrs. Burlow, and looked about her brightly.
3. You should fill up with petrol before 2having_ Starting a car.
4. Fewer people got ill last year through 2vaccinating against the disease.
5. It's rude to borrow people's things Without 2not 3asking for permission.
6. xOn account of 2hurting his leg, he managed 3to win the race.
7. The actor won't impress you i f not Perform ing his part realistically, true to life.
8. The parents sat quietly for a while xafter 2their Petting rid of the unexpected visitor.
9. You must always thank people Par 2their Paving helped you.
10. 1Desoite of P a vin g had a back operation six months earlier, and 3despite 4me pointing
this out I was given some pretty rough treatment.

Translate the sentences into English using gerunds as adverbials.

1. Я стала много писать, чтобы улучшить орфографию.


2. Он вышел из зала, не дожидаясь окончания спектакля.
3. Увидев приближающийся поезд, мы поспешили на платформу.
4. Просматривая журналы, он натолкнулся на очень интересную статью по экономике
Англии.
5. Помимо того, что он прекрасный актер, он еще и опытный режиссер.
6. Прежде чем писать об этих событиях, он решил посетить те места, где они
происходили.
7. Он выглядел бодрым и веселым как всегда, несмотря на то, что провел бессонную
ночь у постели больного.
8. Она продолжала молчать, так как боялась обидеть его, если расскажет всю
правду.
9. Мы бы до сих пор не решили все эти вопросы, если бы с ним не было так легко
работать.
10. Сидеть на боковых местах в театре неудобно, так как плохо видно сцену.
11. Он чувствовал себя не в своей тарелке, несмотря на то, что друзья предупредили
его заранее о ее визите.
12. С тех пор как я увидел этот фильм, я не перестаю думать о нем.
60 English Grammar Practice

MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE

A. Define the functions of the gerunds used in this letter.

Dear friends,
My hobby is flying. There is no persuading me that there is another thing in the world
which is worth doing. I can't help being surprised when I hear that people are afraid
o f flying. There is no other way o f travelling I prefer. On becoming older I started
thinking o f having my own plane. Instead o f going on different trips I kept on saving
money. Very soon I realized that because o f going nowhere on holidays I deprive
myself o f flying. So I made a decision o f finding a friend who has a plane. Since coming
to this decision I have asked everyone I know but I am still unsuccessful in searching.
So if you know someone with a plane and who wants a friend fo r flying with, please
let me know. I will be looking forward to your answering.

Best regards,

John Enalp

B. Write a paragraph to answer this letter. Please, add information about your hobby
using as many gerunds in different functions as possible.

C. Tell your friend about your hobby.

Щ Translate into Russian and comment on the use of the gerunds.

1. Know your own faults before blaming others for theirs.


2. Besides doing the cooking I look after the garden.
3. It was definitely worth while going on our study trip to England. It was fantastic!
4. She couldn't help wishing that things were somewhat different.
5. One becomes rich by spending oneself.
6. In spite of having lost a fortune, he is still rich.
7. If we aren't capable of being hurt, we aren't capable of feeling joy.
8. Not a day went by without her thinking of them.
9. But for his apologizing, I would still be mad at him.
10. There is no pleasure in having nothing to do; the fun is in having lots to do and not doing it.
11. The trouble with having an open mind is that people will insist on coming along and
trying to put things in it.
12. Speaking without thinking is shooting without aim.
13. I take my wife everywhere, but she keeps finding her way back.
14. I owe my success to having listened respectfully to the very best advice, and then going
away and doing the exact opposite.
15. Being in a ship is like being in a jail, with the chance of being drowned.
The Gerund as an Adverbial 61

Ex. 76 Fill in the correct forms of the gerunds. Insert prepositions if necessary.

1. It's not worth w h ile .............. (pay) a lot of money just to see a film.
2. I apologise................ (not write) to you for so long.
3. His sister-in-law certainly needed................(look) after.
4. I'm so rry ................(misunderstand) what you said.
5. Did you have any problem .................. (find) the house? — No, but I had a lot of difficulty
.............. (get) in.
6. For anyone who is ke e n ..............(ride), there are organized pony trips every afternoon.
7. Michael objected................. (I, stay) until the end of the party.
8. You should go to the optician's. I think your eyes require (test).
9. Mary adm itted................. (her brother, eat) the whole cake.
10. I rem em ber................(he, stay) a week-end with us. He is a pleasant fellow.
11...................(I, be) there and then was good luck.
12. What annoyed me most w a s ................. (he, invite) to the party.
13. I'd never felt anxious..............(fly) until the day when we were caught in an electrical storm.
14. Harry d e n ied ............... (his escape, prganize) by Hermione and Ron.
15. I will never forget the city..............(it, make) deep and lasting impression on me.
16. Thank y o u .............. (not tire) me with enumeration of all the details.
17. A fte r............... (they, spend) a week in the cottage, he decided that he didn't really enjoy
..............(live) in the country and began................. (think) of an excuse ................(sell) the
cottage a n d ................(return) to London.

Ex. 77 Paraphrase the following sentences using gerunds.

1. Stop asking them for help because it's no use.


2. He had been with us for twenty minutes but he didn't say a word.
3. 'Shall we go to the cinema?' David suggested.
4. Although he's got an English name, he is in fact German.
5. I am sorry that I kept them waiting.
6. They didn't want to go for a row — they went for a ride, instead.
7. He has packed a suitcase, he has just finished.
8. He made everything clear to me, he explained every detail.
9. She has a gift which enables her to make complicated things clear and simple.
10. Once in a while take a break and visit yourself, it's worth it.
11. He surely risked — he might have broken his neck when he jumped across the stream.
12. My parents didn't notice me as they were so engaged: they were bedding out the flowers.

Ex. 78 Paraphrase the sentences using gerund predicative constructions.

1. My mother regrets that I left school at 14.


2. Harry heard the sound — the frying pan was put on the stove.
3. I don't mind if my husband lends money to my brothers and sisters.
4. She talked about food and it made him feel hungry.
62 English Grammar Practice

5. They couldn't but be late as their train had been delayed due to the heavy fog.
6. He thought there was no chance that anybody might reach them here.
7. Aunt Petunia was tired that Harry always came back from the barber's looking as though
he hadn't been at all.
8. Congratulations, you have won the prize!
9. There was a possibility that the war would end by the end of the year.
10. I'd just have to put up with the fact that my friends went to another school.
11. The fear that they could take advantage of him never crossed his mind.

Paraphrase the sentences using gerunds or gerund predicative constructions.

1. I don't recall that I met him in London.


2. Where do I find the time so that I could read so many books?
3. The doctor insists that all the children should be vaccinated.
4. It was impossible to escape Dudley's gang, who visited the house every single day.
5. After mum had been cooking the meat for several hours, it turned out to be still tough.
6. In this thick fog she was afraid that she might be knocked down.
7. I taught them to drive, that was my task.
8. You learn a lot about people when they are playing games with you.
9. He decided not to take up square dance and to his wife's greatest regret he gave up the
idea completely.
10. The words just came out; I hadn't planned to say them.
11. He is ambitious and this trait of character is the driving force to success.
12. My brother chews bubble gum all the time which is a very irritating habit.
13. It's easy to get injured in a football match and not to know how it happened.
14. The reason that there are so few female politicians is that it is too much trouble to put
make-up on two faces.

Translate the fragments in brackets into English using gerunds. State their functions.

1. He couldn't remember (как он был) in the car when his parents had died.
2. (После того, как она спросила Гарри) furiously if he knew the man, Aunt Petunia had
rushed them out of the shop (ничего не купив).
3. It was just (бесполезно говорить) the Dursleys that Harry didn't make strange things happen.
4. I decided to acceptthe job (несмотря на то, что была предложена низкая зарплата).
5. (Чувствуя себя больным) Joe decided not to go to work that morning.
6. Brian hasn't shaved (с тех пор, как лег в больницу).
7. I found it strange that Annette denied (что она принимала участие) in the beauty
contest last week.
8. At the sight of a broken doll the girl (расплакалась).
9. What I dream about is (чтобы ты была рядом всегда).
10. The snow (продолжал падать) and the workmen grew tired (стараясь) to keep the
roads clear.
The Gerund as an Adverbial 63
11. I can't see any reason (почему он скрывал правду так долго).
12. Our guests showed little hesitation (принимая) the invitation.
13. (Идти на риск) does not frighten me.
14. He was punished (за то, что его нашли) in the kitchen at night.
15. Once he decides something, (его невозможно отговорить) out of it.
16. (Идя) along the road, I (не могла не думать) of Mr. Rochester's despair (когда
обнаружит) himself abandoned.

Ex. 81 Translate the sentences into English using gerunds.

A.
1. He зная пароль, не стоит пытаться открыть этот файл.
2. Было ясно, что мальчик заслуживает наказания.
3. Я был за то, чтобы ехать в Германию на поезде.
4. Я привыкла рано вставать, так как занятия в университете начинаются в 8.30.
5. Видя, что я подхожу, они перестали разговаривать.
6. Она подумывает о том, чтобы оставить работу и переехать в деревню.
7. Какой самый эффективный путь овладения иностранным языком? — Вы можете
получить хорошие знания, работая над ним регулярно, день за днем.
8. Когда ты прекратишь хвастать, что съездил в Лондон?
9. Кроме того, что он занимается танцами, он еще ходит на тренировки по карате.

B.
10. Дадли не привык, чтобы его игнорировали.
11. Твое пальто нужно почистить щеткой.
12. Самый надежный способ улучшить память — стараться забыть что-то.
13. Я буду признателен, если вы мне поможете перевести эти предложения.
14. Его оштрафовали за то, что он перешел улицу в неположенном месте.
15. Вы должны вовремя возвращать книги в библиотеку без напоминания.
16. Моя спутница поблагодарила меня за то, что я присмотрела за ее багажом.
17. Если бы не его плохое поведение, он бы получил подарок от Деда Мороза.
18. Не могло быть и речи о том, чтобы он получил доступ к документам.
19. Спасибо, что позвонили. Было так приятно поговорить с вами. Не зашли бы вы
как-нибудь до отъезда? С нетерпением жду встречи с вами.

Ex. 82 Complete the following sentences with gerund phrases to make up a story of your
unforgettable summer holidays. Tell the story to your friend, listen to his / hers and
compare the stories. Which one would seem more unbelievable?

Once I was invited to spend my summer holidays... I couldn't help...


My suggestion was ... but... She/he was oblivious of...
I insisted on... After 2 or 3 days of... I w a s...
In spite of... I decided... In the end...
64 English Grammar Practice

THE SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE GERUND, SHORT AND EASY


FUNCTION SENTENCE PATTERN FORM PECULIARITIES

SUBJECT Pattern 1 Pattern 1. Gerund subjects precede predicates.


Studvina lanauaqes is important.
any form
Pattern 2 of the Pattern 2. Gerund subjects are introduced by IT.
ft was no aood crvina. gerund Common predicates are be (of) no use, be no good,
It makes no difference vour havina been there. be useless, be worth (while); make all th e /n o
difference.

Pattern 3 non-perfect Pattern 3. Gerund subjects preceded by NO can be


There is no accountina for her moods. gerunds introduced by THERE.

PREDICATIVE His mistake was attackina Russia in 1812. The gerund predicative is the notional part of a
What 1 hate is beina told what to do. compound nominal predicate. It follows the link
Mv rearet is havina m issed the first niaht. any form verb BE.
Ynur orohlem is havina been sooilt as a child. of the
Swimmina is like flvina in the sea. gerund Gerund predicatives can be introduced by
The wav tn achieve success is bv workina hard. prepositions: e.g. like, by, in, for, etc.
Your failure was in wastina time arauina.
PART OF A The audience could not helo lauahina. Gerunds can form compound verbal modal predicates
COMPOUND 1can not helo beina excited about the news. with the modal expression can not help.
non-perfect
VERBAL
gerunds
MODAL
PREDICATE
PART OF A /1) Karen burst out lauahina. Gerunds follow verbs denoting (1) the beginning
COMPOUND (2) The ladies keot on talkina. of an action: begin, burst out, commence, start; etc.
non-perfect
VERBAL (3) Be auiet! He hasn't finished soeakina. (2) its continuation: carry on, continue, keep (on),
gerunds
ASPECT go on (= continue), etc. (3) and ending: cease, give
PREDICATE up, finish, leave off, quit, stop, etc.

OBJECT We enioved Tom's olavina the auitar a lot. ! Non-perfect gerunds can express prior actions after
1can't recollect ever havina met such a nerson. verbs / predicative word groups of
Thev couldn't bear beina auestioned about that. 1. recollection: recall, recollect, remember, etc. and
He denied the messaae havina ever been sent. their opposites: forget, overlook, disregard, etc.
2. gratitude: appreciate, be grateful / thankful for, be
1. Mason could not rem ember aoina to school glad about, thank for, show gratitude for, etc.
for the first time. 3. blam eand reproach: accuse, biame, be accountable
2. Thank vou for hetoina us at that critical for, be guilty about/of be/hold responsible for, be
moment. sorry about /for, charge with, criticize for, regret,
3 . 1have alwavs rearetted mentioning it. scold for, etc. and their opposites: excuse for,
4. He was fined for oarkina on the oavement. forgive for, pardon for, etc.
4. punishment: discipline for, fine for, penalize for,
5. Parents should always praise the child fo r
trvina. punish for, rebuke for, reprim and for, etc.
5. reward: admire, approve of, commend fo r/o n ,
any form praise for, etc.
COMPARE: of the Perfect gerunds emphasise the gap of time between
1rearet savina that. gerund the action of the finite verb and the gerund.
He bitterly regretted ever havina mentioned it.
1don't m ind vour comina late. Gerund direct objects can follow
Who could stand beina lauahed at? • monotransitive verbs;
The film is worth seeina. • expressions can not bear, can not stand.
The room needs redecoratina. • a predicative word group be worth;
The olants want waterina dailv. After be worth, deserve, need, require and want
1 find it stranae comina home on time. gerunds are active in form, but passive in meaning.
Thev thouaht it natural heldna each other. After believe, consider, find, hold, judge, presume,
reckon, think, etc. objects are introduced by IT.

He insisted on aoina there. Prepositional gerund objects follow


You can not accuse him o f beina la z v . • monotransitive and phrasal verbs;
Have vou ever been keen on doina anv soort? • ditransitive verbs;
• predicative adjective or participle II.
The Syntactic Functions o f the Gerund, Short and Easy 65

ATTRIBUTE We'd better take orecautions aaainst aettina Gerunds used as postmodifiers are preceded by the
wet. prepositions OF, FOR, IN, AT, AGAINST, TO.
The s d v had a fee/ino o f beina watched. any form
There is a aossibilitv o th e r havina arrived of the
alreadv. gerund
She has a sense o f havina lost somethina
imoortant.

a dancing hall = a hall fo r dancing Gerunds as premodifiers show a person's occupation


non-perfect
a dancing teacher = a person teaches dancing or what an object is intended for.
active
a driving suit = a suit fo r driving gerunds

ADVERBIAL Gerund adverbials follow prepositions or


OF prepositional phrases.

attendant Besides beina clever, vou are to be industrious. Gerunds adverbials of attendant circumstances are
circumstances Now 1can walk to work instead ofao ina bv car. found after BESIDES, INSTEAD O F and WITHOUT.
She read the book without beina noticed.

manner We will succeed bv ioinina our effort. non-perfect Gerund adverbials of manner depend on BY, IN and
She. soent the evenina in oackina. gerunds WITHOUT.
Hp lav without movina. which friahtened me.

purpose He did it for encouraaina his students. Gerund adverbials of purpose occur with the
1came to vour for beina aiven auidance and preposition FOR.
advice.

condition But for his leavina. we'd have manaaed the iob. BU T FOR, IN CASE OF and W ITHOUT precede gerund
In case offollow ina mv advice, vou'll make a adverbials of condition.
speedy recovery.
Without workina harder, vou can not aet
results.
reason Hp is a aood dancer throuah nracticina everv Gerund adverbials of reason follow BECAUSE OF,
day. FOR, FOR FEAR OF, FROM, ON ACCOUNT OF, OWING
We’re wiser for havina been throuah that TO and THROUGH
exoerience. any form
I'm ill because o f havina been cauaht in the of the
rain. gerund
Owina to beina called to see a oatient. I'm
leaving.

concession Desaite beina a bia star, he is very Gerund adverbials of concession require IN SPITE OF
approachable. or DESPITE.
In soite o f beina lauahed at. he would dance.
In soite o f havina lived in London for manv
vears. he loved rural life,
in soite o f havina been trained as a cook, he
cannot make soup.

time Gerunds are introduced by A T IN, BEFORE, AFTER,


In / A t checkina this reoort, he found several non-perfect ON, UPON, SINCE.
errors. gerunds IN and AT that show simultaneity.

