Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

MICROBIOLOGY OF WATER AND WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT Microbial Communities in Natural Water The three biological organisms present in wastewater are bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Sewage consists of vast quantities of bacteria, most of which are harmless to man. However, pathogenic (disease- causing) organisms such as typhoid, dysentery, and other intestinal disorders may be present in wastewater. Bacteria are the most widely distributed life forms. Pathogenic bacteria range in length from approximately 0.4 to 14 mm (a mm or “micrometer” equals one one-thousandth of a millimeter) and 0.2 to 1.2 mm in width. Key bacterial pathogens responsible for waterborne disease include Legionella, Salmonella typhi, Shigella, and Vibrio cholerae. Viruses are inactive when outside of a living host cell. Viruses linked to waterborne disease have protein coats that provide protection from environmental hazards and range in size from 0.02 to 0.09 mm. Unlike bacteria and protozoa, they contain only one type of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA). Key pathogens include hepatitis A. Protozoa, common in bodies of water, are much larger than bacteria and viruses. To survive harsh environmental conditions, some species can secrete a protective covering and form a resting stage called a “cyst.” Encystment can protect protozoa from drinking water disinfection efforts and facilitate the spread of disease. Key protozoa being studied as agents of waterborne disease include Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Fecal pollution of water Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease- causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesses globally. Ingestion of water contaminated with feces is responsible for a variety of diseases important to humans via what is known as the fecal-oral route of transmission. Food, air, soil, and all types of surfaces can also be important in the transmission of fecal pathogens, and thereby implicated in disease outbreaks. Most fecal microorganisms, however, are not pathogenic. Indeed, some are considered beneficial to the host as they can out compete pathogens for space and nutrients, complement the biochemical potential of the host’s gastrointestinal tract, and help in the development of the host immune system. Nonetheless, animal feces can also carry a number of important frank and opportunistic pathogens, capable of inflicting debilitating illnesses and, in some cases, death. Indicators of Feacal Pollution Traditionally, indicator micro-organisms have been used to suggest the presence of pathogens. Today, however, we understand a many reasons for indicator presence and pathogen absence, or vice versa. In short, there is no direct correlation between numbers of any indicator and enteric pathogens. To eliminate the vagueness in the term ‘microbial indicator’, the following three groups are now recognized.

To eliminate the vagueness in the term ‘microbial indicator’, the following three groups are now recognized.
To eliminate the vagueness in the term ‘microbial indicator’, the following three groups are now recognized.

1.

Process indicator: A group of organisms that demonstrates the efficacy of a process.

2. Faecal indicator: A group of organisms that indicates the presence of faecal contamination. Ex: E. coli.

3. Index and model organisms: A group/or species indicative of human pathogen.

Feacal Coliforms as index of water Pollution The use of bacteria as indicators of the sanitary quality of water probably dates back to 1880 when Von Fritsch described Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis as micro-organisms characteristically found in human faeces. In 1891, the Franklands came up with the concept that organisms characteristic of sewage must be identified to provide evidence of potentially dangerous pollution. By 1893, the ‘Wurtz method’ of enumerating B. coli by direct plating of water samples on litmus lactose agar was being used by sanitary bacteriologists, using the concept of acid from lactose as a diagnostic feature. This was followed by gas production, with the introduction of the Durham tube (Durham 1893). The concept of ‘coliform’ bacteria, those bacteria resembling B. coli, was in use in Britain in 1901. The colony count for bacteria in water, however, was not formally introduced until 1934. Therefore, the sanitary significance of finding various coliforms along with streptococci and C. perfringens was recognised by bacteriologists by the start of the twentieth century. It was not until 1905, however, that Mac Conkey (1905) described his now famous Mac Conkey’s broth, which was diagnostic for lactose-fermenting bacteria tolerant of bile salts. Nonetheless, coli-forms were still considered to be a heterogeneous group of organisms, many of which were not of faecal origin. It is almost impossible to isolate from water the organisms responsible for water-borne diseases. Few organisms are present and they do not multiply in water. The only safe method to prevent waterborne disease is to condemn fecally polluted water as being unfit for human use, as it may contain harmful organisms. Fecal pollution can be determined by examination of water for colon bacilli (E.coli). E.coli is abundant in feces and not found outside intestinal tract in nature. The E.coli in water indicates the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in water, which may be responsible for a number of water-borne diseases. Hence, E.coli is known as indicator organism. Water also contains bacteria that resemble E.coli but may or may not be of fecal origin. These bacteria also ferment lactose with formation of gas like E.coli. The other indicator organisms are Streptococcus faecalis Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus equinus etc., and Clostridium perfringenes. Significance of Feacal Coliforms The group of coliform bacteria as an indicator of other pathogenic micro-organisms, specifically organisms of faecal origin, has had much emphasis in all countries. This is due primarily to the fact that the coliform bacteria groups meets many of the criteria for a suitable indicator organism, and are thus a sensitive indicator of faecal pollution:

meets many of the criteria for a suitable indicator organism, and are thus a sensitive indicator
meets many of the criteria for a suitable indicator organism, and are thus a sensitive indicator

They are abundant in faeces

They are generally found only in polluted waters,

They are easily detected by simple laboratory tests,

Can be detected in low concentrations in water

The number of indicator bacteria seems to be correlated with the extent of contamination. It is important to remember, however, that not all coliforms originate from human faeces as they can originate from other mammalian species or from other environmental sources (e.g., bird droppings). When coliforms are discharged to the aquatic environment they will tend to die at a rate which depends, amongst other things, on the temperature and turbidity of the water and the depth to which solar radiation penetrates. Therefore, it is not safe to conclude that the lack of coliforms in a water means that it has not been subject to faecal pollution. It is necessary to be familiar with a number of terms are as follows:

Total coliforms: The Total coliform group comprises several distinct types (genera) of bacteria. These bacteria have been isolated from the faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals, as well as contaminated and non-contaminated soils. This group of bacteria is widely used as a measure of health hazard from faecal contamination. The total coliform group comprises the aerobic and facultative, gram negative, nonspore-forming, rod shaped bacteria that ferment lactose with gas formation within 48 hours at 35 °C. Faecal coliforms: The Faecal coliform group of bacteria are indicative of faeces of humans and other warm blooded animals. The specific bacterium Escherichia coli is part of this group. The test for faecal coliform is at an elevated temperature, 44.5°C, where growth of other non-faecal bacteria is suppressed. However, some non-faecal bacteria may be also be identified in the faecal coliform test, though a small percentage (<5%). Faecal streptococci: This group of bacteria includes several species or varieties of streptococci and the normal habitat of these bacteria is the intestines of humans and animals. Examples include Streptococci faecalis which represents bacteria of humans and Streptococci bovis and Streptococci equinus which represent bacteria that are indicators of cattle and horses. Thermotolerant coliforms: This is a more precise definition of coliforms which are determined by the test for faecal coliforms. In practise not all such coliforms are faecal in origin although most (> 95%) are. Escherichia coli (E. coli) This bacterium is a particular member of the faecal coliform group of bacteria; this organism in water indicates the presence of faecal contamination. E. coli reside in human intestinal tracts. They are excreted in large numbers in faeces, averaging about 50 million per gram. Untreated domestic wastewater generally contains 5 to 10 million coliforms per 100 ml. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses causing enteric diseases in humans originate from faecal discharges of diseased persons. Consequently, water containing coliform bacteria is identified as

originate from faecal discharges of diseased persons. Consequently, water containing coliform bacteria is identified as
originate from faecal discharges of diseased persons. Consequently, water containing coliform bacteria is identified as

potentially dangerous. Coliform bacteria are, therefore, considered as an indicator of bacteriological quality of water for the following reasons:

