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FICTION PROSE – is also written in ordinary,
PHILIPPINES AND THE WORLD non-metrical language, out of it is the product
of the writer’s imagination.
LITERATURE – came from the Latin word
“LITERATURA” meaning writing and from POETRY – on the other hand, uses metrical
“LITERATUS” which means learning. It covers language with lots of rhythm and rhyme to
both oral and written forms of works which create word picture.
manifest expressive or imaginative quality,
nobility of thoughts, timelessness and DRAMA – combines elements of prose and
universality. poetry into plays that are usually intended to be
performed on stage.
COMMUNICATION  500 – 15,00 words length
 Single event
Man’s inner thoughts, feelings, and conditions
 Beginning, middle and end
can be disclosed and revealed through the
 Fictional (unreal)
power of literature.
 Contains values
Its beauty is a deliberate manifestation to
create and imagine. Highlight ideas of great
importance and significance.  Mood, social context, when and where
 TIMELESSNESS  Environment
 Can be past, present, future
The significant truth about life that a literary  Social norms
work reveals should not waive and dissipate as
time passes by. 2. CHARACTERS

 UNIVERSALITY  Person or any entity presented in a

narrative/dramatic work.
A work must have global applicability in which a
work transcends across space. TYPES:

 UTILITY  PROTAGONIST – principal or lead

We can obtain relevant information to better  ANTAGONIST – opposing the
understand people, society and culture. protagonist. Also called as villain.
 STATIC/FLAT – does not change the
PROSE – form of literature that focuses on free role/attitude
flowing.  DYNAMIC – undergoes changes
NONFICTION PROSE – is literature that is  FOIL – use to stand in contrast 
written in ordinary, non – metrical language and 3. PLOT 
communicates facts or opinions about reality
 Flow and sequence of events
 EXPOSITION – introductory material ORAL TRADITIONS
 FORESHADOWING – use of hints/clues
what will happen next  Also called as ORAL LORE.
triggers conflict
 CONFLICT – opposition of forces that  This lends credence to the belief.
may set forth the problems, issues  Self-culture before the influence of the
*EXTERNAL – outside forces (man vs. colonies.
nature, man vs. society, man vs.
supernatural) *Philippine Literature is the most precious
*INTERNAL – one’s self (man vs. self) literature in the world.
 RISING ACTION - Series of events that
ANIMAZIM – structure of supernatural being
builds from the conflict.
 CRISIS - Occurs before or at the same FORMS OF LITERATURE
time as climax.
 CLIMAX - Highest point of the story. RIDDLES
Result of the crisis.  Statement, question or phrase having a
 FALLING ACTION - Events after climax double or veiled meaning
which close the story.  Put forth as a puzzle to be solved.
 DENOUMENT – Rounds out and
 A puzzling question; problem or matter.
concludes the action.
*ROBERT PETSCH in 1899, first major modern
attempt to define the riddle.
 Relates as the way how the story is
(1963) – suggested that “a riddle is a traditional
TYPES: verbal expression which contains one or more
descriptive elements; the referent of the
 PARTICIPANT NARRATOT/FIRST elements is to be guessed”.
PERSON – usually marked by the use of
“I”.  There are many possible sub – sets of
 SECOND PERSON/NON-PARTICIPANT – the riddle including charades, doodles
emphasize “you”. and some jokes.
 OBSERVANT – the narrator sees  Requires in genuinely and actual
only the physical appearance twirling for their solution.
 OMNISCIENT – the narrator is  A puzzle or joke in which you ask a
an outsider who knows/sees question that seems to be nonsense but
into the mind of one of the which has a clever or amusing answer.
 Salawikain 
 Object which is used to represent ideas  A short expression of popular words of
aside from its literal meaning. wisdom or a piece of advice.
 A simple and concrete saying, popularly
known and repeated that expresses a
6. THEME truth based on common sense or
 Mainly the idea, realization. experience.
 It was didactic in nature


 7777 syllable 
 Doctrina Christian (1593) written by
Fray Juan de Plasencia
 An indigenous type of Filipino poem
 It contains prayers such as Pater Noster
 Written in Tagalog language
(Our Father), Ave Maria (Hail Mary),
 A quatrain with seven syllables each
Ten Commandments, etc.
with the same rhyme at the end of each
 PASYON – highlights the life, death, and
resurrection of Christ
 No title
 Lines are recited accompanied by music
KASABIHAN  during Lenten Season.
 The most popular was “ANG MAHAL NA
 Used in teasing or to comment on a PANGINOON NATIN” by Gaspar Aquino
person’s actuations de Belen.
 SENAKULO – dramatization of the
pasyon, it shows the passion and death
 Traditional poetry of the Hannunoo of Christ.
Mangyans of Oriental Mindoro which is 2. SECULAR LITERATURE (non-religious
normally inscribed on bamboo literature)
 Seven syllable metric lines
 Usually chanted  AWIT – colorful tales of chivalry made
 Can be composed of more than four for singing and chanting
lines  KORIDO – metrical tale written in
octosyllabic quatrains
prescribe proper decorum
 Is the traditional oral literature of the
Filipino people. This refers to a wide OTHER FORM OF SECULAR LITERATURE
range of material due to the ethnic mix
at the Philippines 1. Comedia de Capa y Espada or Moro Moro



 Christianity was introduced 4. Sarswela

 Spanish language was taught as well as
the Roman alphabet for writing
 Serves as medium of communication
 Christian doctrine was introduced to
early Filipinos: prayers, novenas, stories
about the lives of saints
PILIPINAS – Andres Bonificio
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD (1864-1896) Jacinto

 Planted seeds of nationalism in  Introduction of free public instruction

Filipinos for all children of school age
 Language shifted from Spanish to  Use of English as medium of instruction
Tagalog in all levels of education in public
 Addressed the masses instead of schools
 The Japanese banned English
1. PROPAGANDA LITERATURE newspapers. (Except for the TRIBUNE
 Reformatory in objective and the PHILIPPINE REVIEW)
 There was minimal freedom of speech
and all of the press
 Satires, editorials and news  The Japanese censored Filipino writers
articles were written to attack works strictly
and expose the evils of Spanish  Theaters were used to show English
rules play translated into Filipino.
 DIARIONG TAGALOG – founded  The weekly LIWAYWAY was placed
by Marcelo H. Del Pilar under strict surveillance until it was
managed by Japanese named
 LA SOLIDARIDA – editor in chief  Filipino literature was given break
is Graciano Lopez Jaena during this period
 NOLI ME TANGERE and EL The common theme of most poems
FILIBUSTERISMO – Jose Rizal’s during Japanese occupation was nationalism,
masterpieces that paved the country, love and life in the barrios, faith,
way to revolution. religion and the arts. Three types of poems
2. REVOLUTIONARY LITERATURE emerged during this period. THEY WERE:
 More propagandastic than
literary as it is more violent in 1. HAIKU – a poem of three verses that the
nature and demanded Japanese like. It was made up of 17 syllables
complete independence for the divided into three lines. The first line had 5
country (diretsang hinihingi ang syllables, the second, 7 syllables, and the third,
kalayaan) 5. The Haiku is allegorical in meaning, is short
and covers a wide scope in meaning.
2. KARANIWANG ANYO (usual form) – the
 KALAYAAN – newspaper to the usual common form of poetry
society, edited by Emilio Jacinto
 TRUE DECALOGUE – Apolinario
3. TANAGA – like the Haiku, it’s short but has a publishing of works in English, Philippine
measure and a rhyme. Each consists of 17 Literature in English experienced a dark period.
syllables and it is also has allegorical meaning The few who dared to write did so for their
bread and butter or for propaganda.
The drama experienced a lull during the PRIZE for his best sellers: I SAW THE FALL OF
Japanese period because movie houses showing THE PHILIPPINES, I SEE THE PHILIPPINES RISE
American films were closed. The big movie and his MOTHER AMERICA AND MY BROTHER
houses were just made to show stage shows. A AMERICANS.
few of play writers were:
The Commonwealth Literary Awards
1. Jose Ma. Hernandez – wrote PANDAY PIRA gave prizes to meritorious writers. Those who
won were:
2. Francisco Soc Rodrigo – wrote SA PULA, SA
PUTI 1. LIKE THE MOLAVE – by Rafael Zulueta da
Costa (poetry)
3. Clodualdo del Mundo – wrote BULAGA (an
expression in the game Hide and Seek) 2. HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGHT HOME A
WIFE – by Manuel E. Arguilla (short story)
4. Julian Cruz Balmaceda – wrote SINO BA
PATAY Lopez (essay)


The field of the short story widened POSTWAR AND CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE
during the Japanese occupation. Many wrote
Include all literary works written and
short stories.
published in the Philippines from 1946.
The best writings in 1945 were selected
After the World War II, the Philippines
by a group of judges composed of Francisco
had to deal with the economy and the need for
Icasiano, Jose Esperanza Cruz, Antonio Rosales,
rehabilitation and reconstruction of
Clodualdo del Mundo and Teodoro Santos. As a
result of this selection, the following got the
first three prizes: Writers wrote fiction that focused on
courageous deeds as well as the sacrifices and
FIRST PRIZE: Narciso Reyes with his LUPANG
suffering in the lives of Filipinos. It was also
common for writers to write about the
SECOND PRIZE: Liwayway Arceo’s UHAW ANG experiences of the Filipino people under the
TIGANG NA LUPA Spanish and American rule and the Japanese
occupation. Other subjects and themes include:
AT DAGAT – DAGATAN  *religious faith


Because of the strict prohibitions
*social problems
imposed by the Japanese in the writing and
*poverty  POETRY

*politics *PERSUADE by heart

*nationalism *CONVINCE by mind

NEWSPAPERS FLOURISHED  Themes: patience, culture, nature

and surroundings
*Free Press
*Morning Sun
 Metropolitan Theater, Teatro
*Daily Mirror Filipino, CCP, UP Repertory
*Evening News







*Award giving body in literature – Don Carlos

Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature 


 Martial Law (the seed of activism)

 The Bloody Placards (Makibaka)
 Literary Revolution 
 Bomba Films
 The First Quarter Storm


 Green Revolution’
 Family Planning
 Proper Nutrition
 Environment
 Drug Addiction
 Pollution 
ORAL COMMUNICATION VOICE INTENSITY – loudness or intensity refers
to the effect of the sound on the ear
a Over the Produces the
head voice 1.  EFFUSIVE – gradually but firm. It retains
e cheekbone Cleanses the emotion. 
i Between It gives 2. EXPULSIVE – firmly but rapidly. It suggests
the brilliance to decisiveness, rigor and sincerity
eyebrow the voice 3. EXPLOSIVE – sudden outburst.  The feeling
o Center back Improves the projected is that of violence turning from
of the head tonal quality extreme anger, sudden fear and other strong
of the voice emotions. 
u Center top Refinement of
of the head the voice INTRAPERSONAL – self

INTERPRESONAL – may kausap


 Medium is the message (by McLuhan) NATURE OF COMMUNICATION

 From the Latin word “communique”
which means to share  It’s a process
 A process of sharing and conveying  Occurs between two or more people
messages or information form one (speaker and receiver)
person to another within and across  Can be expressed through written or
channels, contexts, media and culture. spoken words, action (non-verbal) or
(McKornel) both spoken words and non-verbal

*PERSUADE by heart SPEECH – exchange of verbal messages


5 TYPES OF VOICE 1. SPEAKER – the source of information or

1. Normal (Low key level (assurance) and High 2. MESSAGE – the information, ideas or
key level (asking) thoughts conveyed by the speaker in
words or in action.
2. Thin (falsetto) 3. ENCODING – process of converting the
message into words or actions.
3. Full (orotund) round mouth
4. CHANNEL – the medium or the means,
4. Chesty (aspirate) in which the encoded message is
5. Breathy (whisper) 5. DECODING – the process of interpreting
the decoded message.
 Effusive
7. FEEDBACK – the reactions, responses,
 Expulsive
or information provided.
 Explosive
8. CONTEXT – the environment where THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS –
communication takes place. TRANSACTION MODEL
9. BARRIER – the factors that affect the
flow of communication.
“MEANING is not found in WORDS, but is
CREATED by PEOPLE.” *keep as a reminder. 