Write a CV before aoDlvina for a iob. non-perfect Non-perfect gerunds introduced by BEFORE denote
gerunds actions that follow the actions of the finite verbs.

On returnina home, vou'll finish the book. ! After prepositions ON, UPON, AFTER and SINCE,
Since winnina the arize, he's aained recoanition. any form the non-perfect gerund can express an action that
COMPARE: of the precedes the actions of the finite verb.
After travellina to China, he wrote a book. gerund The perfect gerund emphasises the gap of time
After havina travelled for a vear. 1realized how petween its action and the action of the finite verb.
much 1m issed him.
66_______________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice

THE GERUND AND THE INFINITIVE

I stopped blaming myselffor stopping to have another


piece of cheesecake at a cafe.
A form er fitness fanatic

Gerunds and infinitives reveal a lot of similarities as they share some nominal and verbal features.
However, the nominal nature is more noticeable in gerunds, while infinitives have essential verbal
characteristics.

f f l Unlike infinitives, gerunds can be


1. preceded by prepositions when used as (a) prepositional objects, (b) predicatives (c)
attributes and (d) adverbial modifiers.
(a) Malonev won't apologise for being inconsiderate to me.
(b) Your failure was in wasting time.
(c) He lost every hope o f becoming a singer.
(d) After taking the shower. I will be ready to go.

2. modified by possessive pronouns or nouns in the possessive case.


My being so slow made him nervous.
I object to your son's olavina basketball in our driveway.

f f l Certain verbs, predicative word groups and expressions can be followed by gerunds and never by
infinitives. On the other hand, there are verbs, predicative word groups and expressions that take
only infinitives.

GERUNDS FOLLOW INFINITIVES FOLLOW


adore, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, (can) afford, agree, aim, appear,
consider, contemplate, delay, deny, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, care,
detest, dread, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, choose, claim , consent, dare, decide,
fancy, finish, forgive, im agine, involve, decline, dem and, expect, fail,
verbs
keep (on), mention, mind, miss, postpone, happen, hesitate, hope, long, manage,
practise, recall, resent, resist, risk, neglect, offer, plan, prepare, pretend
suggest, etc. , promise, refuse, seem , swear,
threaten, trouble, vote, wait, etc.
accuse of, admit to, agree to , approve
phrasal of, burst out, complain o f / about,
verbs and concentrate on, decide on / against,
verbs depend on, feel like, give up, insist on,
followed by leave off, look forward to, look like, object
prepositions to, persist in, prevent from, put off, think
o f / about, speak o f / about, succeed in,
thank for, etc.
The Gerund and the Infinitive 67

be aware of, be busy in , be capable of, be be delighted, be disappointed, be


clever at, be engaged in, be good at, be eager, be glad, be happy, be pleased,
predicative
guilty of, be fond of, be indignant at, be be sad, be surprised, etc.
word groups
proud of, be (dis)pleased at, be tired of,
be worth (while), etc.
cannot help. can afford, cannot help but, would
expressions cannot stand like, would love, would hate, would
prefer

AN INFINITIVE OR A GERUND?
There are verbs, predicative verb groups, phrasal verbs and expressions that can be followed either
by infinitives or gerunds without significant difference of meaning: attempt, be keen, can not bear,
cease, dread, fear, hate, intend, love, propose, etc.
BUT! Gerunds are more general in meaning, they often express habitual activities.
Infinitives are more specific, bound to particular actions or occasions.
I dread visiting dentists - it is always a nightmare.
= Я боюсь ходить к стоматологам - это всегда кошмар.
Не dreaded to see her after our quarrel.
= Он боялся встретиться с ней после ссоры.

Не can not bear being laughed at.


= Он терпеть не может, когда над ним насмехаются.
Не left; he could not bear to be laughed at like that.
= Он ушел, он не выдержал насмешек.
In the same way, the verbs learn, teach are followed by gerunds when the speaker refers to general
activities: lessons or subjects of study. Talking about getting a particular skill or results of the study,
we use infinitives. Compare:
She teaches dancing and I learnt how to dance waltz from her.
= Она преподает хореографию, и у нее я научился танцевать вальс.

f f l Some verbs, predicative verb groups, phrasal verbs and expressions convey different meanings
depending on the non-finite form that follows them.
GO ON + gerund means 'to continue an activity without stopping' = продолжать.
GO ON + infinitive expresses a change of activity. It means 'to do something after completing
something else'= переходить к, переключаться на, начинать (новое действие). Compare:
Jess went on talking about the premiere fo r at least half an hour;
then she went on to discuss her Sunday shopping.
= Дж есс продолжала говорить о премьере, по крайней мере, два часа,
а затем перешла к обсуждению посещения магазинов в воскресенье.
68 English Grammar Practice

TRY + gerund denotes 'make an experiment: use or test something to see if it is good, suitable'.
TRY + infinitive means 'make an attempt or effort to do something difficult'. Compare:
Tim tried lifting heavy objects to work the muscles.
= Тим попробовал поднимать тяжести, чтобы дать нагрузку мышцам.
I tried to lift the case, but it was too heavy fo r me to carry.
= Я попыталась поднять чемодан, но он был слишком тяжелым для меня.

MEAN + gerund is used in the sense of 'involve' = означать, включать, предполагать.


MEAN + infinitive denotes 'intend' = намереваться, собираться, планировать. Compare:
Teaching young learners does not mean being a child yourself.
= Обучать младших школьников не означает быть самому ребенком.

I mean to teach young learners.


= Я намерен обучать младших школьников.

STOP + gerund means 'to no longer continue to do something' = прекратить, закончить,


больше не делать, предотвратить, воспрепятствовать. It functions as part of a compound
verbal aspect predicate.
STOP + infinitive means 'to end an activity for a short time in order to do something else' =
приостановить, остановиться для того, чтобы. It denotes purpose, intention or aim and
functions as an adverbial modifier of purpose. Compare:
He stopped reading to look at the audience.
= Он прекратил чтение, чтобы посмотреть на аудиторию.

Не stopped to read a notice on one o f the doors.


= Он остановился, чтобы прочесть объявление на дверях

BE USED ТО + gerund means that a person is familiar with something because he / she does it or
experiences it often = привыкат ь/приучаться к чему-либо. Other link verbs can be employed
in this construction: get used to, grow used to, become used to, etc. Tne gerund functions as a
prepositional object.
USED + infinitive describes repeated actions and events in the past or past habits and states
= имел обыкновение / привычку, раньше делал. There is an idea that circumstances have
changed. Syntactically, used + infinitive is employed as part of a compound verbal aspect
predicate. Compare:
I am used to driving British cars: I used to have a Rolls-Royce.
= Я привыкла водить британские машины: у меня раньше был Роллс-ройс.

I've got used to getting up early, though I used to regard it bring.


= Я привыкла рано вставать, хотя раньше я считала это утомительным.
The Gerund and the Infinitive 69
f f l Gerunds after REMEMBER, FORGET, REGRET, and BE SORRY describe actions that precede the
actions of the finite verbs; infinitives denote actions that follow or take place at the same time
with the actions of the finite verbs. Compare:

She will rearet leavina him. We rearet to sav that the match is cancelled.
= Она пожалеет о том, что ушла от него. = Мы с сожалением сообщаем, что матч
отменен.
1remember aoina to London for the first time. 1remembered to switch off the TV.
= Я помню, как ездил в Лондон впервые. = Я не забыл выключить телевизор.

1foraot meetina him. 1foraot to buv some bread.


= Я не помнил, что встречался с ним. = Я забыл купить хлеб.

1am sorry for wakina you up. 1 1am sorry to tell vou he has left forever. = С
- Извините, что разбудил вас. сожалением говорю вам, он уехал навсегда.

f f l After DESERVE, NEED, REQUIRE and WANT (='need' in informal English) active gerunds or passive
infinitives are used when the subject experiences an action. When the subject performs an action,
we use active infinitives. Compare:
The car wants washing / to be washed, but nobody wants to do it.
= Машину нужно вымыть, но никто не хочет это делать.

The f a t needs redecorating / to be redecorated and I need to do it on my own.


= Квартиру необходимо отремонтировать, и мне нужно это сделать самой.

f f l Gerunds after ADVISE, ALLOW, PERMIT, FORBID, RECOMMEND, ENCOURAGE in the active voice
are used if there are no other objects. Infinitives are used when there are two objects or after the
passive voice forms of these verbs. Compare:
They do not allow smoking in public places.
= Курение в общественных местах запрещено.

She does not allow people to smoke here.


= Она не разрешает здесь курить.

The kids are not allowed to stay by themselves.


= Детям не разрешается оставаться без присмотра.

1 In formal English perfect infinitives can also be used to show that the action of the infinitive precedes the action of the
finite verb, e.g. I am so rrv to have woken vou up. [formal English]
70 English Grammar Practice

USEFUL EXAMPLES
► BE AFRAID can be followed by infinitives or gerunds without important difference of meaning.
Still, some researchers believe that it is preferable to use afraid o f+ gerund to talk about fear of
things that happen accidentally and their consequences. Compare:
The kid was afraid to climb trees, he was afraid o f falling.
= Ребенок боялся лазить на деревья, он боялся падения.

► BEGIN, CONTINUE, START can be followed by infinitives or gerunds without important difference
of meaning. However, it is preferable to employ infinitives
(1) to talk about states rather than actions. Compare:

1beaan to feel dizzv. We beaan discussina / to discuss the oroiect.


= Я стал чувствовать головокружение. = Мы начали обсуждать проект.
Не continued to ianore the rules. Не continued aoina / to ao there.
- Он продолжал игнорировать правила. - Он продолжал туда ходить.

(2) when the agent is a lifeless thing. Compare:

The door began to creak. When will you begin recruiting / to recruit?
= Дверь начала скрипеть - Когда вы начнете прием на работу?

(3) after continuous forms of begin and start.


I was beginning to think you would never come.
- я начал думать, что ты никогда не придешь.

► BE INTERESTED + infinitive is used to talk about reactions to things one learns = с интересом
узнать. Either gerunds or infinitives are used to talk about a wish to find out something = быть
заинтересованным, интересоваться.
Compare:
I was interested to learn the details of the trip.
= Я с интересом узнала подробности о поездке.

Не is interested to do / in doing business with us.


= Он заинтересован в том, чтобы вести с нами бизнес.

► LIKE/ DISLIKE + gerund, in British English, is used mostly to talk about enjoyment.
LIKE/ DISLIKE + infinitive is used to talk about choices and habits. Compare:

I like dancing, [more typically GB] = I like to dance, [more typically US]
I like to do the dishes immediately after meals.
The Gerund and the Infinitive ___________________________________________________ 71
► PREFER can be followed by infinitives or gerunds without important difference of meaning. If
we use gerunds, the second one may be introduced by the preposition TO or the phrase RATHER
THAN (more formal). The sentences with infinitives can also be continued by RATHER THAN.

! In negative sentences we use infinitives Compare:


I prefer making mv clothes myself to / rather than buying them at the shops.
= Я предпочитаю шить себе одежду нежели покупать ее в магазинах.

I prefer to walk rather than use a crowded bus.


= Я предпочитаю ходить пешком, чем ехать в переполненном автобусе.

I prefer not to think about it.


= Я предпочитаю не думать об этом.
! WOULD PREFER, WOULD LIKE and WOULD RATHER are always followed by infinitives.

► COUNT ON, RELY ON, LISTEN TO can take (1) objective infinitive constructions, (2) gerunds or (3)
predicative constructions with gerunds.
(1) I'm counting on you to help me.
(2) Few people can count on having a job for life.
(3) We can't count on this warm weather lasting.

For intriguing cases


it is advisable to consult
a good dictionary.
72 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

Ex. 83 Match the captions with the pictures.

1. a) I've stopped eating sweets,


b) I've stopped to eat a chocolate.

2. a) I regretto tell you that all of you have failed the exam
b) I regret telling them that they failed the exam.

3. a) It's so stuffy in here — let's try opening the window,


b) It's so stuffy in here — let'stry to open the window.

4. a) Remember to visit Notre Dame! - ’ *j *

b) Remember visiting Notre Dame forthe first time?

Ex. 84 Read each situation and use the words in brackets to write your sentence with afraid.

Model: The streets are unsafe at night. (I / afraid / go out / alone) ->
I'm afraid to go out alone.
1. I didn't like the look of the food on my plate. (I / afraid / eat / it ) , (I / afraid / make
/ myself ill) .........
2. I don't usually carry my passport with me. (I / afraid / lose / it ) .....................
3. We walked very carefully along the icy path. (We / afraid / fa ll).....................
4. The sea was very rough. (We / afraid/go / sw im m ing).....................
5. I didn't tell Tom that I thought he had behaved foolishly. (I / afraid / hurt / his feelings)

6. In the middle of the film there was a particularly horrifying scene. (We / afraid / look)

7. The glasses were very full, so Ann carried them carefully. (She / afraid / spill / the drinks)
The Gerund and the Infinitive 73

Ex. 85 J Tick the alternative which best fits the meaning of each sentence.

L. A: Has your daughter got a role in that movie?


B: No, I regret to say / saying that she hasn't. In fact, I think now she regrets to leave /
leaving school.
I. A: I'll never forget to dance/ dancing with you, Alicia. It's been a wonderful evening!
B: Oh, Marco! You won't forget to phone/ phoning me tomorrow, will you?
5. A: Do you remember to lock/ locking the back door before we came out this evening?
B: No, I don't. I hope we haven't been burgled!
A: Oh, well. It's a good thing that I remembered to turn on / turning on the burglar
alarm!
I. A: Stop to drive / driving so fast! We've got plenty of time.
B: Sorry! Look, I'll have to stop at this garage to get/getting some petrol, anyway.
>. Tom and I played tennis yesterday. The match lasted for ages; in fact, we went on to play
/playing until it got dark. I won the first two games but Tom went on to win / winning in
the end!
>. A: Sorry, I didn't mean to interrupt / interrupting you! I didn't realise you were still
working.
B: That's okay, I've nearly finished. I've got to have this project ready for tomorrow,
which means to check/checking I haven't made any silly mistakes.
'. A: What's going on?
B: The car's broken down. Dad's trying to start/ starting it.
A: Well, why don't we try to push / pushing it? That often works.

I
Ex. 86 Complete the sentences with gerunds or infinitives of the verbs in brackets. Insert
prepositions where necessary.

1. NEED/W AN T
a) I'm going to the supermarket because I need (buy) some shampoo.
b) Dad's gone to the garage because his car needs (service).
c) "Why is the baby crying?" "I think he w ants (feed)."
2 . BE SORRY
a) I was sorry ....... (hear) about you failing the exam.
b) He said he was so rry (speak) to you so rudely.
3 . FORBID
a) The headmistress has forbidden (answer) telephone calls in class.
b) The headmistress has forbidden children (answer) telephone calls in class.
. HELP
a) Tom helped his m other (get) the dinner ready.
b) When she told me that everybody had made fun of him, I couldn't h e lp (feel) sorry
for him.
74 English Grammar Practice

5. BE SURE
a) You seem very su re (pass) the exam. I hope you are right.
b) I see that he is in a very good shape, he is su re (succeed).
6. LEARN
a) She goes to college twice a week to learn (type).
b) She learnt (to read) German at school, but she learnt (speak) it in Germany.
7. BE INTERESTED
a) I shall be interested (see) how long it lasts.
b) I am interested (work) in Switzerland. Do you know anybody who could help me?

| Complete the sentences putting the verbs into gerunds or infinitives.