Coliform bacteria far outnumbers the pathogenic micro-organisms,

They do not multiply in natural waters,

The die-off rate of pathogenic bacteria is greater than the death rate of coliforms

Test for coliform bacteria is relatively simple and can be performed in water quality laboratories The bacterium E.coli is exclusively of faecal origin. Some coliform bacteria are normal inhabitants of soil and water. In testing for conforms, therefore, tests may be run in conjunction to verify their faecal origin. However, unconfirmed testing, indeed, would provide a factor of safety. The degree to which indicator organisms represent the presence of individual pathogens (such as Salmonella) has been the subject of continuing investigation. There does seem to be a genera correlation between the concentration of Faecal coliform bacteria and the occurrence of Salmonella. When faecal coliform numbers are about 1000 per 100 ml, Salmonella occurrence is about 95 % Relationships between total coliform and individual pathogens is not so quantitative. Thus the test of total coliform is not so effective for an indicator. The total coliform test is complicated by the presence of non-faecal bacteria. As a general rule, faecal coliform levels are about 20% of total coliform concentrations, although a wide spread exists.

BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WATER The test for coliform bacteria is usually conducted using a liquid culture. Enumeration employing solid culture media is not commonly done in India. The liquid culture ‘multiple tube technique’ consists of mainly 2 stages (third test is optional). These are 1. Presumptive test 2. Confirmed test 3.Completed test (Optional)

1. Presumptive test

The first step in water examinations is known as the presumptive test. The presumptive test is based on gas production during fermentation of lauryl tryptose broth which contains beef extract, peptone and lactose within 48 hour of incubation at 35°C. The confirmed test is used to accept or reject the presence of coliforms in a positive presumptive test. A small inoculum from a positive lactose broth is transferred to a tube containing brilliant green lactose bile broth. The green dye and bile salts in this broth inhibit non- coliform growth. The presence of coliform is confirmed by growth and gas production within 48 hour at 35°C. The Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform can then be calculated from the number of confirmed tubes. False Positive Presumptive Tests: A positive, presumptive test does not necessarily mean that members of the colon group are present. In most cases it is true, but there are exceptions. False, positive, presumptive tests are caused by (1) the presence of other organisms capable of fermenting lactose with the production

presumptive tests are caused by (1) the presence of other organisms capable of fermenting lactose with
presumptive tests are caused by (1) the presence of other organisms capable of fermenting lactose with

of acid and gas and (2) bacterial associations or synergism. The organisms most frequently responsible for false presumptive test include Clostridium perfringens (welchii), Bacillus aerosporus, Streptococcus faecalis, members of the Friedliinder group (Klebsiella), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, False, presumptive tests are also caused by S. faecalis, C. perfringens, organisms of the genus Proteus, and B. coli anaerogenes. Flase positive, presumptive tests are frequently caused by a type of bacterial association known as synergism. Bacterial synergism may be defined as the joint action of two organisms on a carbohydrate resulting in the production of gas that is not formed by either organism when grown separately.

2. Confirmed Test

In order to be certain that gas-production is due to coliforms a confirmed test must be performed. Two procedures are normally employed. In one method a drop of culture from a positive lactose broth tube is transferred to brilliant green lactose bile fermentation broth, and is incubated for 24 to 48 hours at 35°C.

The appearance of gas within 48 hrs constitutes a positive confirmed test. The dye inhibits gram positive organisms and eliminates a false presumptive test and the synergistic reaction of gram positive and gram negative organisms growing together. In the second method a drop of culture from the positive lactose broth is streaked on a petriplate containing, Endo Agar, or Eosin-Methylene Blue Agar. The appearance of nucleated colonies, with or without a metallic sheen, within 24 hours indicates a positive confirmed test.

3. Completed Test

Isolated colonies from petriplates are transferred into lactose fermentation broth and streaked on to an agar

slant. The presence of gas in the fermentation broth and the presence of gram negative non spore-forming bacilli on the slant give evidence that coliform bacteria were present in the original water sample. IMViC Reaction E. coli and A. aerogenes are normally referred to as faecal and non-faecal contaminants of water, respectively, and are the most important organisms of the coliform group. Since they closely resemble each other in their morphological and cultural characteristics, biochemical tests, are, performed to differentiate them. These tests are collectively designated as the IMViC reactions. The name was coined by Parr from the first letters of the four tests, namely Indole, Methyl red, Voges Proskauer, and Citrate. There are 16 possible combinations of positive and negative tests of these four characteristics. Most, of these combinations have been found, but the reactions of E. coli and A. aerogenes are commonly found. The remaining 14 types are usually designated as "intermediates". Since E. coil is more indicative of fecal pollution than the other genera and species noted (especially A. aerogenes), it is often desirable to determine its incidence in a coliform population. The IMViC formula is the classical method used, where I = indole production, M = methyl red reaction, V = Voges- Proskauer reaction (production of acetoin), and C = citrate utilization. IMViC reactions are a set of four useful reactions that are commonly employed in

acetoin), and C = citrate utilization. IMViC reactions are a set of four useful reactions that
acetoin), and C = citrate utilization. IMViC reactions are a set of four useful reactions that

the identification of members of family enterobacteriaceae. The four reactions are: Indole test, Methyl Red test, Voges Proskauer test and Citrate utilization test. The letter “i” is only for rhyming purpose. By this method, the two organisms noted have the following formulas:

 

I

M

V

C

E.coli

+

+

-

-

A. aerogenes

-

-

+

+

PRINCIPLES OF THE IMViC REACTION INDOLE TEST: Principle: Some bacteria can produce indole from amino acid tryptophan using the enzyme typtophanase. Production of indole is detected using Ehrlich’s reagent or Kovac’s reagent. Indole reacts with the aldehyde in the reagent to give a red color. An alcoholic layer concentrates the red color as a ring at the top.

layer concentrates the red color as a ring at the top. Procedure: Bacterium to be tested
layer concentrates the red color as a ring at the top. Procedure: Bacterium to be tested

Procedure: Bacterium to be tested is inoculated in peptone water, which contains amino acid tryptophan and incubated overnight at 37oC. Following incubation few drops of Kovac’s reagent are added. Kovac’s reagent consists of para-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde, isoamyl alcohol and con. HCl. Ehrlich’s reagent is more sensitive in detecting indole production in anerobes and non- fermenters. Formation of a red or pink coloured ring at the top is taken as positive. Example: Escherichia coli: Positive; Klebsiella pneumoniae: Negative