Aristotle, a great philosopher initiative

the earliest mass communication model called
“Aristotle’s Model of Communication”. He
proposed model before 300 B.C who found the
importance of audience role in communication
chain in his communication model. This model
is more focused on public speaking than
interpersonal communication.




 Control (behavior)
 Social Interaction
 Motivation
 Emotional Expression
SHANNON – WEAVER COMMUNICATION  Information Dessimination (sharing of
MODEL (1949)  information)
 Known as the mother of all 7 C’s OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
communication models.  
 A linear with five elements.  1. COMPLETENESS – complete
 Lacks of feedback. communication is important.
 If no feedback, understanding of the Communication should include
message is not assured. everything.
2. CONCISENESS – not that short but
making it direct and straight to the
point. Insignificant or redundant
information should be eliminated.
3. CONSIDERATION – consider relevant
information about the receiver. Mood
and needs. Background and race.
Preference and status. Education.
4. CONCRETENESS – supported by facts. Ethics – words should be carefully chosen in
Figures. Real – life examples and consideration of the gender, roles, ethnicity,
situations. preferences, and status of the person you are
5. COURTESY – respecting the culture, talking to.
values and beliefs of the receivers.
Being courteous creates positive impact Vividness – words that vividly or creatively
ALL THE TIMES. describe things or feelings usually add color and
6. CLEARNESS – use of simple and specific spice to communication. 
words to express ideas. Focuses on the
single objective when giving a speech.
7. CORRECTNESS – grammar usage Refers to an interaction where behavior
eliminates negative impact and is used to convey and represent meanings. All
increases the credibility and kinds of human responses that are not
effectiveness of the message. expressed in words are classified as nonverbal
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION  Examples of nonverbal communication
 Emotional barriers are stares, smiles, tone of voice, movements,
 Use of jargon (unfamiliar words) manners of walking, standing and sitting,
 Lack of confidence appearance, style of attire, attitude towards
 Noisy environment time and space, personality, gestures, and
Refers to an interaction in which words IS IMPORTANT FOR SEVERAL REASONS:
are used to relay a message.
 It enhances and emphasizes the
Used words to express ideas which can message of your speech, thus making it
be easily understood by the person you are more meaningful, truthful, and
talking to. relevant.
 It can communicate feelings, attitudes,
ABCEV in Verbal Communication and perceptions without you saying a
Appropriateness – the language that you use
 It can sustain the attention of listeners
should be appropriate to the environment or
and keep them engaged in the speech.
 It gives the audience a preview to the
Brevity – speakers who often use simple yet type of speaker you are.
precise and powerful words are found to be  It makes you appear more dynamic and
more credible. Avoid fillers (mga paningit words animated in your delivery.
kapag kinakabahan like ahhh ganernn) and  It serves as a channel to release tension
insubstantial expressions which do not add to and nervousness. 
the message.  It helps make your speech more
Clarity – the meanings of words, feelings, or  It can build a connection with listeners.
ideas may be interpreted differently by a  It makes you a credible speaker.
listener; hence, it is essential for you to clearly  It helps you vary your speaking style
state your message and express your ideas and and avoid a monotonous delivery.
sending and receiving of message across
languages and cultures. It can flow smoothly SPEECH CONTEXT AND STYLES
and become very interesting for a cross – TYPES OF SPEECH CONTEXT!!!
cultural group.
1. INTRAPERSONAL – this refers to
THE DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL OF communication that centers on one
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION person where the speaker acts both as
the sender and receiver of message.
STAGE 1: DENIAL – the individual does not
recognize cultural differences. “The message is made up of your
thoughts and feelings. The channel is
STAGE 2: DEFENSE – the individual starts to your brain, which processes what you
recognize cultural differences and is intimidated are thinking and feeling. There is
by them, resulting in either a superior view on feedback in the sense that as you talk to
own culture or an unjustified high regard for the yourself, you discard certain ideas and
new one. replace them with others.” (Hybels and
Weaver, 2012, p.16)
STAGE 3: MINIMIZATION – although individuals 2. INTERPERSONAL – this refers to
see cultural differences, they bank more on the communication between and among
universality of ideas rather than on cultural people and establishes personal
differences. relationship between and among them.
Solomon and Theiss (2013) state that
STAGE 4: ACCEPTANCE – the individual begins “the inter part of the word highlights
to appreciate important cultural differences in how interpersonal communication
behaviors and eventually in values. connects people… when you engage in
STAGE 5: ADAPTATION – the individual is very interpersonal communication, you and
open to world views when accepting new another person become linked
perspectives. together… the personal part means that
your unique qualities as a person
STAGE 6: INTEGRATION – individuals start to go matter during interpersonal
beyond their own cultures and see themselves communication.”
and their actions based on multifarious cultural
 DYAD – communication that occur
between two people.
 SMALL GROUP – this refer to
 Flexibility and the ability to tolerate communication that involves at least
high levels of uncertainty. three but not more than twelve people.
 Reflectiveness or mindfulness. All participants can freely share ideas in
 Open – mindedness  a loose and open discussion.
 Sensitivity   PUBLIC – this type refers to
 Adaptability  communication that requires you to
 Ability to engage in divergent thinking deliver or send the message before or
(or thinking creatively) and systems – in front of a group.
level thinking (or thinking how each one
in a system or organization influences
each other)
 MASS – this refer to communication  The speaker’s intention of what is to be
that takes place through TV, radio, accomplished by the speech act.
newspaper, magazine, books,
billboards, internet, and other types of
media. 1. ASSERTIVE – representations of reality.
SPEECH ACTS The speaker expresses belief about the
truth of a proposition.
 First proposed by John Langshaw Austin 2. DISERTIVE – used by speaker who
in 1962 and was developed by John attempts to get the addresses to carry
Rogers Searle in 1969. out an action.
 It is based on the premise that WORDS 3. COMMESIVE – commit a speaker to
CANNOT ONLY CONVEY INFORMATION some future actions. Utterances that
but, they CAN ALSO CARRY OUT commit a speaker to some voluntary
ACTIONS. actions.
 Austin and Searle are concerned with 4. EXPRESSIVE – utterances expressing
what the speakers means by his/her psychological attitudes. Reveals
utterance (intention) rather than what speaker’s emotions towards a particular
the utterance means in a language. proposition.
 Performed by a way of an utterance 5. DECLARATION – the speaker brings
with intended action. about immediate changes in the state
of affairs solely in virtue of utterances.
The performance of a speech act is in Foundation of human civilization.
accordance to the rules in using linguistic
elements: phonology, semantics, syntax and PERLOCUTIONARY ACT
 Known as the effect of the utterance,
SYNTAX – way in which words were put seeks change in behaviour, thoughts
together  and feelings of the addressee. 
 Resulting act of what is said.
PHONOLOGY – study of speech sounds used in

SEMNATICS – study of words and meanings of 1. Nomination 

phrases in language 2. Restriction
3. Turn – taking 
PRAGMATICS – study of what words mean in a 4. Topic control
situation 5. Topic shifting
6. Repair
LOCUTIONARY ACT  7. Termination
 What is said by speaker PUBLIC SPEAKING 
 The actual words said by the speaker
(utterance)  An act of oral communication with
 The utterance act purposes
 Sentence have grammatical structure  Accountable to the people
and a literal meaning

 What is meant by speaker


 Trains people to think

 Trains people to be physically awake
 Boosts week charisma
 Makes one a keen observer
 Compels one to be a wide reader 

 To inform
 To persuade (heart)
 To convince (mind)
 To entertain 
 To actuate

 According to preparation (speech to be

 According to specialization (after dinner
 According to purpose (informative)
 According to occasion (formal, informal)

 Comedian 
 Entertainment 
*this two are the speaker’s characteristic in oral
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT Organizations help us to accomplish goals
which otherwise would be much more difficult,
THE NATURE OF ORGAIZATION AND if not impossible, to achieve on an individual
MANAGEMENT basis. Organizations, like public organizations,
business enterprises, hospitals, church and
Organization and management is twin
military, serve the multifarious and growing
terms that exist side by side with each other,
needs of the people and society. For most of us,
each one needs and supports the other.
organizations provide a means of livelihood, a
Organizations will be inert and useless if there is
vehicle to develop our career, and a source of
no management that will steer it; management
pride. Others even develop a strong attachment
will be hollow and meaningless if there’s no
and commitment to their organization that
organization to manage.
they’d say they are ‘married’ to their jobs there.
In the real world of administration,
Organizations can be formal or informal are
organization and management are essential
“a Formal organizations system of coordinated
elements through which human actions and
activities of a group of people working
objectives are carried out and accomplished. In
cooperatively toward a common goal under
a manner of speaking, organization and
authority and leadership” (Scott and Mitchell as
management become a means to an end.
cited in Nigro 1989).
Organizations can be formal or informal.
Organizations are defined differently by Informal organizations, while they exist side by
different authors. There are, however, certain side with formal ones, are “undocumented and
essential elements that can be discerned from officially unrecognized relationships between
them. In other words, organizations consist of members of an organization that inevitably
people who, more or less, share common emerge out of the personal and group needs of
objectives or purpose. The behaviour of the employees” (Stoner and Freeman, 1989). They
organization is directed towards the attainment are, as described by Herbert A. Simon, “the
of these objectives. The members who interpersonal relationships in the organization
compromise the organization work jointly in that affect decisions within but either are
groups and cooperate together in omitted from the formal scheme or are not
interdependent relationships. This suggests that consistent with it” (cited in Stoner and
organizations structure and integrate their Freeman, 1989).
activities. Furthermore, organizations use
Bureaucracy Government relies on the
knowledge and techniques to accomplish their
formal organizations, more popularly known as
bureaucracy, to carry out its functions and
PARTS OF A SYSTEM ACCORDING TO KAST and perform its role in society. Much of government
ROSENZWEIG:  activities are carried out by these organizations
which are of varying sizes and functions,
1. Organization itself scattered all over the country, but all around by
2. Goals and values;  a common mission and purpose – that is, to
3. Technical subsystem (knowledge and protect and promote the welfare of the people.
skills required to do the task);  The familiar usage of bureaucracy has become
4. Psycho-social subsystem (composed of associated with and often interchanged with
individual and group interaction); and  government.
5. managerial subsystem