1.
Caroline: Would you like 1.... (go out) for a meal tonight?
Sandra: Yes, that would be nice. I just need 2..., (wash) my hair first.
Caroline: Shall we go to Perry's?
Sandra: I'd prefer3.... (go) somewhere else. Don't you rem em ber4.... (send) the food
back last time we went there? It was terrible.
Caroline: Oh yes, I'd forgotten. We decided to sto p 5 .... (go) there, didn't we?
Sandra: Yes, we did. So I've got another suggestion. Sally recommended 6.... (try) that
new French restaurant, Chez Victor. She said it was very good. We'll go there, shall we?
Caroline: OK. That's a good idea.

2.
Dear Ms Walters,
Thank you for your application for the diploma in tourism but I regret7.... (inform) you
that this course is now full. Should you wish to take the course elsewhere, I would advise
you 8.... (apply) to Central College. They started 9.... (run) a course in tourism a year ago
and I would recommend you 10.... (consider) n .... (enrol) on that course rather than 12....
(wait) another year to do a course here. If you would prefer 13.... (wait) for this course,
then I would encourage you 14.... (try)15.... (find) some work related to tourism so that
you can sta rt16.... (acquire) some relevant experience.

Щ Translate the following sentences into English. Use the prompts given.

1. Они позабыли пригласить меня. FORGET


2. Я пытаюсь читать, но меня постоянно отвлекают. TRY
3. Когда увидишь Тома, не забудь передать ему привет. REMEMBER
4. Мы пробовали экономить, но на отпуск все равно денег не хватило. TRY
5. Несмотря на дождь, мы продолжали ждать. GO ON
6. Возможно, Молли пожалела, что так много болтала. REGRET
The Gerund and the Infinitive 75
7. Жильцы этого дома предпочитали не интересоваться чужими делами. PREFER
8. Ребенок хорошо себя вел, он заслуживает похвалы. DESERVE
9. Ремонт наверняка будет стоить больше, чем ты думаешь. CERTAIN
10. Цветы совсем завяли, их требуется полить. REQUIRE
11. Я не разрешаю брать машину. Мне необходимо уехать. PERMIT, NEED
12. Детям запрещено бегать по коридорам в школе. FORBID
13. Встретив Диану, я остановилась поговорить с ней. STOP
14. Извините, что мы опоздали. SORRY
15. Зимой Мистер Гарланд преподает катание на лыжах, а летом — скалолазание. TEACH

Choose between 'USED ТО' + infinitive and 'BE USED TO' + gerund. Sometimes both
variants are possible.

1. I (have)a lot of free time before Istarted working here.


2. S h e ___________ (not have) a car. Now she owns a 2003 Toyota Corolla.
3. The children___________(cook) for themselves when they get home from school.
4. T h is___________(be) an industrial area.
5. It's difficult for Tom to drive in England. H e ____________ (not drive) on theleft.
6. H e _____________ (notenjoy) the Oscar AwardCeremony as much as he does now.
7. I ______________ (have)eggs for breakfast.
8. Caroline (have) a Walkman, now she has an iPod.
9. Th ey___________(listen) to loud noise because they live in the city centre.
10. People from India usually find our food tasteless. Th ey___________(eat) spicy food.
11. Com puters___________(be) very expensive. Now the prices are more reasonable.
12. English has become international. Businessmen___________(speak) English at meetings.
13. M aria__________ (think) that she would never be able to live in New York.
14. Darrin__________ (smoke) cigarettes, but he never smoked cigars.
15. I ___________(earn) a lot of money, but then I lost my job.
16. Twenty years ago p e o p le __________ (not browse) the Internet but now everybody
___________ (surf) around like crazy.
17. The queue in the baker's___________(be) bad but now it's terrible.
18. Su sie ___________(study) night after night for her degree in Economics.
19. When you lived near that shopping centre, y o u ___________(go) there very often?
76 English Grammar Practice

Open the brackets. Work in pairs, ask your friend the following questions. Share the

I most interesting information about your friend with your class.

❖ Who is a famous person you'd really like (meet)?


❖ Have you ever tried (surf)? Would you like to?
❖ Have you ever considered (work) abroad?
❖ What kind of house do you hope (live) in when you are 60?
❖ Is there anything you can't stand (do)?
❖ Have you ever done something you regretted or have you
regretted (not do) something?
❖ Do you mind other people (smoke) next to you in public places?
❖ When was the last time you arranged (meet) someone? What
happened?
❖ What are you thinking of (do) this weekend?

Ex. 91 Complete the text with the verbs in the correct form inserting an infinitive or a gerund.

Liz, Laura and Fiona met on an exchange visit. One night they wanted (1) (dance), so they decided
(2) (go) out and agreed (3) (meet) in the centre. They couldn't afford (4) (go) to
an expensive disco and were hoping (5)______ (find) somewhere cheap. They wanted (6) (dance)
to soul music. An English friend suggested (7)______ (go) to the 'Elektrik' club. Fiona insisted (8)______
(walk) there to save money, but they got lost! Finally, they managed (9)_______ (find) it. Inside, they
avoided (10) (talk) to any suspicious characters. They enjoyed (11) (dance) all night. It was
brilliant. They also met some boys who promised (12) (see) them again. One of the boys offered
(13)______ (give) them a lift home in his car, but Liz suggested (14)_______ (call) a taxi. They didn't mind
(15)______ (share) a taxi because it was safer.

Ex. 92 Complete these sentences with the verbs in brackets in the correct form.

1. Marco asked me (go o u t) with him.


2. Would you mind (h elp ) me to move this desk? It's really heavy.
3. They don't let us (u se ) the school tennis courts during the holidays, which is really
annoying.
4. My teacher expects me (d o ) well in the exams.
5. We hoped (take ) Grandma and Grandpa with us to the zoo, but Grandpa hurt his
leg and, unfortunately, they couldn't join us.
6. We'll start early. I don't want to risk (arrive)..........in the middle of the night.
7. I can't stand (w ait)...........in restaurants before the waiter comes.
8. I forgot (to p u t ) my name on the list for swimming. Remind me (d o ) it
tomorrow, will you?
The Gerund and the Infinitive 77
9. Our study trip to England was fantastic! It was definitely worth (ta k e ) I really
enjoyed (se e ) all the places we'd read about in school. So at the endof the week,
I hated (leave) all the friends I'd made.
10. When my grandparents were at school, their teachers made them (wear) ........ a
uniform. Pupils were made (learn) everything by heart, too.
11. Do you fancy (com e) to my house after school this evening?

Ex. 93 Paraphrase sentences according to the model using either infinitives or gerunds,
choose the words given in the right column.

Model: We've thought about whether we should move house. CONSIDER


We've considered moving house.

1. I'm on page one of'W ar and Peace'. OFFER


2. 'i'm sorry I lost your book, James,' said Tom. KEEP
3. 'It's me who broke the window,1Perla said. SUGGEST
4. I said I wouldn't pay for Fred again. APOLOGISE
5. 'I can give you a lift to the party if you like, Paul!' TELL
6. We did some more work after lunch. HIGH TIME
7. I think you had better go home now. START
8. The boss asks you to retype these letters. REFUSE
9. She interrupts me all the time — it's really annoying. DENY
10. She is really eager to invite all the family to the party. ADMIT
11. The man claimed he was a government official. INSIST
12. 'I did not break your watch, Jane,' Nadia protested. CONTINUE
13. 'Why don't you phone your parents, George?' Alan said. PRETEND
14. 'Please, be home by 11 p.m., Lisa!' her dad said. REQUIRE

Ex. 94 Read the article and find out in what situations men risk developing heart disease.
Complete the gaps using gerunds or infinitives.

HOUSE HUSBANDS' HEART RISK


Most people assume that life in the rat race is bad for your health. But (1) reversing (reverse) the
traditional gender roles is a stressful business, according to the latest research by American scientists.
By (2)... (give)... up their jobs in order (3) ....(become).... house husbands, men risk (4) ....(develop)....
heart attacks or coronary disease much more often.
The key to the problem is that some men became stressed about (5) ....(perform).... a role not
traditionally assigned to them by society. Men who stay at home don't tend (6) ....(have).... the same
levels of support from friends and family as women who do the same. Jack O'Sullivan, of the Father's
Direct group, was quoted as saying: 'Society expects the main caretaker (7) ....(be).... a woman, and
society is structured around that. Daycare is called mother and toddler groups and some men feel
awkward about (8) ....(belong).... to those groups. Professor Gary Cooper said many men tend (9)
....(underestimate).... the task of (10) ....(care).... for a family. He said 'Most men think (11) ....(be)....
78 English Grammar Practice

a house husband involves (12) ....(put on).... a bit of washing, (13) ....(take).... the kids to school and
then (14) ....(put).... their feet up with a cup of coffee. They are crazy. Most rtien are not used to
(15) ....(perform).... a variety of activities simultaneously — the kind of multi-tasking which is second
nature to most women.' Men are reported (16)... (take over).... the main homemaker's role in one in
seven homes, as increasing numbers of women start (17) ....(become).... the main breadwinner. The
study also found that women in high-powered jobs were more likely (18) ....(develop).... heart disease
than those in more junior positions.

What is your opinion on the issue? Would you agree to let your husband take care of the kids when
you are at work / would you rather stay with your children to let your wife go to work?

Ex. 95 Use predicative constructions with gerunds or infinitives supplying prepositions if


necessary. Some of the sentences allow both variants.

1. I would like .... (you, to understand).... me right.


2. I rem em ber.... (he, to sa y ).... something to this effect.
3. We were all fast asleep and did not h e a r.... (she, to co m e).... home.
4. I don't like .... (people, to n a g ).... each other.
5. They very often thought.... (their friends, to work).... in the difficult conditions of Antarctica.
6. They never tho ught.... (the man, to b e ).... such a pleasant companion.
7. He would not allow .... (any changes, to introduce).....
8. I am sure .... (it, to b e ).... a mistake.
9. My friends were very keen .... (I, to w in ).... the bet.
10. I am very anxious .... (they, not to m iss).... this important discussion.
11. The father was opposed .... (anything, to change).... in the house.
12. We stood at the door waiting .... (it, to o p e n ).....
13. There is very little hope .... (she, to recover).... soon.
14. It isn't worth while .... (you, to take u p ).... the matter now; it can wait.
15. It is not necessary .... (we, to look in to ).... the matter; they will take care of it.
16. He is responsible .... (the research work, to com plete).... before the end of the year.
17. May we rely .... (they, to arrange).... everything for our tour?
18. The other day we heard .... (they, to com e).... back after a long voyage.

Ex. 96 Choose between gerunds and infinitives to complete the article.

TOO ANGRY TO (remember)1 THE COMMERCIALS?


According to a new study, (watch)2 violent TV shows makes it difficult (recall)3
brand names or commercial messages. Violence creates anger, and instead o f ________ (hear)4
the commercials, viewers are attem pting (calm)5________ themselves down after violent
scenes. The conclusion:_____ (sponsor)6 violent programs may not be profitable for advertisers.
This conclusion is good news for the parents, teachers, and lawmakers who are struggling
(limit)7 the amount of violence on U.S. television. They had a small victory in 1997, when
The Gerund and the Infinitive 79
lawmakers and the television industry designed a TV ratings system. Unfortunately, Congress did not
ask parents (participate)8 in (create)9 the system, and the industry does not
invite parents_______ (preview)10 shows before it assigns ratings. As a result, parents are still
guessing about the content of the shows their kids watch.
Why are we worrying a bout (reduce)11 television violence? The numbers tell the
story: a typical child will see 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence between the ages of three
and twelve! It's impossible______ (believe)12_____that this input won't affect young children. In fact,
researchers have noted three possible effects o f (view)13 this much violence:
1. Children may become less sensitive to other people's suffering.
2. They may also become fearful o f (interact)14 with other people.
3. They may be more likely______ (behave)15____ in a way that's harmful to others.
Studies show that a huge majority of people want commercial T V (produce)16 more
educational and informational programs. More than 75% believe in (limit)17 the number
of hours of TV that children watch. And the American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend
(permit)18 children (watch)19 TV more than one to two hours per day.
It's h a rd ______ (understand)20 why the entertainment industry resists______ (make)21
changes. Parents, teachers, and doctors are urging the industry (develop)22 clearer
ratings a n d (get rid of)23 violence in children's shows. In addition, violence doesn't seem
(make)24 money for advertisers. Even artists in the industry are warning the industry
(not continue)25 (avoid)26 change.
The industry may choose (not pay)27 attention to the public, but it will not be able
to ignore Congress. Lawmakers w a n t______ (investigate)28_______ the way networks market violent
shows to teenagers. They are also asking the industry (offer)29 violence-free hours, when
no violent content is allowed. Hopefully, parents in the United States will someday feel good about
their children (turn on)30 the family TV.

Ex. 97 Read this student's essay. Find and correct mistakes in the use of gerunds and
infinitives. Tell your friend what you think of TV influence on the young generation.
Write a paragraph on this topic using infinitives and gerunds.

Nadine Jayewardene
English 220
May 30
Violence on TV
I'm tired of hear that violence on T V causes violence at home, in school, and on the streets.
Almost all young people watch TV, but not all of them are involved in committing crimes! In fa ct,
very few people choose acting in violent ways. To watch TV, therefore, is not the cause.
Groups like the American Medical Society should stop to try to tell people what to watch. I f
we long living in a fre e society, it is necessary having freedom of choice. Children need learn
values from their parents. I t should be the parents' responsibility deciding what their child can
or cannot watch. The government and other interest groups should avoid to interfere in these
personal decisions. Lim iting our freedom of choice is not the answer. I f parents teach their
children respecting life, children are sure of watching TV without any negative e ffe cts.
80 English Grammar Practice

A. Work in pairs or groups:


Group A — complete letter 1 using the verbs in brackets in the correct form, supply
prepositions if necessary.
Group В — complete letter 2 using the verbs in brackets in the correct form, supply
prepositions if necessary.

LETTER ONE

bear Aggie,
When I first met Marc we got on really well — and he seemed (1)... (enjoy) my company.
We liked (2)... (do) th e same things and we were both keen (3)... (go) to f ootball together.
He was my best friend at that time, and I dropped my other friends (4)... (spend) more
time with him. He hasn't changed, but I have. I can't bear (5) ... (hear) the same jokes
every time we go out, and I hate (6)... (to have to) watch football on TV all weekend.
I know he'll be upset — but nothing can (7)... (make) me (8)... (change) my mind — I miss
(9) ... (see) my other friends and I'd rather not just (10)... (stay) with him all the time.
I ’ve tried (11)... (tell) him, but I can't — I'm afraid (12)... (hurt) him. What can I do?
Stephanie

LETTER TWO

Фе/м Aggie/,
А з soon as I me/t Stbphanie/, I Mante/d hm ( 1 ) ... (be/) mg be/st (fAle/nd. I didn 't have/ that mang
othe/л (fAtmds - and I мая phase/d ( Я ) ... (have/) some/one/ to do things Mith. Qt/& wm both
inte/Ae/ste/d ( 3 ) ... (d o ) a U the/ same/ things - §lbe/ Matohing (o o tb M . 0 \А pnomis&d ( 4 ) ...
(sappoAt) e/OC/h othe/A - and I Ae/aUg me/ant ( 5 ) ... (be^p) mg promise/.
Ф/iut пом I've/got the/ ohanoe/ ( 6 > ) ... ( move0 abAoad ( 7 ) . . . ( моаЬ ) ( oa an mte/AnationaO oompang,
andl'dAe/aUg kbe/ ( 8 ) . . . (aooe/pt) the/job. 'ЗоЛ Г т ofjAaldSte/phank/ Mon't Ш me/ ( Q ) ... (go)
Mlthou,t ( Ю ) ... (to ge/t) apse/t aboat the/ lde/a. I 'm Ае/аЩ Ье/е/П ( 1 1 ) . . . (tabe/) the/ oppoAtmltg,
though. Q -Iom oan I te/M he/л it's time/ ( oa те/ ( 1 Я ) ... (move/ o n ) ?
Q H oao

B. Work in new pairs, one from Group A and one from Group B.
1. Tell your partner what is in your letter you have just completed.
2. Decide what advice to give the writer of each letter.
The Gerund and the Infinitive 81

Translate the sentences using infinitives or gerunds. The prompts are given.