METHYL RED (MR) TEST:

Principle: This is to detect the ability of an organism to produce and maintain stable acid end products from glucose fermentation. Some bacteria produce large amounts of acids from glucose fermentation that they overcome the buffering action of the system. Methyl Red is a pH indicator, which remains red in color at a pH of 4.4 or less. Procedure: the bacterium to be tested in inoculated into glucose phosphate broth, which contains glucose and a phosphate buffer and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Over the 48 hours the mixed-acid producing organism must produce sufficient acid to overcome the phosphate buffer and remain acid. The pH of the medium is tested by the addition of 5 drops of MR reagent. Development of red color is taken as positive. MR negative organism produces yellow color. Example: Eschericihia coli: Positive; Klebsiella pneumoniae: Negative

MR negative organism produces yellow color. Example: Eschericihia coli : Positive; Klebsiella pneumoniae : Negative
MR negative organism produces yellow color. Example: Eschericihia coli : Positive; Klebsiella pneumoniae : Negative

VOGES PROSKAUER (VP) TEST:

Principle: While MR test is useful in detecting mixed acid producers, VP test detects butylene glycol producers. Acetyl-methyl carbinol (acetoin) is an intermediate in the production of butylene glycol. In this test two reagents, 40% KOH and alpha-naphthol are added to test broth after incubation and exposed to atmospheric oxygen. If acetoin is present, it is oxidized in the presence of air and KOH to diacetyl. Diacetyl then reacts with guanidine components of peptone, in the presence of alphanaphthol to produce red color. Role of alpha-naphthol is that of a catalyst and a color intensifier.

is that of a catalyst and a color intensifier. CITRATE UTILIZATION TEST: Principle: This test detects

CITRATE UTILIZATION TEST:

Principle: This test detects the ability of an organism to utilize citrate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Bacteria are inoculated on a medium containing sodium citrate and a pH indicator bromothymol blue. The medium also contains inorganic ammonium salts, which is utilized as sole source of nitrogen. Utilization of citrate involves the enzyme citritase, which breaks down citrate to oxaloacetate and acetate. Oxaloacetate is further broken down to pyruvate and CO 2 . Production of Na 2 CO 3 as well as NH 3 from utilization of sodium citrate and ammonium salt respectively results in alkaline pH. This results in change of medium’s color from green to blue. Procedure: Bacterial colonies are picked up from a straight wire and inoculated into slope of Simmon’s citrate agar and incubated overnight at 37°C. If the organism has the ability to utilize citrate, the medium changes its color from green to blue. A liquid medium (without agar) without a dye can also be used where turbidity is observed visually after incubation, against a control. A turbid broth is indicative of bacterial growth and hence a positive test. Examples: Escherichia coli: Negative; Klebsiella pneumoniae: Positive Eijeckman test Eijkman, Christian (1858-1930), Dutch physiologist. Eijkman introduced his test for coliform bacteria in a 1904 paper. This is a test for the identification of coliform bacteria from warm-blooded animals based on the bacteria's ability to produce gas when grown in glucose media at a higher (elevated) temperature at 46°C. Eijkman's test consists of introduction of samples of water into dextrose peptone broth (DPB) and incubation at 46°C. The test is usually complete in 16-24 hours, and in 92-75% of positive Eijkman fermentation tests the presence of E. coli can be confirmed.

complete in 16-24 hours, and in 92-75% of positive Eijkman fermentation tests the presence of E.
complete in 16-24 hours, and in 92-75% of positive Eijkman fermentation tests the presence of E.

Methods of Analysis There are two basic analyses which can be performed to determine the presence of coliform bacteria. These are the ‘multiple tube’ technique and the ‘membrane filter’ method. A comparison of the two methods is given below. Table Comparison of coliform analysis methods

given below. Table Comparison of coliform analysis methods Multiple Tube Method (MPN) As referred to above,

Multiple Tube Method (MPN) As referred to above, the multiple tube technique is applicable to many different water samples including those obtained from potable, fresh, brackish and salt waters. The test can also be used for the estimation of coliform bacteria in muds, sediments and sludges. The method, which has been successfully used in many countries for the analysis of drinking and other waters, reports coliform results in terms of the ‘most probable number’ (MPN) of organisms. That is, the test gives the most likely number of coliform bacteria rather than the actual number. The basis of the test is that multiple tubes of culture medium are inoculated with various dilutions of a water sample and incubated at a constant temperature for a given period of time. If coliforms are present in a tube this is detected by growth within the tube and the production of gas. Any gas produced is collected in an inverted gas collection tube placed within a larger test tube containing the culture medium. The result of the analysis, in terms of the most probable number of coliforms, depends upon the number of tubes which show a positive reaction. Typically, the MPN value is determined from the number of positive tests in a series of 5 replicates made from 3 different dilutions or inoculation amounts (15 samples altogether). For example, sample inoculation amounts may be 10, 1 and 0.1 ml per test tube. The test method can be described as follows:

For drinking water: High numbers of coliform bacteria are not expected, so there is no need to make dilutions. Transfer a 10 ml sample into each of 10 test tubes containing a lactose culture medium and an inverted gas collection tube. MPN results can be read from Mac Cradey’sTable.

a lactose culture medium and an inverted gas collection tube. MPN results can be read from
a lactose culture medium and an inverted gas collection tube. MPN results can be read from

Fig: Multiple tube method after a series of dilution For the combination of positive tubes

Fig: Multiple tube method after a series of dilution For the combination of positive tubes not appearing in Mac Gradey’s Table, or in case the table is not available, the following formula is used:

MPN/100 mL =

no. of positive tubes x 100

mL sample in negative tubes

x

mL sample in all tubes

Membrane filter technique (MF):

In this technique, a thin membrane filter-disc is used. The filter-disc consists of cellulose derivatives and can retain on its surface all bacteria from the water sample. The water is filtered through filter-disc and the disc is then transferred with a sterile forceps on to a thin absorbent pad that has previously been saturated with the appropriate medium (generally Endo-broth medium) and accommodated within a Petri dish. The Petri dish containing absorbent pad and filter-disc is incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. The medium diffuses through the pores of the filter-disc and provides nutrient to the bacteria. After the incubation is over, pone can see colonies developing upon the filter-disc. The characteristic colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability.

colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability. Fig: 1 Fig: 2

Fig: 1

colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability. Fig: 1 Fig: 2

Fig: 2

colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability. Fig: 1 Fig: 2

Fig: 3

colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability. Fig: 1 Fig: 2

Fig: 4

colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability. Fig: 1 Fig: 2

Fig: 5

colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability. Fig: 1 Fig: 2
colonies of different bacteria could now be studied to determine water potability. Fig: 1 Fig: 2

Fig: 6 Fig: 7 WATER POLLUTION Tests for total coliform and fecal coliform nonpathogenic bacteria