 Management, on the other hand,  Planning 

involves the coordination of human and  Organizing 
material resources toward the attainment of  Staffing 
organization’s goals (Kast, 1974). In any  Directing 
organization, absolute harmony is hard to attain  Coordinating 
and, perhaps, unrealistically achievable. What is  Reporting 
more realistically bound to happen is for some  Budgeting
conflict to arise. Thus, it is the task of
management to integrate the varied elements, PLANNING 
be these cooperative or conflictive, into a
complete organizational undertaking. Is an organizational management
activity that is used to set priorities, focus
Managers – people who are responsible energy and resources, strengthen operations,
for integrating, coordinating, and directing ensure that employees and other stakeholders
activities of others – then have to bring are working toward common goals, establish
together the organization staff, money, agreement around intended outcomes/results,
materials, time and space into an integrated and assess and adjust the organization's
and effective system to achieve organizational direction in response to a changing
objective. Managers get things done by working environment. It is a disciplined effort that
with people and physical resources to realize produces fundamental decisions and actions
the goals of the organization; they coordinate that shape and guide what an organization is,
and integrate the work and activities of others who it serves, what it does, and why it does it,
(Kast, 1974). with a focus on the future. Effective strategic
planning articulates not only where an
Because most organizations work in a organization is going and the actions needed to
larger environment where other organizations, make progress, but also how it will know if it is
institutions, groups of people, demands, successful.
pressures, changes, developments, and so on,
exist, it behooves the organizations and their ORGANIZING 
managers to relate with the external
environment if they have to be effective and Is the function of management that involves
assure their existence and relevance. developing an organizational structure and
allocating human resources to ensure the
Management, according to Kast, has accomplishment of objectives. The structure of
the following elements:  the organization is the framework within which
effort is coordinated. The structure is usually
1) toward objectives,  represented by an organization chart, which
provides a graphic representation of the chain
2) through people, 
of command within an organization. Decisions
3) via techniques and,  made about the structure of an organization are
generally referred to as organizational design.
4) in an organization.  The matching of organizational form, such as
structure, reporting relationships, and
In a short, management is getting the information technology, with the organization’s
tasks done through people and techniques strategy is what you called decision.
toward the attainment of objective within the
organizational setting.
STAFFING  persuasive leadership and effective
communication. Integration of efforts brings
After an organization's structural design is effectiveness and stability in a concern.
in place, it needs people with the right skills,
knowledge, and abilities to fill in that structure.  Means of Motivation 
People are an organization's most important
resource, because people either create or - Direction function helps in
undermine an organization's reputation for achievement of goals. A manager makes use of
quality in both products and service In addition, the element of motivation here to improve the
an organization must respond to change performances of subordinates. This can be done
effectively in order to remain competitive. The by providing incentives or compensation,
right staff can carry an organization through a whether monetary or non - monetary, which
period of change and ensure its future success. serves as a “Morale booster” to the
Because of the importance of hiring and subordinates Motivation is also helpful for the
maintaining a committed and competent staff, subordinates to give the best of their abilities
effective human resource management is which ultimately helps in growth.
crucial to the success of all organizations. 
It Provides Stability 
- Stability and balance in concern
Directing or Direction function is said to becomes very important for long term sun
be the heart of management of process and survival in the market. This can be brought
therefore, is the central point around which upon by the managers with the help of four
accomplishment of goals take place. A few tools or elements of direction function judicious
philosophers call Direction as “Life spark of an blend of persuasive leadership, effective
enterprise”. It is also called as on actuating communication, strict supervision and efficient
function of management because it is through motivations. Stability is very important since
direction that the operation of an enterprise that is an index of growth of an enterprise.
actually starts. Being the central character of
Coping up with the changes
enterprise, it provides many benefits to a
concern which are as follows: It Initiates Actions  - It is a human behaviour that human
- Directions is the function which is the starting beings show resistance to change. Adaptability
point of the work performance of subordinates. with changing environment helps in sustaining
It is from this function the action takes place, planned growth and becoming a market leader.
subordinates understand their jobs and do It is directing function which is of use to meet
according to the instructions laid. Whatever are with changes in environment, both internal as
plans laid, can be implemented only once the external. Effective communication helps in
actual work starts. It is there that direction coping up with the changes. It is the role of
becomes beneficial. manager here to communicate the nature and
contents of changes very clearly to the
It Ingrates Efforts
subordinates. This helps in clarifications, easy
 - Through direction, the superiors are adaption and smooth running of an enterprise. 
able to guide, inspire and instruct the
subordinates to work. For this, efforts of every
individual towards accomplishment of goals are
required. It is through direction the efforts of
every department can be related and integrated
with others. This can be done through
Efficient Utilization Standards: base it on established standards of
- Direction finance helps in clarifying the
role of every subordinate towards his work. The Flexibility: allow for changing circumstances.
resources can be utilized properly only when
less of wastages, duplication of efforts, Feedback: constantly monitor performance. 
overlapping of performances, etc. doesn’t take
Analysis of costs and revenues: this can be
place. Through direction, the role of
done on the basis of product lines, departments
subordinates become clear as manager makes
or cost centers. 
use of his supervisory, the guidance, the
instructions and motivation skill to inspire the ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT IN
subordinates. This helps in maximum possible PUBLIC SECTORS
utilization of resources of men, machine,
materials and money which helps in reducing Organization and management in the public
costs and increasing profits.  sector may share many similarities with those in
the private setting. For instance, both practice
COORDINATION division of labour, have an internal organization
structure, recruit personnel, give direction and
Coordination Mooney (1953) defines
assign tasks to employees, etc.
coordination as & the orderly arrangement of
group effort to provide unity of action in the Public and Private Administration Criteria
pursuit of a common purpose. Coordination is Public Administration 
the process of synchronizing activities of various
persons in the organization in order to achieve 1. Relations to environment - subject to public
goals. It is undertaken at every level of scrutiny; public demand and expectations;
management.  political pressures Private Administration - Less
exposed to public inspection; internal processes
Reporting Accountability reporting is are kept from public; response to public guided
primary intended to help management better by market dynamics 
measure performance against target, whereas,
insight reporting is focused on providing 2. Accountability - Accountable to the public;
information to help management better transparency in transactions is expected. 
understand the business and react tactically and
strategically.  3. Measure of performance - general public
satisfaction is the gauge in the improvement in
A budget is one of your best tools for the quality of life θ profit is bottom line 
reaching your goal. It’s a plan of what money
you expect to receive and how you expect to 4. Nature of goods and services - open to all,
spend it.  availment based on one’s ability to pay

A good budget is characterized by the  ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

following:  TECHNIQUES 

Participation: involve as many people as Organization Development (OD)

possible in drawing up a budget. 
Organizational development, OD for short, is
Comprehensiveness: embrace the whole an approach to planned organizational change.
organization. It is a long-term and, oftentimes, complicated
effort to bring the organization to a higher level
of functioning and at the same time, improve
the performance and sense of satisfaction of O and M Studies 
the members of organization. While OD
includes structural and technological changes, As a field of study, public administration has
its main focus is on changing people and the always been concerned with improving our
nature and quality of their working understanding of public organizations,
relationships, in short, the organizational commonly known as bureaucracy, and their
culture. effective management. Because much
government activities are carried out by the
To achieve this, OD zeroes in on bureaucracy, it is important to investigate how
improving the problem-solving and self-renewal these public organizations work and operate.
processes of the organization. Problem-solving The knowledge gained can help those working
process refers to the methods by which in government manage their agencies more
organizations deal with problems and situations effectively.
they face. Renewal process allows managers to
adjust to environmental changes by adapting The interest in studying the organization and
their problem-solving style and goals in a way management of public organizations and
that will be most suitable to given situations. institutions will not wane. Government has
Because organizational development involves always relied upon its agencies and institutions
the whole organization, support of top to carry out its activities and the concern for
management is essential. Another way of saying improving government will undoubtedly involve
this is that OD can only take place with the looking into how these organizations function,
blessings of the top hierarchy or high-ranking their interrelationships with each other and the
officials in the organization (Stoner and external environment.
Freeman, 1989).
Public administration 
O and M varies in their approaches and focus. In
the United States, the focused were on the
It is computer-based information formal structures, functions, and processes of
system that provides accurate and timely the administrative organizations of government.
information to those needing them. MIS is The focus on the internal aspects of public
highly important for the effective performance administrative system and the concomitant
of the managerial functions. MIS facilitates values of efficiency, economy, and effectiveness
planning, decision-making and control, and with which the organizations function and
enables the organization to carry out these operate is characteristic of the traditional public
functions more effectively and efficiently administration.
(Stoner and Freeman, 1989). It is not surprising
Concepts on System Approach
that with the increasing sophistication of
computer technology today, newer systems  • A system is an organized unitary whole
that can aid public managers in their job will be composed of two or more independent parts,
developed. components or subsystems and delineated by
identifiable boundaries from its environmental
Total Quality Management by Dr. William
suprasystem. (F. Kast and J. Rosenzweig, 1979). 
Edward Deming documented both public and
private organizations in their attempt to • A system can be looked as having inputs,
respond to changes as brought about by the processes, outputs and outcomes. 
advances in computer and communications
technology and trade liberalization and Inputs: Resources (in terms of manpower,
globalization. money, materials, equipments and facilities) 
Conversion Process  Other approaches to studying organizational
phenomena tried to integrate the elements of
o Planning  classical and neoclassical theories such as the
open-systems, decision-making and industrial
o Organizing 
humanism models
o Motivating 
Other works on organization have been marked
o Controlling  by their quest for innovative approaches (e.g.,
more flexible organizational forms, more
Output Products and services to the market participative processes, and more client-
oriented) in managing organizations as well as
 Feedback -  Influences from the government  concern for the impact of government policies
and activities on the people and society. These
θ Society 
are emphasized, for example, by the New PA.
θ Economics and 
Other organization studies are more
θTechnologies  perspective in character in that they
recommend specific and concrete measures to
Outcomes Enhanced quality life or productivity improve organizational performance. These
for customers (with results meaningful and studies deal with practical administrative issues
measurable) and offer solutions to solve them. These studies
are what you call applied studies or research
IMPACT is the change in the standard of living and are sometimes referred to as management
of the target group or within the target area studies.
from the program (UN, 1978) 
A popular example of applied organization
1. Self-reliance;  studies that we can cite is the reorganization of
the bureaucracy. A study of the existing
2. Self-sufficiency; 
structure, functions, and procedures is
3. Socially responsible;  conducted with the view to identifying concrete
measures that will improve the conduct of
4. Economically independent and politically government and public affairs.
Generally speaking, the studies made by the
5. Better quality of life Institute during those years were
“characteristically inward-oriented” and
O and M studies focused on structural concerns focused on organization structures, functions,
such as hierarchy, line of authority, division of processes, and procedures, concluded by
labor, staff-line functions; span of control, recommendations to apply management tools
records keeping, unity of command, and the and techniques that have been employed in the
like. United States. The studies dealt with wide
ranging practical issues concerning internal
Subsequent studies in organization and
structure, building space, work simplification,
management branched out to other concerns,
salary scale, employee morale, line of authority,
using the behavioural perspective or the human
line and staff functions, and so on.
relations model. These studies focused less on
the formal structure and more on the human Even as the researches continued to adhere to
dimension and informal groups and interactions this “inward-looking orientation”, other
within organizations. patterns emerged. Research investigations
already included the local governments-their For the Filipino public administration scholars,
organizations, functions, and management- and the challenge probably lies not only in
not just concentrating on the national discovering new frontiers in the discipline but,
government offices and institutions more importantly perhaps, in defining a public
administration model that brings in the Filipino
Studies also began to cover the relations perspective and the realism of Philippine
between the bureaucracy and the public at experience.
large, as exemplified by the researches on
public accountability and program
implementation. This “outwardlooking
orientation” and interest on social relevance of
public administration became more
pronounced in the studies following the
declaration of martial law and onwards to the
‘80s (Reyes, 1995).