1. Весна — это когда хочется петь, даже когда обувь в грязи, (feel like)
2. Иногда быть хорошим другом значит быть жестоким, (mean)
3. На прошлой неделе ты упомянул, что привез мне эту книгу. Не забудь принести ее.
(mention, remember)
4. Бесполезно ей говорить о чем-то, она ничего не желает слушать, (use)
5. Родители всегда поощряли его изучать музыку и иностранные языки, (encourage)
6. Сьюзан пришлось переехать в свой новый дом до того, как там закончился ремонт,
(finish)
7. Я с нетерпением жду поступления в университет, но мне очень не нравится то,
что мне придется попрощаться с друзьями из моего родного города, (look forward,
hate)
8. Ему просто пришлось смириться с переездом в другой город, (put up)
9. Большая часть его сведений оказалась точной, (turn out)
10. Я не был достаточно заинтересован в том, чтобы продолжать спор, (interested)
11. Если вы решили сходить в Лондонский зоопарк, мы рекомендуем сначала
прогуляться по парку. Не премините покормить животных, (decide, recommend,
miss)
12. Нет смысла в том, что он решил бросить есть сладости, т.к. он продолжает есть
гамбургеры, (use, make up one's mind, quit, keep)
13. Он не постеснялся использовать такие методы, (hesitate)
14. Он потрудился, чтобы его фотография попала во все газеты, (take the trouble)
15. Хоть она и отрицала свое участие в этой истории, она избегала видеться наедине с
Джоном, (deny, avoid)
16. Все мы склонны откладывать жизнь на потом. Мы все мечтаем о чем-то, вместо
того, чтобы наслаждаться жизнью сейчас, (tend, put off)
82 English Grammar Practice

THE GERUND AND OTHER -ING FORMS


THE GERUND AND THE VERBAL NOUN

Education is not the filling of the pail, but the lighting of a fire.
William Butler Yeats
It's the company, not the cooking, that makes a meal.
Kirby Larson

Ш The verbal noun - unlike the gerund - shows no grammatical verbal features.
1. Verbal nouns have plural forms: comings, goings, holdings, likings, sayings, settings, showings,
sufferings.
Count your blessings.
= Радуйся своим удачам.
When they denote lifeless things, they can combine with numerals or words of quantity.
a painting - two paintings
a building - several buildings
a drawing - a lot o f drawings
2. Verbal nouns take articles.
Your hair needs a good brushing.
The acting was perfect.
3. Verbal nouns can be modified by (a) o/-phrase attributes and (b) adjectival attributes.
(a) The singing o f this choir gave peace to my mind.
(b) I remember the unforgettable sinaina o f this choir and the silence that followed.

Ш The gerund developed from the verbal noun that became verbalized in the course of time.
1. Gerunds have some morphological characteristics of verbs. They show
• voice distinctions.

doing - being done


having done - having been done
• a relative time reference expressed through the category of time correlation.
doing - having done
being done - having been done.
2. Gerunds can be modified by adverbials. Verbal nouns can be modified by attributes. Compare:
Doing exercises regularly was a routine fo r her. [a gerund]
Regular doing o f exercises was a routine fo r her. [a verbal noun]
3. Gerunds of transitive verbs can take direct objects. Compare:
Even at old age he would not give up reading books, fa gerund]
The reading o f the book did him a world o f good, [a verbal noun]
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 83

THE GERUND AND PARTICIPLE I


A life spent making mistakes is more useful than a life spent
in doing nothing.
Bernard Shaw
Being thankful for what you have, you'll end up having more. In
concentrating on what you don't have, you'll never have enough.
My aunt
Though many grammar books describe gerunds and participles I as ing-forms, the difference is vivid.
Unlike participle I, the gerund has nominal characteristics.
• Gerunds can be preceded by prepositions. Compare:
They would spend hours in playing chess, [a gerund]
They would spend hours playing chess, [a participle]
• Gerunds can be modified by nouns in the possessive case or possessive pronouns. Compare:
On his coming home, everybody sat down to dinner, [a gerund]
Coming home, he saw everybody at dinner, [a participle]
• Gerunds can function as subjects and objects.
Worrying never did anyone any good, [a subject]
= Волнение никогда никому не помогало.

Some people seem to eniov worrying, [an object]


= Кажется, что некоторым нравится волноваться.

GERUNDS AND PARTICIPLES AS ATTRIBUTES


Gerund attributes show a person's occupation or what an object is intended for.
Participle attributes denote the actions of the modified nouns. Compare:

Gerunds Participles

a reading room - a room for reading reading public = people who read
a sleeping bag = a bag for sleeping a sleeping dog = a dog that sleeps
walking shoes = shoes for walking walking shoes - shoes that walk ©
working method = a method of working working mothers = mothers who work
a writing table = a table for writing a writing table = a table that writes ©
a swimming pool = a pool where we swim a swimming pool = a pool that swims ©

Still, there are cases that can be interpreted in either way.


a sewing machine = a machine that is used fo r sewing OR a machine that sews
a hunting dog = a dog fo r hunting OR a dog that hunts
a cooking stove = a stove is used fo r cooking OR a stove that cooks
The context makes the meaning clear. Compare:
We have a new dancing teacher, [a gerund]
= У нас новый учитель танцев.
84 English Grammar Practice

Has anybody seen a dancing teacher of math? [a participle].


= Видел ли кто-нибудь танцующего учителя математики?
Unlike participles, gerunds as postmodifiers are preceded by prepositions. Compare:
The boy playing the trumpet is my brother, [a participle]
My hope o f plavina in the final never came true, [a gerund]

G ERU N D S AN D PA RTICIPLES AS PREDICATIVES

A gerund predicative expresses the action of the subject, its state or identity. A participle predicative
is close to an adjective in this function, it gives the subject a qualitative assessment. Compare:
The only remedy fo r such a headache is aoina to bed, [a gerund]
= Единственное средство от такой головной боли - это сон.

This remark is hurting, [a participle]


= Это обидное замечание.

G ERU N D S AN D PA RTICIPLES A S A D V ERBIA LS


f f l Gerund adverbials always take prepositions.
Participle adverbials can either be used independently or preceded by conjunctions.
Compare:
Gerunds Participles
On arrivinq home, he phoned us. (When) Arrivinq home, he phoned us.
He left without savina a word He left hummina a tune.

f f l Some adverbials may be confusing to a Russian-speaking learner of English.


In Russian a negative phrase 'HE + деепричастие' shows either condition (1) or reason (2).
In English W ITHOUT+ gerund describes conditions. To give reasons, we employ NOT + participle.
Compare:

He зная английского, он не сможет работать в Лондоне.


(1) - If he doesn't know English, he won't be able to work in London.
= Without knowing English he won't be able to work in London.
(2) - Because he doesn't know English, he couldn't work in London.
- Not knowing English he won't be able to work in London.
Both gerunds and participles can be used as adverbials of manner and attendant circumstances.
He lav without / not moving, which frightened me. [an adverbial of manner]
= Он лежал неподвижно, что меня испугало.

Nellv left without /n o t saving aood-bve. [an adverbial of attendant circumstances]


= Нелли ушла, не попрощавшись.
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 85

PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

State whether the -ing form is a participle or a gerund. Specify their syntactic functions.

A.
1. I cut myself opening a tin.
2. In spite of feeling tired, we decided to go out.
3. I asked her to leave for being exhausted.
4. We use the red button for turning the machine off.
5. Having finished the work, he seemed more pleased with himself than usual.
6. One should always play fairly when one has the winning cards.
7. A friend is the one walking in when the rest of the world walks out.
8. A week later I returned from school and found the house empty, my mother being at
the shops.
9. Father said that we were not to let the fact of his not having had a real holiday for three
years stand in our way.

B.
10. Feeling tired is no excuse for being rude to your children. Feeling tired, I decided to go to
bed.
11. I fell asleep reading a dull book and dreamed I kept on reading, so I awoke from sheer
boredom.
12. Be nice to people at going your way up because you'll need them while going your way
down.
13. Being short-sighted, she wears contact lenses. Being short-sighted can cause problems.
14. Reaching the top of the hill took all my strength. Reaching the top of the hill, we stopped
to admire the view.
15. Upon fastening their seat belts, they prepared to land. Fastening your seat belt is a must
when the plane takes off and lands.
16. The truest mark of being born with great qualities is being born without envy.
17. Looking back upon that time was like remembering something that had happened long
ago, when he was much younger. Looking back upon that time, I thought that all might
have been different had it not been for the interference of my parents.

C.
18. I hate not being able to communicate — it is so frustrating.
19. Though knowing what was there, he took the paper out and walked to the window for
reading it.
20. Most Englishmen are not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills them without leaving
sufficient room for the more important meat course.
21. If we are lucky, we can give in and rest without feeling guilty. We can stop doing and
concentrate on being.
86 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 101 Replace participle 1by a gerund without changing the function.

1. While buying something, use your eyes, not your ears.


2. They simply want to earn their living doing advertisements for Vogue.
3. Though being badly pronounced, the sound could still be identified.
4. "What was your route?" 1asked, wishing to be agreeable.
5. Mr. Hutton splashed along, not caring if he got wet.
6. Being so nervous she cannot bring herself to speak to him.
7. While enjoying the reputation of the author of brilliant short stories, he was also a
talented playwright.
8. Fearing that he might say something inopportune, he preferred to keep silent.
9. Looking his friend straight in the eye, he said that was his only interest in the riding
school.
10. You will do nothing but irritate him if nagging him all the time.

Ex. 102 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. Insert prepositions or conjunctions
where necessary. Use both a participle and a gerund if possible.

1. I regret (not be) a diligent student at university.


2. She left (not say) good-bye to anyone, which was very rude of her.
3. (see) his mother the boy rushed forward with outstretched arms,
4. (spend) two d a y s_____________ (argue) about where to go for their
holidays, they decided. (not go) anywhere.
5. _____________ (find) them in so short a time would have been next to impossible.
6 . They stared at each other, Dan s till_________ . (stand) with his tea cup and Willy
_____________ (stretch) out in the chair.
7. _____________ (ask) whether he would go to the South he answered he hadn't yet made
up his mind,
8. (not read) your letters, I haven't the faintest idea what you're talking
about.
9. When engaged (eat), the brain should be the servant of the stomach.
10 . (recover) the balance he discovered that he had risked
(break) his neck_________ (fall) into the well of the stairs.
11 . "I cannot see what m y __ _______ (divorce) three times has to do with my books,"
she said.
12 . He tempted me to write this story_______ (assure) me that it would be read by
only a few of his colleagues.
13. Your son is well able to take care of himself (ask) favours of anybody.
14. The old miser spent all his time (count) his money and
(think) up new hiding-places. He kept (move) it about because he was
terrified_____________ (rob).
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 87

Paraphrase the following sentences. Insert prepositions or conjunctions where necessary.

1. While John was writing his report, he remembered that he had forgotten to mention
some facts.
2. She felt as if she was giving evidence in court.
3. When the girl entered the room, she glanced a little wonderingly at the faces of the
three men.
4. A door that creaks hangs long.
5. We climbed down the mountain, although it was dangerous.
6. He felt much better after he had been operated on.
7. That I was on the spot was a bit of luck for him.
8. Just before I got into my apartment I was approached by a man who asked me if I was
a doctor.
9. When Rose saw him she stopped reading at once and put the letter awayand even did
not comment in any way upon what she was reading.
10. The whole neighbourhood was so dreary and run-down that hehated the thought that
he would have to live there.
11. Even though I was late, the examiner allowed me to take the exam.
12. Sophie did not feel as if she would go out that day.
13. After Samuel Griffiths had concluded several agreements in Chicago,hewas inclined to
feel very much at ease and on good terms with the world.
14. The only thing that makes life possible is that one does not know what comes next.
15. I have never heard of anyone who stumbled on something while they were sitting
down.
16. My hope still is to leave the world a little bit better because I have been here.

Translate the following sentences. Distinguish between the non-finite forms of the verbs
and state their functions. Pay attention to the expression of negation in the sentence.

1. Not knowing quite how to begin, she started in a roundabout way.


2. Having no money, they decided to stay at home.
3. The boy made it home for not running into more trouble.
4. The cause of your tiredness is an emotional problem. Or you could be depressed without
knowing it.
5. The mother won't feel relaxed without her son sending her a text message telling that
he has arrived safely.
6. Teddy crept gingerly up the stairs, having no wish to disturb his aunt.
7. Closing her eyes, she tried to push the fear away, not understanding why she was so
frightened.
8. Not willing to take "no" for an answer, Norris came up with a plan.
9. Without ever having been told, he knew intuitively that Irina would be closely tied to
the movement.
10. Meredith walked rapidly to the elevator, not giving him a chance to say another word.
88 English Grammar Practice

11. On the doorstep, Harry Potter rolled over inside his blankets without waking up. The
boy slept on, not knowing he was special, not knowing he was famous, not knowing he
would be woken in a few hours' time by Mrs. Dursley's scream as she opened the front
door to put out the milk bottles.

Insert not / without before the -ing form, thus using a participle or a gerund. In some
sentences two variants are possible.

1. She never did a thing ... asking somebody's advice.


2. I left him alo n e ,... wanting to distract him from his work.
3. The door stood ajar, and we entered ... knocking.
4. ... having recognized me, she passed b y ... answering my nod.
5. ... speaking the language, he was questioned through an interpreter.
6. The girl looked innocently about her,... realizing what the joke was.
7. I stood as if petrified, ... believing my eyes.
8. He never signed a p aper... having thoroughly read it through.

Translate the following sentences into English, paying attention to the expression of
negation.

1. He зная ни имени, ни адреса девушки, он боялся, что никогда ее не найдет.


2. Ребенок разбирал новую игрушку, не скрывая своего любопытства.
3. Она никогда не может вымыть посуду, чтобы чего-нибудь не разбить.
4. Его направили в полицейский участок без предъявления каких-либо обвинений.
5. То, что у меня не было друзей, осложнило ситуацию. За меня некому было поручиться.
6. Альпинисты двигались к вершине, не обращая внимания ни на палящее солнце, ни
на снежные лавины.
7. Нельзя купить эту картину, прежде чем она будет выставлена на вернисаже.
8. Не желая привлекать чьего-либо внимания, агент затерялся в толпе.

Read the text. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be
there. If a line is correct, put a tick (V) in the space by the number. If a line has a word which
should not be there, write the word in the space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

ALIEN ENCOUNTER

0 h.e In New Mexico, USA, a police officer called Zamora he was following
1............ a speeding motorist. While his driving among the deserted hills near
2 .... the main town, he heard a sudden roar. Looking it round, he saw a blue
3 .... flame in the sky ahead. He left the road and drove up the hill. Then, when
4 .... having spotted something that looked like an overturned car about 150
5 .... metres off the road, he stopped. Getting him out of the car, he went
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 89

6 .... to investigate. As he came closer, he saw the 'car' was an oval, silvery
7 .... object of four feet. Two small human-like figures, who wearing white
8 .... clothes that looked as like overalls, were moving around near the
9 .... object. Zamora approached them, because intending to offer them
10 .... some help, but the'aliens'did not respond. For looking alarmed, they p
11..... .... jumped into their mysterious vehicle. Zamora then heard a roar of
12 growing up louder and louder. Trembling with fear, the police officer
13 .... turned over and fled. The sighting has never been explained. The US ^
14..... .... Airforce made a statement which suggesting that the UFO may have p j
15..... .... been a test flight. But this seems like improbable, as no man-made r\J
16 .... oval object has ever flown successfully until now.

Г ^ Ж П Т Я State whether the -ing form is a participle, a gerund or a verbal noun.