Fig: 6

Fig: 6 Fig: 7 WATER POLLUTION Tests for total coliform and fecal coliform nonpathogenic bacteria are

Fig: 7

WATER POLLUTION Tests for total coliform and fecal coliform nonpathogenic bacteria are used to indicate the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Because it is easier to test for coliforms, fecal coliform testing has been accepted as the best indicator of fecal contamination. Fecal coliform counts of 100 million per 100 milliliters may be found in raw domestic sewage. Detectable health effects have been found at levels of 2,300 to 2,400 total coliforms per 100 milliliters in recreational waters. Disinfection, usually chlorination, is generally used to reduce these pathogens. Breakdown or malfunctions of chlorination equipment will probably result in excessive discharge of pathogenic organisms and can seriously affect public health. Bacteria can also be classified according to their dissolved oxygen requirement. Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that require dissolved oxygen to live. Anaerobic bacteria cannot live if dissolved oxygen is present. Facultative bacteria can live with or without dissolved oxygen. Wastewater often contains viruses that may produce diseases. Outbreaks of infectious hepatitis have been traced through water systems because of wastewater entering the supply. Sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection, if used efficiently usually provide acceptable virus removal. There are also many species of parasites carried by wastewater. The life cycle of each is peculiar to the given parasite. Some are dangerous to man and livestock, particularly during certain stages of the life cycle. Amoebic dysentery is a common disease caused by amoebic parasites. Chlorination, chemical precipitation, sedimentation, or sand filtration is used to ensure protection against parasites.

Chlorination, chemical precipitation, sedimentation, or sand filtration is used to ensure protection against parasites.
Chlorination, chemical precipitation, sedimentation, or sand filtration is used to ensure protection against parasites.

LIST OF HUMAN WATER BORNE DISEASES The microbial composition of sewage varies depending upon the source of wastewater. This also causes variation in the microbial flora of sewage. Almost all groups of microorganisms, algae, fungi, protozoa, bacteria and viruses are present. Raw sewage may contain millions of bacteria per ml. The bacterial group comprises mainly the soil borne organisms, intestinal origin and coliforms. During treatment process the microbial flora may be dominated by the corresponding physiological groups. A detailed list of sources of microorganisms in water and waterborne diseases is given below. Table: Sources of Bacteria and diseases transmitted

Disease and

 

Sources of Agent in Water Supply

 

Transmission

Microbial Agent

General Symptoms

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum

Bacteria can enter a wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract by consuming contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food

Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea. Death is usually caused by respiratory failure.

Campylobacteriosis

Most commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni

Drinking water contaminated with feces

Produces dysentery like symptoms along with a high fever. Usually lasts 2-10 days.

Cholera

Spread by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae

Drinking water contaminated with the bacterium

In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nausea, cramps, nosebleed, rapid pulse, vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which

nausea, cramps, nose bleed, ra pid puls e , vomiting, and hyp ovolemic shock (in severe
nausea, cramps, nose bleed, ra pid puls e , vomiting, and hyp ovolemic shock (in severe

     

point death can occur in 12-18 hours.

E. coli Infection

Certain strains of Escherichia coli (commonly E. coli)

Water contaminated with the bacteria

Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immuno compromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness.

Dysentery

Caused by a number of species in the genera Shigella and Salmonella with the most common being Shigella dysenteriae

Water contaminated with the bacterium

Frequent passage of feces with blood and/or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood.

Salmonellosis

Caused by many bacteria of genus Salmonella

Drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. More common as a food borne illness.

Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps

Typhoid fever

Salmonella typhi

Ingestion of water contaminated with feces of an infected person

Characterized by sustained fever up to 40ºC (104ºF), profuse sweating, diarrhea, less commonly a rash may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death.

Vibrio Illness

Vibrio vulnificus,

Can enter wounds from

Symptoms include

up to four weeks and cause death. Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificus , Can enter wounds from
up to four weeks and cause death. Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificus , Can enter wounds from

Vibrio alginolyticus , and Vibrio parahaem olyticus contaminated water. Also got by drinking contaminated water

Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

contaminated water. Also got by drinking contaminated water or eating undercooked oysters.

explosive, watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and occasionally fever.

Sources of Viruses and diseases transmitted

   

Sources of

 

Disease and

Transmission

Microbial Agent

Agent in

General Symptoms

Water Supply

 

Astrovirus,

   

Calicivirus,

Manifests itself

Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, malaise, and abdominal pain

Gastroenteritis

Enteric

in improperly

Adenovirus, and

treated water

 

Parvovirus

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

 

Manifests itself

Symptoms include fever, myalgia, lethargy, gastrointestinal symptoms, cough, and sore throat

Coronavirus

in improperly

treated water

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A virus (HAV)

Can manifest itself in water (and food)

Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression.

   

Enters water

90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minor symptoms (comparatively) with delirium, headache, fever, and occasional seizures, and spastic paralysis, 1% have symptoms of non-paralytic aseptic meningitis. The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysis or death

through the

Poliomyelitis

Poliovirus

feces of

(Polio)

infected

individuals

in paralysis or death through the Poliomyelitis Poliovirus feces of (Polio) infected individuals
in paralysis or death through the Poliomyelitis Poliovirus feces of (Polio) infected individuals

WATER POLLUTANTS Pollutants can originate from either a point source or a dispersed source. A point source is a channel, pipe, or any other confined source such as a pipe discharging wastewater treatment plant effluent or untreated wastewater into a stream. A dispersed source is an unconfined area from which pollutants enter a body of water. For example, surface runoff from agricultural and urban areas carrying such pollutants as silt,

fertilizers, animal wastes, pesticides, and oil drips do not enter at one particular point. These materials can enter a body of water as it flows through the area. Also, acidic runoff from mining areas is a dispersed pollutant. Water pollutants from both point and dispersed sources can be classified into groups of materials, based mainly on their environmental or health effects. The following list indicates common types of pollutants of concern:

1. Pathogenic organisms

2. Oxygen-demanding materials

3. Plant nutrients

4. Suspended solids and sediments

5. Toxic chemicals and metals

6. Radioactive substances

7. Oil

8. Thermal (heat) pollution

Municipal and industrial wastewaters and runoff from farms and other open areas are sources of the first five types of pollutants. COMPOSITION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER (SEWAGE) When human feces and urine are diluted with flushing water or other gray water (such as from washing, bathing, and cleansing activities), it becomes sewage, domestic wastewater, or sanitary wastewater. In other words, from the standpoint of sources of generation, sewage or domestic wastewater may be defined as a combination of the liquid- or water-carried wastes from residences, institutions, and commercial and industrial establishments, together with such groundwater, surface water, and stormwater as may be present. Sewage can be classified into two types. Domestic sewage or domestic wastewater: human excrement, waterborne human excretion, or watercarried wastes from liquid or nonliquid culinary purposes, washing, cleansing, laundering, food processing, or ice production; Municipal sewage or municipal wastewater: municipal liquid waste originating primarily from residences, but may include contributions from Commercial, institutional, and industrial sources; and Inflow and infiltration.

but may include contributions from Commercial, institutional, and industrial sources; and Inflow and infiltration.
but may include contributions from Commercial, institutional, and industrial sources; and Inflow and infiltration.