Many of the organization studies conducted by

the CPA that the time precisely fitted into the
scheme of upgrading the administrative
capability of the government. They were a
direct and relevant response to the need and
call for efficient, economical, and effective
government. These studies were of the applied
type and addressed practical problems in
internal administrative structure, functions, and

They also offered concrete measures to

improve the system. In a sense, the studies
filled the role of providing the government with
ideas and solutions to improve government
operations and performance and, thus, make it
more capable in accomplishing its task of nation
building and national development.

Thus far, it is apparent that the bulk of

organization studies before were more oriented
towards dealing with practical issues in
Philippine public administration than building
theoretical knowledge about public

This much was noted by Cariño when she

reviewed the researches undertaken by the
College. According to her, as cited by Reyes, a
little less than three percents of studies made
between 1952 and 1972 could be considered as
theoretical works. Reyes also reiterates this
observation in his article.
EARTH AND LIFE SCIENCE happen at extremely high temperature. It is a
nuclear fusion reaction responsible for the
UNIVERSE- a large unimaginable expanse of energy produced by the stars.
GAS, STARS, DUST CLOUDS and consist of
their hydrogen faster than smaller stars. Stars
STRUCTURE like our sun burn up hydrogen in about 10
billion years.
1. 71.4% - DARK ENERGY (a source of anti-
gravity, causes the universe to expand) *There are gazillions of galaxies in the Universe.
2. 24%- DARK MATTER (matter that has gravity KINDS OF GALAXIES
but does not emit light)
Some galaxies are very small with only a few
3. 4.6%- ATOMS also called as BARYONIC million stars, while others could have as many
MATTER (ordinary matter consisting of protons, as 400 billion stars, or even more.
electrons, and neutrons: atoms, planets, stars,
galaxies, nebulae, and other bodies) There are 3 kinds of galaxies: SPIRAL,
ELLIPTICAL and IRREGULAR. The only difference
COMPOSITION between the three is what shape they are.
*Three most abundant elements in the universe BIRTH, REVOLUTION, DEATH, AND REBIRTH OF
*The remaining dust and gas may end up as
they are or as planets, asteroids, or other
>Lithium bodies in the accompanying planetary system.

STARS- the building block of galaxies and is born Based on recent data:
out of clouds of gas and dust in galaxies.
*the universe is 13.8 billion years old
PROTOSTAR- the hot core of a future star as
*the diameter of the universe is possibly infinite
thermonuclear reactions set in. It is also an
but should be at least 91 billion light-years (1
early stage in the formation of the star resulting
light year = 9.4607 x 10¹² km)
from gravitational collapse of gases.
*its density is 4.5 x 10¯³¹ g/cm³
GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE- the contraction of
an astronomical object due to the influence of GALAXY- is a cluster of billions of stars and
its own gravity. It is a fundamental mechanism cluster of galaxies form superclusters. In
for structure formation in the universe. between the clusters is practically an empty
STELLAR INTERIORS- are like furnaces where
elements are synthesized or combined/fused ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
together. Most stars such as the sun belong to
the so called “main sequence stars”. In the BIGBANG THEORY
cores of such stars, hydrogen atoms are fused
through thermonuclear reactions to make  *The universe is expanding, and originated in
helium atoms. infinitely tiny, infinitely dense pint called
singularity. And there was violent explosion
THERMONUCELAR REACTIONS- of or relating to which caused the inflation and expansion of the
the changes in the nucleus of atoms that universe.
 *The currently accepted theory of the origin  *It maintains that new matter is created as the
and evolution of the universe. universe expands thereby maintaining its
 *Postulates that the universe is 13.8 billion
years old.  *Its predictions led to tests and its eventual
rejection with the discovery of the cosmic.
 *The universe expanded from a tiny, dense and
hot mass to its present size and much cooler. OSCILLATING THEORY

The BIGBANG THEORY rest on 2 ideas: GENERAL  *The universe is expanding for a time and then
RELATIVITY and the COSMOLOGICAL to its contradiction due to gravity.
-In Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, THE BIG BANG THEORY
gravity is thought of as a distortion of space-
time and no longer described by a gravitational  From time zero (13.8 billion years ago)
field in contrast of the Law of Gravity of Isaac until 10-43 second later, all matter and
Newton. General Relativity explains the energy in universe existed as a hot,
peculiarities of the orbit of Mercury and the dense, tiny state. It then underwent
bending of light by the sun and has passed extremely rapid, exponential inflation
rigorous tests. The cosmological principle until 10-32 second later after which and
assumes that the universe is homogenous and until 10 seconds from time zero,
isotropic when averaged large scales. conditions allowed the existence of only
quarks, hadrons and leptons (tiniest
  Then Big Bang nucleosynthesis took
 *Ancient-Egyptians believed in many Gods and place and produces protons, neutrons,
Myths which narrate that the world arose form atomic nuclei, and then hydrogen,
an infinite sea at the first rising of the sun. helium, and lithium until 20 minutes
after time zero when sufficient cooling
 *The Kuba people of Central Africa tell the
did not allow further nucleosynthesis.
story of a creator God Mbombo (or Bumba)
 From then on until 380,000 years, the
who, alone in a dark and water-covered Earth,
cooling universe entered a matter-
felt an intense stomach pain and then vomited
dominated period when photons
the stars, sun and moon.
decoupled from matter and light could
 *In India, there is the narrative that Gods travel freely as still observed today in
sacrificed Purusha, the primal man whose head, the form of cosmic, microwave
feet, eyes, and mind became the sky, earth, sun background radiation.
and moon respectively.   As the universe continued to cool
down, matter collected into clouds
STEADY STATE MODEL (1948) (Proposed by giving rise to only stars after 380,000
Bondi, Gould, Hoyle) years and eventually galaxies would
from after 100 million years from time
 *The universe expanded but do not change in zero during which through
density. nucleosynthesis in stars, carbon and
 *It is also called as INFINITE UNIVERSE. elements heavier than carbon were
 From 9.8 billion years until the present,
the universe became dark-energy
dominated underwent accelerating billion years old on the
expansion. At about 9.8 billion years assumption that they are
after the big bang, the solar system was remnants of the materials from
formed.  which they were formed. 
EARTH- the third rock from the sun
SUN- is at the outer limb of galaxy (not  Much of the mass of the solar system is
at the center) concentrated at the center (sun) while
GALAXY- there are billions of galaxy in angular momentum is held by the outer
our universe planets.
*Stars energy comes from combining  Orbits of the planets elliptical and are
light elements into heavier elements by on the same plane.
 All planets revolve around the sun.
 The periods of revolution of the planets
*Forming of Helium (He) from
increase with increasing distance from
Hydrogen (H) gives off lots of energy.
the sun; the innermost planet moves
*Nucleosynthesis requires very high
fastest, the outermost, the slowest.
temperature. The minimum
 All planets are located at regular
temperature for H fusion is 5 x 10 C.

intervals from the sun.