A.
1. Something tells me that these young men should have a talking to.
2. if possible, give up smoking, at least for a time.
3. Then the clapping grew louder and the singing became more enthusiastic.
4. I saw there wooden cabin with beds, electric light, running water.
5. Alison began singing. While the singing was under way, Teddy sat in a chair near the fire.
6. I found him in exactly the position I had left him, staring still at the foot of the bed.
7. In two or three years with the proper coaching she could be brought up to university
standard.
8. Although the world is full of sufferings, it is full also of the overcoming of it.
B.
1. Anybody watching the comings and goings at the house would have thought it was a hotel!
2. The insistent ringing of the telephone awakened Meredith with a sudden start.
3. Stephanie walked slowly across the campus enjoying the Saturday afternoon luxury of
walking without hurrying.
4. Waiting was all she could do now. But there were times, like this morning, when she
could hardly bear the waiting.
5. Neither spoke for a moment, then he said, "Congratulations again on winning the Oscar
for Best Actress. I did drop you a note in April, I hope you received it." "Yes, thank you,"
Camilla replied, smiling, and then she began telling him about the making of the movie
for which she had won the Oscar.
6. The people around began applauding. The roar of the crowd and the cheering were
deafening.
7. She left off ringing, and, sitting down at the top of the stairs, buried her face in her hands.
8. The evening meal goes under various names: tea, 'high tea', dinner or supper depending
upon its size and also social standing of those eating it.
9. I didn't mind getting old when I was young. It's the being old now that's getting to me.
10. Through spaces of the unfinished house, shirtsleeved figures worked slowly, and sounds
arose — spasmodic knockings, the scraping of metal, the sawing of wood.
90 English Grammar Practice

C.
1. Dave lived there like a rent-paying tenant, his comings and goings being of small concern
to the others.
2. The distraught Jenny, sitting by her sleeping child, was at last made to realize, by its
peaceful breathing, that all danger was over.
3. With a sudden tightening of the muscles he became aware of a figure walking noiselessly
beside him.
4. There was the sound of rocking a chair in the room, and of a woman singing.
5. He cursed himself for having come, and at the same time resolved that, happen what
would, having come, he would carry it through.
6. Having exhausted all the possible combinations of his vocabulary, the sailor quieted
down to hard thinking.
7. The sufferings that fate prepares for us should be borne with patience.
8. There's a pounding on Matthew's door, and Amanda flings the door open, her heart
beating violently.
9. The decision making was on a much more personal level and people were excited about
making exciting programmes.
10. As to his stooping, it was natural when dancing with a small person like myself, so much
shorter than he.

Translate the sentences using verbal nouns of the underlined words. Don't forget to
use articles, of-phrases or plural forms when necessary.

1. Колледжи обеспечивают специализированную подготовку.


2. По моему мнению, декорации были восхитительными.
3. Я очень доволен окружающей местностью.
4. Суть интернета — обмен информацией.
5. Получение виз в эту страну — сложная процедура.
6. Благодаря Фреду у нас больше не было проблем с Финансированием.
7. Лай и вой собаки разбудили меня.
8. У нас есть шанс собраться сегодня.
9. Монотонное тиканье часов напомнило Дине, что у нее осталось мало времени.

Г ^ Ж Ж п н Translate the fragments in brackets as adverbials. Specify their types.

1. (Отправляя тебя) to this school, Henry, I'm making a sacrifice. I can't reallyafford it.
2. The girl hesitated (как будто не знала) what to do.
3. Clare looked at him steadily (перед тем, как ответить).
4. I bumped into a man. (He поднимая глаз) I apologized and proceeded on my way.
5. He had not written to her (с тех пор как уехал).
6. I felt (как дрожали ее руки) when she was putting her coat on.
7. (Когда она засмеялась) she half closed her eyes and a dimple danced on her cheek.
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 91
8. The musicians vanished (а он не увидел) them go.
9. You are guilty (в том, что спровоцировали) that fight.
10. (Вернувшись домой) from school I noticed a small jade statuette on our living-room shelf.
11. He had scarcely ever drunk tea at all (до тех пор, пока не познакомился с) Gwen.
12. I took my temperature and, (обнаружив) it was a hundred point four, went back to bed
again.
13. I showed my boredom (отказываясь) to find any interest in the view.
14. They began to mount the path, Joseph (освещал дорогу).
15. She had many little things to do (кроме того, чтобы сидеть) idly in her house while
waiting to be taken out by her boarder.
16. We strolled back to the camp, (было около) twenty minutes to six.

Ex. I l l Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Бесполезно спрашивать его об этом.


2. Она привыкла вставать рано.
3. Он на секунду поколебался, прежде чем пересечь мост.
4. Он слушал, не прерывая меня, кивая и иногда улыбаясь.
5. Вбежав в прихожую, она начала рассказывать, что с ней произошло.
6. Он двигался очень медленно, как будто плыл.
7. Она воздержалась от упоминания имен своих знакомых.
8. Она без конца поднимала одну и ту же тему.
9. Вы совершенно уверены, что эти слова относятся к моей сестре?
10. Они решили не посылать ему телеграмму.
11. Я не буду тратить свои дни, стараясь продлить их.
12. Так как дверь и окно комнаты были открыты, мы заглянули в нее.
13. Услышав это, он повернулся и вышел, хлопнув дверью.
14. Наиважнейшая польза денег — это экономия времени. Подумайте, сколько
времени вы тратите, если идете пешком, вместо того, чтобы ехать на автобусе, и
если едете на автобусе, вместо того, чтобы взять такси.
15. Будучи занятым, Джек отказался от предложения.
16. Мы рассчитываем, что они вернутся через несколько дней.
17. Как можно уехать из Лондона, не побывав в Национальной Галерее!
18. Я против того, чтобы Боб вел машину.
19. Я буду признателен, если вы мне перезвоните.
20. Кроме того, что он преподавал физику в школе, он прекрасно рисовал.
21. Несмотря на то, что я все хорошо спланировала, многое пошло не так.
22. Она почувствовала, что вся заливается краской.
23. Это не помешало ему обмануть их. Но он был пойман и отправлен в тюрьму за
кражу.
24. Вы не возражаете, если мы останемся здесь на ночь?
25. Она не стала бы так расхваливать эти товары, если бы не получала за это деньги.
92 English Grammar Practice

REVISION AND CONSOLIDATION

| 3 ! Ж * г Я State the functions of the non-finite forms of the verbs in the following sentences.

A.
1. You don't need to win every medal to be successful.
2. Mistakes, obviously, show us what needs improving.
3. Browsing in our local bookshop, I came across this great book on computing skills.
4. Human beings are the only creatures that let their children come back home.
5. Being a woman is a good excuse not to play football.
6. Sometimes the facts in my head get bored and decide to take a walk in my mouth.
Frequently this is a bad thing for them to do.
7. Never look down to test the ground before taking your next step; only he who keeps his
eye fixed on the far horizon will find the right road.
8. Having read the minutes of the meeting, I wrote a report.
9. Having read the minutes of the meeting, I knew what they were talking about.

B.
10. I recommend you to take care of the minutes, for the hours will take care of
themselves.
11. Though having admitted that he had bought the stolen jewellery, he denied having taken
part in the robbery.
12. A perfect method for adding drama to life is to wait until the deadline looms large.
13. The person waiting for something to turn up might just as well start with their shirt
sleeves.
14. You are definitely a deadline surfer: when the deadline arrives, washing every crashed
surfer on shore, the experienced riders like you swim out to catch the next one.
15. The past is finished. There is nothing to be gained by returning to it.
16. The bars are packed with people throwing their lives away; their plans having been
washed away by vodka years ago.
17. Cats regard people to be warm-blooded furniture.
18. Few things in life are more embarrassing than the necessity of having to inform an old
friend that you have just got engaged to his fiancee.
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 93

Ex. 113 Read the following passage, tick the right variant.

(~c Mr. and Mrs. Dursley, of number four, Privet Drive, were proud to say / saving that
they were perfectly normal. They were the last people to involve / to be involved in
anything mysterious, because they just didn't hold with such nonsense. The Dursleys
shuddered to think / after thinking that the Potters may be arriving / arrive in the street.
The Dursleys knew that the Potters had a small son Harry. This boy was another good
reason o f keeping / for keeping the Potters away; they didn't want their own son Dudley
mixing / to have been mixing with a child like Harry.
As Mr. Dursley sat in the usual morning traffic jam, he couldn't help notice / noticing
that there seemed to have been / to be a lot of strangely dressing / dressed people
about. People in cloaks. Mr. Dursley was enraged to see / in seeing that a couple of them
weren't young at all. He also noticed the owls flvina / be flying past in broad daylight.
He hurried up to his office, told his secretary not to disturb t not disturb him, seized his
telephone, and had almost finished to dial / dialing his home number when he changed
his mind. There was no point in worrying / to worry Mrs. Dursley. He found it a lot
harder to have concentrated / to concentrate on drills that he sold that afternoon. In the
evening trying / for trying to pull himself together, he let himself entering / enter the
house. He was still determined of not mentioning / not to mention anything to his wife
Petunia. Even if the Potters were involved, there was no reason for them to come / for
them to have come near him and Mrs. Dursley. How very wrong he was! ^/

Ex. 114 On special occasions, people often make toasts beginning Here's to .... Complete the
toasts below with a suitable non-finite form of the verb. The first is done for you.

Here's to...
a) an old friend — someone who remembers all the secrets of
our youth, but is discreet enough not to mention (not mention)
them.
b) babies — they make our days shorter, nights longer, the p a st...
(forget) and the future worth ... (live) for.
c) happiness — the only thing which is increased by ... (share).
d) my husband — who buys football tickets six months in advance,
but waits until Christmas Eve ... (buy) Christmas presents.
e) my darling wife — since I met you, I have known what it is to love someone, and to
see that love ... (return).
f) my parents — fo r... (spoil) me ever since I was a little baby. Please feel free ... (continue).
g) success — it takes time ... (be) a success, but time is all it takes.
94 English Grammar Practice

h) true love — which we find n o t... (look for) a perfect person, but ...(find) an imperfect
person and ... (not see) their faults.
i) your retirement — and while you're sitting at home with nothing ... (do), think of us all
at work — we're sure ... (do) the same.

Ex. 115 Match the half-sentences to make four grammatically correct sentences in each box.

a) Mayor Bloodstone would like to introduce a new traffic scheme. But not everyone agrees with his plans.

He has p la n s... of introducing a new traffic scheme,


He is likely to have trouble ... about introducing a new traffic scheme,
Not everyone sees the advantages ... to introduce a new traffic scheme,
Many members of the public have doubts ... introducing a new traffic scheme.

b) Ali has decided to continue his studies abroad.

Ali's parents are convinced of the importance ... about finding the right place to study,
His parents are giving Ali the opportunity ... finding the right place to study,
Ali's having a few problems ... of studying abroad,
Ali has to make some difficult decisions ... to study abroad.

c) Herbert is in prison, but he doesn't like life in jail.

He likes the idea ... about escaping,


In fact, he's already made several attempts ... escaping,
He and his cellmates often have arguments ... of escaping,
He'd probably have difficulty ... to escape.

Ex. 116 Choose the verb which completes each sentence correctly. Change the verb patterns
in the right column to make correct sentences with the other verbs, use prepositions
if necessary.

1. We are trying / have decided / are thinking of / had better selling our flat,

2. She didn't feel like / made me / couldn't help / promised not to laugh,

3 .1 object to / happened / confessed to / arranged for you to meet her.

4. Why didn't you dare / were you made / are you threatening / were you resigning?
forced into

5. He enjoys / used / is used / would rather to be a soldier.


6. They stopped / wanted / hoped / let us to go.

7. Did you mind / see him / remind him / manage open the car?
8. He can't afford / is keen / helped me / can't stand learn English.
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 95

In the sentences below, only three of the verbs are grammatically possible. Cross out
the two verbs that are incorrect.

1. It was my father who ... me to ride a motorbike.

a) allowed b) crttempten c) encouraged d) persuaded e)\ preventedI

2. She ... me for causing the accident.

a)accused b) blamed c) condemned d) criticised e) suspected

3. Did th e y . . you go upstairs?

a) ask b) see c) let d) make e) permit

4. Did you ... Frank to make that phone call?

a) advise b) ask c) hear d) re member e) remind

5. We ... travel by bus.

a) daren't b) had better c) need d) regretted e) would rather

6. The authorities ... people from travelling abroad.

a) avoid b) discouraged c) forbid d) prevented e) stopped

7. We ca n 't... everyone to take part.

a) force b) invite c) have d) resist e) tell

8. Ja m e s... talking to her.

a) has forgiven me b) has stopped c) is looking forward d) remembers e) saw me

9. He ... to be left alone.

a) can't bear b)begged c) ordered d) resents e) would like

10. He ... for taking the money.

a) apologises b) suspects c) thanked her d)reproached her e) admits

11. We ... them unloading the van.

a) commanded b) observed c) found d) assisted e) watched

12. The police are ... people to stay at home.

a) recommending b) sure of c) surprised at d) urging e) warning


96 English Grammar Practice

13.Robbie is ... for causing trouble again.

a) guilty b)excused c) made to compensate d) tempted e) punished

14. I ... to ask my parents for more money.

a) suggest b) got used c) meant d) forgot e)chose

1 5 .1... the matter settled.

a) consider b) forbade c) was afraid of d) had e) got

Ex. 118 Paraphrase the following sentences

A. using the words given as prompts.


1. It wasn't my intention to worry you. MEAN
2. Their parents wouldn't allow them to go to the party. LET
3. I don't mind studying during the holidays. OBJECT
4. I would prefer not to go to the concert. RATHER
5. Would you like to come for a cup of tea with me this evening? FANCY
6. Please don't let me forget to post this letter. REMIND
7. I'd like to buy a mountain bike. INTERESTED
8. Though Laura was terrified. She went towards the space ship. DESPITE
9. I wish I could speak Spanish. REGRET
10. Scotland is one possibility for our holiday this year. CONSIDER
11. I don't think you should go out tonight. BETTER
12. I think it's great when I don't have to get up early on holiday! ENJOY / NOT

B. using non-finite forms of the verbs.


1. Literature is the most noble of professions and it is impossible to take me away from
this path.
2. The mission of artists is that they make people appreciate that they are alive.
3. The police officers hadn't seen a UFO before. They stared in astonishment.
4. She was very much disappointed. She had not received any letters.
5. I regret it but I have to say that he's clean forgotten that he had promised me a job.
6. If ostrich meat is cooked in a red wine sauce, it can be delicious.
7. Without emotion, it is unreal to transform darkness into light and apathy into movement.
8. The cat stole a pound of meat and hid in the attic.
9. I have enough money that will last me the rest of my life, unless I buy something.
10. As he was taken from his mother as a child, he's always had difficulty establishing
relationships.
11. The secret of staying young is that one should live honestly, eat slowly, and lie about
their age.
12. Every morning I am woken up by the sun. It streams through my window
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 97
13. She left and did not say a word as if she was offended by all this.
14. Why are you sitting idle? You ought to take the initiative into your hands.
15. He was not at all helpful. More than that, he was a burden to us.

C. using predicative constructions with non-finite forms of the verbs.


1. In a world where there is so much to be done, there must be something that I can do.
2. The tailor is making a new suit for Tom.
3. Catch your people when they are doing something right and allow them to know that
you appreciate it.
4. She sang out of tune. It annoyed me immensely.
5. They think that the criminals are not carrying weapons.
6. We have no objections. They may leave earlier.
7. My knuckles were white, my hair was standing on end, my stomach was heaving, I
gripped the wheel of the skidding car.
8. Roberta insisted that Clyde should marry her for she wanted to give a name to her child.
9. Now, as it was a melodrama, there was, of course, a murder and a burglary scene in the
third act.
10. This woman's face attracted his attention as familiar for he remembered that she had
passed by him several times.
11. She told them to take off their shoes so that their footsteps could not be heard in the
flat below.
12. As long as the God is in charge, I believe everything will work out for the best in the end.
13. It is certain that those who look only to the past or present will miss the future.
14. I stood on the deck; the wind was whipping my hair.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. Sometimes a preposition is required.