Sewage Composition and Contaminants

Body wastes, food waste, paper, rags, and biological cells form the bulk of suspended solids in sewage. Even inert materials such as soil particles become fouled by adsorbing organics to their surfaces. Although suspended solids are biodegradable by hydrolysis, biodegradable material in sewage is usually considered soluble organics. Soluble organics in sewage are composed chiefly of proteins (4060%), carbohydrate (2550%), and lipids (approximately 10%). Proteins are chiefly amino acids; carbohydrates are compounds such as sugars, starches, and cellulose. Lipids include fats, oil, and grease. All of these materials contain carbon that can be converted to carbon dioxide biologically, thus exerting oxygen demand. Proteins also contain nitrogen, and thus a nitrogenous oxygen demand is also exerted. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test is therefore used to quantify biodegradable organics. All forms of waterborne pathogens may be found in sewage wastewater. These include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminthes. These organisms are discharged by persons who are infected with disease. A list of contaminants commonly found in sewage, along with their sources and environmental consequences, is given in Table .

sources and environmental consequences, is given in Table . The quantity and composition of sewage vary

The quantity and composition of sewage vary widely from location to location depending on, for example, food diet, socioeconomic factors, weather, and water availability. Quantitatively, constituents of sewage may vary significantly, depending on the other kinds of wastewater and the amount of dilution from the infiltration/inflow into the collection system. The results of analyzing a typical municipal wastewater or sewage from a municipal collection system are given in Table . The composition of wastewater from a given collection system may change slightly on a seasonal basis, reflecting different water uses. Additionally, daily fluctuations in quality are also observable and correlate well with flow conditions.

water uses. Additionally, daily fluctuations in quality are also observable and correlate well with flow conditions.
water uses. Additionally, daily fluctuations in quality are also observable and correlate well with flow conditions.

Generally, smaller systems with more homogenous uses produce greater fluctuations in wastewater composition. MUNCIPAL SEWGAE TREATMENT PROCESSES

These can be divided basically into three stages which are as follows. Physical: Physical processes were some of the earliest methods to remove solids from wastewater, usually by passing wastewater through screens to remove debris and solids. In addition, solids that are heavier than water will settle out from wastewater by gravity. Particles with entrapped air float to the top of water and can also be removed. These physical processes are employed in many modern wastewater treatment facilities today. Biological: In nature, bacteria and other small organisms in water consume organic matter in sewage, turning it into new bacterial cells, carbon dioxide, and other by-products. The bacteria normally present in

water must have oxygen to do their part in breaking down the sewage. In the 1920s, scientists observed that these natural processes could be contained and accelerated in systems to remove organic material from wastewater. With the addition of oxygen to wastewater, masses of microorganisms grew and rapidly metabolized organic pollutants. Any excess microbiological growth could be removed from the wastewater by physical processes.

organic pollutants. Any excess microbiological growth could be removed from the wastewater by physical processes.
organic pollutants. Any excess microbiological growth could be removed from the wastewater by physical processes.
organic pollutants. Any excess microbiological growth could be removed from the wastewater by physical processes.

Chemical: Chemicals can be used to create changes in pollutants that increase the removal of these new forms by physical processes. Simple chemicals such as alum, lime or iron salts can be added to wastewater

to cause certain pollutants, such as phosphorus, to floc or bunch together into large, heavier masses which

can be removed faster through physical processes. Over the past 30 years, the chemical industry has developed synthetic inert chemicals know as polymers to further improve the physical separation step in wastewater treatment. Polymers are often used at the later stages of treatment to improve the settling of excess microbiological growth or bio-solids.

Preliminary Treatment Processes Preliminary treatment is a physical process intended to remove large objects and grit from sewage. The removal of these materials is necessary because they could reduce the efficiency or increase the maintenance of downstream processes. Preliminary treatment may include the following processes:

screening, grit removal, comminution (activities such as cutting, crushing, powder metallurgy, grinding and rasping which will reduce the particle size), and flow equalization. Screening: Screening removes large objects that could clog or damage downstream equipment. Screens

typically consist of inclined steel bars spaced at equal intervals in a sewage channel. Common practice is to use a mechanically cleaned bar screen that has an emergency bypass channel containing a manually cleaned screen. Design parameters for bar screens include bar size, bar spacing, angle of inclination, channel width, and sewage approach velocity. Grit Removal: Grit consists of sand, gravel, and other high specific gravity material that may abrade and wear mechanical equipment or may accumulate in treatment tanks. A common method for grit removal involves using aerated grit chambers, in which diffused air is introduced to the sewage along the bottom of one side of a rectangular chamber. This creates a rolling motion that keeps the lighter organic materials in suspension but allows the heavier grit particles to settle to the bottom

of the tank, where they are removed.

Primary Treatment Processes Sedimentation: Primary sedimentation is the oldest and most widely used process in treating sewage. It is

a physical process whose goal is to achieve solids separation. Solids removal by sedimentation is a

function of retention time and surface settling rate. The surface settling rate is defined as the volumetric

flow rate over the surface area of the clarifier in units of velocity. Particles whose settling velocity is greater than the surface settling rate are removed from the sewage stream. However, if the detention time

is too long, the sewage turns septic, and gas bubbles formed in the sewage reduce the efficiency of the

process. A typical minimum side water depth for primary clarifiers is 10 feet. To allow for adequate settling, a minimum distance of 10 feet should separate the inlet and the outlet. Clarifier design is typically

adequate settling, a minimum distance of 10 feet should separate the inlet and the outlet. Clarifier
adequate settling, a minimum distance of 10 feet should separate the inlet and the outlet. Clarifier

based on two flows, the average design flow and the peak hourly flow. The calculated size of the clarifier is based on both flows, and the larger clarifier is selected.

based on both flows, and the larger clarifier is selected. Secondary Treatment Processes Oxidation Ponds :

Secondary Treatment Processes Oxidation Ponds: Oxidation Ponds are also known as stabilization ponds or lagoons. They are used for simple secondary treatment of sewage effluents. Within an oxidation pond heterotrophic bacteria degrade organic matter in the sewage which results in production of cellular material and minerals. The production of these supports the growth of algae in the oxidation pond. Growth of algal populations allows further decomposition of the organic matter by producing oxygen. The production of this oxygen replenishes the oxygen used by the heterotrophic bacteria. Typically oxidation ponds need to be less than 10 feet deep in order to support the algal growth. In addition, the use of oxidation ponds is largely restricted to warmer climate regions because they are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature changes. Oxidation ponds also tend to fill, due to the settling of the bacterial and algal cells formed during the decomposition of the sewage. Overall, oxidation ponds tend to be inefficient and require large holding capacities and long retention times. The degradation is relatively slow and the effluents containing the oxidized products need to be periodically removed from the ponds. An oxidation pond can be seen in the figure below.