 The solar system is located in SMALL SCALE FEATURES OF THE SOLAR
the Milky Way galaxy. A huge SYSTEM
disc and spiral-shaped
aggregation of about at least  Most planets rotate prograde (counter
100 billion stars and other clockwise)
bodies.  Inner terrestrial planets are made of
 Its spiral arms rotate around a materials with high melting points such
globular cluster or bulge of as silicates, iron, and nickel. They rotate
many, many stars, at the center slower, have thin or no atmosphere,
of which lies a supermassive higher densities, and lower contents of
black hole. volatiles-hydrogen, helium, and noble
 This galaxy is about 100 million gases.
light years across (1 light year =  The outer four planets – Jupiter, Saturn,
9.4607 x 10 km)
12 Uranus and Neptune are called “gas
 The solar system revolves giants” because of the dominance of
around the galactic center once gases and their larger size. They rotate
in about 240 million years. faster, have thick atmosphere, lower
 The Milky Way is part of the so- densities, and fluid interiors rich in
called “Local Group of hydrogen, helium and ices (water,
Galaxies”, which in turn is part ammonia, methane).
of the Virgo supercluster of ORIGIN OF THE SYSTEM
 Based on the assumption that NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS
they are remnants of the
materials from which they were  In the 1700’s Emmanuel Swedenburg,
formed, radioactive dating of Immanuel Kant, and Pierre-Simon
meteorites, suggests that the Laplace independently thought of a
Earth and solar system are 4.6 rotating gaseous cloud that cools and
contracts in the middle to form the sun meteorite constituents have changed
and the rest into a disc that become the very little since the solar systems’ early
planets. history and can give clues about their
 The nebular theory failed to account for formation. The currently accepted
the distribution of angular momentum theory on the origin of the solar system
in the solar system. relies much on information from
 Buffon’s (1749) sun-comet encounter HYPOTHESIS)
that sent matter to form planet.
 James Jeans’ (1917) sun-star encounter  About 4.6 billion years ago, in the orion
that would have drawn from the sun arm of the Milky Way galaxy, a slowly-
matter that would condense to planets. rotating gas and dust cloud dominated
 T.C Chamberlein and F.R Moulton’s by hydrogen and helium starts to
(1904) planetisimal hypothesis involving contract due to the gravity.
a star much bigger than the sun passing  As most of the mass move to the center
by the sun and draws gaseous filaments to eventually become a proto-sun, the
from both out which planetisimal   were remaining materials from a disc that will
formed. eventually become the planets and
 Ray Lyttleton’s (1940) sun’s companion momentum is transferred outwards.
start colliding with another to form a  Due to collision, fragments of dust and
photo-planet that breaks up to form solid matter begin sticking to each other
Jupiter and Saturn. to form larger and larger bodies from
 Otto Schimiat’s accretion theory meter to kilo meter in size. There proto-
proposed that the sun passed through a planets are accretions of frozen water,
dense interstellar cloud and emerged ammonia, methane, silicon, aluminum,
with a dusty, gaseous envelope that iron, and other metals in rock and
eventually became the planets. mineral grains enveloped in hydrogen
However, it cannot explain how the and helium.
planets and satellites were formed. The  High-speed collisions with large objects
time required to form the planets destroys much of the mantle of
exceeds the age of the solar system. Mercury, puts Venus in retrograde
 M.M Woolfson’s capture theory is a rotation.
variation of James Jeans’ near-collision  Collision of the Earth with large object
hypothesis. In this scenario, the sun produces the moon. This is supported
drags from a near proto-star a filament by the composition of the moon very
of material which becomes the planets. similar to the Earth’s Mantle.
Collisions between proto-planets close  When the proto-sun is established as a
to the sun produced the terrestrial star, its solar wind blasts hydrogen,
planets; condensations in the filament helium, and volatiles form the inner
produced the giant planets and their planets beyond Mars to form the gas
satellites. Different ages for the sun and giants leaving behind a system we know
planet is predicted by this theory. today.
 Nobel Prize winner Harold Urey’s
compositional studies on meteorites in
the 1950s and other scientists work on MERCURY
these objects led to the conclusion that
 In Roman Mythology, mercury is the  THE EARTH IS FRAGILE – its surface is
God of commerce, travel and thievery, split into plates (tectonic plates) which
the Roman Counterpart of the Greek float on a rocky mantle (the layer
God Hermes, the messenger of the between the surface of the Earth, its
Gods. The planet received this name crust and its hot liquid core). The inside
because it moves so quickly across the of the Earth is active and earthquakes,
sky. and volcanoes and mountain building
 Mercury is a small planet which orbits takes place along the boundaries of the
closer to the sun. tectonic plate.
 Has no moon.  The Earth is larger than Mercury, Venus
 Its surface is very hot. It features a and Mars.
barren, crater covered surface.  The Earth differs from all the other
 The daytime temperature is scorching planets because it has such a wide
reaching over 400 C.
0 diversity of life and intelligent beings.
 At night, its temperature is dropping to This has only been possible because of
180 C.
0 the Earth’s atmosphere which has
 Low surface gravity. protected the Earth and allowed life to
 Named after the Roman Goddess of
love and beauty.  Named after the Roman God of War.
 Is the brightest object in the sky.  It is also called as “Red Planet” because
 No moons. it is covered with rust – like dust.
 “MORNING STAR” – at sunrise it  Fourth planet from the sun.
appears in the east.  Has 2 moons.
 ËVENING STAR” – its sunsets in west  Mars looks a lot like our home though
 Venus and Earth are close together in instead of blue oceans and green land.
space and similar in size, which is the Mars is home to an ever present red
reason Venus called as “Earth’s Sister tint. This is due to a minimal called iron
Planet”. oxide that is very common on the
 Has more volcanoes than any other planet’s surface.
planet.  Mars has many massive volcanoes and
 Temperature: about 460 C.
0 is home to Olympus moons, the largest
 Atmosphere: composed of carbon volcano in our solar system. It stands 21
dioxide. km high and 600 km across the base.
 Has a very thin atmosphere made
EARTH mostly of carbon dioxide.
 120 C on winter nights to 25 C in the
0 0

 The name Earth is an old English and

German name which is simply means
“soil”. JUPITER
 Earth is the third planet form the sun.
 Has one moon.  Called after ancient Roman sky-God
 Only planet that has liquid water on its Jupiter, known to the Greeks as Zeus.
surface.  Is the largest planet in our solar system.
 Only planet in the solar system that has (more than 1300 Earth could fit inside
life. it)
 Has 63 moons. The first 4 largest moons  Rolls like a barrel rather than spinning
of Jupiter are called “GALILLEAN like Earth and the other planets in our
MOON”, but 46 of them are much solar system.
smaller ranging.  One of the gas giants, the four planets
 Is the stormiest planet in the solar which are entirely composed of gas.
system.  (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune)
 JUPITER’S GREAT RED SPOT –  Uranus’ atmosphere is mostly hydrogen
permanent but ever-changing whirlpool but it also contains large amounts of
of storms and was first seen by Robert gas called methane. Methane absorbs
Hooke (1864). red light and scatters blue light so a
 The first gas giants. blue-green methane haze hides the
 It is made up of hydrogen, helium, interior of the planet form view.
methane, ammonia. The cloudy sphere
has a bright belt on it which changes
their shape.  Is named after Roman God of the Sea.
SATURN   Is the farthest planet from the sun.
 Have 13 moons.
 Was named after the ancient Roman  Is a great ball of hydrogen and helium.
God of Agriculture.  In the same year that Neptune was first
 Second largest planet in our solar seen 1846. Its first moon was also
system. spotted and named TRITON. Triton is a
 It has 62 moons. most unusual moon since it orbits
 Is the largest planet that can be seen Neptune opposite direction of
without using a telescope. The rings Neptune’s own rotation on its axis.
however, can only be seen using a  Is a large, water planet with a blue
telescope.  hydrogen-methane atmosphere and
 The rings were first seen by Galileo in faint rings.
1610 through a telescope.  Suffers most violent weather in our
 The rings are made up of millions of ice solar system.
crystals, same as big as houses and  Storms have been spotted swirling
others as small as specks of dust. around its surface and freezing winds
 Is very light as it is made up of more that blow about ten times faster than
hydrogen than helium so it is less hurricanes on Earth making it the
dense. windiest planet in the solar system.
 Saturn is a peaceful planet! Storm
around the atmosphere at 800 km/h.

 Was named after the Greek God of the  Life is limited to a temperature range of
Sky. -15 C to 115 C. Because of its distance
0 0

 Was the first planet discovered by from the sun, Earth has a temperature
telescope. range of 0 C to 100 C, which allows life
0 0

 Has 27 moons. to exist. The length of day and night

 Coldest planet also contribute to temperatures that
can sustain life.
 Was first seen by William Hesrchel in
1718 during a survey of the sky using a 2. PRESENCE OF LIQUID WATER
 Earth’s temperature range allows water 5. NUTRIENTS
to exist in liquid form.
 0 C is the freezing point of water and
0  All solid planets and moons have the
100 C is the boiling point of water.
0 same general chemical make up so
 Water is regularly available. nutrients are present.
 Landforms allow water to run from high  Planets with a water cycle or volcanic
to low elevations and replenish as the activity can transport and replenish the
seasons change. chemicals required by living organisms.
 The Earth’s atmosphere thickness traps
heat and protects it from the Sun’s  Carbon 
harmful UV Radiation.  Hydrogen 
 It also protects it from small to medium  Oxygen 
sized meteorites.  Nitrogen 
 It contains gases including nitrogen,  Phosphorus 
oxygen, argon and carbon dioxide.  Potassium 
(NOArCO )2
 Sulphur 
 Calcium 
 Magnesium
MINOR NUTRIENTS (trace elements)

 Molybdenum 
 Cooper 
 Boron 
 Manganese
 Iron 
 Chlorine 
 Nickel 
 Zinc 

1. Has cells

2. Grow and Develop

3. Cellular Organization

4. Lifespan
 With a steady input of either light or
chemical energy from the sun, cells can 1665 -  Robert Hooke described cells in his book
perform the chemical reactions “MOCROGRAPHIA”.
necessary for life (photosynthesis) 1674 – Leeuwenhoek discovered protozoa. He
 These give us food sources including saw bacteria some 9 years later.
plants and animals.
1833 – Brown described the cell nucleus in cells ceslum chloride solutions for separating nucleic
of the orchids. acids.

1838 – Schleiden and Schwann proposed cell 1965 – Ham introduced a defined serum-free
theory. medium Cambridge instruments produced the
first commercial scanning electron microscope.
1840 – Albereht Von Roeliker realized that
sperm cells and egg cells are also cell. 1976 – Sato and colleagues published papers
showing that different cell lines require
1856 – N. Pringsheim observed how a sperm different mixtures of hormones and growth
cell penetrated an egg cell. factors in serum-free media.
1857 – Roelikes described mitochondria. 1981 – Transgenic mice and fruit flies are
produced, mouse embryonic stem cell line
1858 – Ruddf Virehow (Physician, Pathologist,
and Anthropologist) expounded on his famous
conclusion: omnicellula, a cellula, that is cells 1987 – Creation of first knock out mouse which
develop only from existing cells. {cells come contains an artificially introduced mutation in
from pre-existing cells} their cells.
1879 – Flemming described chromosome 1998 – Mice are cloned from somatic cells.
behavior during mitosis.
2000 – Human genome DNA sequence draft.
1883 – Germ cells are haploid, chromosome
Theory of Heredity. OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATIONS!!!!!!!!!