1. 'I was lonely at first,' the old man admitted, 'but after a time I got used t o _________
(live) alone and even go t__________(like) it.'
2. I meant_________ (buy) an evening paper but nobody was seen__________(sell) them.
3. Tom: I w ant_____________(catch)the 7 a.m. train tomorrow.
Ann: But that m eans__________(get) up at 6.00; and you're not very good_________
(get) up early, are you?
4. He accepted the cut in salary without complaint as he was afraid__________ (complain).
He was afraid (lose) his job.
5. Next time we g o _________ (house-hunt), remember__________ (ask) the agent for clear
directions. I wasted hours__________(look) for the last house.
6. The hunters expected (be paid) by the foot for the snakes they caught. This
m eant_________ (take) the snakes out of the sack and __________ (measure) them. They
seem ed__________ (expect) m e __________ (do) it; but I wasn't anxious__________ (be)
the first_________ (die).
7. I was just a bout (leave) the office when the phone rang. It was my wife; she
wanted m e __________ (call) at the butcher's on my way home.
98 English Grammar Practice

8. I said, 'It doesn't matter at all,' but he went o n _________ . (apologize) for nearly five
minutes!
9. The lecturer began b y _________ (tell) us where the island was, and went o n __________
(talk) about its history.
10. My father thinks I am not capable__________(earn) my own living, but I m ean_________
(show) him that he is wrong.
11. Tom: I can't get my car_________ (start) on cold mornings.
Jack: Have you tried (fill) the radiator with hot water? That sometimes helps.
12. Did he manage__________(carry) the trunk upstairs? ~
No, he didn't. He isn't strong enough__________(move) it, saying nothing o f_________
(carry) it upstairs.
13. Peter: Wouldn't it be better_________ (ask) Tom (leave) his camera at home?
Jack: It would be no good_________ (ask) Tom __________ (do) that. It would be like
(ask) a w om an_________ (travel) without a handbag.
14. They p e rm it (park) motorcycles here but they won't allow u s _________
(park) cars.
15. Would you children m ind _________ (keep) quiet for a moment? I'm tryin g__________
(fill) in a form. — It's no use__________(ask)_c hildren__________ (keep) quiet. They can't
help__________ (make) a noise.
16. L e t's_________ (g o )___________ (fish) today. What a b o u t___________ (come) with us,
Ann? — No, thanks. I'm very w illin g__________ (cut) sandwiches for you but I've no
intention o f (waste) the afternoon (sit) in a b o a t_________
(watch) you tw o __________(fish).

Ex. 120 Complete the following using gerunds or infinitives. Insert prepositions where
necessary. If possible, make up a detective story, using these phrases at random.

1. There is no .... 16. In spite of the late hour they went on ....
2. There is not much .... 17. They were in a hurry, they could not stop ....
3. ... is out of the question. 18. He was struck by the beauty of the scenery; he
4. ... would have been a mistake. could not stop ....
5. It is no good .... 19. 1am used ....
6. It is very good ... . 20. When a student 1used ... .
7. His duty was ... . 21. 1can't b e a r... .
8. His work was .... 22. They couldn't afford ....
9. There is no reason .... 23. What about your report? Have you finished ... ?
10. There is no need .... 24. On hearing the footsteps he ceased ....
11. Your television set does not need ... . 25. He began ... only when the noise subsided.
12. You needn't... . 26. We never intended ....
13. He was looking for an opportunity .... 27. No matter how often 1tried ....
14. Then the article goes on .... 28. The weather looks like ....
15. It was very nice .... 29. The climate seems ....
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 99

Read the story and decide if the underlined part has an error or not. If yes, correct
the mistake.

s 4
/ f

Deciding the Future

Now Mr. Rochester was becoming angry, and he looked as if he were about losing
control. But I knew I still had the power of calming him. So I took his hand and stroked
it, saving. "I do love you, but there is only one thing for me to be done. I must leave
you. If I live with you like that, I will be your mistress." "Jane, I want you listening to
my story. My father loved money very much and he hated the idea to divide the family
property, so he left it all to my elder brother I had to have married a rich girl. Very soon j
I discovered that my bride's mother was mad and that it ran in the family. We lived for I
four years. She was coarse and stupid, and her madness also made her violent. Well, j
in moments of despair I intended to have been shot myself) but in the end I decided to_ I
bring the mad woman here. Once she nearly burnt me in my bed, and the second time j
she visited you. She must be reminded of her own wedding day at having seen your j
wedding dress. I travelled all over Europe, Jane, at looking for an ideal, for a woman to |
i
have loved. Finally, bitter and disappointed, I returned to Thornfield on a frosty winter s
afternoon. And when my horse slipped and fell on the ice, a little figure appeared and I
insisted to help me. Soon I began depend on you for my happiness."
"Don't talk any more of the past, sir," I said, while wiping a secret tear from my eye. J
"No, Jane, it was stupid of me to be married you like that without explaining. I should
confess everything earlier as I do now. I promise to love you forever." "No, sir, it will be
wicked to do what you want. You can only trust in God and yourself. Live without having
done wrong, and die to hope to go to heaven." "But you have no family being offended
to live with me!" He was beginning sounding desperate. I knew that what he said was
true. However, in my heart I also knew I had the right o f leaving. He seemed be reading ;
my thoughts. Having rushed furiously across the room, he stared fiercely into my eyes. I i
stared firmly back at him. He could have broken me in two with one hand, but he could j
not break my spirit. "Goodbye, my dear master!" I said. "May God protect you!" I
I
(after Charlotte Bronte) ;
100 English Grammar Practice

Ex. 122 Take turns to talk for thirty seconds on the topic on the square. Do not forget to put
the verb in brackets into the correct form.

A job you hope | A country you


A song you keep'
START (have) in five long (visit)
(sing) to yourself?
years time

Something you A TV program Г t Something you Something you


tend (eat) too /"S you try (watch) taught yourself i really should
much each day (do) stop (do)

Something you
always dread
(do)
ek Any household
jobs you can't
stand (do)
Something you |
love (do) on
Saturday
Any sports you
enjoy (watch)
but not (play)
evening

ift i

A job you'd Something you 1 Something


FINISH never consider often forget you really hate
(do) (do) (do)

Ex. 123 Translate the phrases given in brackets using infinitives or participles.

1. He raised up his head


a) (с удивленным видом).
b) (чтобы посмотреть, кто вошел).
c) (и увидел, что кто-то наблюдает за ним).

2. We have many people


a) (которые нам помогают).
b) (которые могут нам помочь).

3. The first party of the goods


a) (посланных) to the fair has arrived.
b) (посылаемых) to the fair is on the way to the port of delivery.
c) (которые будут посланы) to the fair is ready for transportation.

I shivered
a) (при одной мысли об этом).
b) (подумав об этом).
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 101
5. He must be a great authority on the subject
a)(раз он написал)such a book.
b) (проработав) in the field for so many years.

6. He had a wisdom
a) (которая была приобретена) through his experience.
b) (которая может быть приобретена) only through experience.

7. He settled at the new place


a) (и уже не покидал его).
b) (и никто не знал об этом).
c) (надеясь) that it would become his home forever.

8. How many rooms are reserved for the delegates


a) (прибывающих) for the conference?
b) (которые должны прибыть) for the conference?
c) (прибывшими) for the conference?

9. The scientists brought from the expedition some pictures of deep water fishes
a) (невиданных ранее).
b) (чтобы показать их коллегам).

10 . That is one of the greatest discoveries


a) (когда-либо сделанных человеком).
b) (которое помогает) people fight against AIDS.

Ex. 124 Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Когда он пишет письма, он не любит, чтобы его беспокоили.


2. У нас нет надежды увидеться с ним в скором времени.
3. Она отрицала, что была в тот вечер на станции.
4. Прочитав газету, он написал несколько деловых писем.
5. Ожидая, когда официант вернется, Джек разглядывал посетителей.
6. Половина приглашенных на вечеринку людей не пришла.
7. Хозяйка наблюдала, как ее гости упаковывали чемоданы, и видела, что им было
очень жаль уезжать.
8. Она провалила экзамен, несмотря на то, что усердно занималась. Она заслуживает
того, чтобы ее пожалели.
9. Увядшие цветы никто не выкинул, так как давно никого не было дома.
10. Яблоки такие спелые, что их можно уже собирать.
11 . Мой брат, только что получивший степень магистра в Оксфорде, собирается
писать там докторскую диссертацию.
12 . Когда мы были в круизе по Средиземноморью, мы прекрасно проводили время.
13. Мы слышали, что она прекрасно станцевала во вчерашнем спектакле «Щелкунчик».
102 English Grammar Practice

14. Госпожа приказала подать обед.


15. Только что передали, что из зоопарка сбежал лев, и что сейчас он разгуливает в
центре города.
16. Когда говорит сердце, разум считает неприличным возражать.
17. Блюз легко играть, но нелегко чувствовать.
18. Эксперт знает все ответы — если ты случайно задашь правильные вопросы.
19. Рассказывать шутки — настоящее искусство, наилучшие шутки могут быть опасны,
т.к. они до некоторой степени правдивы.
20. Говорят, что Джефри уже полгода путешествует по Европе.
21. Судя по твоему состоянию, тебе надо измерять давление каждый день, не говоря
уже о том, что давно пора проконсультироваться с врачом.

г З Ч П Г Д Translate into English.

1. После того, как капельдинер показала нам наши места, и мы пошли по проходу к
ряду С.
2. Их вдохновенная игра имела оглушительный успех.
3. Комик заставил зрителей кататься по полу от смеха.
4. Несмотря на то, что новое шоу пользовалось успехом у зрителей, отзывы критиков
были плохие.
5. Здравствуйте, я хотел бы заказать два места в бельэтаже на завтрашнюю премьеру.
— Извините, мы не принимаем заказы по телефону.
6. Так как игра актеров была довольно посредственная, мы ушли в антракте.
7. Известно, что этот театр прославился своими творческими постановками.
8. Если билеты заказаны на спектакль, их можно забрать в кассе в любое время не
позднее, чем за полчаса до начала.
9. Когда актеры забывают текст, они полагаются на то, что им поможет суфлер. А если
случится так, что суфлер тоже забудет текст?
10. Зрители, казалось, были совсем скованы.
11. Дублер должен быть способен заменить актера в любую минуту.
12. Поскольку она мечтала стать актрисой, она вступила в любительский драмкружок.
13. Этот душещипательный фильм наверняка будет пользоваться успехом у зрителей.
14. Он предпочитает сидеть впереди, она любит сидеть сзади, а я, пожалуй, сяду в
середине.
15. Как только загорелся свет в антракте, мы вышли в фойе.
The Gerund and Other -ing Forms 103

Ex. 126 Choose the right variant(s).

1. The gerund has the categories of


a) tense c) aspect
b) voice d) time correlation
2. Prior actions or states can be expressed by non-perfect gerunds after verbs of
a) sense perception, motion c) blame and reproach
b) recollection, gratitude d) punishment, reward
3. Prior actions or states can be expressed by non-perfect gerunds after prepositions:
a) at, after, on/upon, since c) in, at, after, before, on/upon, since
b) in, at, after, on/upon, since d) for, in spite of, from
4. Gerunds are active in form but passive in meaning after:
a) be worth c) require, want
b) deserve, need d) excuse, forgive, remember
5. Gerunds can
a) take direct objects c) be modified by adverbs
b) be modified by adjectives
6. Gerunds as part of a compound predicate can function as
a) a predicative c) part of a compound verbalmodal predicate
b) part of a predicative d) part of a compound verbalaspect predicate
7. Non-perfect gerunds can form compound verbal modal predicate with the modal
expression(s):
a) cannot help c) cannot choose but
b ) cannot but
8. The gerund can be used as
a) a direct object c) a prepositional object
b) an indirect object
9. Gerund predicative constructions cannot be used in the function(s) of
a) a complex subject c) complex part of a compound verbal aspect predicate
b) a complex object d) a complex adverbial
10. Any form of the gerund can be used in the function of
a) a subject d) part of a compound verbal aspect predicate
b) an object e) part of a compound verbal modal predicate
c) a predicative f) an attribute
11. The preposition FOR introduces adverbials of
a) purpose c) concession
b) reason d)time
104 English Grammar Practice

12. The preposition WITHOUT introduces adverbials of


a) attendant circumstances c) condition
b) manner d)reason
13. Gerunds as adverbials of concession follow prepositions
a) instead c) despite
b) besides d) in spite of
14. Infinitives and gerunds share some
a) nominal features c) adjectival features
b) verbal features
15. The choice between a gerund and an infinitive after the verbs REGRET, FORGET, REMEMBER
depends on
a) the time reference c) whether the verb is followed by an indirect
b) whether the meaning is active or object
passive d) whether a general or particular action is
expressed
16. The choice between a gerund and an infinitive after the verbs GO ON, TRY, MEAN depends on
a) the meaning of the verb c) whether the meaning is active or passive
b) the time reference d) whether the verb is followed by an indirect
object
17. Attributes as premodifiers which denote the actions of the modified nouns are
a) participles b) gerunds
18. Attributes as premodifiers which show a person's occupation or what an object is intended
for are
a) participles b) gerunds
19. Attributes as postmodifiers preceded by prepositions are
a) gerunds b) participles
20. The participle as an adverbial
a) takes a preposition c) is preceded by a conjunction
b) is used independently
21. The verbal noun takes
a) an article d) an adjectival attribute
b) a direct object e) adverbs / prepositional phrases
c) an o/-phrase attribute
Self-Stady Materials 105
HOW TO COMMENT ON THE USE OF GERUNDS

Commenting on the use of a gerund, we need to explain things as we understand them. Our
listeners would appreciate it if we spoke in an organized way. Thus it might be advisable to follow
certain steps.

Q To comment on a single gerund or gerund phrase, we might take three steps. Any details and
peculiarities that make the explanation more complete are highly welcome.

STEP 3
STEP 2 Explain why the gerund
STEP 1 Describe the morphological is used in this form.
Single out a gerund or gerund phrase form of the gerund,
and identify its syntactic function.

f f l These are some of the numerous ways to comment on gerunds.

STEP 1
a (phrasal) subject
a (phrasal) predicative.
is
a (phrasal) part o f a compound verbal... predicate,
functions as
a (phrasal) object
is used as
a (phrasal) attribute,
an (phrasal) adverbial of....

STEP 2
a non-perfect active gerund,
is
a perfect active gerund,
It
a non-perfect passive gerund,
a perfect passive gerund.

STEP 3
takes place at the same time with the action o f the finite verb,
refers to no particular time,
The action o f the gerund
follows the action o f the finite verb,
precedes the action of the finite verb.

f f l Study the following examples, and remember that we can always do better.
1. I’ve been looking for the sleeping bag.
Sleeping is an attribute. It is a non-perfect active gerund. The action of the gerund refers to no
particular time.
106 English Grammar Practice

2. He insisted on beina helped.


Beina helped is a prepositional object. It is a non-perfect passive gerund. The action of the
gerund takes place at the same time with / follows the action expressed by the finite verb -
'was'.
3. We understand much more about education for havina been throuah that experience.
For having been throuah that experience is a phrasal adverbial of reason. Having been is a
perfect active gerund. The action of the gerund precedes the state expressed by the finite verb -
'understand'.
4. In soite of havina been trained as a cook, he failed to make soup.
In spite of havina been trained as a cook is an adverbial of concession. Havina been trained is
a perfect passive gerund. The action of the gerund precedes the action of the finite verb - ‘failed’.

f f l Commenting on a predicative construction with the gerund, we might take the following steps.

S T E P 1. Single out a construction; identify its syntactic function and type.

a complex subject
a complex predicative
expressed by a predicative
a complex (prepositional) object
construction with the gerund.
a complex attribute
a complex adverbial of...

S T E P 2. Single out the elements of the construction and describe them.

(a) The nominal element of the construction is a noun /pronoun in ... case
a non-perfect active gerund,
a perfect active gerund,
(b) The verbal element - '. ' - is
a non-perfect passive gerund,
a perfect passive gerund.

S T E P 3. Describe the relations between the elements of the construction.

denotes
the action performed by the nominal element,
The verbal element shows
the state o f the nominal element
expresses
OR: The elements of the construction are in secondary subject-predicate relation.

S T E P 4. Explain why the gerund is used in this form.

takes place at the same time with the action o f the finite verb,
refers to no particular time,
The action o f the gerund
follows the action o f the finite verb,
precedes the action o f the finite verb.
Self-Stady Materials 107
f f l Study the following examples, and remember that we can always do better.

1 . I remember L illy ’s aoina to Lon do n for the first time.

L illy ’s aoina to London for the first time is a complex object expressed by a predicative
construction with the gerund. The nominal element of the construction - ‘L illy ’s ’ - is a noun in
the possessive case. The verbal element - 'going - is a non-perfect active gerund. It denotes
the action performed by the nominal element. This action precedes the action of the finite verb -
‘remember’.