the oxidized products need to be periodically removed from the ponds. An oxidation pond can be
the oxidized products need to be periodically removed from the ponds. An oxidation pond can be
the oxidized products need to be periodically removed from the ponds. An oxidation pond can be

Activated Sludge Processes: Activating sludge is a biological treatment process using a suspension of microorganisms to treat sewage in an aerobic environment. The microorganisms are allowed to flocculate and settle under quiescent conditions, and treated sewage then flows over weirs for further treatment or discharge. Solids from the bottom of the clarifier are recycled to the reactor to provide an adequate concentration of microorganisms for treatment. The contents of the reactor, called mixed liquor, must be aerated and mixed by using either mechanical aerators or diffused air. There are several variations of the conventional activated sludge process. These include plug flow reactors, including step feed, tapered aeration, extended aeration, and complete mix reactors, including sequencing batch reactors. A plug flow reactor has a configuration in which the sewage flows through a long, narrow channel for treatment. It approximates flow through a pipe. In an ideal plug flow reactor, there is no longitudinal mixing of the sewage. A step feed reactor is a variation of the plug flow reactor in which the sewage is introduced into the reactor at several places. This allows more equal distribution of the organic load. Tapered aeration is another variation of the plug flow reactor. In tapered aeration, the majority of the aeration capacity is provided at the head of the reactor, where the organic load is the highest, and less aeration is provided where the organic load is lower. Extended aeration is a treatment process requiring long detention times (typically greater than 24 hours) and low organic loadings. Extended aeration is commonly available in package-type treatment plants and is economical for small treatment plants. A complete mix reactor is the opposite of a plug flow reactor. All of the sewage is completely mixed in a short, wide reactor. Due to rapid and complete mixing of the reactor contents, complete mix reactors can tolerate shock loads better than plug flow reactors. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a variation of the complete mix reactor; stabilization, settling, and equalization take place in the same tank, eliminating the need for a clarifier. Aeration Requirements. The dissolved oxygen concentration in aeration tanks should be greater than 2 mg/L at all times. These aeration requirements do not include the aeration capacity needed for nitrification. If nitrification is required, an additional oxygen per gram of ammonia nitrogen is required. Trickling Filters: Trickling filters are a fixed film process where the microorganisms are attached to a stone or plastic medium. The sewage flows through a rotating arm, which distributes it over the medium. As the sewage flows over the medium, the microorganisms absorb organics from the sewage. When the sewage is not being applied to that specific section of the medium, air flows through the filter, providing the oxygen that the microorganisms need for respiration. Sewage is recirculated back to the filter to maintain a proper application rate for efficient operation of the filter, to equalize the organic loading to the filter, and to prevent the microorganisms from drying out.

operation of the filter, to equalize the organic loading to the filter, and to prevent the
operation of the filter, to equalize the organic loading to the filter, and to prevent the

Rotating Biological Contactors: Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are another version of the fixed film process.

Rotating Biological Contactors: Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are another version of the fixed film process. The microorganisms are attached to a plastic disk, which is partially submerged and rotated through the sewage. When the microorganisms are submerged, they absorb organics. During the time the microorganisms are exposed to the air, they receive the oxygen that is required for treatment. Treatment efficiency is a function of the surface area of the disks,more surface area provides greater treatment. Unlike trickling filters, no recirculation is required for rotating biological contactors. Stabilization Ponds: Stabilization ponds are large, lined basins that may be aerobic, facultative, or anaerobic. Ponds use detention time measured in days, rather than hours, and are typically relatively shallow compared with other biological treatment processes. Thus, a large land area is required for ponds, and they are usually used only in small communities. Their advantages include low construction and operating costs. Aerobic ponds may be aerated mechanically or naturally. Natural aeration is by atmospheric diffusion and production of oxygen by algae. Facultative ponds have several stratified layersan upper, aerated section; a lower, anaerobic section; and an intermediate section consisting of both aerobic and anaerobic processes. Anaerobic ponds may be up to 30 feet deep and are used for treating high strength (typically industrial) waste. Deep ponds maximize anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic pond is shown in the figure.

strength (typically industrial) waste. Deep ponds maximize anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic pond is shown in the
strength (typically industrial) waste. Deep ponds maximize anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic pond is shown in the
strength (typically industrial) waste. Deep ponds maximize anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic pond is shown in the

Tertiary Treatment Processes Nitrification: Ammonia nitrogen is converted to nitrate in a two-step process, in which ammonia is first converted to nitrites and the nitrites are then converted to nitrates. The rate-limiting step is the conversion of ammonia to nitrite. Nitrification can co-occur with carbon oxidation, or it may take place in a separate nitrification tank. The reaction rate is slower and, therefore, requires a longer detention time than carbon oxidation. Nitrifying organisms have a slower growth rate than the organisms for carbon oxidation, and the process requires a longer mean cell residence time (sludge age). Biological Phosphorus Removal: Biological phosphorus removal can be enhanced in a two-step process. The first step takes place anaerobically. The microorganisms release phosphorus to generate energy for the uptake of organics. The second step is aerobic. In this step, the microorganisms absorb large amounts of phosphorus to replace the phosphorus that was lost in the anaerobic step, as well as to store additional energy for the next ‘‘feast or famine’’ feeding cycle. There are two major biological phosphorus removal methodologiesthe Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O) process, and the sequencing batch reactor. The A/O process is proprietary. Phosphorus removal in the A/O process is dependent on the BOD:P ratio. The sequencing batch reactor may be cycled to achieve biological phosphorus removal but usually is used for smaller flows and with more limited design data. Denitrification: Denitrification is the removal of the inorganic nitrogen from sewage. Several species of bacteria can use nitrates, rather than oxygen, as their energy source. These bacteria convert the nitrates into nitrogen gas. In the denitrification process, raw sewage flows into an anoxic zone with return sludge and return mixed liquor from an aerobic zone. The anoxic zone denitrifies by using the nitrates in the mixed liquor. Following the anoxic zone, the sewage flows to an aerobic zone where nitrates are created. The nitrates are then recycled to the anoxic zone for removal. Denitrification is normally done in a plug flow type system or in an oxidation ditch, although a sequencing batch reactor may be programmed for denitrification. Biological Dual Nutrient Removal: Biological dual nutrient removal is the reduction of both nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage by microorganisms. The processes are a combination of the denitrification process and the biological phosphorus removal process. The systems may use from three to five stages to achieve the desired nutrient removal, but all have the use of an anaerobic zone in common, followed by an anoxic zone, followed by an aerobic zone. Some of the processes may use two anoxic zones and/or two anaerobic zones with different recycle streams to achieve greater nutrient removal, but the treatment principles are the same. SLUDGE TREATMENT Following Methods are employed for treating the residual sludge after sewage treatment.

are the same. SLUDGE TREATMENT Following Methods are employed for treating the residual sludge after sewage
are the same. SLUDGE TREATMENT Following Methods are employed for treating the residual sludge after sewage