1898 – Golgi described the Golgi Apparatus. COSMOS – another term for universe

1926 – Svedberg developed the first analytical ANDROMEDA GALAXY – Closest galaxy to the
ultracentrifuge. Milky Way

1938 – Belirens used differential centrifugation 150 MILLION KM – Sun-Earth distance

to separate nuclei from cytoplasm.
PROXIMA CENTAURI – Second closest star form
1939 – Siemens produced the first commercial the Earth
transmission electron microscope.
MAIN SEQUENCE STAR – Stars that fuse
1941 – Coons used fluorescent labeled hydrogen atoms to form helium atoms in their
antibodies to detect cellular antigens. cores

1952 – Gey and co – workers established a STELLAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS – Elements like

continuous human cell line. carbon were produced

1953 – Crick, Wilins and Watson proposed 10 BILLION YEARS – A medium size star like sun
structure of DNA Double-helix. will last

1955 – Eage systematically defined the 240 MILLION YEARS – Period of revolution of
nutritional needs of animal cells in culture. Solar System around the globular cluster of
Milky Way.
1957 – Meselson, Staht and Vinograd
developed density gradient contrifrugation in
KOMUNIKASYON AT PANANALIKSIK nag-uugat sa mga tunog na
nalikha sa mga ritwal na
nagbabago at nalalapatan ng
 Ang wika ay isang sistema ng kahulugan.
komunikasyon sa pagitan ng mga tao sa
pamamagitan ng mga pagsulat o
pasalitang simbolo. (Noah Webster
6. YO – HE – HO 
a. Batay sa paniniwala na ang tao
KATANGIAN NG WIKA ay natutong magsalita bunga ng
kaniyang paggamit ng pwersa
 Masistemang balangkas
sa pagbuhat ng isang mabigat
 Sinasalitang tunog
na bagay.
 Pinipili at isinasaayos
6. TA – TA 
 Arbitrary
a. Ang kumpas o galaw ng tao na
 Giangamit
ginagawa sa particular na
 Nakabatay sa kultura
 Dinamiko
MGA TEORYA UKOL SA WIKA a. Iisa lang ang wika noong unang
1. DING – DONG panahon ngunit naghangad ang
1. Ang bawat bagay sa mundo ay tao na higitan ang
may kasama. kapangyarihan ng Diyos,
b. BOW – BOW  nagtayo sila ng tore at ginuho
1. Ginagaya ng mga tao ang mga ito ng Diyos at ginawang
tunog sa likha ng kalikasan o magkakaiba ang kanilang wika.
 Instrumento ng komunikasyon
1. Ang mga tao ay lumulikha ng
 Nag-iingat at nagpapalaganap ng
mga likas na tunog at
pakahulugan sa mga ito upang
 Nagbubuklod ng bansa
mapahayag ang tindi ng
 Lumilinang ng malikhaing pag-iisip
kanyang damdamin gaya ng
sakit, galit, tuwa, pangamba at Samantala sa uses of language, binanggit ni
iba pa. Frank Smith ang kanyang mga sumusunod na
b. YUM – YUM  puna:
1. Nagsasaad na ang tao at
1. Higit na napag-aaralan ang wika sa mga
tumutugon sa pamamagitan ng
tunay na karanasan sa komunikasyon.
pagkumpas sa alinmang bahay
2. Ang kasanayan sa isang tungkuling
na nangangailangan ng aksyon.
pangwika ay hindi nangangailangan ng
kasanayan sa iba pa.
1. May mga ritwal na ginagamit
3. Hindi lamang isang tungkulin/gamit
ang mga sinaunang tao.
pangwika ang nagagamit sa ibang
Halimbawa nito ay sa
pagkakataon, maaari ring dalawa o
pakikidigma, pagtatanim, pag-
mahigit pa.
aani, pangingisda at iba pa. Ang
4. Kailangan ng nagsasalita ang
mga isinasagawang ritwal ay
tagapakinig at kailangan ng nagsusulat
may kaakibat na sa pagsasayaw.
ang mambabasa.
Pinaniniwalaan na ang wika ay
5. Isa lamang alternatibo ang wika o Paggawa ng paghahambing at
(pasalita o pasulat) upang higit na pag-aaral ng talasalitaan ng
mabisa ang komunikasyon ng wika at ng mga pangunahing dayalekto.
iba pang alternatibo tulad ng o Pagsusuri at pagtiyak sa
pagsasakilos, pagkumpas, at ekspresyon ponetika at ortograpiyang
ng mukha. Pilipino.
o Pagpili ng katutubong wika na
MONOLINGGWAL – taong nakakapagsalita ng
isang wika lamang siyang magiging batayan ng
Wikang Pambansa na dapat
BILINGGWAL – taong marunong magsalita ng umaayon sa:
dalawang wika  Ang pinakamaunlad at
POLYGLOT – higit sa tatlong wika ang kaya mayaman sa panitikan
niyang isalita  Ang wikang tinatanggap
at ginagamit ng
Kasaysayan ng pag-unlad ng wikang Pambansa  Enero 12, 1987, hinirang ni
sa Pilipinas Pangulong Quezon ang mga
kagawad na bubuo ng Surian ng
 1935 sa Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas, Wikang Pambansa alinsunod sa
nagtadhana ng tungkol sa wikang tadhana ng Seksyon 1 Batas
pambansa, “ang kongreso ay gagawa ng Komonwelt Bilang 184 sa
mga hakbang tungo sa pagpapaunlad at pakakasusog ng Batas
pagpapatibay ng isang wikang Komonwelt Bilang 333.
pambansa na batay sa isa sa umiiral na Ang mga nahirang na kagawad ay ang
katutubong wika” (Seksyon 3, Artikulo mga sumusunod:
XIV) 1. Jaime C. Veyra (Visayang
 Oktubre 27, 1936, itinagubilin ng Samar) Tagapangulo
Pangulong Manuel L. Quezon sa 2. Cecilio Lopez (Tagalog), Kalihim
kanyang mensahe sa Asemblea at Punong Tagapagpanggap
Nasyonal ang paglikha ng isang Surian 3. Santiago A. Fonacier (Ilokano)
ng Wikang Pambansa na gagawa ng Kagawad
isang pag-aaral ng mga wikang katutubo 4. Filemon Sotto (Visayang Cebu)
sa Pilipinas, sa layuning makakapagpa- Kagawad
unlad at makakapag-patibay ng isang 5. Felix Salas Rodriguez (Visayang
wikang panlahat. Hiligaynon) Kagawad
 Nobyembre 13, 1936, pinagtibay ng 6. Casimino Perfecto (Bikol)
Batasang Pambansa ang batas Kagawad
Komonwelt Bilang 184 na lumikha ng 7. Hadji Batu (Muslim) Kagawad
isang surian ng Wikang Pambansa at 8. Lope Santos (Tagalog)
itinatakda ang mga kapangyarihan at 9. Jose Zulueta (Pangasinan)
tungkulin niyon. 10. Zoilo Hilario (Kapampangan)
 Ang mga naging Gawain at tungkulin ng 11. Isidro Abad (Visayang Cebu)
Surian ng Wikang Pambansa ay ang  Hunyo 18, 1937, pinagtibay ang batas
sumusunod: ng Komonwelt Blg. 333, na nagsususog
o Pag-aaral ng mga pangunahing
sa ilang seksyon ng batas ng Komonwelt
wika na ginagamit ng may Blg.184.
kalahating milyong Pilipino man  Nobyembre 9, 1937, bunga ng
lamang. ginagawang pag-aaral at alinsunod sa
tadhana ng batas Komonwelt Blg. 184 pamamagitan nito’y ililipat ang
ang Surian ng Wikang Pambansa ay panahon ng pagdiriwang ng linggo ng
nagpatibay ng isang resolusyon na roo’y wikang pambansa taun-taon simula ika-
ipinapahayag na ang Tagalog ay siyang 13 hanggang ika-19 ng Agosto.
halos lubos na nakatugon sa mga Nakapaloob sa panahong saklaw ang
hinihingi ng Batas Komonwelt Blg. 184, pagdiriwang ng kaarawan ng Pangulong
kaya’t itinagubilin niyon sa Pangulo ng Quezon.
Pilipinas na iyon ang pagtibayin o bilang  Agosto 13, 1959, pinalabas ng Kalihim
saligan ng wikang pambansa. Jose Romero ng Kagawaran ng
 Disyembre 30, 1937, bilang pag- Edukasyon ang kautusang
alinsunod sa tadhana ng batas pangkagawaran Blg. 7 na nagsasaad ng
Komonwelt Blg.184 sa pamamagitan ng kailan ma’y tutukuyin ang wikang
kautusang tagapagpanggap Blg.134 ay pambansa ang salitang Pilipino ay
ipinahayag ng Pangulong Quezon ang siyang gagamitin.
wikang pambansa na batay sa Tagalog.
 Abril 1, 1940, sa pamamagitan ng
kautusang tagapagpanggap Blg. 263 ay  ARTIKULO XIV, SEKSYON 6
binigyang pahintulot ang o Pinagtibay ng saligang batas na
pagpapalimbag ng isang diksyonaryo ay kailangan paunlarin ang
gramatika ang wikang pambansa, at medium na opisyal ng
itinakdang mula Hunyo 19, 1940 ay kimunikasyon
pasisimulan ng ituro ang wikang o Filipino
pambansa ng Pilipinas sa lahat ng OPISYAL NA WIKA
paaralang-bayan at pribado.
Pagtuturong pambayan na maghanda,  Filipino at Ingles
kalakip ang pagpapatibay ng pangulo ng  Artikulo IV, seksyon 7
Pilipinas ng mga kinakailangang o Official language: Filipino
tuntunin at patakaran sa pagpapa-unlad o Second language: English
ng kautusang ito.  Lingua Franca – tulay sa
 Abril 12, 1940, pinalabas ng kalihim komunikasyon sa bansa
Jorge Bacoba ng pagtuturong  Lingua Franca ng daigidig –
pambayan ang isang kautusang Ingles
pangkagawaran ito’y sinundan ng isang BILINGGWALISMO – ang bilinggwalismo ay
sirkular (Blg. 26, serye 1940) ng panugot tumutukoy sa dalawang wika. Isang pananaw sa
ng Edukasyon Celedonio Salvador. Ang pagiging bilinggwal ng isang tao kung
pagtuturo ng wikang pambansa ay nakakapagsalita siya ng dalawang wika nang
sinimulan mula sa mataas at paaralang may pantay na kahusayan sa UP pinagtibay ng
normal. dating Presidente Salvador P. Lopez ang
 Hunyo 7, 1940, pinatibay ang batas tinaguriang malayang bilinggwalismo.
Komonwelt Blg. 570 na nagtatadhana
bukod sa iba pa na ang pambansang HUNYO 19, 1974 – ang Kagawaran ng
wika ay magiging isa na sa mga wikang Edukasyon at Kultura ay naglagda sa
opisyal ng Pilipinas simula sa Hulyo 4, pamamagitan ng kautusang pangkagawaran Blg.
1940. 25 serye 1974, pagpapatupad ng patakarang
 Marso 26, 1954, nilagdaan ng edukasyon bilinggwal. Halimbawa nito ay kung
Pangulong Ramon Magsaysay ang ang tao ay mahusay magsalita ng wikang Ingles
proklama Blg. 186 na nagsususog sa at Filipino siya ay maaaring tawaging bilinggwal.
proklama Blg. 12 serye 1965, na sa
REGISTER BILANG BARAYTI NG WIKA May mga salitang iba’t-iba ang ating
baybay sa kanila pero sa pangkalahatan naman
GENESIS 11:1-9 Tore ng Babel
ay iisa lamang ang tinutumbok na pakahulugan.
 DAYALEK – barayti ng wikang ginagamit
HALIMBAWA: Gamot ay tambal sa Cebu
ng particular na pangkat ng mga tao
mula sa isang particular na lugar tulad           Gamot ay bulong para sa mga
ng lalawigan, relihiyon o bayan. Hiligaynon
 IDYOLEK – indibidwal na paraan ng
paggamit ng wika (walang
magkaparehong wika ang dalawang Nangangahulugang wika mula sa iba-
tao) ibang lugar, grupo o pangangailangan ng
 SOSYOLEK – nabubuo batay sa paggagamit nito. Nagkakaroon ng maraming
dimensyong sosyalc(hal. Wika ng mga variation ang wika.
beki at conyos) Ang naging batayan ng linggwistiko para
 ETNOLEK – mula sa etnolinggwistikong magkaroon ng heterogenous na wika ay mga
grupo. Pinagsamang etniko at dayalek. masususing pag-aaral at pananaliksik tungkol sa
 REGISTER – ito ang barayti ng wika kung sosyolohikal at linggwistiak.
saan inaangkop ng isang nagsasalita ang
pormal na tono (magalang na Ito ay ang mga uri ng wika na
pananalita) at di pormal na tono karaniwang ginagamit sa pakikipag-ugnayan sa
 PIGDIN AT CREOLE – umuusbong na pang araw-araw na buhay.
wika o tinatawag sa Ingles na nobody’s Isa ang bansa nating Pilipinas sa may
native language o katutubong wika na pinakamaraming wika sa buong daigdig. Halos
di pag-aari ninuman. nasa 175 ang wika ng ating bansa. Ang apat dito
SPANISH + ZAMBOANGA’S ay hindi na halos ginagamit at ang 171 ay
LANGUANGE = PIDGIN kasalukuyang ginagamit.