2. We knew nothing about Emma and Jacob getting married.

Emma and Ja co b getting married is a predicative construction with the gerund used as a complex
prepositional object. The nominal element of the construction - 'Emma and Ja c o b ’ - is expressed
by nouns in the common case. The verbal element - ‘getting m arried’ - is a non-perfect active
gerund. It denotes the action performed by the nominal element. This action takes place at the
same time with the action of the finite verb - ‘knew ’ - or follows it.

3. H is having studied p h y s ic s contributed to the s u c c e s s o f our research.

His having studied p hysics is a complex subject expressed by a predicative construction with
the gerund. The nominal element of the construction - ‘h is’- is a possessive pronoun. The verbal
element - ‘having studied’ - is a perfect active gerund. The elements of the construction are in
secondary subject-predicate relation. The action of the gerund precedes the action of the finite
verb - ‘contributed’.

4. The key to s u c c e s s was everybody having been trained for the tournament.

Everybody having been trained for the tournament is a complex predicative expressed by a
predicative construction with the gerund. The nominal element of this construction is the pronoun
everybody. Perfect passive gerund - ‘having been trained’ - is the verbal element of the
construction. The elements of the construction are in secondary subject-predicate relation. The
action of the gerund precedes the state expressed by the link verb - ‘w as’.
108 English Grammar Practice

SELF-STUDY MATERIALS

RULES ARE GOOD WHEN OBEYED AND UNDERSTOOD

Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E CH A R A CTER ISTICS OF G ER U N D S

The gerund is a __________ form of the verb that ends in and functions as a
It is a verbal with some syntactic____________ features.

verbal characteristics nominal characteristics

morphological • Gerunds have the category of


categories • Gerunds of transitive verbs have the
category of
syntactic • Gerunds can be modified by Gerunds can
features adverbials. - function as or ;
• Gerunds can take objects. - take ;
- combine with nouns in the
• Gerunds of verbs can take
case or pronouns.
or objects.
- combine with the determiner
( /

Unlike nouns of verbal origin which tend to express th e ____ or t h e ________ of the action, the
gerund emphasises th e itself; it shows a n ______ or _of .Compare: [examples]

Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E M O R PH O LO G ICA L CATEGO RIES OF TH E G ER U N D

The morphological characteristics of the gerund reveal its__________ nature.


T h e _________ forms of the gerund reflect__________ morphological categories: the category of
_________ and the category o f __________.

ACTIVE PASSIVE
NON-PERFECT [examples] [examples]
PERFECT [examples] [examples]
Self-Stady Materials 109
TH E CATEGO RY OF TIM E CORRELATION

Unlike verbs, gerunds do not have the category o f __________ and c a n refer an action
to any particular time. The time reference is . i.e. gerunds express the time of actions
a s _________ t o , ___________ with o r ___________ to the action expressed by t h e _________ verb.
This peculiarity is based on the category of tim e _________ , which is revealed in the opposition of
__________ and n o n __________ forms.

_________ gerunds describes


- an action that is, was or will be simultaneous with that of the finite verb, [examples]
- an action that follows that of the finite verb, [examples]
- an action that refers to no particular time, [examples]

_________ gerunds describe actions that precede those of the finite verbs, [examples]

Prior actions can be expressed by _ _ _ _ _ _ gerunds and sometimes b y __________gerunds that


can be used to express prior actions after
• verbs o f__________ : [exam ples] and th e ir__________ : [exam ples]

• verbs / predicative word groups o f :[exam ples]

• verbs / predicative word groups o f :[exam ples] and th e ir__________


[exam ples]

• verbs o f__________ :[exam ples]

• verbs o f__________ :[exam ples]

• after prepositions________ , _________, ________ , _________, _________ . [exam ples]

__________ gerunds after these verbs, predicative word groups and prepositions emphasise
the gap of time between the actions expressed by the finite verb and the gerund. Compare:
[examples]

TH E CATEGORY OF VO ICE

The gerund o f__________ verbs has voice distinctions, [examples]

Gerunds are active in form, but passive in meaning after a predicative word g ro u p _________ and
the ve rb s_________, __________ , __________ and__________ (in the meaning of 'need' in informal
English), [examples]
110 English Grammar Practice

Complete the following. Provide examples.

THE SYNTACTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GERUND


Syntactically the verbal character of the gerund is expressed in its _________ , i.e. the capacity:
(a) to take__________ [examples]
(b) to be modified b y _________ and / o r __________ phrases functioning, [examples]
The nominal character of the gerund reveals itself_________ . The gerund can
1. function as a _________ , _________ o r __________ [examples]
2. take a __________ in the functions of a n __________ and an adverbial modifier [examples]
3. combine with a noun in th e __________ case or a _________ pronoun [examples]
4. combine with the determ iner_________ .
The gerund can perform its syntactic functions
• alone: [examples]
• within a gerund phrase: [examples]
• within a gerund predicative constructions: [examples]

Ex. 4 Complete the following. Provide examples.

THE PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTION WITH THE GERUND


The predicative construction with the gerund is a construction in which the gerund / gerund phrase
is in __________ subject-predicate relation to th e __________ element. In other words, a gerund in a
predicative construction refers to a _________ of its own.
The__________ element can be expressed by
• a noun in the possessive case [examples]
• a noun / nouns in the common case. A noun is used in the common case when the agent
is __________ or when it denotes a _________ thing, [examples]
• a possessive pronoun or a personal pronoun in the objective case [examples]
• some other pronoun: [examples]

Predicative constructions with the gerund are often rendered into Russian b y__________o r_________
____ introduced by '____________________________________________'_________ /; '__________;
'___________ etc. [examples]

Any form of the gerund can be used within the construction, [examples]
The elements of the construction form a s that perform different syntactic
functions.

COMPLEX SUBJECT [examples]


COMPLEX PREDICATIVE [examples]
COMPLEX OBJECT [examples]
COMPLEX ATTRIBUTE [examples]
COMPLEX ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS [examples]
Self-Stady Materials 111

Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E SYN TACTIC FEATURES OF THE G ER U N D

The ways in which gerunds function in sentences reflect their verbal and nominal character.
Syntactically, the verbal character of the gerund is expressed in its .

1. Gerunds can be modified b y expressed by adverbs or prepositional phrases.


[examples]

2. Gerunds can take objects.


[examples]

3. Gerunds of transitive verbs can take an d objects.


[examples]

The nominal character of the gerund reveals itself in its syntactic_ a n d .

1. Gerunds can function a s , _____ o r .


[examples]

2. Gerunds used as predicatives, objects, attributes or adverbials can take .


[examples]

3. Gerunds can combine with nouns in th e case o r pronouns.


[examples]

4. Gerunds can combine with the determ iner'_____ '.


[examples]

Gerunds perform their syntactic functions alone or in combination with other words. They form:
• ge ru n d that operate as a syntactic whole. Thus, we f in d su b je cts,_____
predicatives, objects, attributes an d adverbials.
[examples]
• gerun d complexes / constructions that operate as a syntactic whole. Thus, we find
complex subjects, complex predicatives, complex objects, complex attributes and complex
adverbials expressed by predicative constructions with the gerund.
[examples]
112 English Grammar Practice

Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E G ER U N D AS A SU BJECT OF A SEN TEN CE

Gerund subjects follow patterns.


PATTERN 1. Gerund subjects may precede th e ; they are placed first. form of the
gerund can be used as a subject in this pattern.
[examples]

PATTERN 2. The introductory is placed first to emphasise the meaning of the gerund subject.
form of the gerund can be used in this pattern. Common predicates in such cases a re:_____ ;
; _____ ; _____; _____ and the like.
[examples]

PATTERN 3. The introductory is used to emphasise gerund subjects preceded by NO. Only
non-perfect gerunds follow this pattern.
[examples]

Structurally, gerund subjects can be


• - expressed bya single gerund.
[examples]
• - expressed bya gerund phrase.
[examples]
• - expressed bya predicative complex with a gerund.
[examples]

Ex. 7 Complete the following. Provide examples.

G ERU N D S IN PREDICATES

The gerund can function as part of a compound nominal predicate (_____ ), part of a compound verbal
predicate or part of a compound verbal predicate. A compound predicate consists of
a and parts. T h e part carries grammatical information - the person, number,
tense, voice, mood, modality of the predicate. It is expressed by a verb - a link verb, phasal /
aspect verb, modal verb or modal expression. T h e part is the bearer of lexical meaning.

TH E G ERU N D AS A PREDICATIVE

The link verb '_____ ' is used as the structural part of the compound nominal predicate. T h e _____
part- t h e predicative — can be expressed b y form of the gerund.
[examples]
Self-Stady Materials 113
Gerund predicatives can be introduced by prepositions: ____ , _____ , _____, ______ , etc.
[examples]

Structurally, gerund predicatives can be


• - expressed by a gerund, [examples]
• ______ - expressed by a gerund . [examples]
• - expressed by a with a gerund, [examples]

TH E G ER U N D A S PART O F A CO M PO U N D V ERB A L M O D AL PREDICATE

gerunds, active and passive, form compound verbal modal predicates with the modal
expression_________________ . Gerunds can be used alone or within phrases.____________are not
used in this function.
[examples]

THE GERUND AS PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL ASPECT PREDICATE

gerunds form compound verbal aspect (phasal) predicates with verbs denoting various stages
of a process, action or state:
• its b e g in n in g - , ___________ , _____ , _____ ,
• its continuation - _____ , ____ , ______, , etc.,
• its e n d in g - , __________ , _____ , ___________ , ______, _____ , , etc.

Gerunds in compound verbal aspect predicates can be used alone or within p h ra se s.___________
are not used in this function.
[examples]

We use rather than gerunds when


1. the subject denotes a . [examples]
2. the notional part of a compound verbal aspect predicate is expressed by a verb:
, ____ , _____ , ______ , etc. [examples]
3. the structural part of a compound verbal aspect predicate is used in the continuous form,
[examples]

Ex. 8 Complete the following. Provide examples.

G ER U N D S A S O BJECTS

Gerunds can be used as direct or prepositional objects.


form of the gerund can be used in this function.
[examples]
114 English Grammar Practice

gerunds can be used to express actions that precede the actions of the finite verb after

• verbs o f_____ : [examples] and their opposites; [examples]


• verbs / predicative word groups o f ; [examples]
• verbs / predicative word groups o f and ; [examples] and their opposites;
[examples]

• verbs o f_____ . [examples]


• verbs o f ; [examples]

gerunds in these cases emphasise the gap of time between the actions of the finite verb
and the gerund. Compare: [examples]

Structurally, gerund objects can be

• - expressed by single gerunds, [examples]


• - expressed by gerunds in phrases, [examples]
• - expressed by predicative constructions with gerunds, [examples]

Direct objects expressed by gerunds follow


• monotransitive verbs, [examples]
• a predicative adjective be worth, [examples]
• expressions , _____ . [examples]

After , ____ , _____ , ______ a n d gerunds are active in form, but passive in meaning.
[examples]

Gerund objects can be introduced by IT + adjective. They are found after the ve rb s:_____, _____
/ _____, _____, _____ / _____ / ______, etc.
[examples]

Prepositional objects expressed by gerunds follow


• _____ verbs and phrasal verbs, [examples]
• _____ verbs [examples]
• _____ adjectives / participles II [examples]
Seif-Stady Materials 115

Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E G ERU N D AS AN ATTRIBU TE

Gerund attributes can be placed either or the modified nouns.


When gerunds are used a s , they are preceded by prepositions. The choice of a preposition
depends on the combinability of the modified word.

[examples] OF
[examples] FOR
[examples] IN
[examples] AT
[examples] AGAINST
[examples] TO

form of the gerund can be used as a postmodifier, [examples]


gerunds can be used as premodifiers. They show_____________________ or
[examples]

Structurally, gerund attributes can be


• simple: [examples]
• phrasal: [examples]
• complex: [examples]

Ex. 10 Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E G ERU N D AS AN A D V ER BIA L
Single gerunds, gerunds in o r ____________ can be used as adverbials of

1. 3. 6.
2. 4. 7.
5.

Gerund adverbials always follow or phrases.

1. Gerund adverbials of attendant circumstances are found after , and


gerunds are used in this function, [examples]

2. Gerund adverbials of manner depend o n , an d .


gerunds are used in this function, [examples]

3. Gerund adverbials of purpose occur with the preposition .


gerunds are used in this function, [examples]

4. Gerund adverbials of condition are preceded b y , and _


form of the gerund can be used in this function, [examples]
116 English Grammar Practice

5. Gerund adverbials of reason follow , _____, _____ , ____ , ______, ____ , ______ .
form of the gerund can be used in this function, [examples]

6. Gerund adverbials of concession require or .


form of the gerund can be used in this function, [examples]

7. Gerund adverbials of time are introduced b y , ____ , ____ , _____ , _____ , ______ and
. The prepositions and show simultaneity, they are followed b y gerunds.
[examples]

The actions of non-perfect gerunds introduced b y follow the actions of the finite verbs.
[examples]

The gerund after the prepositions ON, UPON, AFTER a n d can express an action that
precedes the action of the finite verb, [examples]

The gerund after these prepositions emphasises the gap of time between the action of the
finite verb and the action of the gerund. Compare: [examples]

Compare the use of prepositions with gerund adverbials of different types.

PREPOSITION ADVERBIAL OF EXAMPLE

FOR 1. 1. [examples]
2. 2. [examples]

IN 1. 1. [examples]
2. 2. [examples].

WITHOUT 1. 1. [examples]
2. 2. [examples]
3. 3. [examples]

Ex. 11 Complete the following. Provide examples and Russian equivalents.

TH E G ERU N D AN D THE IN FIN ITIVE

Gerunds and infinitives reveal a lot of similarities as they share some nominal and verbal features.
However, the nominal nature is more noticeable i n , w h ile have essential verbal
characteristics.

f f l Unlike infinitives, gerunds can be


1. preceded by when used as ( a ) objects, (b) predicatives ( c ) and (d)
adverbials. [examples]
2. modified b y pronouns or nouns in th e case, [examples]
References 117

f f l Certain verbs, predicative word groups and expressions can be followed by gerunds and never by
infinitives. On the other hand, there are verbs, predicative word groups and expressions that take
only infinitives.

GERUNDS FOLLOW INFINITIVES FOLLOW


verbs [examples] [examples]
phrasal verbs, [examples] [examples]
verbs followed by prepositions
predicative word groups [examples] [examples]
expressions [examples] [examples]

AN IN FIN ITIVE OR A G ERU N D ?


There are verbs, predicative verb groups, phrasal verbs and expressions that can be followed either by
infinitives or gerunds without significant difference of meaning, [examples]

BUT! Gerunds are m ore in meaning, they often express activities.


Infinitives are m ore , bound t o actions or occasions.
[examples]

In the same way, the verbs learn, teach are followed by gerunds when the speaker refers t o ____
activities: lessons or subjects of study. Talking about getting a skill or results of the study, we
u se .Compare: [examples]

GO ON + gerund means 'to continue an activity without stopping' = [Russian equivalents],


GO ON + infinitive expresses a of activity. It means 'to do something after completing
something else'= [Russian equivalents]. Compare: [examples]

TRY + gerund denotes 'make a n : use or test something to see if it is good, suitable'.
TRY + infinitive means 'make a n or effort to do something difficult'. Compare: [examples]

MEAN + gerund is used in the sense of 'involve' = [Russian equivalents],


MEAN + infinitive denotes 'intend' = [Russian equivalents]. Compare: [examples]

STOP + gerund means '__________________________ '= [Russian equivalents]. It functions as part of


a compound verbal predicate.
STOP + infinitive means '________________________ ' = [Russian equivalents]. It denotes_______ ,
intention or aim and functions as an adverbial of Compare: [examples]

BE USED TO + gerund means that a person is familiar with something because he / she does it or
experiences it often = [Russian equivalents]. Other link verbs can be employed in this construction:
get used to, grow used to, become used to, etc. The gerund functions as a _________ .
USED + infinitive describes actions and events in the past or past and states = [Russian
equivalents]. There is an idea that circumstances have changed. Syntactically, used + infinitive is
employed as part of a compound verbal predicate. Compare: [examples]
118 English Grammar Practice

f f l Gerunds after REMEMBER, FORGET, REGRET, and BE SORRY describe actions th a t the
actions of the finite verbs; infinitives denote actions t h a t o r _____________________
the actions of the finite verbs. Compare:

GERUNDS INFINITIVES
[examples] [examples]

f f l After DESERVE, NEED, REQUIRE and WANT (='need' in informal English) gerunds or
infinitives are used when the subject experiences an action. When the subject performs
an action, we u se infinitives. Compare: [examples]

f f l Gerunds after ADVISE, ALLOW, PERMIT, FORBID, RECOMMEND, ENCOURAGE in th e voice


are used if there are no other objects. Infinitives are used when there a re objects or after
th e voice forms of these verbs. Compare: [examples]

► BE AFRAID can be followed by infinitives or gerunds important difference of meaning.