Coagulation/Sedimentation: Coagulation/sedimentation requires chemical addition to enhance the sedimentation of solids, precipitate pollutants, or remove phosphorus. The chemicals most commonly used are lime, aluminum salts, ferric salts, and polymers. Chemical phosphorus removal occurs by the addition of chemicals to the sewage, which create an insoluble phosphate precipitate. Alum is frequently used in the chemical precipitation of phosphorus, although iron salts may also be used. Alum also reacts with hydroxyl radicals in the water, forming aluminum hydroxide, in addition to aluminum phosphate. Iron (III) reacts in the same manner. Filtration: Filtration is the removal of solids by passing the sewage through a bed of granular media. Although the most commonly used filters are composed of sand, filters may also consist of multiple types of media, such as coal over sand or coal over silica sand over garnet sand. Filters may be classified as slow filters, rapid filters, or pressure filters. Slow filters require a buildup of a biological mat on the upper surface of the filter, which provides greater treatment, but requires a low application rate, and therefore requires a larger area. Rapid filters and pressure filters depend on the entire depth of the media for filtration and may be operated at higher loading rates than slow filters, although backwashing of the media is required. Activated Carbon Adsorption: Adsorption is a process by which a compound adheres to a solid surface. In sewage treatment, activated carbon is the most commonly used adsorbent. Activated carbon comes in two forms, powdered and granular. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is applied in slurry form at the head of the aeration tanks and is removed in the final clarifiers. Granular activated carbon (GAC) is used in a filter bed. Carbon adsorption is used only where highly treated effluent is required. Membrane Systems: Membrane processes involve the use of a semipermeable barrier. The membrane allows the water to flow through and retains the contaminants. There are several types of membrane systems in sewage treatment, including reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, microfiltration, and ultrafiltration. All of these processes require pressure to force water through the membrane. Ultrafiltration requires the least pressure, whereas reverse osmosis requires the greatest pressure.Membrane processes are subject to fouling of the membranes. These processes should be pilot tested to determine which process and membrane will work best. Like carbon adsorption, membrane processes are used when only high-quality effluent is required. Chemical Disinfection Processes Chlorination/Dechlorination: Chlorine has been used as a disinfectant for sewage for several reasons, including inactivation of awide range of pathogens, maintenance of a residual, and economy. There are several forms of chlorine that may be used: gaseous chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, and calcium hypochlorite. Chlorine is toxic to aquatic life, so the recent trend has been to dechlorinate the sewage before discharge to the receiving stream, which is usually done by using sulfur dioxide to reduce the

the sewage before discharge to the receiving stream, which is usually done by using sulfur dioxide
the sewage before discharge to the receiving stream, which is usually done by using sulfur dioxide

chlorine to chlorides. Sodium metabisulfite or bisulfite may be used as a substitute for sulfur dioxide in small facilities. Reaction times are nearly instantaneous, and detention times are usually less than 2 minutes. Ozonation: Ozone is a very powerful oxidant. It can inactivate sewage pathogens with less contact time and a lower dosage than other disinfection methods. It is effective against a wide range of organisms, and it does not leave a toxic residual. Ozone must be generated on-site because it is unstable. Ozone is generated by corona discharge, which consists of passing clean, dry air or oxygen through electrodes, which are separated by a dielectric and a gap. Physical Disinfection Processes Ultraviolet Light Disinfection: Ultraviolet radiations whose wavelengths are in the range of 240280 nm inactivate microorganisms by causing damage to theirDNA. Ultraviolet lamps operate in the same way as fluorescent lampsthe radiation is generated by passing an electrical current through ionized mercury vapor. The mercury lamps may operate at low or medium pressures. Low-pressure lamps emit the majority of their energy at 253.7 nm, which is in the optimal range for inactivation. Medium-pressure lamps generate a smaller portion of their energy in the 240280 nm range, but the intensity of their light is much greater. Therefore, fewer mediumintensity lamps are required for the same amount of disinfection. The key to understanding how and why some wastewater treatment systems work well and others don't, is the need to understand what these microbes need to function. As microbes are living organisms, they require certain nutrients and environments to survive, multiply and perform. In any wastewater treatment system there is a vast array of microbes present, i.e. aerobic, anaerobic and facultative, each performing specific functions in their respective parts of the system. Each species has a tolerance of ecological minimums and maximums with regard to various conditions; pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen levels and nutrient levels. All microbes require optimal conditions in order to proliferate and infuse the system with sufficient numbers of microbes to maximize the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. Dissolved Oxygen Knowledge about dissolved oxygen in the sewage is essential from the point of view of aquatic life. Oxygen in water is available to the plants and animals that live there only if it dissolved. Oxygen or DO can range in concentration from 0 to 14.6 parts per million (ppm) in water. This is also equivalent to a weight-based measure, milligrams per litre (or mg/1). The amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water is inversely related to temperature, i.e. as the water temperature gets higher, the amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in the water goes down. It is also possible under some circumstances to have oxygen levels above 14.6 mg/1. The more oxygen that is in the water, the more diversity can be expected in the plants and animals found in the water. Pollutants that make DO go down (besides heat) are organic wastes such

in the plants and animals found in the water. Pollutants that make DO go down (besides
in the plants and animals found in the water. Pollutants that make DO go down (besides

as animal or human sewage or any chemicals that will be decomposed by bacteria in the water. The growing bacteria that break down either the organic or chemical wastes consume oxygen for their reproduction and thus deplete oxygen in the water. BOD Levels Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a chemical procedure for determining the uptake rate of dissolved oxygen by the biological organisms in a body of water. It is widely used as an indication of the quality of water. BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. BOD measures the rate of oxygen uptake by micro-organisms in a sample of water at a temperature of 20°C and over an elapsed period of five days in the dark. A knowledge about dissolved oxygen in the sewage is essential from the point of view of aquatic life. Oxygen in water is available to the plants and animals that live there only if it dissolved. oxygen or DO can range in concentration from 0 to 14.6 parts per million in water. This is also equivalent to a weight-based measure, milligrams per litre (or mg/1). The amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water is inversely related to temperature, i.e. as the water temperature gets higher, the amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in the water goes down. It is also possible under some circumstances to have oxygen levels above 14.6 mg/1. This can happen where water goes over a dam or other structures that causes unusual amounts of mixing. The more oxygen that is in the water, the more diversity can be expected in the plants and animals found in the water. Pollutants that make DO go down (besides heat) are organic wastes such as animal or human sewage or any chemicals that will be decomposed by bacteria in the water. The growing bacteria that break down either the organic or chemical wastes consume oxygen for their reproduction an thus deplete oxygen in the water. Typical BOD values: Most rivers will have a 5-day carbonaceous BOD below 1 mg/L. Moderately polluted rivers may have a BOD value in the range of 2 to 8 mg/L. Municipal sewage that is efficiently treated by a three-stage process would have a value of about 20 mg/L or less. Untreated sewage varies, but averages around 600 mg/L in Europe and as low as 200 mg/L in the U.S., or where there is severe groundwater or surface water infiltration. The generally lower values in the U.S. derive from the much greater water use per capita than in other parts of the world. In India Cooum River (Tamil Nadu) BOD value is 36 mg/L. That is 80% more polluted than treated sewage. A common problem is the ability to control high BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) levels in a system. The first thought that there is not enough oxygen in the system to do its job. This is usually based on suspicions that the mechanical processes that generate air and oxygen - in relation to the volume capacity of the system, are not functioning well enough or are inadequate. Traditional methods trend to either increase the oxygen levels (dissolved oxygen) and or increase the retention capacity. This is typically the engineering solution and does not always solve the problem. Chemical Oxygen Demand

capacity. This is typically the engineering solution and does not always solve the problem. Chemical Oxygen
capacity. This is typically the engineering solution and does not always solve the problem. Chemical Oxygen