CREOLE – kinagisnang pidgin Mula sa saluting “heterous” o magkaisa

at “genos” o uri at lahi ng salitang
HOMOGENOUS NA WIKA heterogenous.
Ito naman ay tumutukoy o nagsasabing Nagkakaroon ng barayti ng wika dahil sa
ang “wikang pormal” ay iba sa mga pagkakaiba-iba ng mga indibidwal at maging ng
naimbentong wika’t mga salita. Ang mga mga grupo ng mga tao na naaayon sa kanilang
homogenous na wika sa katunayan ay nabuo at ginagalawan, lipunan, pamumuhay, edad, antas
patuloy na nabubuo’t ginagamit ng mga tao sa ng edukasyon at interes.
Ang homogenous na wika ay
nangangahulugan na may mga salitang 1. INSTRUMENTAL
magkakapareha ngunit dahil sa mga paraan ng 1. Ito ang tungkulin ng wikang
pagbabaybay at mg intonasyon o punto ay tutugon sa mga
nagkakaroon ng bagong kahulugan ang mga pangangailangan ng tao gaya ng
salita.  pakikipag-ugnayan sa iba.
Kung pag-aaralan, dahil sa pagkakahati 1. Ito ang tungkulin ng wikang
sa pulo ng ating lugar dahil ang ating bansa ay tumutukoy sa pagkontrol sa
archipelago, kinasasakupan tayo ng ugali o asal ng ibang tao.
pagkakaroon ng iba’t-ibang uri o baryasyon ng b. INTERAKSYONAL
1. Ang tungkulin na ito ay nakikita Ayon sa mga propesor sa komunikasyon
sa paraan ng pakikipag-ugnayan na sila Emmert at Donaghy (1981), ang wika
ng tao sa kapwa. kung saan ito ay pasalita ay isang sistema ng
mga sagisag na binubuo ng mga tunog; kung ito
naman ay pasulat ito ay iniuugnay natin sa mga
4. PERSONAL kahulugan nais iparating bilang tao.
a. Saklaw ng tungkuling ito ang KASAYSAYAN NG WIKANG PAMBANSA
pagpapahayag ng sariling
opinyon sa paksang pinag-
uusapan.  Nang ilagay sa pamumuno ng kastila
4. HEURISTIKO ang kapuluan si Villalobos ang
a. Ang tungkuling ito ay ginagamit nagpasiya ng ngalang Felipinas bilang
sa pagkuha o paghahanap ng parangal kay Haring Felipe ngunit dila
impormasyong may kinalaman ng tao ay naging Filipinas.
sa paksang pinag-aaralan.  Itinuro ng mga kastila ang kristiyanismo
4. IMPORMATIBO sa mga katutubo upang maging
a. Ito ang kabaliktaran ng sibilisado uamno ang mga ito.
heuristiko.  Naniniwala ang mga kastila na mas
mabisa ang paggamit ng katutubong
wika sa pagpapatahimik sa mamamayan
(Jakobson 2003)
kaysa sa libong sundalong Espanyol.
1. Pagpapahayag ng damdamin (emotive)  Ang pamayanan ay pinaghati-hati sa
– saklaw nito ang pagpapahayag ng mga apat na ordeng misyonerong Espanyol
saloobin, damdamin at emosyon. na kalunan ay naging lima it, ang mga
2. Panghihikayat (conative) – ito ay ang ito ay Agustino, Pransiskano, Dominiko,
gamit ng wika upang makahimok at Heswita at Rekolekta upang
makaimpluwensiya sa iba sa pangasiwaan ang Kristiyanismo.
pamamagitan ng pag-uutos at pakiusap.  Ang paghahating ito ay nagkaroon ng
3. Pagsisimula ng pakikipag-ugnayan – epekto sa pakikipagtalastasan ng mga
ginagamit ang wika upang makipag- katutubo.
ugnayan sa kapwa at makapagsimula ng  Ang mga prayle ay sumulat ng mga
usapan. diksyonaryo, aklat-panggramatika,
4. Paggamit bilang Sanggunian – katekismo at mga kumpensyunal upang
ipinapakita nito ang gamit ng wikang madaling matuto ng katutubong wika.
nagmula sa aklat at iba pa. sangguniang
pinagmulan ng kaalaman upnag
maparating ang mensahe at  Nagmungkahi na turuan ang mga Indiyo
impormasyon. ng Espanyol.
5. Paggamit ng kuro-kuro – ito ang gamit
na lumitaw sa mga suliranin sa
pamamagitan ng pagbibigay ng  Naniniwalang kailangan maging
komento sa isang kodigo o batas. bilinggwal ng mga Filipino.
6. Patalinghaga – saklaw nito ang gamit HARING FELIPE II
ng wika sa masining na paraan ng
pagpapahayag ng panulaan, prosa,  Muling inulit ang utos na pagtuturo ng
sanaysay at iba pa. wikang Espanyol sa lahat ng katutubo
noong ika-2 ng Marso 1634 ngunit
ANG PINAGMULAN NG WIKA nabigo ang kautusang ito.
CARLOS I  Ingles ang naging wikang panturo
noong panahong ito.
 Nagmungkahi na ituro ang Doctrina
 Ang mga sundalo na nagturo ng Ingles
Christiana gamit ang wikang Espanyol.
ay kinikilala bilang THOMASITES.
CARLOS IV  Noong taong 1931, ang Bise
 Lumagda sa isa pang dekrito na nag- Gobernador Heneral George Butte, ay
uutos na gamitin ang wikang Espanyol nagpahayag ng kanyang panayam ukol
sa lahat ng paaralang itatag sa sa paggamit ng bernakular sa pagtuturo
pamayanan ng Indio. sa unang apat na taon ng pag-aaral.