Still, some researchers believe that it is preferable to use afraid o f + to talk about fear of
things that happen accidentally and their consequences. Compare: [examples]

► BEGIN, CONTINUE, START can be followed by infinitives or gerunds without important difference
of meaning. However, it is preferable to em ploy______
(1) to talk about states rather than actions. Compare: [examples]
(2) when the agent is a lifeless thing. Compare: [examples]
(3) after continuous forms of begin and start, [examples]

► BE INTERESTED + is used to talk about reactions to things one learns = [Russian


equivalents]. Either gerunds or infinitives are used to talk about a wish to find out something.
Compare: [examples]

► LIKE/ DISLIKE + gerund, in British English, is used mostly to talk about .


LIKE/ DISLIKE + infinitive is used to talk about and . Compare: [examples]

► PREFER can be followed by infinitives or gerunds without important difference of meaning. If we


use , the second one may be introduced by the preposition or the phrase RATHER
THAN. The sentences with infinitives can also be continued b y ______________ .
! In negative sentences we u se .Compare: [examples]

! WOULD PREFER, WOULD LIKE and WOULD RATHER are always followed b y ______

► COUNT ON, RELY ON, LISTEN TO can take (1 )_____________________ , (2 )______ or (3)
predicative constructions w ith . [examples]

For intriguing cases it is advisable to consult a dictionary.


Contents 119

Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E G ER U N D AN D THE V ERB A L NOUN

The verbal noun - unlike the gerund - has n o ______________features.


1. Verbal nouns have plural forms: [exam ples].
When they denote lifeless things, they can combine w ith_________as well as words o f .
[examples]
2. Verbal nouns take .
[examples]
3. Verbal nouns can be modified by (a) o/-phrase and (b) adjectival______ .
[examples]
The gerund developed from th e that became verbalized in the course of time.
1. Gerunds have some morphological characteristics o f______ . They show
• distinctions.
[examples]
• a time reference expressed through the category of tim e .
[examples]
2. Gerunds can be modified b y . Verbal nouns can be modified b y . Compare:
[examples]
3. Gerunds o f______ verbs can take direct objects. Compare:
[examples]

Ex. 13 Complete the following. Provide examples.

TH E G ERU N D AN D PARTICIPLE I
Though many grammar books describe gerunds and participles I a s -forms, the difference is
vivid.
Unlike participle I, the gerund h a s characteristics.
• Gerunds can be preceded by prepositions. Compare:
[examples]
• Gerunds can be modified by nouns in th e case o r ______ pronouns. Compare:
[examples]
• Gerunds can function a s an d .
[examples]

GERUNDS AND PARTICIPLES AS ATTRIBUTES


Gerund attributes show a person's or what an object is for.
Participle attributes denote th e of the modified nouns. Compare:
120 English Grammar Practice

Gerunds Participles
[examples] [examples]

Still, there are cases that can be interpreted in either way.


[examples]
The makes the meaning clear. Compare:
[examples]
The context makes the meaning clear. Compare:
[examples]
Unlike participles, gerunds as postmodifiers are preceded b y . Compare:
[examples]

GERUNDS AND PARTICIPLES AS PREDICATIVES


A gerund predicative expresses t h e of the subject, its ______ or identity. A participle
predicative is close to an a in this function, it gives the subject a assessment. Compare:
[examples]

GERUNDS AND PARTICIPLES AS ADVERBIALS

Gerund adverbials always take .


Participle adverbials can either be used independently or preceded b y . Compare:

Gerunds Participles
[examples] [examples]

Some adverbials may be confusing to a Russian-speaking learner of English. In Russian a negative


phrase 'HE + деепричастие' shows either (1) o r (2). In English W ITHOUT+ gerund to
describes . To g ive ______ , we employ NOT + participle. Compare:
[examples]

Both gerunds and participles can be used as adverbials o f a n d _____________ .


[examples]

The exam in grammar is a nuisance,


once passed.
Self-Stady Materials 121

THE EVERYDAY GERUND

It's so nice meeting you!


Fancy meeting you here!
It makes all the difference your being here.

Thank you for joining us.


Thanks for dropping in.
I appreciate your working so hard.

Do you mind sitting here?


Do you mind my opening the window?
Would you mind going out tonight?
I don't mind driving.
Do you think anyone would mind my leaving?
Are you married, if you don't mind me asking?

Sorry for being late.


I'm very sorry for having missed that party.
I'm ever so sorry for parking my car in your driveway.
Excuse my butting in, b u t...
Do excuse me for being such a bore, but...
I (do) apologise for calling so early.
I regret saying that.
I freely admit to being wrong.
Forgive my being so inquisitive, but...

Let's go riding.
How about joining us at lunch?
I suggest going in my car. - Didn't we end up pushing it to the service station last
weekend?
What about having a walk by the lake? — I'm always for going out of town in such
weather.
Do you feel like going out tonight? — Sure, I feel like celebrating.
Fancy seeing a film? — Oh, yes! I'm sick and tired of doing nothing but work.
How do you feel about seeing the film? The picture's a masterpiece, it goes without saying.
What would you say to locking the cat in the bathroom?

We look forward to seeing you again.


I am really looking forward to meeting you.
We have high hopes for them visiting us soon.
I have every intention of passing the test.
I'm counting days till purchasing my first car.
Nothing is going to stop me fishing this weekend.
We were not particularly anxious about leaving.
122 English Grammar Practice

What do you think about his practising tennis?


Would you approve of giving the student the grant?
What is your attitude to the idea of starting a new business?
You are in favour of taking part in the contest, aren't you?
What's your opinion of his dyeing his hair red?
What are your views on gambling? — To my way of thinking....
What do you mean by saying that?

I'm keen on playing tennis.


I enjoy travelling very much indeed.
What I really like is travelling to other countries.
I'm really into folk dancing.
I set my heart on teaching young learners
I always make a point of visiting an art gallery.
There's nothing I like more than hanging around with my friends.
Sooner or later I'll get round to knitting socks for the kids.
I feel really good about going on this trip.
I'm not particularly fond of dining out.
I can't stand sailing in such weather, actually I really hate being sick.
I'm trying to put off seeing the dentist as long as I can.
I'll be happy about the team winning the Cup.

Congratulations on your passing the exam! No kidding? Are you serious about
Best wishes on your getting your Master's. renting this house?

I'll never forget hearing this song for the first time.
I remember posting the letter.
I can't recall meeting him.
Sorry, I have no memory / recollection of having ever met him.

I'm fairly positive about finding a summer job.


I've no doubt about entering the contest.
I'm (utterly) convinced of having scheduled an appointment with you.
I'm quite sure of winning the trophy.
You can't be a hundred percent certain of getting a rise.
I wouldn't bet on them winning.
There's little likelihood of his missing the class.
There's no chance of my being forgiven, is there?
I know about their purchasing the house.
Self-Stady Materials 123

I can't help feeling sorry for Ron: he can't stand being laughed at.
He's (not) used to living in a big city.
She has a habit of getting up at dawn.
The baby spends a lot of time sleeping and smiling.
You will always find her scrubbing the kitchen floor.
He is famous for inventing microwave popcorn.
She is capable of doing by herself.

It's not worth arguing: the floor wants washing and this shirt needs ironing.
It's no good his apologizing now the damage has been done.
It's no use beating about the bush.

There's no telling what will happen.


There is no arguing with my mom.
Alas, there is no avoiding it.
There's no accounting for her moods.
I am a bore, there's no denying it.

I'm (so) worried about your being on the computer all night.
I'm scared stiff / to death of going out alone.
I'm really nervous about keeping a pet.
I'm absolutely dreading climbing.
I've been worried sick about his going to the mountains alone. I'm afraid of
his falling down a rock. - 1can't help thinking / stop thinking about it either.

What are the advantages of speaking foreign languages?


You may take advantage of being young and ambitious.

Don't give up trying. Keep working!


Get going = Get moving.
Finish cleaning the kitchen, please.
I guess I'd better stop overspending.
Stop being funny!
No smoking!
No parking!
Fine for parking!

He is on the point of leaving


Well, it was nice seeing you. Bye!
it was a nice thing your coming here.
124 English Grammar Practice

GERUNDS IN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS


6 a ;tj/o ii f/t/n k cfec/u /va /m t? w j/o i/r m o ftier fo/tyu e?

1. A clean hand wants no washing. 25. It's no use pumping a dry well.
2. A thief passes for a gentleman after stealing 26. Killing time murders opportunities.
has made him rich. 27. No flying from fate.
3. A word spoken is past recalling. 28. No safe wading in an unknown water.
4. An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of 29. Nothing must be done hastily but killing of
learning. fleas.
5. Appetite comes with eating. 30. Repetition is the mother of learning.
6. Between two evils it is not worth choosing. 31. Saying and doing are two things.
7. By doing nothing we learn to do ill. = Saying is one thing, doing is another.
8. Clean hand wants no washing. 32. Seeing is believing.
9. Doing is better than saying. 33. Talking mends no holes.
10. Eating and scratching wants but a beginning. 34. The appetite grows by eating.
11. Even reckoning makes long friends. 35. The moon does not heed the barking of dogs.
12. Fasting comes after feasting. 36. The proof of the pudding is in eating.
13. Fools grow without watering. 37. There are more ways of killing a cat than by
14. Friendship is love with understanding. choking it with cream, /b y hanging.
15. Gossiping and lying go hand in hand. 38. There are no shortcuts to any place worth
16. He who likes borrowing dislikes paying. going.
17. He who would catch fish must not mind 39. There's no accounting for taste.
getting wet. 40. Wait until it is night before saying that it
18. If a job is worth doing it is worth doing well. has been a fine day.
19. It is a long lane that has no turning. 41. What is worth doing at all is worth doing
20. It is good fishing in troubled waters. well.
21. It's no use / good / worth crying over spilt 42. Worrying never did anyone any good.
milk. 43. You / One can't cook a hare before catching
22. It's no use carrying your umbrella when him.
your shoes are leaking. 44. You can't make an omelette without
23. It's no use doing things by halves. breaking eggs.
24. It's no use locking the stable door after the 45. You've got to do your own growing, no
horse has bolted. matter how tall your grandfather was.
Self-Stady Materials 125

REFERENCES
1. Аракин В.Д. Практический курс английского языка. — М осква: Владос, 2003.
2. Блох М.Ю., Л ебед ева А .Я., Д ени сова B.C. Практикум по английском у языку: Грам матика. Сборник упраж нений.
— М осква: Астрель ACT, 2003.
3. Гордон Е.М., Кры лова И.П.. Грам матика соврем енного английского языка. — Книж ный Д ом "Университет",
2009.
4. Гузеева К.А., Косты гина С.И. И нф инитив. Грамматика английского языка. Серия: Изучаем иностранны е языки. —
Спб: "Издательство Союз", 2000.
5. Д роздова Т.Ю., Берестова А .И ., М аилова В.Г. English Grammar. Reference and practice. — Санкт-Петербург, 2006.
6. Кауш анская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кож евникова О.Н., Прокофьева Е.В., Райнес З.М ., Сквирская С.Е., Ц ы рлинз Ф.Я.
Грамматика английского язы ка. — СПб: А йрис-пресс, 2008.
7. Кобрина Н.А., Корнеева Е.А., О ссовская М .И., Гузеева К. А. Грамматика английского языка. М орфология. — М.:
Просвещ ение, 1985.
8. Крутиков Ю .А., Кузьм ина И.С., Рабинович Х.В. Упраж нения по грам м атике со врем енного английского языка. —
М осква: «Высш ая ш кола», 1971.
9. Л ещ ева Л.М ., Бахтадзе Е.А., Сим анович О.С. П рактическая грам м атика английского язы ка. — Мн.: Акад. упр. при
през. Респ. Беларусь, 2008.
10. Петраш кевич Н.П., Ш елег Л .А ., Д м итриева И.В. Ф ункциональная грам м атика английского языка. — Мн. ООО
"Лексис", 2009.
11. Саакян А.С. Exercises in M odern English Grammar. — СПб: Айрис-пресс, 2006.
12. Alexander L. Longm an English Gram m ar. Pearson Education, Ltd, 2005.
13. Burchfield R.W.. The New Fow ler's M odern English U sa g e .- Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. 1996.
14. Collins Cobuild English G ram m ar, Harper C ollins Publisher, 2005.
15. Dooley J., Evans V. Gram m arw ay. — Express Publishing, 1999.
16. Eastwood J. Oxford Practice Gram m ar. Interm ediate. — Oxford University Press, 2008.
17. Evans V. Round-Up. English G ram m ar Practice 6. — Longm an, 2001.
18. Evans V. FCE Use of English 2. — Express Publishing, 2001.
19. Foley М., Hall D. Advanced Learners' Gram mar. — Longm an, 2003.
20. Fowler R., Aaron, J., Lim burg. K. The Little, Brown Handbook. 6th ed. — HarperCollins: New York. 1995
21. Gordon I. Practical Punctuation. Heinem ann Educational, 1978.
22. Haug D. The sem antics and pragm atics of predicative participles. — University of Oslo, 2008.
23. Hewings M. Advanced G ram m ar in Use. — Cam bridge University Press, 1999.
24. Leech G., Svartik J. A C om m unicative G ram m ar of English. - Moscow, Prosvescheniye, 1983.
25. Quirk R, G reenbaum S. A University G ram m ar of English. — Longm an Group: Essex, England. 1993.
26. Side R. and W ellm an G. G ram m ar and Vocabulary for Cam bridge A dvanced and Proficiency. Longm an, 2000.
27. Swan M. Practical English Usage. — Oxford University Press, 1997.
28. Swan М., W alker C. How English W orks. A G ram m ar Practice Book. — Oxford University Press, 1997.
29. Thom son A.J., M artinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar. — Oxford University Press, 1988.
30. Vince M. M acm illan English G ram m ar in Context. A dvanced. — 2008.
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DICTIONARIES
1. Cam bridge international Dictionary of English — Cam bridge University Press, 1995.
2. Longm an Dictionary of Contem po rary English. 3rd edition. Longm an Dictionaries, 1995.
3. Longm an Essential Activator. Longm an, 1999.
4. Oxford A dvanced Learner's Dictionary. 7th edition. Oxford University Press, 2007.
5. Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English. Oxford University Press, 2002.
126____________________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice

CONTENTS

THE GERUND ......................................................................................................................................... 3

THE MORPHOLOGICAL CATEGORIES OF THE G ERU ND....................................................................... 4

THE PREDICATIVE COSTRUCTION WITH THE G ERU N D ............................................... 9

THE SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF THE GERUND ................................................................................. 16

THE GERUND AS A SUBJECT OF A SEN TEN CE.............................................................. 17

GERUND IN PREDICATES ................................................................................................................... 23

GERUND IN COMPOUND VERBAL PREDICATES ............................................................................... 29

THE GERUND AS AN OBJECT.................................................................................................................. 33

THE GERUND AS AN ATTRIBUTE........................................................................................................... 43

THE GERUND AS AN ADVERBIAL ............ 50

THE SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE GERUND, SHORT AND E A S Y ................................................. 64

THE GERUND AND THE INFINITIVE...................................................................................................... 66

THE GERUND AND OTHER -IN G FORMS......................................................................................... 82

REVISION AND CONSOLIDATION.......................................................................................................... 92

HOW TO COMMENT ON THE USE OF G ERU NDS................................................................................. 105

SELF-STUDY MATERIALS:
RULES ARE GOOD WHEN OBEYED AND UNDERSTOOD .......................................... 108
THE EVERYDAY GERUND ............................................................................................... 121
GERUNDS IN PROVERBS AND SAYINGS ....................................................................... 124

REFERENCES................................................................................................................... 125