Chemical oxygen demand is another means of measuring the strength (in terms of pollution) of waste water. By using this method, most oxidisable organic compounds present in the waste water sample may be measured. COD measurements are preferred when a mixed domestic-industrial waste is entering a plant or where a more rapid determination of the load is desired. COD is defined as the amount of oxygen required for the chemical oxidation of organic matter with the help of strong chemical oxidants. The COD test measures not only the oxygen equivalent of the waste organic matter but also that of the microbial cells. The oxygen demand associated with the microbial cells is only partially exerted during a BOD test, also some of the organic compounds measured by the COD determination may not be metabolised by the microorganisms in either the BOD bottle or the biological treatment process. By performing a COD one gets an idea about the total or entire organic matter and actually what one is interested to find out is the biologically active matter which becomes the basis for further treatment. COD has certain advantages. COD values for a given sample will be greater than BOD. The reason is that biochemical oxygen demand measures only the quantity of organic material capable of being oxidised, while the chemical oxygen demand represents a more complete oxidation. Results of COD can be obtained within 5 hours as compared to 5 days of BOD. COD procedure is relatively easy and can give reproducible results. The following ranges for COD results are given for general reference and apply primarily to average domestic waste water. Significant amounts of industrial waste discharges may cause wide variations in these ranges.

Plant Influent 300-700 mg/l

Primary Effluent 200-400 mg/l

Trickling Filter Effluent 45-130 mg/l

Activated Sludge Effluent 30- 70 mg/l

Advanced Waste Treatment Effluent 5-15 mg

ANAEROBIC SEWAGE TREATMENT (SEPTIC TANK) A septic tank is an ‘‘underground vessel for treating wastewater from a single dwelling or building by a

combination of settling and anaerobic digestion. Effluent is usually disposed of by leaching. Settled solids are pumped out periodically and hauled to a treatment facility for disposal.’ When properly sited, constructed, and maintained, septic systems can provide a low-cost environmentally responsible method of waste disposal. Improperly

and maintained, septic systems can provide a low-cost environmentally responsible method of waste disposal. Improperly
and maintained, septic systems can provide a low-cost environmentally responsible method of waste disposal. Improperly
and maintained, septic systems can provide a low-cost environmentally responsible method of waste disposal. Improperly

sited, constructed, operated, or maintained septic systems can, however, lead to water quality degradation and

sited, constructed, operated, or maintained septic systems can, however, lead to water quality degradation and threats to public health. The basic components of a septic tank system are shown in Figs. The septic tank is an enclosed receptacle designed to collect wastewater, segregate floatable solids, accumulate, consolidate, and store solids; wastewater treatment is provided by septic tank systems. The tank is the most important component used in these systems. The waste enters the tank near

the top. There is a pair of baffles in the tank to keep the solids in the tank, preventing them from flowing out of the tank with liquids. Bacteria in the tank break down the solids as much as they can into a liquid form and this with the water leaves the tank on the other side of the baffles. The liquid then flows to a leaching field where the liquid enters the soil and is absorbed. If the bacteria cannot break the solids down, they will build up over time. If these solids are not removed by periodic pumping, the tank will allow solids to be washed out to the leaching field and begin to clog the soil. When the soil is clogged, the system stops working. A septic tank generally consists of a tank (or sometimes more than one tank) of between 4000 - 7500 litres in size connected to an inlet wastewater pipe at one end and a septic drain field at the other. Bacterial and viral contamination from septic systems is the most common cause of drinking water contamination. The liquid effluent from septic systems follows the same path as precipitation moving into an unsaturated zone and aquifer. When the effluent reaches the water table, it moves down gradient to the point of discharge (lake, stream, wetland, and well). The location of the septic system in relation to the slope of the land surface is important because septic tank discharge follows the slope of the land surface. Wells down-slope from septic tanks are subject to contamination. The septic tank effluent can contain bacteria and also toxic materials and other contaminants. Some of the contaminants adhere to the soil and aquifer material or travel with the water. A water sample from the well at a septic system site should be obtained and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria. Anaerobic decomposition is rapidly re-started when the tank re-fills. A properly designed and normally operating septic system is odour free and, besides periodic inspection and pumping of the septic tank, should last for decades with no maintenance. A well designed and maintained concrete, fibreglass or plastic tank should last about 50 years.

with no maintenance. A well designed and maintained concrete, fibreglass or plastic tank should last about
with no maintenance. A well designed and maintained concrete, fibreglass or plastic tank should last about

IMHOFF TANK An Imhoff tank is a two-stage septic system where the sludge is digested in a separate tank. This avoids mixing digested sludge with incoming sewage. The Imhoff tank, named for German engineer Karl Imhoff (18761965), is a chamber suitable for the reception and processing of sewage. It may be used for the clarification of sewage by simple settling and sedimentation, along with anaerobic digestion of the

extracted sludge. It consists of an upper chamber in which sedimentation takes place, from which collected solids slide down inclined bottom slopes to an entrance into a lower chamber in which the sludge is collected and digested. The two chambers are otherwise unconnected, with sewage flowing only through the upper sedimentation chamber and no flow of sewage in the lower digestion chamber. The lower chamber requires separate biogas vents and pipes for the removal of digested sludge, typically after 6-9 months of digestion. The Imhoff tank is in effect a two-story septic tank and retains the septic tank's simplicity while eliminating

many of its drawbacks, which largely result from the mixing of fresh sewage and septic sludge in the same chamber. Imhoff tanks are being superseded in sewage treatment by plain sedimentation tanks using mechanical methods for continuously collecting the sludge, which is moved to separate digestion tanks. This arrangement permits both improved sedimentation results and better temperature control in the digestion process, leading to a more rapid and complete digestion of the sludge. This method of sediment removal is also used in some drinking water treatment facilities, in which the tank is often called an Imhoff cone. As in sewage treatment, the collected sludge must be properly disposed of.

which the tank is often called an Imhoff cone. As in sewage treatment, the collected sludge
which the tank is often called an Imhoff cone. As in sewage treatment, the collected sludge
which the tank is often called an Imhoff cone. As in sewage treatment, the collected sludge