Dahil sa nabaggit na kautusan ay lalong DAHILAN KUNG BAKIT NARARAPAT NA INGLES

nagkawatak-watak ang mga katutubo at tuluyan ANG ITURO SA PAMBAYANG PAARALAN
ng nagapi ng mga Espanyol ang katutubo at
hindi nila itinanim sa isip ng mga tao ang  Ang pagtuturo ng bernakular sa mga
kahalagahan ng wikang nagbibingkis sa kanilang paaralan ay magreresulta sa suliraning
damdamin. administratibo.
 Malaki ang nagasta ng pamahalaan para
sa edukasong pambayan at paglinang
REBOLUSYONG PILIPINO ng Ingles upang maging wikang
 333 taon ang pananakop ng mga kastila, pambansa.
namulat sila sa kaapihang dinanas.  Hindi magandang pakinggan ang
 Sa panahong ito, maraming Filipino ang magkahalong wikang Ingles at
naging matindi ang damdaming bernakular.
Nasyonalismo.  Ingles ang nakikitang pag-asa upang
 Nagkaroon ng mga propaganda ng magkaroon ng pambansang pagkakaisa.
kilusan noong 1872 na siyang naging  Ang Ingles ay mayaman sa katawagang
simula ng kamalayan upang pansining at pang-agham.
 Sa panahong rebolusyon sumibol sa
mga maghigimagsik ang kaisipang  Ipinagbawal ang paggamit ng Ingles sa
“isang bansa, sang diwa” laban sa mga anumang aspekto ng pamumuhay ng
Espanyol. Pinili nila ang tagalong sa mga Filipino.
pagsulat. Masidhing damdamin laban sa  Ipinagbabawal ang paggamit ng aklat at
mga Espanyol ang pangunahing paksa peryodiko mula sa Amerika.
sa kanilang mga sinulat.  Itinuro ang wikang Nihonggo sa lahat ng
 Si Jose Rizal ay naniniwala na ang wika paaralan subalit binigyang-diin ang
ay malaking bagay upang mapagbuklod wikang Tagalog.
ang kanyang mga kababayan.  ORDINANSA MILITAR BLG. 13
1. Itinatag ng mga Hapones
2. Nag-uutos nag awing opisyal na
Malayang ipinagamit ang Ingles. Itinuro wika ang Tagalog at Nihonggo
ang Ingles sa mga oaaralan at ginamit ang Ingles  PHILIPPINE EXECUTIVE COMMISSION
bilang wika ng pagtuturo. Maraming Filipino ang 1. Itinatag upang magataguyod ng
natuto at nagsalita ng Ingles. patakarang miitar ng mga
Hapones at propagandang
 Pagkatapos ng kolonyalismong pang-Kultura.
Espanyol, dumating ang mga Amerikano
sa pamumuno ni Almirante Dewey.
2. Si JORGE VARGAS ang namuno  PICK – UP LINES
sa Philippine Executive o Makabagong bugtong kung
Commission. saan may tanong na sinasagot
 KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa paglilingkod sa ng isang bagay ng madalas
bagong Pilipinas) maiugnay sa pag-ibig at iba
1. Layuning mapabuti ang pang aspeto ng buhay.
edukasyon at moral na  HUGOT LINES
henerasyon at pagpapalakas at o Ang hugot lines ay kaiba sa
pagpapa-unlad ng kabutihan sa pick-up lines. Tinatawag itong
pamamatnubay ng Imperyong “LOVE LINES” o “LOVE
Hapones. QUOTES”. Karaniwan nagmula
2. Si BENIGNO AQUINO ang ito sa linya ng ilang tauhan sa
nahirang bilang director ng pelikula o telebisyong
KALIBAPI nagmarka sa puso’t-isipan ng
sa mga Hapones. o Pagtatalong oral na isinasagawa
ng pa-rap. Nahahawig ito sa
balagtasan dahil ang mga
bersong nirarap ay
 Noong Hulyo 4, 1946, ipinahayg na ang magkakatugma bagama’t sa
wikang opisyal sa Pilipinas ay Tagalog Fliptop ay hindi nakalahad o
batay sa batas Komonwelt Blg. 570. walang malinaw na paksang
 Sa pamamagitan ng proklamasyon Blg. pagtatalunan.
12 na nilagdaan ni Pangulong Ramon
Magsaysay noong Marso 26, 1952
ipinadidiwang ang wikang pambansa.
 Nagsimula ang pagdiriwang mula Marso  Talamak na sa mga tao ang paggamit ng
29 hanggang Abril 4 taun-taon. social media tulad ng facebook,
 Noong Agosto 13, 1959, pinalitan ang instagram, twitter, youtube at iba pa.
wikang pambansa mula Tagalog sa Walang edad ang pinipili kahit matanda.
Pilipino sa bias ng kautisang  Tulad din sa text, karaniwan ang code
pangkagawaran blg. 7 na ipinalabas ni switching o pagpapalit-palit ng Ingles o
Kalihim Jose E. Romero. Filipino.
 Noong Pebrero 1956, nilagdaan ni  Sa Pilipans nasa 39,470 milyong katao
Gregorio Hernandez ang sirkular 21 na ang konektado sa internet sa taong
nag-uutos na ituro at awitin ang 2015 at ito’y dumadami ng 10% taun-
pambansang awit sa mga paaralan. taon.
 Noong Marso 27, 1956, nilagdaan ni  Ingles ang pangunahing wika sa
Rafael Salas Kalihim Tagapagtanggap Internet.
ang Memorandum sirkular blg. 16 na
nag-aantas ng paggamit ng wikang SITWASYONG PANGWIKA SA TELEBISYON
Pilipino sa mga opisyal na
komunikasyon sa mga transaksyon ng  Ang telebisyon ang tinuturing na
pamahalaan. pinakamakapangyarihang media sa
kasalukuyan dahil sa dami ng mga
 Ang mabuting epekto ng paglaganap ng palengke at direct selling
cable o satellite connection para komersyal na pantelebisyon o
marating ang malalayong pulo at ibang panradyo.
 Wikang Filipino ang nangungunang SITWASYONG PANGWIKA SA PAMAHALAAN
midyum sa telebisyon sa bansa na
 Batas tagapagpaganap blg. 335, serye
ginagamit ng mga lokal sa channel. 
ng 1988 na kontribusyon ni dating
 Mga halimbawa ng mga programang
Pangulo Corry Aquino.
pangtelebisyon na gumagamit ng
 Dating Pangulo Benigno Aquino
Wikang Fiipino ay mga teleserye, mga
pantanghaliang palabas, magazine
show, news and public affairs, reality SITWASYONG PANGWIKA SA EDUKASYON
show at iba pang programang
pantelebisyon.  Kinder hanggang garde 3 – unang wika
 Ang pagdami ng mga palabas sa  Mas mataas na antas bilinggwal ang
telebisyon particular ang mga teleserye wikang panturo.
o pangtahaliang programa na
sinusubaybayan ng halos lahat ng REGISTER O BARAYTI NG WIKANG GINAGAMIT
milyun-milyong manunuod ang dahilan SA IBA’T-IBANG SITWASYON
kung bakit halos lahat ng mamamayan
 Paggamit ng jargon o terminong
sa bansa ay nakakaunawa at
kaugnay ng trabaho o iba’t-ibang
nakakapagsalita ng wikang Filipino.
hanapbuhay o larangan, halimbawa sa
SITWASYONG PANGWIKA SA TEXT abogado, exhibit, appeal, complainant,
 Ang pagpapadala at pagtanggap ng SMS
(Short Messaging System) na lalong KAKAYAHANG KOMUNIKATIBO
kilala bilang text message o text ay
 Sa pagtuturo at pagkatuto ng wika,
isang mahalagang bahagi ng
hindi sapat na alam ang tuntuning
komunikasyon sa ating bansa.
 Sa pagbuo ng ng mensahe sa text,
 Pangunahing layunin sa pagtuturo ay
madalas ginagamit ang code switching o
magamit ito ng wasto sa mga angkop na
pagpapalit-palit ng Ingles at Filipino sa
sitwasyon, maipabatid ang tamang
mensahe at magkaunawaan ng lubos
 Madalas ding binabago o pinapaikli ang
ang dalawang taong nag-uusap.
baybay ng mga salita para mas madali o
mas mabilis itong mabuo. Ano ba ang KAKAYAHANG KOMUNIKATIBO?
SITWASYONG PANGWIKA SA  Nagmula ito sa linguist, sociolinguist,
PANGKALAHATAN anthropologist at folkonist mula sa
Portland Oregon na si Dell Hymes
 Ginagamit ang wikang Ingles sa:
o Boardriin
 Nilinang nila ni John J. Gumperz ang
o BPO (Business Process
konseptong ito bilang tugon sa
kakayahang linggwistika.
o Mga dokumento
 Bilang reaksyon sa kakayahang
o Website
linggwistika (linguistic competence) ni
 Nanatiling wikang Flipino ang
Noam Chomsky noong 1965.
mall, restaurant, pamilihan,
 Ayon kay Hymes na nagsasalita ay hindi 3. “PERFORMANCE” – paggamit
sapat ang magkaroon ng kakayahang ng tao sa wika
lingguwistika upang epektibong  Ang kakayahang sosyolingguwistiko ay
makipagtalastasan gamit ang wika. ang pagsasaalang-alang ng isang tao sa
ugnayan niya sa mga kausap,
Ano ang KAKAYAHANG GRAMATIKAL? isinasaalang-alang dito ang kontekstong
sosyal ng isang wika. Ayon kay Fantini
 Ayon kay Canale at Swain, ito ay ang
(sa Pagkalinawan 2004) isang propesor
pag-unawa at paggamit sa kasanayan sa
sa wika, ito ay ang ugnayan ng nag-
ponolohiya, morpolohiya, sintaks,
uusap, ang paksa, lugar at iba pa.
semantika at gayun din ang mga
 Ang komponent na ito ay magbibigay
kakayahan sa taong nagsasalita upang  Kakayahang Pragmatik – sangay ng
kaalaman at kasanayan sa pag-unawa at lingguwistika na inilalarawan bilang
pagpapahayag sa literal na kahulugan pag-aaral ng ugnayan ng mga anyong
ng mga salita. lingguwistiko at mga gumagamit nito.
 Mungkahing komponent ng kakayahang  Ayon kay Yule (1996) binibigyang diin
lingguwistiko o kakayahang gramatikal dito ang gamit ng wika sa mga
(Cekce Murcia, Domyei at Thurell – kontekstong panlipunan gayundin kung
1995) paano lumilikha at nakauunawa ng
kahulugan ang tao sa pamamagitan ng
PAGLINANG NG KAKAYAHANG  Eraser (2010), nakapaloob sa
PANGKOMUNIKATIBO NG MGA PILIPINO kakayahang ito ang pagpaparating ng
mensaheng ninanais-kasama ang lahat
 Ayon kay Cantal – Pagkalinawan (2010)
ng iba pang kahulugan – sa anumang
isang propesor sa Hawaii, ang mahusay
kontekstong sosyo-kultural.
na classroom pangwika ay yaong may
 Chomsky, ang kakayahang ito ay
aktibong interaksyon sa pagitan ng guro
tumutukoy sa kaalaman kung paano
at estudyante sa kapwa estudyante.
naiuugnay ang wika at sitwasyon na
MGA DAPAT ISAALANG-ALANG SA pinagagamitan nito.
EPEKTIBONG KOMUNIKASYON NI DELL HYMES  Kakayahang Stratedyik – tumutukoy at
nangangahulugan ng isang kakayahang
 S: Setting (lugar) nagpapakita ng masinsinang
 P: Participants (nakikipagtalastasan) pagpaplano kung paano gagawin. Ito
 E: Ends (layunin) ang kakayahang magamit ang VERBAL
 A: Act Sequence (daloy) at DI VERBAL na mga signal upang
 K: Keys (tono) maihandog ng mas malinaw ang
 I: Instruments (midyum) mensahe.
 N: Norms (paksa) 1. VERBAL – ay ginagamitan ng
 G: Genre wika/salita at mga titik na
sumisimbolo sa kahulugan ng
2. DI VERBAL – kapag hindi
 Savignon (1972)
ginagamitan ng salita bagkus
1. Propesor sa University of Illinois
ginagamitan ito ng mga kilos o
2. “COMPETENCE” – batayang
galaw ng kabuuan upang
kakayahan o kaalaman sa wika
maiparating ang mensahe sa TELEGRAMA – mabilisang paraan ng paghahatid
kausap. ng mensahe sa taong nasa malayong lugar.

Albert Mehrabian – ayon sa kanyang aklat na, RETORIKA – epektibong mapanghikayat na

“Silent Messages: Implicit Communication of pagsasalita sa harap ng media.
Emotions and Attitudes” ang komunikasyong
nangyayari ay naglalaman ng: ANTAS NG KOMUNIKASYON

7% - salitang ating binibigkas 1. Komunikasyong Intrapersonal

2. Komunikasyong Interpersonal
38% - tono ng ating salita 3. Komunikasyong Pampubliko
4. Komunikasyong Interkultural
55% - galaw ng ating katawan 5. Komunikasyong Mass Media
at Cody 2000)
1. Kinesika (kinesiks) – pag-aaral ng kilos
at galaw ng katawan 1. Pakikibagay (Adaptablity)
2. Ekspresyon ng mukha (picties) 2. Paglahok sa pag-uusap (conversational
3. Galaw ng mata (oculesics) involvement)
4. Vocalic – pag-aaral ng di 3. Pamamahala sa pag-uusap
lingguwistikong tunog (conversational management)
5. Pandama o Panghawak (haptics) 4. Pagpapukaw – damdamin (empathy)
6. Proksemika (proxemics) – pag-aaral 5. Bisa (effectiveness)
gamit ang espasyo 6. Kaangkupan (appropriateness)
7. Chronemics (oras ay nakaapekto sa



 Intelektwal na kalagayan ng decoder

 Kalinawan ng encoder
 Pagtatagpong ng kani-kanilang


 Saklaw nito ang pagkakaugnay ng serye

ng mga salita o pangungusap na
bumubuo ng isang makabuluhang
 Mga dapat isaalang-alang upang
malinang ang kakayahang diskorsal:
1. COHESION (pagkakaisa)
2. COHERENCE (pagkakaugnay-