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HYDRAULICS DEPARTMENT

Name:_______________________________
Subject & Section:_____________________ Date Performed:________________
Instructor:____________________________ Date Submitted:________________

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

MEASUREMENT OF DENSITIES AND SPECIFIC GRAVITIES

EXPERIMENT A: Determining Specific Gravity Using a Hydrometer

OBJECTIVE:

To determine densities and specific gravities using a hydrometer

APPARATUS:

Universal hydrometer
4 off Hydrometer Jars

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LABORATORY PROCEDURE:

METHOD:

(a) Fill one hydrometer jar with sufficient water to float the hydrometer
and check that the scale marking corresponding to depth of immersion
reads 1.00
(b) Fill three hydrometer jars with the liquids to be tested with sufficient
of the liquids to float the hydrometer and note for each liquid the scale
reading.

NOTE: It is suggested that the liquids should be those to be used in Experiment 2


for determining the viscosity of liquids: an engine oil, glycerol, and castor
oil.

RESULTS:

Barometric Pressure _____ mm of Hg

Temperature _____ ˚C

Liquid Scale Reading = Specific Gravity, S


Water
Engine oil
Glycerol
Castor oil

Since s= density of liquid = ρ (Eqn 1)


density of water ρw

  L  S . w
gm 1 kg
And  w   3  10 6  10 3 3
m1 10 m

Density, ρ
Liquid gm/ml kg/m3
Water
Engine oil
Glycerol
Castor oil

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EXPERIMENT B: Determining Specific Gravity Using a U-Tube Manometer

INTRODUCTION:

A manometer is a tube usually bent in a form of a U, containing of known specific


gravity, the surface of which moves proportionally to changes of pressure. It is used
to measure pressure.

The three types of manometer are open type, differential type and piezometer. The
open type manometer has an atmospheric surface in one leg and is capable of
measuring gage pressures. A differential type manometer is without an atmospheric
surface and capable of measuring only differences of pressure. A piezometer is the
simplest form of open manometer. It is a tube tapped into a wall of a container on
conduit for the purpose of measuring pressure. The fluid in the container or conduit
rises in this tube to form a free surface.

OBJECTIVE:

To be able to get the specific gravity of the kerosene using the manometer.

APPARATUS:

Manometer

LABORATORY PROCEDURE:

1. Set up the manometer.


2. Place water to the tube.
3. Place kerosene after you places the water.
4. Record the reading of the pressure head.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the succeeding trial.
6. Solve for the specific gravity.

REPORT:

1. What is the use of manometer?


2. Differentiate the three types of manometer.
3. Given the height of the fluid column, h= 20m, fluid density, ρ= 5kg/ m 3.
Calculate the manometer pressure.

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FINAL DATA SHEET

NAME:_____________________________________________________ DATE: _______________________


SUBJECT & SECTION:_______________________________________ GROUP NO.___________________
SEAT NO. __________

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

MEASUREMENT OF DENSITIES AND SPECIFIC GRAVITIES

H Sw
GROUP TRIAL 2O hw hk Sk
NO. NO. (kN/ m ) 3 (m) (m)
1
1 2
3
1
2 2
3
1
3 2
3
1
4 2
3
1
5 2
3

10
1
6 2
3

True Value: __________

Average Sk: __________

Percent OF Error: _______

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